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Critical torque

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352330/relationship-between-power-duration-parameters-and-mechanical-and-anthropometric-properties-of-the-thigh-in-elite-cyclists
#1
Mehdi Kordi, Campbell Menzies, Len Parker Simpson
PURPOSE: The curvature constant (W') and asymptote (critical power; CP) of the power-duration relationship are important parameters for explaining cycling performance. Short-duration endurance cycling events rely more heavily on the W'; however, the full mechanistic underpinning of this parameter is yet to be determined. Evidence suggests both muscle volume and muscle strength may contribute to the magnitude of W'. Therefore, the present study investigated the relationship between power-duration parameters (CP and W') and (1) anthropometric and (2) mechanical properties of thigh muscles in a sample of elite cyclists...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332237/acute-acetaminophen-ingestion-improves-performance-and-muscle-activation-during-maximal-intermittent-knee-extensor-exercise
#2
Paul T Morgan, Joanna L Bowtell, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones, Stephen J Bailey
AIM: Acetaminophen is a commonly used medicine for pain relief and emerging evidence suggests that it may improve endurance exercise performance. This study investigated some of the physiological mechanisms by which acute acetaminophen ingestion might blunt muscle fatigue development. METHODS: Thirteen active males completed 60 × 3 s maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors with each contraction separated by a 2 s passive recovery period...
January 13, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260301/regional-hounsfield-unit-measurement-of-screw-trajectory-for-predicting-pedicle-screw-fixation-using-cortical-bone-trajectory-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Keitaro Matsukawa, Yuichiro Abe, Yoshihide Yanai, Yoshiyuki Yato
BACKGROUND: The sufficiency of screw anchoring is a critical factor for achieving successful spinal fusion; however, no reliable method for predicting pedicle screw fixation has been established. Recently, Hounsfield units (HU) obtained from computed tomography (CT) was developed as a new reliable tool to determine the bone quality. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the utility of regional HU measurement of the screw trajectory to predict the primary and long-term fixation strength of pedicle screws...
December 19, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248561/downstream-processing-from-melt-granulation-towards-tablets-in-depth-analysis-of-a-continuous-twin-screw-melt-granulation-process-using-polymeric-binders
#4
W Grymonpré, G Verstraete, V Vanhoorne, J P Remon, T De Beer, C Vervaet
The concept of twin-screw melt granulation (TSMG) has steadily (re)-gained interest in pharmaceutical formulation development as an intermediate step during tablet manufacturing. However, to be considered as a viable processing option for solid oral dosage forms there is a need to understand all critical sources of variability which could affect this granulation technique. The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth analysis of the continuous TSMG process in order to expose the critical process parameters (CPP) and elucidate the impact of process and formulation parameters on the critical quality attributes (CQA) of granules and tablets during continuous TSMG...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233666/emg-amplitude-fatigue-threshold-and-time-to-task-failure-a-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
J Matt McCrary, Bronwen J Ackermann, Mark Halaki
OBJECTIVES: Electromyographic (EMG) fatigue threshold (EMGFT) is utilised as a correlate of critical power, torque, and force thresholds that establishes a theoretical exercise intensity-the power, torque, or force at which the rate of change of EMG amplitude (ΔEM¯G) is zero-below which neuromuscular fatigue is negligible and unpredictable. Recent studies demonstrating neuromuscular fatigue below critical thresholds raise questions about the construct validity of EMGFT. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the construct validity of EMGFT by aggregating ΔEM¯G and time to task failure (Tlim) data...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219397/thermodynamic-evidence-for-the-fulde-ferrell-larkin-ovchinnikov-state-in-the-kfe_-2-as_-2-superconductor
#6
Chang-Woo Cho, Jonathan Haiwei Yang, Noah F Q Yuan, Junying Shen, Thomas Wolf, Rolf Lortz
We investigate the magnetic phase diagram near the upper critical field of KFe_{2}As_{2} by magnetic torque and specific heat experiments using a high-resolution piezorotary positioner to precisely control the parallel alignment of the magnetic field with respect to the FeAs layers. We observe a clear double transition when the field is strictly aligned in the plane and a characteristic upturn of the upper critical field line, which goes far beyond the Pauli limit at 4.8 T. This provides firm evidence that a Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state exists in this iron-based KFe_{2}As_{2} superconductor...
November 24, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205219/experimental-analysis-of-insertion-torques-and-forces-of-threaded-and-press-fit-acetabular-cups-by-means-of-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-measurements
#7
Danny Vogel, Andreas Rathay, Stephanie Teufel, Martin Ellenrieder, Carmen Zietz, Manuela Sander, Rainer Bader
PURPOSE: In THA a sufficient primary implant stability is the precondition for successful secondary stability. Industrial foams of different densities have been used for primary stability investigations. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the insertion behaviour of threaded and press-fit cups in vivo and ex vivo using bone substitutes with various densities. METHODS: Two threaded (Bicon Plus®, Trident® TC) and one press-fit cup (Trident PSL®) were inserted by orthopaedic surgeons (S1, S2) into 10, 20 and 31 pcf blocks, using modified surgical instruments allowing measurements of the insertion forces and torques...
2017: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195302/transient-behavior-between-multi-cell-flow-states-in-ferrofluidic-taylor-couette-flow
#8
Sebastian Altmeyer, Younghae Do, Soorok Ryu
We investigate transient behaviors induced by magnetic fields on the dynamics of the flow of a ferrofluid in the gap between two concentric, independently rotating cylinders. Without applying any magnetic fields, we uncover emergence of flow states constituted by a combination of a localized spiral state in the top and bottom of the annulus and different multi-cell flow states with toroidally closed vortices in the interior of the bulk. However, when a magnetic field is presented, we observe the transient behaviors between multi-cell states passing through two critical thresholds in a strength of an axial (transverse) magnetic field...
November 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189638/viral-dnaemia-and-immune-suppression-in-pediatric-sepsis
#9
Sam Davila, E Scott Halstead, Mark W Hall, Allan Doctor, Russell Telford, Richard Holubkov, Joseph A Carcillo, Gregory A Storch
OBJECTIVES: Demonstrate that DNA viremia is common in pediatric sepsis and quantitate its associations with host immune function and secondary infection risk. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort study. PATIENTS: Seventy-three children admitted with sepsis-induced organ failure. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: This study was performed as an ancillary investigation to a single-center prospective study of children with severe sepsis...
November 16, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140169/relationship-between-physical-therapy-characteristics-surgical-procedure-and-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-after-acl-reconstruction
#10
Ian J Dempsey, Grant E Norte, Matthew Hall, John Goetschius, Lindsay V Slater, Jourdan M Cancienne, Brian C Werner, David R Diduch, Joseph M Hart
CONTEXT: Post-operative rehabilitation is critical to optimize outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). However, the relationship between physical therapy (PT) and clinical outcomes is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To describe PT characteristics following ACLR, and assess the relationships between PT characteristics, surgical procedure, and clinical outcomes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Laboratory...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109821/in-situ-sem-torsion-test-of-metallic-glass-microwires-based-on-micro-robotic-manipulation
#11
Chenchen Jiang, Haojian Lu, Ke Cao, Wenfeng Wan, Yajing Shen, Yang Lu
Microwires, such as metallic, semiconductor, and polymer microwires and carbon fibers, have stimulated great interest due to their importance in various structural and functional applications. Particularly, metallic glass (MG) microwires, because of their amorphous atoms arrangement, have some unique mechanical properties compared with traditional metals. Despite the fact that substantial research efforts have been made on the mechanical characterizations of metallic glass microwires under tension or flexural bending, the mechanical properties of microwires under torsional loading have not been well studied, mainly due to the experimental difficulties, such as the detection of torsion angle, quantitative measurement of the torsional load, and the alignment between the specimen and torque meter...
2017: Scanning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080855/rheological-analysis-of-itraconazole-polymer-mixtures-to-determine-optimal-melt-extrusion-temperature-for-development-of-amorphous-solid-dispersion
#12
Nayan Solanki, Simerdeep Singh Gupta, Abu T M Serajuddin
The objective of this investigation was to develop a systematic method for the determination of optimal processing temperatures of drug-polymer mixtures for the development of amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) by melt extrusion. Since melt extrusion is performed at high temperature, it is essential that the processing temperature should be as low as possible to minimize degradation of drug and polymer, and yet the temperature should be high enough that the drug-polymer mixture attains certain viscosity that is extrudable and the drug dissolves in the molten polymer...
October 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044190/a-high-speed-single-sideband-generator-using-a-magnetic-tunnel-junction-spin-torque-nano-oscillator
#13
Raghav Sharma, Naveen Sisodia, Ezio Iacocca, Ahmad A Awad, Johan Åkerman, P K Muduli
An important property of spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) is their ability to produce a frequency modulated (FM) signal, which is very critical for communication applications. We here demonstrate a novel single sideband (SSB) modulation phenomenon using a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ)-based STNO, which saves transmission bandwidth and in principle should minimize attenuation for wireless communication. Experimentally, lower single sidebands (LSSBs) have been successfully demonstrated over a wide range of modulation frequency, f m  = 150 MHz-1 GHz...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027416/-application-of-quality-by-design-in-granulation-process-for-ginkgo-leaf-tablet-%C3%A2-%C3%AF-influence-and-control-of-raw-materials-quality-variation
#14
Xiang-Long Cui, Bing Xu, Jun-Wen Liu, Guo-Lin Shi, Xin-Yuan Shi, Yan-Jiang Qiao
Raw materials' quality variation could affect the quality consistency of product and the clinical efficacy. In this paper, the high shear wet granulation (HSWG) process of the ginkgo leaf tablet was taken as the research object. Ginkgo biloba extracts and excipients microcrystalline cellulose collected from various sources and batches were used to simulate raw materials' quality variation. Real-time torque was recorded to analyze the viscosity of the wetting mass, and then by combining with physical fingerprint, the impact of physical quality variation of powders on granule properties could be investigated...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024603/exercise-tolerance-during-muscle-contractions-below-and-above-the-critical-torque-in-different-muscle-groups
#15
Leonardo Henrique Perinotto Abdalla, Benedito Sérgio Denadai, Natalia Menezes Bassan, Camila Coelho Greco
The objective of this study was to test the hypotheses that end-test torque (ET) (expressed as % maximal voluntary contraction - MVC) is higher for plantar flexors (PF) than knee extensors (KE) muscles, whereas impulse above ET (IET) is higher for KE than PF. Thus, we expected that exercise tolerance would be longer for KE than PF only during the exercise performed above ET. After the determination of MVC, forty men performed two 5-min all-out tests to determine ET and IET. Eleven participants performed a further four intermittent isometric tests, to exhaustion, at ET + 5% and ET - 5%, and one test for KE at the exercise intensity (%MVC) corresponding to ET + 5% of PF...
October 12, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952502/finite-element-simulation-of-niti-umbrella-shaped-implant-used-on-femoral-head-under-different-loadings
#16
Reza Mehrabi, Milad Dorri, Mohammad Elahinia
In this study, an umbrella-shaped device that is used for osteonecrosis treatment is simulated. The femoral head is subjected to various complex loadings as a result of a person's daily movements. Implant devices used in the body are made of shape memory alloy materials because of their remarkable resistance to wear and corrosion, good biocompatibility, and variable mechanical properties. Since this NiTi umbrella-shaped implant is simultaneously under several loadings, a 3-D model of shape memory alloy is utilized to investigate the behavior of the implant under different conditions...
March 12, 2017: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942894/wavelet-based-information-filtering-for-fault-diagnosis-of-electric-drive-systems-in-electric-ships
#17
Andre A Silva, Shalabh Gupta, Ali M Bazzi, Arthur Ulatowski
Electric machines and drives have enjoyed extensive applications in the field of electric vehicles (e.g., electric ships, boats, cars, and underwater vessels) due to their ease of scalability and wide range of operating conditions. This stems from their ability to generate the desired torque and power levels for propulsion under various external load conditions. However, as with the most electrical systems, the electric drives are prone to component failures that can degrade their performance, reduce the efficiency, and require expensive maintenance...
September 21, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942167/cracks-in-dried-deposits-of-hematite-ellipsoids-interplay-between-magnetic-and-hydrodynamic-torques
#18
Hisay Lama, Ranajit Mondal, Madivala G Basavaraj, Dillip K Satapathy
The orientation and morphology of cracks in coffee-ring like particulate deposit obtained by drying sessile drops containing anisotropic magnetic particles strongly depends on the magnitude of the applied magnetic field and its direction. This opens up the possibility of tuning the micro-structure of cracks via suitable manipulation of magnetic and hydrodynamic torques on the particles which has potential applications in nano-fabrication and field driven self-assembly. We report a systematic study of magnetic field driven self-assembly of hematite ellipsoids in sessile drops dried on solid substrates and resulting crack patterns...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900719/the-effects-of-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-on-critical-torque
#19
Marcin K Szczyglowski, Carl J Ade, Jason A Campbell, Christopher D Black
OBJECTIVE: Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has been shown to reduce endurance exercise performance. This study examined the effects of EIMD on critical torque (CT) and the sum of the torque integral above CT during (∫ T total) during a 5-min all-out, intermittent isometric knee extension exercise. METHODS: CT was determined in eight participants prior to and 48-h following EIMD. EIMD was induced using electrically stimulated eccentric knee extensions until maximal voluntary strength (MVC) was reduced by 40%...
November 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900151/in-situ-vocal-fold-properties-and-pitch-prediction-by-dynamic-actuation-of-the-songbird-syrinx
#20
Daniel N Düring, Benjamin J Knörlein, Coen P H Elemans
The biomechanics of sound production forms an integral part of the neuromechanical control loop of avian vocal motor control. However, we critically lack quantification of basic biomechanical parameters describing the vocal organ, the syrinx, such as material properties of syringeal elements, forces and torques exerted on, and motion of the syringeal skeleton during song. Here, we present a novel marker-based 3D stereoscopic imaging technique to reconstruct 3D motion of servo-controlled actuation of syringeal muscle insertions sites in vitro and focus on two muscles controlling sound pitch...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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