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Critical Speed

Christopher R Brydges, Jasmin K Landes, Corinne L Reid, Catherine Campbell, Noel French, Mike Anderson
AIM: To estimate the association between very preterm birth (<32wks' gestation) and intelligence, executive functioning, and processing speed throughout childhood and adolescence, and to examine the effects of gestational age, birthweight, and age at assessment. METHOD: Studies were included if children were born at earlier than 32 weeks' gestation, aged 4 to 17 years, had an age-matched term control group, and if the studies used standardized measures, were published in an English-language peer-reviewed journal, and placed no restrictions on participants based on task performance...
February 17, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Li Yao, Nikol Flynn
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Advances in the development of biomaterials and stem cell therapy provide a promising approach to regenerating degenerated discs. The normal nucleus pulposus (NP) cells exhibit the similar phenotype as chondrocytes. Because dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can be differentiated into chondrogenic cells, the DPSCs and DPSCs-derived chondrogenic cells encapsulated in type I and type II collagen hydrogels can potentially be transplanted into degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP) to repair damaged tissue...
February 13, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Rutwik Shah, Rhanna Khoram, Jack W Lambert, Yuxin Sun, Zhen J Wang, Emily M Webb, Benjamin M Yeh
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to understand the effect of CT gantry speed and axial vs. helical scan mode on the frequency and severity of bowel peristalsis artifacts. METHOD: We retrospectively identified 150 oncologic abdominopelvic CT scans obtained on a 256 slice CT scanner: 50 scans obtained with Axial mode and 0.5-s gantry rotation time (Slow-Axial); 50 with Axial mode and 0.28-s gantry rotation time (Fast-Axial); and 50 scans with Helical mode and 0...
February 15, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Branislava Gemovic, Neven Sumonja, Radoslav Davidovic, Vladimir Perovic, Nevena Veljkovic
BACKGROUND: The significant number of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) discovered by harnessing concomitant advances in the fields of sequencing, crystallography, spectrometry and two-hybrid screening suggests astonishing prospects for remodelling drug discovery. The PPI space which includes up to 650 000 entities is a remarkable reservoir of potential therapeutic targets for every human disease. In order to allow modern drug discovery programs to leverage this we should be able to discern complete PPI maps associated with a specific disorder and corresponding normal physiology...
February 13, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Hong Zhou, Jing Liu, Jing-Juan Xu, Shu-Sheng Zhang, Hong-Yuan Chen
Modern optical detection technology plays a critical role in current clinical detection due to its high sensitivity and accuracy. However, higher requirements such as extremely high detection sensitivity have been put forward due to the clinical needs for the early finding and diagnosing of malignant tumors which are significant for tumor therapy. The technology of isothermal amplification with nucleic acids opens up avenues for meeting this requirement. Recent reports have shown that a nucleic acid amplification-assisted modern optical sensing interface has achieved satisfactory sensitivity and accuracy, high speed and specificity...
February 15, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Yohei Hamada, Manami Kitamura, Yasuhiro Yamada, Yoshinori Sanada, Takamitsu Sugihara, Saneatsu Saito, Kyaw Moe, Takehiro Hirose
A new method for evaluating the in situ rock strength beneath the seafloor is proposed and applied to the Nankai Trough accretionary prism. The depth-continuous in situ rock strength is a critical parameter for numerous studies in earth science, particularly for seismology and tectonics at plate convergence zones; yet, measurements are limited owing to a lack of drilled cores. Here, we propose a new indicator of strength, the equivalent strength (EST), which is determined only by drilling performance parameters such as drill string rotational torque, bit depth, and string rotational speed...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kenneth R Beyerlein
Diffraction imaging of nonequilibrium dynamics at atomic resolution is becoming possible with X-ray free-electron lasers. However, there are unresolved problems with applying this method to objects that are confined in only one dimension. Here I show that reliable one-dimensional coherent diffraction imaging is possible by splicing together images recovered from different time delays in an optical pump X-ray probe experiment. The time and space evolution of antiferromagnetic order in a vibrationally excited complex oxide heterostructure is recovered from time-resolved measurements of a resonant soft X-ray diffraction peak...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Djordje Medarević, Jelena Djuriš, Svetlana Ibrić, Miodrag Mitrić, Kyriakos Kachrimanis
The aim of this study is to develop nanosuspension of carvedilol (CRV) by wet media milling. Concentration of polymeric stabilizer (hydroxypropyl cellulose-HPC-SL), milling speed and size of milling beads were identified as critical formulation and process parameters and their effect on CRV particle size after 60 min of milling was assessed using a Box-Behnken experimental design. Optimized nanosuspension was solidified using spray drying and freeze drying and subjected to solid state characterization. Low stabilizer concentration (10%), low milling speed (300 rpm) with small milling beads (0...
February 10, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Houk Jang, Krishna P Dhakal, Kyung-Il Joo, Won Seok Yun, Sachin M Shinde, Xiang Chen, Soon Moon Jeong, Suk Woo Lee, Zonghoon Lee, JaeDong Lee, Jong-Hyun Ahn, Hyunmin Kim
Understanding the collaborative behaviors of the excitons and phonons that result from light-matter interactions is important for interpreting and optimizing the underlying fundamental physics at work in devices made from atomically thin materials. In this study, the generation of exciton-coupled phonon vibration from molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) nanosheets in a pre-excitonic resonance condition is reported. A strong rise-to-decay profile for the transient second-harmonic generation (TSHG) of the probe pulse is achieved by applying substantial (20%) beam polarization normal to the nanosheet plane, and tuning the wavelength of the pump beam to the absorption of the A-exciton...
February 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
James S Hogg, James G Hopker, Sarah L Coakley, Alexis R Mauger
PURPOSE: The self-paced maximal oxygen uptake test (SPV) may offer effective training prescription metrics for athletes. This study aimed to examine whether SPV-derived data could be used for training prescription. METHODS: Twenty-four recreationally active male and female runners were randomly assigned between two training groups: (1) Standardised (STND) and (2) Self-Paced (S-P). Participants completed 4 running sessions a week using a global positioning system-enabled (GPS) watch: 2 × interval sessions; 1 × recovery run; and 1 × tempo run...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Ted Polglaze, Cruz Hogan, Brian Dawson, Alec Buttfield, Cristian Osgnach, Leanne Lester, Peter Peeling
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of critical metabolic power derived from variable-speed movement for classifying intensity in team sport activity. METHODS: Elite male hockey players (n = 12) completed a series of time trials (100 yd, 400 yd, 1500 yd) and a 3-min all-out test to derive both critical speed (CS) and critical power (CP). Heart rate (HR), blood lactate (BLa) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during each protocol. Participants (n = 10) then played 2 competitive hockey matches...
February 9, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Marc Turon, Sol Fernández-Gonzalo, Candelaria de Haro, Rudys Magrans, Josefina López-Aguilar, Lluís Blanch
Critical illness may lead to significant long-term neurological morbidity and patients frequently develop neuropsychological disturbances including acute delirium or memory impairment after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a risk factor to the development of adverse neurocognitive outcomes. Patients undergoing MV for long periods present neurologic impairment with memory and cognitive alteration. Delirium is considered an acute form of brain dysfunction and its prevalence rises in mechanically ventilated patients...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Mohammad Zarei
The field of point-of-care (POC) diagnostics provides the rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases which is essential and critical for improving the general public health in resource-limited settings. POC platforms offer many advantages for detection of various pathogens including portability, automation, speed, cost, and efficiency. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent trends for POC diagnostics of infectious diseases with focus on portable platforms. We review here the present status of POC platforms, emphasizing in period of the past three years, then extrapolate their advance into the future applications for diagnosis of infectious pathogens...
February 3, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Yangyang Ding, Xin Ma, Youqing Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intelligent status monitoring for critically ill patients can help medical stuff quickly discover and assess the changes of disease and then make appropriate treatment strategy. However, general-type monitoring model now widely used is difficult to adapt the changes of intensive care unit (ICU) patients' status due to its fixed pattern, and a more robust, efficient and fast monitoring model should be developed to the individual. METHODS: A data-driven learning approach combining locally weighted projection regression (LWPR) and principal component analysis (PCA) is firstly proposed and applied to monitor the nonlinear process of patients' health status in ICU...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Emilio Gil, Jordi Llorens, Montserrat Gallart, Jesús A Gil-Ribes, Antonio Miranda-Fuentes
The current standard for the field measurements of spray drift (ISO 22866) is the only official standard for drift measurements in field conditions for all type of crops, including bushes and trees. A series of field trials following all the requirements established in the standard were arranged in a traditional olive grove in Córdoba (south of Spain). The aims of the study were to evaluate the applicability of the current standard procedure to the particular conditions of traditional olive trees plantations, to evaluate the critical requirements for performing the tests and to obtain a specific drift curve for such as important and specific crop as olive trees in traditional plantations, considering the enormous area covered by this type of crop all around the world...
January 29, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Natalie Kofler, Federico Corti, Felix Rivera-Molina, Yong Deng, Derek Toomre, Michael Simons
As a master regulator of endothelial cell function, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) activates multiple downstream signaling pathways that are critical for vascular development and normal vessel function. VEGFR2 trafficking through various endosomal compartments modulates its signaling output. Accordingly, proteins that regulate the speed and direction by which VEGFR2 traffics through endosomes have been demonstrated to be particularly important for arteriogenesis. However, little is known about how these proteins control VEGFR2 trafficking and about the implications of this control for endothelial cell function...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sudhir Kumar Rai, Angela Atwood-Moore, Henry L Levin
The introduction of ectopic DNA, such as plasmids, into yeast cells has for decades been a critical protocol for the study of this eukaryotic model system. We describe here an efficient transformation procedure for use in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This method relies on chemical agents (lithium acetate, and polyethylene glycol) and temperature stresses, which ultimately facilitate transfer of the genetic material through the cell wall and plasma membrane without significant impact on the transferred DNA or the recipient cell...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Charles Mackin, Elaine McVay, Tomás Palacios
This work develops the first frequency-dependent small-signal model for graphene electrolyte-gated field-effect transistors (EGFETs). Graphene EGFETs are microfabricated to measure intrinsic voltage gain, frequency response, and to develop a frequency-dependent small-signal model. The transfer function of the graphene EGFET small-signal model is found to contain a unique pole due to a resistive element, which stems from electrolyte gating. Intrinsic voltage gain, cutoff frequency, and transition frequency for the microfabricated graphene EGFETs are approximately 3...
February 7, 2018: Sensors
Pasquale Cervero, Christiane Wiesner, Anais Bouissou, Renaud Poincloux, Stefan Linder
Subcellular fine-tuning of the actomyosin cytoskeleton is a prerequisite for polarized cell migration. We identify LSP (lymphocyte-specific protein) 1 as a critical regulator of actomyosin contractility in primary macrophages. LSP1 regulates adhesion and migration, including the parameters cell area and speed, and also podosome turnover, oscillation and protrusive force. LSP1 recruits myosin IIA and its regulators, including myosin light chain kinase and calmodulin, and competes with supervillin, a myosin hyperactivator, for myosin regulators, and for actin isoforms, notably β-actin...
February 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Ming Li, Shuqian Sun, Bo Li, Hossein Asghari, Ye Deng, Wei Li, Ninghua Zhu
We report and demonstrate a reconfigurable photonic anamorphic stretch transform to realize time-bandwidth product (TBP) compression for microwave signals. A time-spectrum convolution system is employed to provide an ultra-high nonlinear dispersion up to several nanoseconds per gigahertz, which is required for processing nanosecond-long microwave signals. The group delay of the system can be engineered easily by programming a WaveShaper. Based on the proposed scheme, the TBP of a double pulse microwave signal is compressed by 1...
January 22, 2018: Optics Express
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