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Critical Speed

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523563/assessment-of-endothelial-cell-function-and-physiological-microcirculatory-reserve-by-video-microscopy-using-a-topical-acetylcholine-and-nitroglycerin-challenge
#1
Matthias Peter Hilty, Jacqueline Pichler, Bulent Ergin, Urs Hefti, Tobias Michael Merz, Can Ince, Marco Maggiorini
BACKGROUND: Assessment of the microcirculation is a promising target for the hemodynamic management of critically ill patients. However, just as the sole reliance on macrocirculatory parameters, single static parameters of the microcirculation may not represent a sufficient guide. Our hypothesis was that by serial topical application of acetylcholine (ACH) and nitroglycerin (NG), the sublingual microcirculation can be challenged to determine its endothelial cell-dependent and smooth muscle-dependent physiological reserve capacity...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523528/comparison-of-visual-outcomes-and-reading-performance-after-bilateral-implantation-of-multifocal-intraocular-lenses-with-bilateral-monofocal-intraocular-lenses
#2
Özge Güngör Akkuş, Ikbal Seza Petriçli
PURPOSE: To compare the visual acuity outcomes, contrast sensitivity function (CS) and reading ability in patients with bilateral multifocal intraocular lenses and patients with bilateral monofocal lenses. SETTING: Vizyon Eye Center, Denizli, Turkey. DESIGN: Comparative case series. METHODS: Consecutive bilateral cataract patients having implantation of Acriva Reviol MFM 611 multifocal IOLs (Group A) or Acriva BB UD 613 monofocal IOLs (Group B) were included...
May 18, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522970/automatic-optimization-of-the-computation-graph-in-the-nengo-neural-network-simulator
#3
Jan Gosmann, Chris Eliasmith
One critical factor limiting the size of neural cognitive models is the time required to simulate such models. To reduce simulation time, specialized hardware is often used. However, such hardware can be costly, not readily available, or require specialized software implementations that are difficult to maintain. Here, we present an algorithm that optimizes the computational graph of the Nengo neural network simulator, allowing simulations to run more quickly on commodity hardware. This is achieved by merging identical operations into single operations and restructuring the accessed data in larger blocks of sequential memory...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516196/coupling-dynamics-in-speech-gestures-amplitude-and-rate-influences
#4
Pascal H H M van Lieshout
Speech is a complex oral motor function that involves multiple articulators that need to be coordinated in space and time at relatively high movement speeds. How this is accomplished remains an important and largely unresolved empirical question. From a coordination dynamics perspective, coordination involves the assembly of coordinative units that are characterized by inherently stable coupling patterns that act as attractor states for task-specific actions. In the motor control literature, one particular model formulated by Haken et al...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514809/iso-duration-determination-of-d%C3%A2-and-cs-under-laboratory-and-field-conditions
#5
Christoph Triska, Bettina Karsten, Alfred Nimmerichter, Harald Tschan
Whilst Critical Speed (CS) has been successfully translated from the laboratory into the field, this translation is still outstanding for the related maximum running distance (D'). Using iso-duration exhaustive laboratory and field runs, this study investigated the potential interchangeable use of both parameters, D' and CS. After an incremental exercise test, 10 male participants (age: 24.9±2.1 yrs; height: 180.8±5.8 cm; body mass: 75.3±8.6 kg; V̇ ˙VO2peak 52.9±3.1 mL∙min(-1)∙kg(-1)) performed 3 time-to-exhaustion runs on a treadmill followed by 3 exhaustive time-trial runs on a-400 m athletics outdoor track...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507190/the-effect-of-thermal-acclimation-on-aerobic-scope-and-critical-swimming-speed-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#6
Malthe Hvas, Ole Folkedal, Albert Imsland, Frode Oppedal
The Atlantic salmon is extensively studied due to conservation concerns and its economic importance in aquaculture. However, a thorough report of their aerobic capacity throughout their entire thermal niche has not been described. In this study, Atlantic salmon (∼450 g) were acclimated for four weeks at 3, 8, 13, 18 or 23°C, and then tested in a large Brett-type swimming respirometer in groups of ten per trial. Both standard metabolic rate and active metabolic rate continued to increase with temperature, which resulted in an aerobic scope that also increased with temperature, but was statistically similar between 13, 18 and 23°C...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505988/intensive-seated-robotic-training-of-the-ankle-in-patients-with-chronic-stroke-differentially-improves-gait
#7
Johanna L Chang, Regina Y Lin, Maira Saul, Philip J Koch, Hermano Igo Krebs, Bruce T Volpe
BACKGROUND: Robotic driven treatment plans targeting isolated joints of the upper limb have improved the sensorimotor condition of patients with stroke. Similar intensive efforts to allay lower limb gait impairment have not been so successful. In patients with stroke, targeted robot assisted training of the ankle joint, in a seated position, has demonstrated significant alterations in ankle stiffness and foot-ankle orientation at foot strike which may provide a new treatment option for gait impairment...
May 10, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505820/robustness-of-free-and-pinned-spiral-waves-against-breakup-by-electrical-forcing-in-excitable-chemical-media
#8
Metinee Phantu, Malee Sutthiopad, Jiraporn Luengviriya, Stefan C Müller, Chaiya Luengviriya
We present an investigation on the breakup of free and pinned spiral waves under an applied electrical current in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. Spiral fronts propagating towards the negative electrode are decelerated. A breakup of the spiral waves occurs when some segments of the fronts are stopped by a sufficiently strong electrical current. In the absence of obstacles (i.e., free spiral waves), the critical value of the electrical current for the wave breakup increases with the excitability of the medium...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505752/surface-switching-statistics-of-rotating-fluid-disk-rim-gap-effects
#9
Yuji Tasaka, Makoto Iima
We examined the influence of internal noise on the irregular switching of the shape of the free surface of fluids in an open cylindrical vessel driven by a bottom disk rotating at constant speed [Suzuki, Iima, and Hayase, Phys. Fluids 18, 101701 (2006)PHFLE61070-663110.1063/1.2359740]. A slight increase in the disk-rim gap (less than 3% of the disk radius) was established experimentally to cause significant changes in this system, specifically, frequent appearance of the surface descending event connecting a nonaxisymmetric shape in strong mixing flow (turbulent flow) and an axisymmetric shape in laminar flow, as well as a shift in critical Reynolds number that define the characteristic states...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505089/squeeze-film-air-damping-of-a-five-axis-electrostatic-bearing-for-rotary-micromotors
#10
Shunyue Wang, Fengtian Han, Boqian Sun, Haixia Li
Air-film damping, which dominates over other losses, plays a significant role in the dynamic response of many micro-fabricated devices with a movable mass suspended by various bearing mechanisms. Modeling the damping characteristics accurately will be greatly helpful to the bearing design, control, and test in various micromotor devices. This paper presents the simulated and experimental squeeze-film air damping results of an electrostatic bearing for use in a rotary high-speed micromotor. It is shown that the boundary condition to solve the three-dimensional Reynolds equation, which governs the squeeze-film damping in the air gap between the rotor and its surrounding stator sealed in a three-layer evacuated cavity, behaves with strong cross-axis coupling characteristics...
May 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502658/spontaneous-rapid-odor-source-localization-behavior-requires-interhemispheric-communication
#11
José Esquivelzeta Rabell, Kadir Mutlu, João Noutel, Pamela Martin Del Olmo, Sebastian Haesler
Navigation, finding food sources, and avoiding danger critically depend on the identification and spatial localization of airborne chemicals. When monitoring the olfactory environment, rodents spontaneously engage in active olfactory sampling behavior, also referred to as exploratory sniffing [1]. Exploratory sniffing is characterized by stereotypical high-frequency respiration, which is also reliably evoked by novel odorant stimuli [2, 3]. To study novelty-induced exploratory sniffing, we developed a novel, non-contact method for measuring respiration by infrared (IR) thermography in a behavioral paradigm in which novel and familiar stimuli are presented to head-restrained mice...
May 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500990/evaluating-the-safety-impact-of-adaptive-cruise-control-in-traffic-oscillations-on-freeways
#12
Ye Li, Zhibin Li, Hao Wang, Wei Wang, Lu Xing
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) has been considered one of the critical components of automated driving. ACC adjusts vehicle speeds automatically by measuring the status of the ego-vehicle and leading vehicle. Current commercial ACCs are designed to be comfortable and convenient driving systems. Little attention is paid to the safety impacts of ACC, especially in traffic oscillations when crash risks are the highest. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of ACC parameter settings on rear-end collisions on freeways...
May 10, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499954/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-gait-mechanics-in-young-and-older-adults
#13
Katherine A Boyer, Russell T Johnson, Jacob J Banks, Carl Jewell, Jocelyn F Hafer
BACKGROUND: Age-related gait changes may play a critical role in functional limitations of older adults. Despite sizable interest in determining how age alters walking mechanics, small sample sizes and varied outcome measures have precluded a comprehensive understanding of the impact of age on lower extremity joint kinematics and kinetics. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the aging gait mechanics literature...
May 9, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497480/effectiveness-of-portable-electronic-and-optical-magnifiers-for-near-vision-activities-in-low-vision-a-randomised-crossover-trial
#14
John J Taylor, Rachel Bambrick, Andrew Brand, Nathan Bray, Michelle Dutton, Robert A Harper, Zoe Hoare, Barbara Ryan, Rhiannon T Edwards, Heather Waterman, Christine Dickinson
PURPOSE: To compare the performance of near vision activities using additional portable electronic vision enhancement systems (p-EVES), to using optical magnifiers alone, by individuals with visual impairment. METHODS: A total of 100 experienced optical aid users were recruited from low vision clinics at Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, Manchester, UK, to a prospective two-arm cross-over randomised controlled trial. Reading, performance of near vision activities, and device usage were evaluated at baseline; and at the end of each study arm (Intervention A: existing optical aids plus p-EVES; Intervention B: optical aids only) which was after 2 and 4 months...
May 12, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493881/shinyheatmap-ultra-fast-low-memory-heatmap-web-interface-for-big-data-genomics
#15
Bohdan B Khomtchouk, James R Hennessy, Claes Wahlestedt
BACKGROUND: Transcriptomics, metabolomics, metagenomics, and other various next-generation sequencing (-omics) fields are known for their production of large datasets, especially across single-cell sequencing studies. Visualizing such big data has posed technical challenges in biology, both in terms of available computational resources as well as programming acumen. Since heatmaps are used to depict high-dimensional numerical data as a colored grid of cells, efficiency and speed have often proven to be critical considerations in the process of successfully converting data into graphics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489942/biotunable-nanoplasmonic-filter-on-few-layer-mos2-for-rapid-and-highly-sensitive-cytokine-optoelectronic-immunosensing
#16
Younggeun Park, Byunghoon Ryu, Bo-Ram Oh, Yujing Song, Xiaogan Liang, Katsuo Kurabayashi
Monitoring of the time-varying immune status of a diseased host often requires rapid and sensitive detection of cytokines. Metallic nanoparticle-based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) biosensors hold promise to meet this clinical need by permitting label-free detection of target biomolecules. These biosensors, however, continue to suffer from relatively low sensitivity as compared to conventional immunoassay methods that involve labeling processes. Their response speeds also need to be further improved to enable rapid cytokine quantification for critical care in a timely manner...
May 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487630/analysis-of-interrelationships-among-voluntary-and-prosthetic-leg-joint-parameters-using-cyclograms
#17
Farahiyah Jasni, Nur Azah Hamzaid, Nor Elleeiana Mohd Syah, Tze Y Chung, Noor Azuan Abu Osman
The walking mechanism of a prosthetic leg user is a tightly coordinated movement of several joints and limb segments. The interaction among the voluntary and mechanical joints and segments requires particular biomechanical insight. This study aims to analyze the inter-relationship between amputees' voluntary and mechanical coupled leg joints variables using cyclograms. From this analysis, the critical gait parameters in each gait phase were determined and analyzed if they contribute to a better powered prosthetic knee control design...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484752/doped-%C3%AE-bismuth-oxides-to-investigate-oxygen-ion-transport-as-a-metric-for-condensed-phase-thermite-ignition
#18
Xizheng Wang, Wenbo Zhou, Jeffery B DeLisio, Garth C Egan, Michael R Zachariah
Nanothermites offer high energy density and high burn rates, but are mechanistically only now being understood. One question of interest is how initiation occurs and how the ignition temperature is related to microscopic controlling parameters. In this study, we explored the potential role of oxygen ion transport in Bi2O3 as a controlling mechanism for condensed phase ignition reaction. Seven different doped δ-Bi2O3 were synthesized by aerosol spray pyrolysis. The ignition temperatures of Al/doped Bi2O3, C/doped Bi2O3 and Ta/doped Bi2O3 were measured by temperature-jump/time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled with a high-speed camera respectively...
May 9, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484378/rapid-physiological-fluctuations-in-nucleus-accumbens-oxygen-levels-induced-by-arousing-stimuli-relationships-with-changes-in-brain-glucose-and-metabolic-neural-activation
#19
Ernesto Solis, Keaton T Cameron-Burr, Eugene A Kiyatkin
Proper entry of oxygen from arterial blood into the brain is essential for maintaining brain metabolism under normal conditions and during functional neural activation. However, little is known about physiological fluctuations in brain oxygen and their underlying mechanisms. To address this issue, we employed high-speed amperometry with platinum oxygen sensors in freely moving male rats. Recordings were conducted in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a critical structure for sensorimotor integration. Rats were exposed to arousing stimuli of different nature (brief auditory tone, a 1-min novel object presentation, a 3-min social interaction with a conspecific, and a 3-min tail-pinch)...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480773/new-gentle-wing-high-shear-granulator-impact-of-processing-variables-on-granules-and-tablets-characteristics-of-high-drug-loading-formulation-using-design-of-experiment-approach
#20
Mohamed H Fayed, Sayed I Abdel-Rahman, Fars K Alanazi, Mahrous O Ahmed, Hesham M Tawfeek, Ramadan I Al-Shdefat
The aim of this work was to study the application of design of experiment (DoE) approach in defining design space for granulation and tableting processes using a novel gentle-wing high shear granulator. According to quality-by-design (QbD) prospective, critical attributes of granules and tablets should be ensured by manufacturing process design. A face centered central composite design has been employed in order to investigate the effect of water amount (X1), impeller speed (X2), wet massing time (X3) and water addition rate (X4) as independent process variables on granules and tablets characteristics...
May 8, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
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