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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926922/high-speed-mouse-backcrossing-through-the-female-germ-line
#1
Erin Grove, Sigrid Eckardt, K John McLaughlin
Transferring mouse mutations into specific mouse strain backgrounds can be critical for appropriate analysis of phenotypic effects of targeted genomic alterations and quantitative trait loci. Speed congenic breeding strategies incorporating marker-assisted selection of progeny with the highest percentage target background as breeders for the next generation can produce congenic strains within approximately 5 generations. When mating selected donor males to target strain females, this may require more than 1 year, with each generation lasting 10 to 11 weeks including 3 weeks of gestation and 7 to 8 weeks until the males reach sexual maturity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925233/quantification-and-analysis-of-leaflet-flutter-on-biological-prosthetic-cardiac-valves
#2
Artur H de F Avelar, Jean A Canestri, Camila Bim, Maíra G M Silva, Rudolf Huebner, Marcos Pinotti
The use of porcine or bovine pericardium biological cardiac valves has as its main disadvantage a relatively short lifespan, with failures due to calcification and fatigue. Increasing these valves' durability constitutes a great challenge. An understudied phenomenon is the effect of flutter, an oscillation of the leaflets that can cause regurgitation and accelerate calcification and fatigue. As a starting point to study how to reduce or prevent these oscillations, a method was developed to quantify the flutter frequencies occurring at the point of the valve's full opening...
December 7, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924433/effect-of-wave-current-interactions-on-sediment-resuspension-in-large-shallow-lake-taihu-china
#3
Yiping Li, Chunyan Tang, Jianwei Wang, Kumud Acharya, Wei Du, Xiaomeng Gao, Liancong Luo, Huiyun Li, Shujun Dai, Jepkirui Mercy, Zhongbo Yu, Baozhu Pan
The disturbance of the water-sediment interface by wind-driven currents and waves plays a critical role in sediment resuspension and internal nutrient release in large, shallow lakes. This study analyzed the effects of the interactions between wind-induced currents an1d waves on the driving mechanism of sediment resuspension in Lake Taihu, the third largest freshwater lake in China, using acoustic and optic techniques to collect long-term, high-frequency, synchronous in situ measurements of wind, currents, waves, and suspended solid concentrations (SSCs)...
December 6, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916944/trend-residual-dual-modeling-for-detection-of-outliers-in-low-cost-gps-trajectories
#4
Xiaojian Chen, Tingting Cui, Jianhong Fu, Jianwei Peng, Jie Shan
Low-cost GPS (receiver) has become a ubiquitous and integral part of our daily life. Despite noticeable advantages such as being cheap, small, light, and easy to use, its limited positioning accuracy devalues and hampers its wide applications for reliable mapping and analysis. Two conventional techniques to remove outliers in a GPS trajectory are thresholding and Kalman-based methods, which are difficult in selecting appropriate thresholds and modeling the trajectories. Moreover, they are insensitive to medium and small outliers, especially for low-sample-rate trajectories...
December 1, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910869/multiparameter-mechanical-and-morphometric-screening-of-cells
#5
Mahdokht Masaeli, Dewal Gupta, Sean O'Byrne, Henry T K Tse, Daniel R Gossett, Peter Tseng, Andrew S Utada, Hea-Jin Jung, Stephen Young, Amander T Clark, Dino Di Carlo
We introduce a label-free method to rapidly phenotype and classify cells purely based on physical properties. We extract 15 biophysical parameters from cells as they deform in a microfluidic stretching flow field via high-speed microscopy and apply machine-learning approaches to discriminate different cell types and states. When employing the full 15 dimensional dataset, the technique robustly classifies individual cells based on their pluripotency, with accuracy above 95%. Rheological and morphological properties of cells while deforming were critical for this classification...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910306/a-high-speed-two-frame-1-2-ns-gated-x-ray-cmos-imager-used-as-a-hohlraum-diagnostic-on-the-national-ignition-facility-invited
#6
Hui Chen, N Palmer, M Dayton, A Carpenter, M B Schneider, P M Bell, D K Bradley, L D Claus, L Fang, T Hilsabeck, M Hohenberger, O S Jones, J D Kilkenny, M W Kimmel, G Robertson, G Rochau, M O Sanchez, J W Stahoviak, D C Trotter, J L Porter
A novel x-ray imager, which takes time-resolved gated images along a single line-of-sight, has been successfully implemented at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This Gated Laser Entrance Hole diagnostic, G-LEH, incorporates a high-speed multi-frame CMOS x-ray imager developed by Sandia National Laboratories to upgrade the existing Static X-ray Imager diagnostic at NIF. The new diagnostic is capable of capturing two laser-entrance-hole images per shot on its 1024 × 448 pixels photo-detector array, with integration times as short as 1...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908077/tropical-littoral-ambient-noise-probability-density-function-model-based-on-sea-surface-temperature
#7
Piyush Asolkar, Arnab Das, Suhas Gajre, Yashwant Joshi
Ambient noise variability in tropical shallow water presents a critical challenge for sonar designers and operators due to site-specific sea surface fluctuations. Sea surface temperature (SST) is a direct measure of energy balance defining the local climate of the region and hence ambient noise characteristics. In this work, an ambient noise probability density function (pdf) model for a spectral band of 3-10 kHz has been designed based on the statistical distribution of SST and validated using real field data...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906948/cervical-interlaminar-epidural-injections-at-high-doses-do-not-increase-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-on-a-long-term-basis
#8
Hyunzu Kim, Joo Hyeon O, Sung-Jun Hong, Keun Man Shin, JungChan Park, Sang Soo Kang
BACKGROUND: Cervical epidural injection (CEI) is widely performed on patients with pain originating from the cervical spine. Studies have shown a good relationship between the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) and the intracranial pressure (ICP). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the ONSD as a non-invasive surrogate marker of ICP after CEI. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Hospital and ambulatory pain clinic...
November 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906124/one-health-in-china
#9
REVIEW
Jianyong Wu, Lanlan Liu, Guoling Wang, Jiahai Lu
As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accurately predict...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896014/single-frame-rapid-autofocusing-for-brightfield-and-fluorescence-whole-slide-imaging
#10
Jun Liao, Liheng Bian, Zichao Bian, Zibang Zhang, Charmi Patel, Kazunori Hoshino, Yonina C Eldar, Guoan Zheng
A critical consideration for whole slide imaging (WSI) platform is to perform accurate autofocusing at high speed. Typical WSI systems acquire a z-stack of sample images and determine the best focal position by maximizing a figure of merit. This strategy, however, has suffered from several limitations, including low speed due to multiple image acquisitions, relatively low accuracy of focal plane estimation, short axial range for autofocusing, and difficulties in handling transparent samples. By exploring the autocorrelation property of the tissue sections, we report a novel single-frame autofocusing scheme to address the above challenges...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890966/climate-change-effects-on-airborne-pathogenic-bioaerosol-concentrations-a-scenario-analysis
#11
J P G van Leuken, A N Swart, P Droogers, A van Pul, D Heederik, A H Havelaar
The most recent IPCC report presented further scientific evidence for global climate change in the twenty-first century. Important secondary effects of climate change include those on water resource availability, agricultural yields, urban healthy living, biodiversity, ecosystems, food security, and public health. The aim of this explorative study was to determine the range of expected airborne pathogen concentrations during a single outbreak or release in a future climate compared to a historical climatic period (1981-2010)...
2016: Aerobiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888339/nonlinear-variations-of-forest-leaf-area-index-over-china-during-1982-2010-based-on-eemd-method
#12
Yunhe Yin, Danyang Ma, Shaohong Wu, Erfu Dai, Zaichun Zhu, Ranga B Myneni
Variations in leaf area index (LAI) are critical to research on forest ecosystem structure and function, especially carbon and water cycle, and their responses to climate change. Using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method and global inventory modeling and mapping studies (GIMMS) LAI3g dataset from 1982 to 2010, we analyzed the nonlinear feature and spatial difference of forest LAI variability over China for the past 29 years in this paper. Results indicated that the national-averaged forest LAI was characterized by quasi-3- and quasi-7-year oscillations, which generally exhibited a rising trend with an increasing rate...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886266/redefining-the-speed-limit-of-phase-change-memory-revealed-by-time-resolved-steep-threshold-switching-dynamics-of-aginsbte-devices
#13
Krishna Dayal Shukla, Nishant Saxena, Suresh Durai, Anbarasu Manivannan
Although phase-change memory (PCM) offers promising features for a 'universal memory' owing to high-speed and non-volatility, achieving fast electrical switching remains a key challenge. In this work, a correlation between the rate of applied voltage and the dynamics of threshold-switching is investigated at picosecond-timescale. A distinct characteristic feature of enabling a rapid threshold-switching at a critical voltage known as the threshold voltage as validated by an instantaneous response of steep current rise from an amorphous off to on state is achieved within 250 picoseconds and this is followed by a slower current rise leading to crystallization...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886053/automated-urban-travel-interpretation-a-bottom-up-approach-for-trajectory-segmentation
#14
Rahul Deb Das, Stephan Winter
Understanding travel behavior is critical for an effective urban planning as well as for enabling various context-aware service provisions to support mobility as a service (MaaS). Both applications rely on the sensor traces generated by travellers' smartphones. These traces can be used to interpret travel modes, both for generating automated travel diaries as well as for real-time travel mode detection. Current approaches segment a trajectory by certain criteria, e.g., drop in speed. However, these criteria are heuristic, and, thus, existing approaches are subjective and involve significant vagueness and uncertainty in activity transitions in space and time...
November 23, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884151/unearthing-the-transition-rates-between-photoreceptor-conformers
#15
Robert W Smith, Britta Helwig, Adrie H Westphal, Eran Pel, Maximilian Hörner, Hannes M Beyer, Sophia L Samodelov, Wilfried Weber, Matias D Zurbriggen, Jan Willem Borst, Christian Fleck
BACKGROUND: Obtaining accurate estimates of biological or enzymatic reaction rates is critical in understanding the design principles of a network and how biological processes can be experimentally manipulated on demand. In many cases experimental limitations mean that some enzymatic rates cannot be measured directly, requiring mathematical algorithms to estimate them. Here, we describe a methodology that calculates rates at which light-regulated proteins switch between conformational states...
November 25, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882927/global-gain-modulation-generates-time-dependent-urgency-during-perceptual-choice-in-humans
#16
Peter R Murphy, Evert Boonstra, Sander Nieuwenhuis
Decision-makers must often balance the desire to accumulate information with the costs of protracted deliberation. Optimal, reward-maximizing decision-making can require dynamic adjustment of this speed/accuracy trade-off over the course of a single decision. However, it is unclear whether humans are capable of such time-dependent adjustments. Here, we identify several signatures of time-dependency in human perceptual decision-making and highlight their possible neural source. Behavioural and model-based analyses reveal that subjects respond to deadline-induced speed pressure by lowering their criterion on accumulated perceptual evidence as the deadline approaches...
November 24, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881748/rates-of-change-in-climatic-niches-in-plant-and-animal-populations-are-much-slower-than-projected-climate-change
#17
Tereza Jezkova, John J Wiens
Climate change may soon threaten much of global biodiversity. A critical question is: can species undergo niche shifts of sufficient speed and magnitude to persist within their current geographic ranges? Here, we analyse niche shifts among populations within 56 plant and animal species using time-calibrated trees from phylogeographic studies. Across 266 phylogeographic groups analysed, rates of niche change were much slower than rates of projected climate change (mean difference > 200 000-fold for temperature variables)...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880815/validation-of-a-bayesian-adaptive-estimation-technique-in-the-stop-signal-task
#18
Evan J Livesey, David J Livesey
The Stop Signal Task (SST), a commonly used measure of response inhibition, uses standard psychophysical methods to gain an estimate of the time needed to withhold a prepotent response. Under some circumstances, conventional forms of the SST are impractical to use because of the large number of trials necessary to gain a reliable estimate of the speed of inhibition. Here we applied to the SST an adaptive method for estimating psychometric parameters that can find reliable threshold estimates over a relatively small number of trials...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878442/clinical-and-neurophysiological-risk-factors-for-falls-in-patients-with-bilateral-vestibulopathy
#19
Roman Schniepp, Cornelia Schlick, Fabian Schenkel, Cauchy Pradhan, Klaus Jahn, Thomas Brandt, Max Wuehr
Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) exhibit imbalance when standing and walking that is linked to a higher fall risk. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for falls in BVF. We therefore systematically investigated the interrelationship of clinical and demographic characteristics, gait impairments, and the fall frequency of these patients. Clinical and demographic characteristics as well as quantitative measures of gait performance on a pressure-sensitive gait carpet were collected from 55 patients with different etiologies of BVF...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876890/why-one-size-fits-all-vaso-modulatory-interventions-fail-to-control-glioma-invasion-in-silico-insights
#20
J C L Alfonso, A Köhn-Luque, T Stylianopoulos, F Feuerhake, A Deutsch, H Hatzikirou
Gliomas are highly invasive brain tumours characterised by poor prognosis and limited response to therapy. There is an ongoing debate on the therapeutic potential of vaso-modulatory interventions against glioma invasion. Prominent vasculature-targeting therapies involve tumour blood vessel deterioration and normalisation. The former aims at tumour infarction and nutrient deprivation induced by blood vessel occlusion/collapse. In contrast, the therapeutic intention of normalising the abnormal tumour vasculature is to improve the efficacy of conventional treatment modalities...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
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