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"Critical velocity"

Raz Halifa Levi, Yacov Kantor
We use Newtonian and overdamped Langevin dynamics to study long flexible polymers dragged by an external force at a constant velocity v. The work W performed by that force depends on the initial state of the polymer and the details of the process. The Jarzynski equality can be used to relate the nonequilibrium work distribution P(W) obtained from repeated experiments to the equilibrium free energy difference ΔF between the initial and final states. We use the power law dependence of the geometrical and dynamical characteristics of the polymer on the number of monomers N to suggest the existence of a critical velocity v_{c}(N), such that for v<v_{c} the reconstruction of ΔF is an easy task, while for v significantly exceeding v_{c} it becomes practically impossible...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
Mingming Ding, Xiaozheng Duan, Tongfei Shi
Using a hybrid simulation method that combines a lattice-Boltzmann approach for the flow and a molecular dynamics model for the polymer, we investigated the effect of solvent quality on the flow-induced polymer translocation through a nanopore. We demonstrate the nontrivial dependence of the translocation dynamics of polymers on the solvent quality, i.e., the enhancement in the polymer insolubility increases the critical velocity flux and shortens the translocation time. Accordingly, we propose a new strategy to separate polymers with different solubilities via their translocations in the nanopore by adjusting the velocity flux of the flow, which appears to be promising for the design of micro-scaled polymer separation devices...
October 18, 2017: Soft Matter
A Paris-Mandoki, J Shearring, F Mancarella, T M Fromhold, A Trombettoni, P Krüger
Superfluidity and superconductivity have been widely studied since the last century in many different contexts ranging from nuclear matter to atomic quantum gases. The rigidity of these systems with respect to external perturbations results in frictionless motion for superfluids and resistance-free electric current flow in superconductors. This peculiar behaviour is lost when external perturbations overcome a critical threshold, i.e. above a critical magnetic field or a critical current for superconductors...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yu-Hsuan Kuo, Ching-Feng Cheng, Wei-Chieh Hsu, Del P Wong
This study's aim was to investigate the test-retest reliability of the 3-min all-out running test (3MRT) in hot environments. Twelve male sprinters (age 21.2 ± 1.8 years; height 1.78 ± 0.01 m; weight 71.0 ± 1.6 kg; [Formula: see text] 55.0 ± 1.0 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) performed an incremental exercise test in a laboratory, during which the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2) and [Formula: see text] were determined. In addition, they performed two 3MRTs on an outdoor track in a hot environment, during which the critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic capacity (D') were estimated...
August 17, 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
Alex Rizzato, Giuseppe Marcolin, Alessandro Rubini, Nicola Olivato, Simone Fava, Antonio Paoli, Gerardo Bosco
BACKGROUND: In swimming one of the most employed training speed among coaches is the non-invasive Theoretical Critical Velocity (TCV) defined as the velocity that can be maintained continuously without exhaustion. METHODS: We calculated the 4mmol/L lactate Critical Velocity (MCV) in a group of swimmers of different ages (Young, Elite and Master), and compared results to the predicted TCV defined starting from the 200 and 400 m freestyle best seasonal performances...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Frédéric Aitken, Ferdinand Volino, Luis Guillermo Mendoza-Luna, Klaus von Haeften, Jussi Eloranta
Electron mobility in superfluid helium is modeled between 0.1 and 2.2 K by a van der Waals-type thermodynamic equation of state, which relates the free volume of solvated electrons to temperature, density, and phase dependent internal pressure. The model is first calibrated against known electron mobility reference data along the saturated vapor pressure line and then validated to reproduce the existing mobility literature values as a function of pressure and temperature with at least 10% accuracy. Four different electron mobility regimes are identified: (1) Landau critical velocity limit (T ≈ 0), (2) mobility limited by thermal phonons (T < 0...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xiaochao Jin, Huawei Yang, Xueling Fan, Zhihua Wang, Xuefeng Shu
The cavity expansion theory is most widely used to predict the depth of penetration of concrete targets. The main purpose of this work is to clarify the differences between the spherical and cylindrical cavity expansion models and their scope of application in predicting the penetration depths of concrete targets. The factors that influence the dynamic cavity expansion process of concrete materials were first examined. Based on numerical results, the relationship between expansion pressure and velocity was established...
2017: PloS One
Ming-Ta Yang, Mien-Mien Lee, Shu-Ching Hsu, Kuei-Hui Chan
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) utilizing a canoeing ergometer on endurance determinants, as well as aerobic and anaerobic performances among flat-water canoeists. Fourteen well-trained male flat-water canoeists were divided into an HIIT group or an MICT group. All subjects performed a continuous graded exercise test (GXT) and three fixed-distance (200, 500, and 1000 m) performance tests on a canoeing ergometer to determine canoeing economy, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and power at VO2peak, and to calculate the critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic work capacity before and after the training programmes...
August 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
Filipe Antônio de Barros Sousa, Natalia Almeida Rodrigues, Leonardo Henrique Dalcheco Messias, Jair Borges Queiroz, Fulvia Barros Manchado-Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre Gobatto
This study aims to propose and validate the tethered swimming lactate minimum test (TSLacmin) estimating aerobic and anaerobic capacity in one single test session, using force as measurement parameter. 6 male and 6 female young swimmers (age=15.7±1.1 years; height=173.3±9.5 cm; weight=66.1±9.5 kg) performed 4 sessions comprising i) an all-out 30 s test and incremental test (TSLacmin); ii) 30 min of tethered swimming at constant intensity (2 sessions); iii) free-swimming time trials used to calculate critical velocity...
May 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Haley C Bergstrom, Terry J Housh, Kristen C Cochrane-Snyman, Nathaniel D M Jenkins, Travis Byrd, Jonathan R Switalla, Richard J Schmidt, Glen O Johnson
The purpose of this study was to describe the VO2 responses relative to VO2 peak at four different intensities within the severe domain and, based on the VO2 responses, identify intensity zones above critical velocity (CV). Twelve runners (mean ± SD age = 23.2 ± 3.0 years) performed an incremental treadmill test (ITT) to exhaustion to determine the VO2peak and velocity associated with VO2peak (vVO2peak). Critical velocity was determined from four, exhaustive, constant velocity, randomly ordered treadmill runs (V1, V2, V3, V4; V1 = highest, V4 = lowest)...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Han Yan, Wen-Ming Zhang, Hui-Ming Jiang, Kai-Ming Hu
In this article, the pull-in instability and dynamic characteristics of electrostatically actuated suspended microchannel resonators are studied. A theoretical model is presented to describe the pull-in effect of suspended microchannel resonators by considering the electrostatic field and the internal fluid. The results indicate that the system is subjected to both the pull-in instability and the flutter. The former is induced by the applied voltage which exceeds the pull-in value while the latter occurs as the velocity of steady flow get closer to the critical velocity...
January 8, 2017: Sensors
Francisco J Arias, Geoffrey T Parks
The thermal behavior of insoluble radiogenic particles at the solid-liquid interface of an advancing solidification front and its significance with regard to environmental impact are discussed. It is shown that, unlike classical particles, where the most probable behavior is engulfing by the solidification front, radiogenic particles are more likely to be rejected by the solidification front. Utilizing a simplified physical model, an adaptation of classical theoretical models is performed, where it is shown that, unlike classical particles, for radiogenic particles the mechanism is thermally driven...
February 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Peng Zou, Joachim Brand, Xia-Ji Liu, Hui Hu
We investigate traveling solitons of a one- or two-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled Fermi superfluid in both topologically trivial and nontrivial regimes by solving the static and time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. We find a critical velocity v_{h} for traveling solitons that is much smaller than the value predicted using the Landau criterion due to spin-orbit coupling. Above v_{h}, our time-dependent simulations in harmonic traps indicate that traveling solitons decay by radiating sound waves. In the topological phase, we predict the existence of peculiar Majorana solitons, which host two Majorana fermions and feature a phase jump of π across the soliton, irrespective of the velocity of travel...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Qiaoyue Chen, Lili Zhang, Mingming Ding, Xiaozheng Duan, Yineng Huang, Tongfei Shi
We study the effects of the nanopore size on the flow-induced capture of the star polymer by a nanopore and the afterward translocation, using a hybrid simulation method that couples point particles into a fluctuating lattice-Boltzmann fluid. Our simulation demonstrates that the optimal forward arm number decreases slowly with the increase of the length of the nanopore. Compared to the minor effect of the length of the nanopore, the optimal forward arm number obviously increases with the increase of the width of the nanopore, which can clarify the current controversial issue for the optimal forward arm number between the theory and experiments...
November 2016: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Christopher J Howland, Arnaud Antkowiak, J Rafael Castrejón-Pita, Sam D Howison, James M Oliver, Robert W Style, Alfonso A Castrejón-Pita
Droplets splash when they impact dry, flat substrates above a critical velocity that depends on parameters such as droplet size, viscosity, and air pressure. By imaging ethanol drops impacting silicone gels of different stiffnesses, we show that substrate stiffness also affects the splashing threshold. Splashing is reduced or even eliminated: droplets on the softest substrates need over 70% more kinetic energy to splash than they do on rigid substrates. We show that this is due to energy losses caused by deformations of soft substrates during the first few microseconds of impact...
October 28, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Henrique P Neiva, Mário C Marques, Tiago M Barbosa, Mikel Izquierdo, João L Viana, Ana M Teixeira, Daniel A Marinho
Neiva, HP, Marques, MC, Barbosa, TM, Izquierdo, M, Viana, JL, Teixeira, AM, and Marinho, DA. Warm-up for sprint swimming: race-pace or aerobic stimulation? A randomized study. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2423-2431, 2017-The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 2 different warm-up intensities on 100-m swimming performance in a randomized controlled trial. Thirteen competitive swimmers performed two 100-m freestyle time-trials on separate days after either control or experimental warm-up in a randomized design...
September 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
C H J Bong, T L Lau, A Ab Ghani, N W Chan
The understanding of how the sediment deposit thickness influences the incipient motion characteristic is still lacking in the literature. Hence, the current study aims to determine the effect of sediment deposition thickness on the critical velocity for incipient motion. An incipient motion experiment was conducted in a rigid boundary rectangular flume of 0.6 m width with varying sediment deposition thickness. Findings from the experiment revealed that the densimetric Froude number has a logarithmic relationship with both the thickness ratios ts/d and ts/y0 (ts: sediment deposit thickness; d: grain size; y0: normal flow depth)...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Alexey N Boychuk, Dmitriy V Makarov, Alexander N Zakhlevnykh
We theoretically study the dynamics of the orientational structure of a ferronematic liquid crystal with soft planar coupling between the director and the magnetization in a rotating magnetic field. We determine critical parameters characterizing the boundary between synchronous and asynchronous rotation regimes. We show that the magnetic impurity increases the stability threshold of an asynchronous rotation regime. The critical angular velocity, the angles of the director and the magnetization rotation in each regime of orientational structure rotation are found for rigid planar coupling...
October 2016: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Conglin Dong, Chengqing Yuan, Lei Wang, Wei Liu, Xiuqin Bai, Xinping Yan
Frictional vibration and noise caused by water-lubricated rubber stern tube bearings, which are generated under extreme conditions, severely threaten underwater vehicles' survivability and concealment performance. This study investigates the effect of flaky and spherical MoS2 nanoparticles on tribological properties and damping capacity of water-lubricated rubber materials, with the aim of decreasing frictional noise. A CBZ-1 tribo-tester was used to conduct the sliding tests between rubber ring-discs and ZCuSn10Zn2 ring-discs with water lubrication...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jin Chen, Bo Zhang, Wei Chen, Jian-Yi Kang, Kui-Jun Chen, Ai-Min Wang, Jian-Min Wang
The development of high-energy weapons could increase the velocity of projectiles to well over 1000 m/s. The nature of the injuries caused by the ballistic impact of projectiles at velocities much faster than 1000 m/s is unclear. This study characterizes the mechanical and biochemical alterations caused by high-speed ballistic impact generated by spherical steel ball to the hind limbs of the pig. That the local and distal injuries caused by hypervelocity ballistic impact to the living body are also identified...
2016: SpringerPlus
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