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"Critical velocity"

Conglin Dong, Chengqing Yuan, Lei Wang, Wei Liu, Xiuqin Bai, Xinping Yan
Frictional vibration and noise caused by water-lubricated rubber stern tube bearings, which are generated under extreme conditions, severely threaten underwater vehicles' survivability and concealment performance. This study investigates the effect of flaky and spherical MoS2 nanoparticles on tribological properties and damping capacity of water-lubricated rubber materials, with the aim of decreasing frictional noise. A CBZ-1 tribo-tester was used to conduct the sliding tests between rubber ring-discs and ZCuSn10Zn2 ring-discs with water lubrication...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jin Chen, Bo Zhang, Wei Chen, Jian-Yi Kang, Kui-Jun Chen, Ai-Min Wang, Jian-Min Wang
The development of high-energy weapons could increase the velocity of projectiles to well over 1000 m/s. The nature of the injuries caused by the ballistic impact of projectiles at velocities much faster than 1000 m/s is unclear. This study characterizes the mechanical and biochemical alterations caused by high-speed ballistic impact generated by spherical steel ball to the hind limbs of the pig. That the local and distal injuries caused by hypervelocity ballistic impact to the living body are also identified...
2016: SpringerPlus
M Kafi, A Salar Elahi, M Ghoranneviss, M R Ghanbari, M K Salem
In a tokamak with a toroidal electric field, electrons that exceed the critical velocity are freely accelerated and can reach very high energies. These so-called `runaway electrons' can cause severe damage to the vacuum vessel and are a dangerous source of hard X-rays. Here the effect of toroidal electric and magnetic field changes on the characteristics of runaway electrons is reported. A possible technique for runaways diagnosis is the detection of hard X-ray radiation; for this purpose, a scintillator (NaI) was used...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Fay B Horak, JoAnn Kluzik, Frantisek Hlavacka
Vestibular information is known to be important for postural stability on tilting surfaces, but the relative importance of vestibular information across a wide range of surface tilt velocities is less clear. We compared how tilt velocity influences postural orientation and stability in nine subjects with bilateral vestibular loss and nine age-matched, control subjects. Subjects stood on a force platform that tilted 6 deg, toes-up at eight velocities (0.25 to 32 deg/s), with and without vision. Results showed that visual information effectively compensated for lack of vestibular information at all tilt velocities...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Emmanuel N Millán, Diego R Tramontina, Herbert M Urbassek, Eduardo M Bringa
While at small collision velocities collisions of nanoparticles (NPs) are elastic, they become plastic at higher velocities. We study the elastic-plastic threshold and the onset of plasticity using molecular dynamics simulation for a Lennard-Jones material. The reasons behind the R^{-2/3} increase of the threshold velocity for small NP radii R found recently are discussed. At the threshold, NP orientation strongly influences the generation of plasticity, and averaging over many orientations is required to predict the critical velocity for dislocation generation...
June 2016: Physical Review. E
Mingming Ding, Qiaoyue Chen, Xiaozheng Duan, Tongfei Shi
We study the flow-induced polymer translocation through a nanopore from a confining nanotube, using a hybrid simulation method that couples point particles into a fluctuating lattice-Boltzmann fluid. Our simulation illustrates that the critical velocity flux of the polymer linearly decreases with the decrease in the size of the confining nanotube, which corresponds well with our theoretical analysis based on the blob model of the polymer translocation. Moreover, by decreasing the size of the confining nanotube, we find a significantly favorable capture of the polymer near its ends, as well as a longer translocation time...
May 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Bettina Karsten, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Gokhan Kandemir, Tahir Hazir, Andreas Klose, Fernando Naclerio
UNLABELLED: The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a moderate intensity strength training on changes in critical velocity (CV), anaerobic running distance (D'), sprint performance and Yo-Yo intermittent running test (Yo-Yo IR1) performances. METHODS: two recreational soccer teams were divided in a soccer training only group (SO; n = 13) and a strength and soccer training group (ST; n = 13). Both groups were tested for values of CV, D', Yo-Yo IR1 distance and 30-m sprint time on two separate occasions (pre and post intervention)...
2016: PloS One
Mingming Ding, Xiaozheng Duan, Tongfei Shi
We study the flow-induced translocation of the star polymers through a nanopore using a hybrid simulation method that incorporates a lattice-Boltzmann approach for the fluid into a molecular dynamics model for the polymer. Our simulation demonstrates the existence of an optimal forward arm number of the star polymers captured by the nanopore, and illustrates its significance in determining the critical velocity flux of the star polymer translocation through the nanopore. Importantly, we find that the critical velocity flux of the star polymers is independent of the arm polymerization degree, but exhibits a linear dependence on the arm number...
March 21, 2016: Soft Matter
Michael P N Juniper, Arthur V Straube, Dirk G A L Aarts, Roel P A Dullens
We study the motion of colloidal particles driven by a constant force over a periodic optical potential energy landscape. First, the average particle velocity is found as a function of the driving velocity and the wavelength of the optical potential energy landscape. The relationship between average particle velocity and driving velocity is found to be well described by a theoretical model treating the landscape as sinusoidal, but only at small trap spacings. At larger trap spacings, a nonsinusoidal model for the landscape must be used...
January 2016: Physical Review. E
Marion Delehaye, Sébastien Laurent, Igor Ferrier-Barbut, Shuwei Jin, Frédéric Chevy, Christophe Salomon
We study the dynamics of counterflowing bosonic and fermionic lithium atoms. First, by tuning the interaction strength we measure the critical velocity v(c) of the system in the BEC-BCS crossover in the low temperature regime and we compare it to the recent prediction of Castin et al., C. R. Phys. 16, 241 (2015). Second, raising the temperature of the mixture slightly above the superfluid transitions reveals an unexpected phase locking of the oscillations of the clouds induced by dissipation.
December 31, 2015: Physical Review Letters
Arnau Vilà, Miguel González, Ricardo Mayol
The capture dynamics of a Ne atom by a superfluid helium nanodroplet (((4)He)N=1000; T = 0.37 K), Ne + ((4)He)N→ Ne@((4)He)N', was investigated using a quantum approach (TDDFT (helium) + quantum wave packet (Ne)) at zero angular momentum and a rather wide range of Ne atom initial mean velocities (〈v0〉: 90-1300 m s(-1)). This is probably the first quantum dynamics study focusing on the pick up process and the evolution of the dopant inside the nanodroplet and the second more detailed investigation on this topic...
January 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Pierre-François Duc, Michel Savard, Matei Petrescu, Bernd Rosenow, Adrian Del Maestro, Guillaume Gervais
In one of the most celebrated examples of the theory of universal critical phenomena, the phase transition to the superfluid state of (4)He belongs to the same three-dimensional (3D) O(2) universality class as the onset of ferromagnetism in a lattice of classical spins with XY symmetry. Below the transition, the superfluid density ρs and superfluid velocity v s increase as a power law of temperature described by a universal critical exponent that is constrained to be identical by scale invariance. As the dimensionality is reduced toward 1D, it is expected that enhanced thermal and quantum fluctuations preclude long-range order, thereby inhibiting superfluidity...
May 2015: Science Advances
Arnau Vilà, Miguel González, Ricardo Mayol
To investigate the photodissociation dynamics of diatomic homonuclear molecules in helium nanodroplets, a hybrid quantum mechanical theoretical method that combines time dependent density functional theory (helium) and quantum dynamics (molecule) has been developed. This method has been applied to investigate the Cl2 photodissociation arising from the B ← X electronic transition, considering Cl2(v = 0,X)@((4)He)N nanodroplets with N = 50, 100, 200, 300, and 500 (initial configuration for the dynamics). A time scale of a few picoseconds has been determined, and the time required for the dissociating atoms to reach the nanodroplet surface increases with N...
March 10, 2015: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Sébastien Moulinet, Mokhtar Adda-Bedia
Understanding the physics of fragmentation is important in a wide range of industrial and geophysical applications. Fragmentation processes involve large strain rates and short time scales that take place during crack nucleation and propagation. Using rubber membranes, we develop an experimental analysis that enables us to track the fragmentation process in situ in both time and space. We find that bursting a highly stretched membrane yields a treelike fragmentation network that originates at a single seed crack, followed by successive crack tip-splitting events...
October 30, 2015: Physical Review Letters
Rodrigo Zacca, Ricardo Jorge P Fernandes, David B Pyne, Flávio Antônio de S Castro
To verify the metabolic responses of oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentrations [La], and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) when swimming at an intensity corresponding to the critical velocity (CV) assessed by a 4-parameter model (CV4par), and to check the reliability when using only a single 400-m maximal front crawl bout (T400) for CV4par assessment in age-group swimmers. Ten age-group swimmers (14-16 years old) performed 50-, 100-, 200-, 400- (T400), 800-, and 1,500-m maximal front crawl bouts to calculate CV4par...
May 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ilia V Roisman, Antonio Criscione, Cameron Tropea, Deepak Kumar Mandal, Alidad Amirfazli
The drop, exposed to an air flow parallel to the substrate, starts to dislodge when the air velocity reaches some threshold value, which depends on the substrate wetting properties and drop volume. In this study the critical air velocity is measured for different drop volumes, on substrates of various wettabilities. The substrate initial temperatures varied between the normal room temperature (24.5∘C) and subfreezing temperatures (-5∘C and -1∘C). The physics of the drop did not change at the subfreezing temperatures of the substrates, which clearly indicates that the drop does not freeze and remains liquid for a relatively long time...
August 2015: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
S Finazzi, F Piazza, M Abad, A Smerzi, A Recati
We show that the critical velocity of a superfluid flow through a penetrable barrier coincides with the onset of the analog black-hole lasing effect. This dynamical instability is triggered by modes resonating in an effective cavity formed by two horizons enclosing the barrier. The location of the horizons is set by v(x)=c(x), with v(x),c(x) being the local fluid velocity and sound speed, respectively. We compute the critical velocity analytically and show that it is univocally determined by the configuration of the horizons...
June 19, 2015: Physical Review Letters
Pedro Figueiredo, Ana Silva, António Sampaio, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Ricardo J Fernandes
The aim of this study was to evaluate the determinants of front crawl sprint performance of young swimmers using a cluster analysis. 103 swimmers, aged 11- to 13-years old, performed 25-m front crawl swimming at 50-m pace, recorded by two underwater cameras. Swimmers analysis included biomechanics, energetics, coordinative, and anthropometric characteristics. The organization of subjects in meaningful clusters, originated three groups (1.52 ± 0.16, 1.47 ± 0.17 and 1.40 ± 0.15 m/s, for Clusters 1, 2 and 3, respectively) with differences in velocity between Cluster 1 and 2 compared with Cluster 3 (p = ...
July 2016: Motor Control
Mattan W Hoffman, Jeffrey R Stout, Jay R Hoffman, Geva Landua, David H Fukuda, Nurit Sharvit, Daniel S Moran, Erez Carmon, Ishay Ostfeld
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic distance capacity (ADC) to combat-specific tasks (CST) in a special forces (SFs) unit. Eighteen male soldiers (mean ± SD; age: 19.9 ± 0.8 years; height: 177.6 ± 6.6 cm; body mass: 74.1 ± 5.8 kg; body mass index [BMI]: 23.52 ± 1.63) from an SF unit of the Israel Defense Forces volunteered to complete a 3-minute all-out run along with CST (2.5-km run, 50-m casualty carry, and 30-m repeated sprints with "rush" shooting [RPTDS])...
February 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Evgeny Popov, Jussi Eloranta
Laser induced fluorescence imaging and frequency domain excitation spectroscopy of the copper dimer (B(1)Σg (+) ←X(1)Σu (+)) in thermomechanical helium fountain at 1.7 K are demonstrated. The dimers penetrate into the fountain provided that their average propagation velocity is ca. 15 m/s. This energy threshold is interpreted in terms of an imperfect fountain liquid-gas interface, which acts as a trap for low velocity dimers. Orsay-Trento density functional theory calculations for superfluid (4)He are used to characterize the dynamics of the dimer solvation process into the fountain...
May 28, 2015: Journal of Chemical Physics
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