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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900719/the-effects-of-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-on-critical-torque
#1
Marcin K Szczyglowski, Carl J Ade, Jason A Campbell, Christopher D Black
OBJECTIVE: Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has been shown to reduce endurance exercise performance. This study examined the effects of EIMD on critical torque (CT) and the sum of the torque integral above CT during (∫ T total) during a 5-min all-out, intermittent isometric knee extension exercise. METHODS: CT was determined in eight participants prior to and 48-h following EIMD. EIMD was induced using electrically stimulated eccentric knee extensions until maximal voluntary strength (MVC) was reduced by 40%...
September 12, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900151/in-situ-vocal-fold-properties-and-pitch-prediction-by-dynamic-actuation-of-the-songbird-syrinx
#2
Daniel N Düring, Benjamin J Knörlein, Coen P H Elemans
The biomechanics of sound production forms an integral part of the neuromechanical control loop of avian vocal motor control. However, we critically lack quantification of basic biomechanical parameters describing the vocal organ, the syrinx, such as material properties of syringeal elements, forces and torques exerted on, and motion of the syringeal skeleton during song. Here, we present a novel marker-based 3D stereoscopic imaging technique to reconstruct 3D motion of servo-controlled actuation of syringeal muscle insertions sites in vitro and focus on two muscles controlling sound pitch...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891043/treamed-locked-intramedullary-nailing-for-studying-femur-fracture-and-its-complications
#3
O Yoshino, J Brady, K Young, B Hardy, R Matthys, T Buxton, R Appleyard, J Tomka, D Dabirrahmani, P Woodford, M Fadia, R Steck, A Quail, R G Richards, Z J Balogh
Morbidity associated with femur fractures in polytrauma patients is known to be high. The many unsolved clinical questions include the immunological effect of the fracture and its fixation, timing of fracture fixation, management of fracture non-union, effect of infection and critical size of bone defects. The aim of this study was to establish a clinically-relevant and reproducible animal model with regards to histological, biomechanical and radiological changes during bone healing. A custom-designed intramedullary nail with interlocking system (RabbitNail, RISystem AG, Davos Platz, Switzerland) was used for fixation, following femur fracture...
September 11, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846654/can-magnesium-enhance-exercise-performance
#4
REVIEW
Yijia Zhang, Pengcheng Xun, Ru Wang, Lijuan Mao, Ka He
Magnesium (Mg) is an essential mineral that plays a critical role in the human body. It takes part in the process of energy metabolism and assists the maintenance of normal muscle function. A number of studies evaluated the association between Mg status/supplementation and exercise performance and found that the need for Mg increased as individuals' physical activity level went up. Animal studies indicated that Mg might improve exercise performance via enhancing glucose availability in the brain, muscle and blood; and reducing/delaying lactate accumulation in the muscle...
August 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813869/effects-of-assistance-timing-on-metabolic-cost-assistance-power-and-gait-parameters-for-a-hip-type-exoskeleton
#5
Jusuk Lee, Keehong Seo, Bokman Lim, Junwon Jang, Kyungrock Kim, Hyundo Choi
There are many important factors in developing an exoskeleton for assisting human locomotion. For example, the weight should be sufficiently light, the assist torque should be high enough to assist joint motion, and the assistance timing should be just right. Understanding how these design parameters affect overall performance of a complex human-machine system is critical for the development of these types of systems. The present study introduces an assistance timing controller that regulates assistance timing such that peak joint velocity and peak assistance power are offset by a reference value for our hip-type exoskeleton...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783723/electronic-in-plane-symmetry-breaking-at-field-tuned-quantum-criticality-in-cerhin5
#6
F Ronning, T Helm, K R Shirer, M D Bachmann, L Balicas, M K Chan, B J Ramshaw, R D McDonald, F F Balakirev, M Jaime, E D Bauer, P J W Moll
Electronic nematic materials are characterized by a lowered symmetry of the electronic system compared to the underlying lattice, in analogy to the directional alignment without translational order in nematic liquid crystals. Such nematic phases appear in the copper- and iron-based high-temperature superconductors, and their role in establishing superconductivity remains an open question. Nematicity may take an active part, cooperating or competing with superconductivity, or may appear accidentally in such systems...
August 7, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775263/high-power-and-low-critical-current-density-spin-transfer-torque-nano-oscillators-using-mgo-barriers-with-intermediate-thickness
#7
J D Costa, S Serrano-Guisan, B Lacoste, A S Jenkins, T Böhnert, M Tarequzzaman, J Borme, F L Deepak, E Paz, J Ventura, R Ferreira, P P Freitas
Reported steady-state microwave emission in magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ)-based spin transfer torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) relies mostly on very thin insulating barriers [resulting in a resistance × area product (R × A) of ~1 Ωμm(2)] that can sustain large current densities and thus trigger large orbit magnetic dynamics. Apart from the low R × A requirement, the role of the tunnel barrier in the dynamics has so far been largely overlooked, in comparison to the magnetic configuration of STNOs...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626763/implant-stability-in-the-posterior-maxilla-a-controlled-clinical-trial
#8
Raquel Zita Gomes, Mario Ramalho de Vasconcelos, Isabel Maria Lopes Guerra, Rute Alexandra Borges de Almeida, Antonio Cabral de Campos Felino
AIM: To evaluate the primary and secondary stability of implants in the posterior maxilla. METHODS: Patients were allocated into three groups: (A) native bone, (B) partially regenerated bone, and (C) nearly totally regenerated bone. Insertion torque (IT) and implant stability quotient (ISQ) were measured at placement, to evaluate whether satisfactory high primary stability (IT ≥ 45 N/cm; ISQ ≥ 60) was achieved; ISQ was measured 15, 30, 45, and 60 days after placement, to investigate the evolution to secondary stability...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576112/periodic-nonlinear-sliding-modes-for-two-uniformly-magnetized-spheres
#9
Boyd F Edwards, John M Edwards
A uniformly magnetized sphere slides without friction along the surface of a second, identical sphere that is held fixed in space, subject to the magnetic force and torque of the fixed sphere and the normal force. The free sphere has two stable equilibrium positions and two unstable equilibrium positions. Two small-amplitude oscillatory modes describe the sliding motion of the free sphere near each stable equilibrium, and an unstable oscillatory mode describes the motion near each unstable equilibrium. The three oscillatory modes remain periodic at finite amplitudes, one bifurcating into mixed modes and circumnavigating the free sphere at large energies...
May 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571442/design-and-analysis-of-an-mr-rotary-brake-for-self-regulating-braking-torques
#10
Dongwon Yun, Jeong-Hoi Koo
This paper presents a novel Magneto-rheological (MR) brake system that can self-regulate the output braking torques. The proposed MR brake can generate a braking torque at a critical rotation speed without an external power source, sensors, or controllers, making it a simple and cost-effective device. The brake system consists of a rotary disk, permanent magnets, springs, and MR fluid. The permanent magnets are attached to the rotary disk via the springs, and they move outward through grooves with two different gap distances along the radial direction of the stator due to the centrifugal force...
May 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526174/twist-buckling-of-veins-under-torsional-loading
#11
Justin R Garcia, Arnav Sanyal, Fatemeh Fatemifar, Mohammad Mottahedi, Hai-Chao Han
Veins are often subjected to torsion and twisted veins can hinder and disrupt normal blood flow but their mechanical behavior under torsion is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the twist deformation and buckling behavior of veins under torsion. Twist buckling tests were performed on porcine internal jugular veins (IJVs) and human great saphenous veins (GSVs) at various axial stretch ratio and lumen pressure conditions to determine their critical buckling torques and critical buckling twist angles...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523072/delayed-endothelial-progenitor-cell-therapy-promotes-bone-defect-repair-in-a-clinically-relevant-rat-model
#12
Brent D Bates, Charles Godbout, David J Ramnaraign, Emil H Schemitsch, Aaron Nauth
The repair of segmental bone defects remains a significant challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have successfully promoted the repair of acute defects in animal models; however, the ability of EPCs to induce the repair of chronic nonhealing defects, such as those often encountered clinically, has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of EPCs delivered in delayed fashion to induce the repair of nonhealing defects in a clinically relevant model...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512551/consensus-statements-and-clinical-recommendations-on-treatment-indications-surgical-procedures-prosthetic-protocols-and-complications-following-all-on-4-standard-treatment-9th-mozo-grau-ticare-conference-in-quintanilla-spain
#13
REVIEW
Miguel Penarrocha-Diago, María Penarrocha-Diago, Regino Zaragozí-Alonso, David Soto-Penaloza, Meeting On Behalf Of The Ticare Consensus
OBJECTIVES: The present consensus report critically evaluates the scientific evidence based on a comprehensive systematic review of the All-On-4 treatment concept, focusing primarily on the treatment indications, surgical procedures and prosthetic protocols, and secondarily on the mechanical and biological complications involved. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review was made in advance of the meeting. Consensus statements, treatment guidelines and recommendations for future research were based on within-group as well as plenary debates and discussions of the systematic review...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474606/asymmetries-in-wing-inertial-and-aerodynamic-torques-contribute-to-steering-in-flying-insects
#14
Mark Jankauski, T L Daniel, I Y Shen
Maneuvering in both natural and artificial miniature flying systems is assumed to be dominated by aerodynamic phenomena. To explore this, we develop a flapping wing model integrating aero and inertial dynamics. The model is applied to an elliptical wing similar to the forewing of the Hawkmoth Manduca sexta and realistic kinematics are prescribed. We scrutinize the stroke deviation phase, as it relates to firing latency in airborne insect steering muscles which has been correlated to various aerial maneuvers...
June 8, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471016/a-novel-lesion-crossing-technique-balloon-deployment-using-forcible-manner-badform-technique
#15
Keisuke Nakabayashi, Hiroshi Ando, Nobuhito Kaneko, Manabu Shiozaki, Daisuke Sunaga, Akihiro Matsui, Kazuhiko Tanaka, Minoru Shimizu
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a novel endovascular technique for crossing arterial lesions: The BAlloon Deployment using FORcible Manner (BADFORM) technique. BACKGROUND: Endovascular treatment (EVT) for peripheral artery disease has been widely adopted, and developments in device technology and techniques have resulted in acceptable success rates. However, it may be difficult to deliver devices even after wire externalization, especially in the presence of an extremely long chronic total occlusion or severely calcified lesion...
May 4, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450171/optimization-of-critical-quality-attributes-in-continuous-twin-screw-wet-granulation-via-design-space-validated-with-pilot-scale-experimental-data
#16
Huolong Liu, S C Galbraith, Brendon Ricart, Courtney Stanton, Brandye Smith-Goettler, Luke Verdi, Thomas O'Connor, Sau Lee, Seongkyu Yoon
In this study, the influence of key process variables (screw speed, throughput and liquid to solid (L/S) ratio) of a continuous twin screw wet granulation (TSWG) was investigated using a central composite face-centered (CCF) experimental design method. Regression models were developed to predict the process responses (motor torque, granule residence time), granule properties (size distribution, volume average diameter, yield, relative width, flowability) and tablet properties (tensile strength). The effects of the three key process variables were analyzed via contour and interaction plots...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446768/linear-dynamics-of-classical-spin-as-m%C3%A3-bius-transformation
#17
Alexey Galda, Valerii М Vinokur
Though the overwhelming majority of natural processes occur far from the equilibrium, general theoretical approaches to non-equilibrium phase transitions remain scarce. Recent breakthroughs introduced a description of open dissipative systems in terms of non-Hermitian quantum mechanics enabling the identification of a class of non-equilibrium phase transitions associated with the loss of combined parity (reflection) and time-reversal symmetries. Here we report that the time evolution of a single classical spin (e...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378095/measurement-of-muscle-health-in-aging
#18
Peter Francis, Mark Lyons, Mathew Piasecki, Jamie Mc Phee, Karen Hind, Philip Jakeman
Muscle health is a critical component in the struggle against physical frailty and the efforts to maintain metabolic health until the limit of chronological age. Consensus opinion is to evaluate muscle health in terms of muscle mass, strength and functional capability. There has been considerable variability in the components of muscle health which have been investigated in addition to variability in the tools of assessment and protocol for measurement. This is in stark contrast to the validated measurement of bone health across the adult life span...
April 4, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269625/development-and-validation-of-thums-version-5-with-1d-muscle-models-for-active-and-passive-automotive-safety-research
#19
Hideyuki Kimpara, Yuko Nakahira, Masami Iwamoto
Accurately predicting the occupant kinematics is critical to better understand the injury mechanisms during an automotive crash event. The objectives of this study were to develop and validate a finite element (FE) model of the human body integrated with an active muscle model called Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) version 5, which has the body size of the 50th percentile American adult male (AM50). This model is characterized by being able to generate a force owing to muscle tone and to predict the occupant response during an automotive crash event...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269023/a-wheelchair-with-lever-propulsion-control-for-climbing-up-and-down-stairs
#20
Kai Sasaki, Yosuke Eguchi, Kenji Suzuki
This study proposes a novel stair-climbing wheelchair based on lever propulsion control using the human upper body. Wheelchairs are widely used as supporting locomotion devices for people with acquired lower limb disabilities. However, steps and stairs are critical obstacles to locomotion, which restrict their activities when using wheelchairs. Previous research focused on power-assisted, stair-climbing wheelchairs, which were large and heavy due to its large actuators and mechanisms. In the previous research, we proposed a wheelchair with lever propulsion mechanism and presented its feasibility of climbing up the stairs...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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