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Yves Lacasse, Ai-Yui M Tan, François Maltais, Jerry A Krishnan
Two landmark trials conducted more than 35 years ago provided scientific evidence that, under very specific circumstances, long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) may prolong life. These two trials enrolled 290 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and severe daytime hypoxemia documented by direct arterial blood gas measurement. From this moment, LTOT became a standard of care and the indications for oxygen therapy have expanded to include nocturnal oxygen therapy for isolated nocturnal oxygen desaturation, ambulatory oxygen to correct exercise-induced desaturation, and short-burst oxygen to relieve dyspnea...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Daniel Zenteno, Aldo Bancalari, Ximena Navarro, Valentina Díaz, Iván Rodríguez-Núñez, Pablo Brockmann
INTRODUCTION: Night Continuous Saturometry (CSO2) is used in Neonatal Units to detect events of hypoxemia in Newborns (NB) with apnea episodes. Polygraphy (PG) has a larger number of measuring channels. Our goal was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of CSO2 compared to Polygra phy in NB with suspected sleep apneas. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Results of CSO2 and PG performed simultaneously in RN with suspected apneas were retrospectively analyzed over a three-year period...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Afrina Mustari, Naoki Nakamura, Satoko Kawauchi, Shunichi Sato, Manabu Sato, Izumi Nishidate
To evaluate cerebral hemodynamics and spontaneous low-frequency oscillations (SLFOs) of cerebral blood flow in rat brain, we investigated an imaging method using a digital RGB camera. In this method, the RGB values were converted into tristimulus values in the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) XYZ color space, which is compatible with the common RGB working spaces. Monte Carlo simulation for light transport in tissue was then used to specify the relationship among the tristimulus XYZ values and the concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin ( C HbO ), deoxygenated hemoglobin ( C HbR ), and total hemoglobin ( C HbT ) and cerebral tissue oxygen saturation ( StO 2 )...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Narin N Carmel-Neiderman, Idan Goren, Yishay Wasserstrum, Tal Frenkel Rutenberg, Irina Barbarova, Avigal Rapoport, Dor Lotan, Erez Ramaty, Naama Peltz-Sinvani, Adi Brom, Michael Kogan, Yulia Panina, Maya Rosman, Carmel Friedrich, Irina Gringauz, Amir Dagan, Iris Kliers, Tomer Ziv-Baran, Gad Segal
BACKGROUND: Accurate pulse oximetry reading at hospital admission is of utmost importance, mainly for patients presenting with hypoxemia. Nevertheless, there is no accepted or evidence-based protocol for such structured measuring. OBJECTIVES: To devise and assess a structured protocol intended to increase the accuracy of pulse oximetry measurement at hospital admission. METHODS: The authors performed a prospective comparison of protocol-based pulse-oximetry measurement with non-protocol based readings in consecutive patients at hospital admission...
March 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Andrew Maslow, Maurice F Joyce, Tzong-Huei Chen, Michelle Gorgone, James Dinardo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Peter D Sottile, David Albers, Marc M Moss
BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular blockade (NMB) is a therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the mechanism by which NMB may improve outcome for ARDS patients remains unclear. We sought to determine whether NMB attenuates biomarkers of epithelial and endothelial lung injury and systemic inflammation in ARDS patients, and whether the association is dependent on tidal volume size and the initial degree of hypoxemia. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of patients enrolled in the ARDS network low tidal volume ventilation (ARMA) study...
March 10, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Colin A Nurse, Erin M Leonard, Shaima Salman
Mammalian carotid bodies (CB) are chemosensory organs that mediate compensatory cardiorespiratory reflexes in response to low blood PO2 (hypoxemia) and elevated CO2 /H+ (acid hypercapnia). The chemoreceptors are glomus or type I cells which occur in clusters enveloped by neighboring glial-like type II cells. During chemoexcitation type I cells depolarize, leading to Ca2+ -dependent release of several neurotransmitters, some excitatory and others inhibitory, which help shape the afferent carotid sinus nerve (CSN) discharge...
March 9, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Antônio Aurélio de Paiva Fagundes Júnior, Renato Bueno Chaves, Amanda Robassini Dos Santos, Humberto Alves de Oliveira, Marcello Henrique Paschoal
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been used to treat refractory hypoxemia in numerous clinical scenarios. The fundamental principles for the management of massive hemoptysis patients include protecting the airway and healthy lung, locating the source of bleeding and controlling the hemorrhage. We report the case of a patient with acute respiratory failure associated with massive hemoptysis secondary to lung laceration during cardiac surgery. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation allowed patient survival...
March 1, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Anthony R Bain, Ivan Drvis, Zeljko Dujic, David B MacLeod, Philip N Ainslie
NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? This review provides an up-to-date assessment of the physiology involved with extreme static dry-land breath holding in trained apneists. What advances does it highlight? We specifically highlight the recent findings involved with the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and metabolic function during a maximal breath hold in elite apneists. ABSTRACT: Breath hold related activities have been performed for centuries, but only recently within the last ∼30 years has it emerged as an increasingly popular competitive sport...
March 7, 2018: Experimental Physiology
X Guo, X Song, X Chen, W Liu, H Wang, H Xia
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to report our clinical experience with intraluminal calculated distance for endobronchial blocker placement (ICEB) and to find out whether ICEB could reduce the number of hypoxemia episodes during blocker placement compared with extraluminal blocker placement for one-lung ventilation in children under the age of 2 years. METHODS: The medical records of all children under the age of 2 years with a 5 French (F) or 4F WeiLi (WeiLi medical Inc, Guangzhou, China) endobronchial blocker for one-lung ventilation in thoracic surgery from July 2015 through July 2016 were retrospectively reviewed...
March 7, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Shashikant L Sholapurkar
The survival of cardiotocography (CTG) as a tool for intrapartum fetal monitoring seems threatened somewhat unjustifiably and unwittingly despite the absence of better alternatives. Fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations are center-stage (most important) in the interpretation of CTG with maximum impact on three-tier classification. The pattern-discrimination of FHR decelerations is inexorably linked to their nomenclature. Unscientific or flawed nomenclature of decelerations can explain the dysfunctional CTG interpretation leading to errors in detection of acidemic fetuses...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Madhulika A Gupta, Patricia Jarosz
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with suicidal ideation (SI) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). There are no studies of OSA diagnosed by sleep study and SI in patients with PTSD. METHODS: Forty consenting civilians with PTSD (38 female, mean ± standard deviation age: 44.60 ± 12.73) underwent a Level 3 home sleep apnea test (WatchPAT200; Itamar Medical, Israel). OSA severity was measured with the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) (number of apneas, hypopneas and respiratory effort related arousals per hour)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Züleyha Bingöl, Hacer Durmuş Tekce, Gülseren Sağcan, Piraye Serdaroğlu, Esen Kıyan
PURPOSE: Pulmonary function abnormalities and sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) are frequent in subjects with several neuromuscular diseases but there is no data about lipid storage diseases (LSD). Therefore, we aimed to evaluate pulmonary functions and SRBD in adults with LSD. METHODS: Pulmonary functions (forced expiratory volume (FEV1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), supine FVC, upright-supine FVC% change, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), peak cough flow (PCF)), arterial blood gases, and polysomnographic data of all subjects were evaluated...
March 1, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Stefanie Prohaska, Andrea Schirner, Albina Bashota, Andreas Körner, Gunnar Blumenstock, Helene A Haeberle
Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with high mortality rates. ARDS patients suffer from severe hypoxemia, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy may be necessary to ensure oxygenation. ARDS has various etiologies, including trauma, ischemia-reperfusion injury or infections of various origins, and the associated immunological responses may vary. To support the immunological response in this patient collective, we used intravenous IgM immunoglobulin therapy to enhance the likelihood of pulmonary recovery...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
Wei Xiong, Yunfeng Zhao, Sugang Gong, Qinhua Zhao, Jinming Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Pulmonary Circulation
Tatsuya Kusumoto, Satoshi Okamori, Keita Masuzawa, Takanori Asakura, Naoshi Nishina, Shotaro Chubachi, Katsuhiko Naoki, Koichi Fukunaga, Tomoko Betsuyaku
A 72-year-old man was admitted due to dyspnea on exertion with interstitial shadows and elevated serum creatinine kinase (CK). Despite a close examination, which included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we could not diagnose myopathy. Prednisolone was administered and gradually tapered. One year later, anti-signal recognition particle (SRP) antibody was confirmed and he was re-admitted for hypoxemia with elevated CK. MRI revealed muscle edema and a histopathological examination of a muscle biopsy specimen showed necrotizing myopathy...
February 28, 2018: Internal Medicine
Julien Vincent Brugniaux, Geoff B Coombs, Otto F Barak, Zeljko Dujic, Mypinder S Sekhon, Philip N Ainslie
Molecular oxygen (O2 ) is a vital element in human survival and plays a major role in a diverse range of biological and physiological processes. Although normobaric hyperoxia can increase arterial oxygen content (CaO2 ), it also causes vasoconstriction and hence reduces O2 delivery in various vascular beds including the heart, skeletal muscle, and brain. Thus, a seemingly paradoxical situation exists in which the administration of oxygen may place tissues at increased risk of hypoxic stress. Nevertheless, with various degrees of effectiveness, and not without consequences, supplemental oxygen is used clinically in an attempt to correct tissue hypoxia (e...
February 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Natalya Azadeh, Teng Moua, Misbah Baqir, Jay H Ryu
Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) include a broad range of diffuse parenchymal lung disorders of known and unknown etiologies. Patients with ILD can experience acute exacerbations (AE) which are associated with extremely high morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the etiology of AEs, and whether inciting triggers (such as infection) result in an aberrant inflammatory response in a predisposed host. Areas covered: The majority of data regarding AE-ILD comes from the interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) population and is extrapolated to other forms of ILD...
February 27, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Shohei Okazaki, Takanori Abe, Natsuko Takayanagi, Masanori Yasuda, Fumikazu Sakai, Kunihiko Kobayashi, Shingo Kato
BACKGROUND/AIM: We report on a case of pulmonary tumor embolism caused by squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 60-year-old female diagnosed with stage IVB (cT4N1M1) squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix was admitted to our institution with a chief complaint of progressive dyspnea that developed within a few days after admission. RESULTS: A chest CT scan showed dilated pulmonary arteries, right ventricular enlargement and mosaic ground-glass opacities in both lungs...
March 2018: In Vivo
Neil D Detweiler, Kenneth G Vigil, Thomas C Resta, Benjimen R Walker, Nikki L Jernigan
Previous reports indicate roles for acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in both peripheral and central chemoreception, but the contributions of ASICs to ventilatory drive in conscious, unrestrained animals remain largely unknown. We tested the hypotheses that ASICs contribute to hypoxic- and hypercapnic-ventilatory responses. Blood samples taken from conscious, unrestrained mice chronically instrumented with femoral artery catheters were used to assess arterial O2, CO2, and pH levels during exposure to inspired gas mixtures designed to cause isocapnic hypoxemia or hypercapnia...
2018: PloS One
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