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Creatine monohydrate

Eman A Alraddadi, Ryan Lillico, Jonathan L Vennerstrom, Ted M Lakowski, Donald W Miller
Creatine is an ergogenic compound used by athletes to enhance performance. Supplementation with creatine monohydrate (CM) has been suggested for musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. Until now, little is known about its pharmacokinetic profile. Our objective was to determine the oral bioavailability of CM and the influence of dose on oral absorption. Rats were dosed orally with low dose (10 mg/kg) or high dose (70 mg/kg)13 C-labeled CM. Blood samples were removed at various time points. Muscle and brain tissue were collected at the conclusion of the study...
March 8, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Brent M Kious, Douglas G Kondo, Perry F Renshaw
After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Assess epidemiologic evidence that increased altitude of residence is linked to increased risk of depression and suicide• Evaluate strategies to address hypoxia-related depression and suicidal ideation ABSTRACT: Suicide and major depressive disorder (MDD) are complex conditions that almost certainly arise from the influences of many interrelated factors. There are significant regional variations in the rates of MDD and suicide in the United States, suggesting that sociodemographic and environmental conditions contribute...
March 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Yasuhiro Hijikata, Masahisa Katsuno, Keisuke Suzuki, Atsushi Hashizume, Amane Araki, Shinichiro Yamada, Tomonori Inagaki, Daisuke Ito, Akihiro Hirakawa, Fumie Kinoshita, Masahiko Gosho, Gen Sobue
BACKGROUND: Although spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) has been classified as a motor neuron disease, several reports have indicated the primary involvement of skeletal muscle in the pathogenesis of this devastating disease. Recent studies reported decreased intramuscular creatine levels in skeletal muscles in both patients with SBMA and transgenic mouse models of SBMA, which appears to contribute to muscle weakness. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of oral creatine supplementation to improve motor function in patients with SBMA...
March 5, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Halil Ibrahim Aydin
BACKGROUND: Creatine transporter deficiency (CTD) is a treatable, X-linked, inborn error of metabolism. CASE CHARACTERISTICS: Two brothers with autism spectrum disorder were diagnosed with CTD at the ages of 17 and 12 years. Both were found to have a previously reported hemizygous p.408delF (c.1216_1218delTTC) deletion mutation. OUTCOME: Both patients were given creatine monohydrate, L-arginine, L-glycine and S-adenosylmethionine, which partially improved the behavioral problems...
January 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
Eric S Rawson, Mary P Miles, D Enette Larson-Meyer
Some dietary supplements are recommended to athletes based on data that supports improved exercise performance. Other dietary supplements are not ergogenic per se, but may improve health, adaptation to exercise, or recovery from injury, and so could help athletes to train and/or compete more effectively. In this review, we describe several dietary supplements that may improve health, exercise adaptation, or recovery. Creatine monohydrate may improve recovery from and adaptation to intense training, recovery from periods of injury with extreme inactivity, cognitive processing, and reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Ricardo Alexandre Toniolo, Michelle Silva, Francy de Brito Ferreira Fernandes, José Antonio de Mello Siqueira Amaral, Rodrigo da Silva Dias, Beny Lafer
Depressive episodes are a major cause of morbidity and dysfunction in individuals suffering from bipolar disorder. Currently available treatments for this condition have limited efficacy and new therapeutic options are needed. Extensive research in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder points to the existence of mitochondrial and bioenergetic dysfunction. We hypothesized that creatine monohydrate, a nutraceutical that works as a mitochondrial modulator, would be effective as an adjunctive therapy for bipolar depression...
February 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Brent M Kious, Hana Sabic, Young-Hoon Sung, Douglas G Kondo, Perry Renshaw
PURPOSE: Many women with major depressive disorder (MDD) respond inadequately to standard treatments. Augmentation of conventional antidepressants with creatine monohydrate and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) could correct deficits in serotonin production and brain bioenergetics associated with depression in women, yielding synergistic benefit. We describe an open-label study of 5-HTP and creatine augmentation in women with MDD who had failed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) monotherapy...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Furhan Iqbal, Herald Hoeger, Gurt Lubec, Olaf Bodamer
The creatine/phosphocreatine system is essential for cellular phosphate coupled energy storage and production. We investigated the utility of creatine monohydrate supplementation in two different creatine deficient knockout mouse models. Following weaning, female Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase (AGAT) and Guanidinoacetate: methyltransferase (GAMT) knockouts and wild type mice were studied based on their genotypes and dietary supplementation (creatine free or 2% creatine monohydrate supplemented diet) for 10 weeks, using a series of behavioral tests and biochemical analyzes...
December 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
Lin Zhang, Xiaofei Wang, Jiaolong Li, Xudong Zhu, Feng Gao, Guanghong Zhou
Creatine monohydrate (CMH) contributes to reduce transport-induced muscle rapid glycolysis and improve meat quality of broilers, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the ameliorative effects of CMH on muscle glycolysis metabolism of transported broilers during summer. The results showed that 3 h transport during summer elevated chicken live weight loss and plasma corticosterone concentration; decreased muscle concentrations of ATP, creatine, and energy charge value; increased muscle AMP concentration and AMP/ATP ratio; and upregulated muscle mRNA expression of LKB1 and AMPKα2, as well as protein expression of p-LKB1(Thr189) and p-AMPKα(Thr172), which subsequently resulted in rapid glycolysis in the pectoralis major muscle and consequent reduction of meat quality...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Anne-Marie Wills, Ruosha Li, Adriana Pérez, Xuehan Ren, James Boyd
Weight loss is a common symptom of Parkinson's disease and is associated with impaired quality of life. Predictors of weight loss have not been studied in large clinical cohorts. We previously observed an association between change in body mass index and change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor and total scores. In this study, we performed a secondary analysis of longitudinal data (1-6 years) from 1619 participants in the NINDS Exploratory Trials in PD Long-term Study-1 (NET-PD LS1) to explore predictors of weight loss in a large prospective clinical trial cohort of early treated Parkinson's disease...
August 2017: Journal of Neurology
Steven M Hersch, Giovanni Schifitto, David Oakes, Amy-Lee Bredlau, Catherine M Meyers, Richard Nahin, Herminia Diana Rosas
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether creatine administration could slow progressive functional decline in adults with early symptoms of Huntington disease. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of up to 40 g daily of creatine monohydrate in participants with stage I and II HD treated for up to 48 months. The primary outcome measure was the rate of change in total functional capacity (TFC) between baseline and end of follow-up...
August 8, 2017: Neurology
Markus Dworak, Tae Kim, Robert W Mccarley, Radhika Basheer
Sleep has been postulated to promote brain energy restoration. It is as yet unknown if increasing the energy availability within the brain reduces sleep need. The guanidine amino acid creatine (Cr) is a well-known energy booster in cellular energy homeostasis. Oral Cr-monohydrate supplementation (CS) increases exercise performance and has been shown to have substantial effects on cognitive performance, neuroprotection and circadian rhythms. The effect of CS on cellular high-energy molecules and sleep-wake behaviour is unclear...
June 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
Eric S Rawson, Priscilla M Clarkson, Mark A Tarnopolsky
Exertional (exercise-induced) rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life threatening condition that has been the subject of research, intense discussion, and media attention. The causes of rhabdomyolysis are numerous and can include direct muscle injury, unaccustomed exercise, ischemia, extreme temperatures, electrolyte abnormalities, endocrinologic conditions, genetic disorders, autoimmune disorders, infections, drugs, toxins, and venoms. The objective of this article is to review the literature on exertional rhabdomyolysis, identify precipitating factors, and examine the role of the dietary supplement creatine monohydrate...
March 2017: Sports Medicine
Syed Baharom, Robert De Matteo, Stacey Ellery, Paul Della Gatta, Clinton R Bruce, Greg M Kowalski, Nadia Hale, Hayley Dickinson, Richard Harding, David Walker, Rodney J Snow
Our aim was to determine the disposition of creatine in ovine pregnancy and whether creatine is transferred across the placenta from mother to fetus. Pregnant ewes received either 1) a continuous intravenous infusion of creatine monohydrate or saline from 122 to 131 days gestation, with maternal and fetal arterial blood and amniotic fluid samples collected daily for creatine analysis and fetal tissues collected at necropsy at 133 days for analysis of creatine content, or 2) a single systemic bolus injection of [(13)C]creatine monohydrate at 130 days of gestation, with maternal and fetal arterial blood, uterine vein blood, and amniotic fluid samples collected before and for 4 h after injection and analyzed for creatine, creatine isotopic enrichment, and guanidinoacetic acid (GAA; precursor of creatine) concentrations...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Eric C Bredahl, David S Hydock
Supplementing the diet with creatine (Cr) to manage chemotherapy-induced skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue has potential, but little has been done exploring it as an intervention. This study examined the effects of Cr on skeletal muscle dysfunction induced by the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (Dox). Soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) from male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained in an organ bath were incubated in Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer with or without creatine monohydrate (25 mM) for 30 min. Skeletal muscle was then incubated in KH buffer with or without Dox (24 μM) for an additional 30 min...
May 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
Aquiles Yáñez-Silva, Cosme F Buzzachera, Ivan Da C Piçarro, Renata S B Januario, Luis H B Ferreira, Steven R McAnulty, Alan C Utter, Tacito P Souza-Junior
BACKGROUND: To determine the effects of a low dose, short-term Creatine monohydrate (Cr) supplementation (0.03 during 14 d) on muscle power output in elite youth soccer players. METHODS: Using a two-group matched, double blind, placebo-controlled design, nineteen male soccer players (mean age = 17.0 ± 0.5 years) were randomly assigned to either Cr (N = 9) or placebo (N = 10) group. Before and after supplementation, participants performed a 30s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) to assess peak power output (PPO), mean power output (MPO), fatigue index (FI), and total work...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Michelle Hone, Robert M Kent, Alessandro Scotto di Palumbo, Sinead B Bleiel, Giuseppe De Vito, Brendan Egan
Creatine monohydrate represents one of the largest sports supplement markets. Enhancing creatine (CRE) stability in aqueous solutions, such as with microencapsulation, represents innovation potential. Ten physically active male volunteers were randomly assigned in a double-blind design to either placebo (PLA) (3-g maltodextrin; n = 5) or microencapsulated CRE (3-g creatine monohydrate; n = 5) conditions. Experimental conditions involved ingestion of the samples in a 70-mL ready-to-drink format. CRE was delivered in a novel microencapsulation matrix material consisting entirely of hydrolyzed milk protein...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Susanne Andres, Rainer Ziegenhagen, Iris Trefflich, Sophie Pevny, Katharina Schultrich, Hans Braun, Wilhelm Schänzer, Karen Ildico Hirsch-Ernst, Bernd Schäfer, Alfonso Lampen
Creatine is a popular ergogenic supplement in sports nutrition. Yet, supplementation of creatine occasionally caused adverse effects such as gastrointestinal complaints, muscle cramps and an increase in body weight. Creatine monohydrate has already been evaluated by different competent authorities and several have come to the conclusion that a daily intake of 3 g creatine per person is unlikely to pose safety concerns, focusing on healthy adults with exclusion of pregnant and breastfeeding women. Possible vulnerable subgroups were also discussed in relation to the safety of creatine...
June 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Sara Hayward, Colin D Wilborn, Lem W Taylor, Stacie L Urbina, Jordan J Outlaw, Cliffa A Foster, Michael D Roberts
We examined if two different dietary interventions affected markers of soreness and inflammation over a 5-day high-volume resistance training protocol in females that resistance-trained 8 weeks prior. Twenty-eight females (age: 20 ± 1 yr; body mass: 63.5 ± 1.6 kg, height: 1.67 ± 0.01 m) completed 4 weeks of pre-training (weeks 1-4) followed by a subsequent 4-week training period along with a dietary intervention (weeks 5-8). Dietary interventions from weeks 5-8 included: a) no intervention (CTL, n = 10) b) a higher-protein diet supplemented with hydrolyzed whey protein (50 g/d) and omega-3 fatty acids (900 mg/d) (DI, n = 8), and c) the DI condition as well as creatine monohydrate (5 g/d) (DI+C, n = 10)...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Ricardo Alexandre Toniolo, Francy de Brito Ferreira Fernandes, Michelle Silva, Rodrigo da Silva Dias, Beny Lafer
BACKGROUND: Depressive episodes and cognitive impairment are major causes of morbidity and dysfunction in individuals suffering from bipolar disorder (BD). Novel treatment approaches that target clinical and cognitive aspects of bipolar depression are needed, and research on pathophysiology suggests that mitochondrial modulators such as the nutraceutical creatine monohydrate might have a therapeutic role for this condition. METHODS: Eighteen (N=18) patients with bipolar depression according to DSM-IV criteria who were enrollled in a 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of creatine monohydrate 6g daily as adjunctive therapy were submitted to neuropsychological assessments (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition, Stroop Color-Word Test, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, FAS Verbal Fluency Test) at baseline and week 6...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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