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Hypoxaemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644301/palliative-oxygen-for-chronic-breathlessness-what-new-evidence
#1
Zainab Ahmadi, David C Currow, Magnus Ekström
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Supplemental oxygen improves survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and severe hypoxaemia, but the effect of oxygen therapy in mild or moderate hypoxaemia to reduce symptomatic chronic breathlessness remains unclear. This review provides an overview of recent evidence about the role of oxygen therapy for the relief of chronic breathlessness in advanced illness. RECENT FINDINGS: In COPD, a recent Cochrane review strengthens earlier findings regarding the positive effect of supplemental oxygen compared with air during exercise test in the training setting...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629920/pulmonary-hypertension-in-parenchymal-lung-diseases-any-future-for-new-therapies
#2
REVIEW
Sergio Harari, Davide Elia, Marc Humbert
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to chronic lung diseases is associated with a poor prognosis, regardless of the underlying respiratory condition. Updated PH guidelines recommend optimal treatment of the underlying lung disease, including long-term oxygen therapy, in patients with chronic hypoxaemia despite the lack of randomized controlled clinical trials supporting this statement. So far, randomized controlled trials on drugs approved for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have yielded discouraging results in both interstitial lung diseases (ILD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) with PH...
June 16, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619952/cardiometabolic-correlates-of-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-andean-highlanders
#3
Luu V Pham, Catherine H Miele, Noah G Schwartz, Rafael S Arias, Adi Rattner, Robert H Gilman, J Jaime Miranda, Vsevolod Y Polotsky, William Checkley, Alan R Schwartz
Associations between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and cardiometabolic outcomes have not been examined in highlanders.We performed nocturnal polygraphy in Peruvian highlanders (3825 m). Multivariable linear regression models examined associations between SDB metrics and haemoglobin, glucose tolerance (haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)), fasting glucose, homeostatic model-based assessments of insulin resistance and β-cell function (HOMA-IR and HOMA-β, respectively), blood pressure, and lipids, while adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and wake oxygenation...
June 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619111/two-minute-disconnection-technique-with-a-double-lumen-tube-to-speed-the-collapse-of-the-non-ventilated-lung-for-one-lung-ventilation-in-thoracoscopic-surgery
#4
Qiongzhen Li, Xiaofeng Zhang, Jingxiang Wu, Meiying Xu
BACKGROUND: Thoracic surgery requires the effective collapse of the non-ventilated lung. In the majority of cases, we accomplished, accelerated lung collapse using a double-lumen tube (DLT). We hypothesized that using the two-minute disconnection technique with a DLT would improve lung collapse during subsequent one-lung ventilation. METHODS: Fifty patients undergoing thoracoscopic surgery with physical classification I or II according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists were randomly divided into two groups for respiratory management of one-lung ventilation (OLV)...
June 15, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612693/-a-man-with-hypoxaemia-after-a-femoral-fracture
#5
T D Koster, M van Dijk, D J Slebos
A 25-year-old male presented with fever and dyspnoea after a femoral fracture, which was treated with intramedullary nail fixation. Based on clinical criteria and a CT scan, the diagnosis fat embolism was made. He was treated conservatively and made a full recovery.
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595508/sedative-and-cardiorespiratory-effects-of-detomidine-constant-rate-infusion-in-sheep
#6
Rauane Sousa de Moura, Isabela Plazza Bittar, Luiz Henrique da Silva, Ana Carolina Vasquez Villela, Marcelo Borges Dos Santos Júnior, Naida Cristina Borges, Leandro Guimarães Franco
The use of sheep in experiments is widespread and is increasing worldwide, and so is the need to develop species-specific anaesthetic techniques to ensure animal safety. Previous studies have mentioned several protocols involving the administration of alpha-2 adrenergic agonists in sheep; however, assessment of the efficacy and safety of these infusion techniques is still relatively new. Thus, the aim of the present study is to assess the effectiveness of detomidine constant rate infusion (CRI) in sheep by measuring the cardiovascular and respiratory parameters, blood gas variables and sedation scores...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589869/-hepatopulmonary-syndrome-a-consideration-in-patients-with-liver-disease-accompanied-by-dyspnoea-and-hypoxaemia
#7
P V van Hirtum, G P Bootsma, R A de Man, C Th B M van Deursen, P I Bonta, M D de Kruif
BACKGROUND: Hepatopulmonary syndrome is a severe complication of liver disease, with greatly increased mortality. The syndrome is characterized by increased blood-flow, intrapulmonary vasodilatation and angiogenesis, leading to effects including the formation of shunts. This leads to a decrease in arterial oxygen pressure. Liver transplantation is the only effective treatment. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 74-year-old woman with cirrhosis of the liver attended the pulmonary outpatients' clinic with progressive dyspnoea, which worsened if she sat upright from a lying position (platypnoea)...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587125/equine-welfare-during-exercise-an-evaluation-of-breathing-breathlessness-and-bridles
#8
REVIEW
David J Mellor, Ngaio J Beausoleil
Horses engaged in strenuous exercise display physiological responses that approach the upper functional limits of key organ systems, in particular their cardiorespiratory systems. Maximum athletic performance is therefore vulnerable to factors that diminish these functional capacities, and such impairment might also lead to horses experiencing unpleasant respiratory sensations, i.e., breathlessness. The aim of this review is to use existing literature on equine cardiorespiratory physiology and athletic performance to evaluate the potential for various types of breathlessness to occur in exercising horses...
May 26, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584350/a-randomised-comparative-study-of-miller-laryngoscope-blade-versus-oxiport-%C3%A2-miller-laryngoscope-blade-for-neonatal-and-infant-intubations
#9
Raylene Dias, Nandini Dave, Rachana Chhabria, Harick Shah, Madhu Garasia
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Neonates and infants are prone to oxygen desaturation during the induction of general anaesthesia. Pharyngeal oxygen insufflation has been shown to delay the onset of desaturation and hypoxaemia during apnoea. We tested the hypothesis that deep laryngeal oxygenation with Oxiport(®) Miller blade would delay the onset of desaturation compared to laryngoscopy without supplemental oxygen (Miller blade). METHODS: One hundred neonates and infants undergoing general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation for surgery were recruited and randomly assigned to one of the two groups: Miller or Oxiport group (laryngoscopy performed with Miller or Oxiport(®) blade, respectively)...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579007/association-between-preoperative-characteristics-and-risk-of-anaesthesia-related-death-in-dogs-in-small-animal-referral-hospitals-in-japan
#10
Takaharu Itami, Hiroko Aida, Makoto Asakawa, Yoko Fujii, Tomoya Iizuka, Ayako Imai, Toshie Iseri, Tomohito Ishizuka, Kei Kakishima, Masatoshi Kamata, Takako Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Shotaro Nagahama, Kiyokazu Naganobu, Ryohei Nishimura, Shozo Okano, Tadashi Sano, Kazuto Yamashita, Yoshiki Yamaya, Masashi Yanagawa
OBJECTIVE: To explore the major risk factors linking preoperative characteristics and anaesthesia-related death in dogs in referral hospitals in Japan. STUDY DESIGN: Observational cohort study. ANIMALS: From April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011, 4323 dogs anaesthetized in 18 referral hospitals in Japan. METHODS: Questionnaire forms were collated anonymously. Death occurring within 48 hours after extubation was considered as an anaesthesia-related death...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567280/solar-powered-oxygen-systems-in-remote-health-centers-in-papua-new-guinea-a-large-scale-implementation-effectiveness-trial
#11
Trevor Duke, Ilomo Hwaihwanje, Magdalynn Kaupa, Jonah Karubi, Doreen Panauwe, Martin Sa'avu, Francis Pulsan, Peter Prasad, Freddy Maru, Henry Tenambo, Ambrose Kwaramb, Eleanor Neal, Hamish Graham, Rasa Izadnegahdar
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the largest cause of child deaths in Papua New Guinea (PNG), and hypoxaemia is the major complication causing death in childhood pneumonia, and hypoxaemia is a major factor in deaths from many other common conditions, including bronchiolitis, asthma, sepsis, malaria, trauma, perinatal problems, and obstetric emergencies. A reliable source of oxygen therapy can reduce mortality from pneumonia by up to 35%. However, in low and middle income countries throughout the world, improved oxygen systems have not been implemented at large scale in remote, difficult to access health care settings, and oxygen is often unavailable at smaller rural hospitals or district health centers which serve as the first point of referral for childhood illnesses...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558398/-guidelines-in-practice-the-new-s3-guideline-sleeping-disorders-sleep-related-abnormal-breathing
#12
Martin Gerlach, Bernd Sanner
Sleep related breathing disorders include central sleep apnea (CSA), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), sleep-related hypoventilation, and sleep-related hypoxia. These disorders are frequent and growing in clinical relevance. The related chapter of the S3 guideline "Non-restorative sleep/Sleep disorders", published by the German Sleep Society (DGSM), has recently been updated in November 2016. Epidemiology, diagnostics, therapeutic procedures, and classification of sleep related disorders have been revised. Concerning epidemiology, a considerably higher mortality rate among pregnant women with OSA has been emphasized...
May 30, 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543822/good-for-the-lung-but-bad-for-the-liver-garlic-induced-hepatotoxicity-following-liver-transplantation
#13
S A Shaikh, S Tischer, E K Choi, R J Fontana
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Limited data exist surrounding the metabolism and safety of garlic supplements. CASE DESCRIPTION: A patient with a history of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and orthotopic liver transplantation was admitted to our surgery transplant service with severe hypoxaemia. The patient was started on high-dose Garlicin Cardio(®) (Allium sativum) for HPS and soon after had elevated liver function tests. Garlicin Cardio(®) was discontinued and liver enzymes normalized...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486654/oxygen-availability-and-nursing-capacity-for-oxygen-therapy-in-ugandan-paediatric-wards
#14
Juliet Nabwire, Sophie Namasopo, Michael Hawkes
Oxygen is essential, life-saving, supportive treatment for children with hypoxaemia but is not available in many resource-constrained health facilities. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of oxygen availability and nurses' skills for oxygen administration at the paediatric wards of 11 district hospitals in eastern Uganda. Functional oxygen delivery was available at the paediatric wards of only 2 of 11 (18%) hospitals. Of the six concentrators found, two did not function at all and two produced a stream of O2 <80% pure...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449046/prone-positioning-as-a-bridge-to-recovery-from-refractory-hypoxaemia-following-lung-transplantation%C3%A2
#15
Jordi Riera, Carolina Maldonado, Cristopher Mazo, María Martínez, Jaume Baldirà, Leonel Lagunes, Salvador Augustin, Antonio Roman, Maria Due, Jordi Rello, Deborah J Levine
OBJECTIVES: Refractory hypoxaemia is the leading cause of mortality in the postoperative period after lung transplantation. The role of prone positioning as a rescue therapy in this setting has not been assessed. We evaluated its effects in lung transplant recipients presenting refractory hypoxaemia following the surgery. METHODS: Prospectively collected data from 131 consecutive adult patients undergoing lung transplantation between January 2013 and December 2014 were evaluated...
April 25, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435681/a-hol-e-y-predicament
#16
Shaiva Ginoya Meka, Daniel Shelden, Amy Mertens, Paul Christensen, Meet Patel
Endocardial cushion defects are congenital abnormalities that result in valvular dysfunction as well as defects (or "holes") in the septa of the heart. They are typically diagnosed in early infancy; presentation late in life is rare. We present the case of a 72-year-old female admitted to the hospital with dyspnoea and palpitations. She was found to have multifocal atrial tachycardia. She suffered cardiac arrest associated with refractory hypoxaemia that required mechanical ventilation and vasodilator therapy with inhaled nitric oxide...
July 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409007/subclinical-sleep-apnoea-and-plasma-levels-of-endothelin-1-among-young-and-healthy-adults
#17
Tobias Schoen, Stefanie Aeschbacher, Joerg D Leuppi, David Miedinger, Ursina Werthmüller, Joel Estis, John Todd, Martin Risch, Lorenz Risch, David Conen
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a risk factor for vascular disease and other adverse outcomes. These associations may be at least partly due to early endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated endothelial dysfunction (ED). Therefore, we assessed the relationships between subclinical sleep apnoea and plasma levels of ET-1. METHODS: We performed a population-based study among 1255 young and healthy adults aged 25-41 years. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes or a body mass index >35 kg/m(2) were exclusion criteria...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385614/review-of-hypoxaemia-in-anaesthetized-horses-predisposing-factors-consequences-and-management
#18
REVIEW
Adam Auckburally, Görel Nyman
OBJECTIVE: To discuss how hypoxaemia might be harmful and why horses are particularly predisposed to developing it, to review the strategies that are used to manage hypoxaemia in anaesthetized horses, and to describe how successful these strategies are and the adverse effects associated with them. DATABASES USED: Google Scholar and PubMed, using the search terms horse, pony, exercise, anaesthesia, hypoxaemia, oxygen, mortality, morbidity and ventilation perfusion mismatch...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366333/high-prevalence-of-recurrent-nocturnal-desaturations-in-systemic-al-amyloidosis-a-cross-sectional-pilot-study
#19
Shameem Mahmood, Milind Sovani, Peter Smith, Leena George, Christina C Quarta, Sajitha Sachchithanantham, Marianna Fontana, Carol J Whelan, Helen J Lachmann, Julian D Gillmore, Philip N Hawkins, Ashutosh D Wechalekar
OBJECTIVES: Cardiac involvement and/or macroglossia with soft tissue deposits are risk factors for central sleep apnoea (CSA) and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), and common features of systemic AL amyloidosis. Little data exist on the occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) or recurrent nocturnal hypoxia in amyloidosis, which this study sought to investigate. METHODS: A total of 72 consecutive patients with systemic amyloidosis (mean age 69 years and mean BMI 25) were evaluated for occurrence of SDB, by overnight continuous pulse oximetry, and completed Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) and STOPBANG questionnaires...
April 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351440/-high-nasal-flow-the-solution-for-hypoxaemia
#20
J G van den Aardweg
High nasal flow (HNF) is a new method to deliver a high flow of oxygen (up to 60 l/min) through a nasal cannula. The inspiratory oxygen fraction can be set in a range from 21 to 100%. The inspired air is adjusted to body temperature and saturation. Many patients find it more comfortable than a conventional oxygen mask. In spite of these advantages, the mechanism of action is not completely understood and empirical evidence for its use is limited. This article provides a simplified explanation of variable positive airway pressure generation by HNF and related flushing of the anatomic dead space...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
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