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Critical Speed

Maryam Daviran, Sarah M Longwill, Jonah F Casella, Kelly M Schultz
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) dynamically remodel their microenvironment during basic processes, such as migration and differentiation. Migration requires extracellular matrix invasion, necessitating dynamic cell-material interactions. Understanding these interactions is critical to advancing materials designs that harness and manipulate these processes for applications including wound healing and tissue regeneration. In this work, we encapsulate hMSCs in a cell-degradable poly(ethylene glycol)-peptide hydrogel to determine how cell-secreted enzymes, specifically matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), create unique pericellular microenvironments...
April 18, 2018: Soft Matter
Miran Kim, Yongsoo Song, Shuang Wang, Yuhou Xia, Xiaoqian Jiang
BACKGROUND: Learning a model without accessing raw data has been an intriguing idea to security and machine learning researchers for years. In an ideal setting, we want to encrypt sensitive data to store them on a commercial cloud and run certain analyses without ever decrypting the data to preserve privacy. Homomorphic encryption technique is a promising candidate for secure data outsourcing, but it is a very challenging task to support real-world machine learning tasks. Existing frameworks can only handle simplified cases with low-degree polynomials such as linear means classifier and linear discriminative analysis...
April 17, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
Chen-Mei Hsu, Li-Lin Liang, Yun-Te Chang, Wang-Chuan Juang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Overcrowding of hospital emergency departments (ED) is a worldwide health problem. The Taiwan Joint Commission on Hospital Accreditation has stressed the importance of finding solutions to overcrowding, including, reducing the number of patients with >48 h stay in the ED. Moreover, the Ministry of Health and Welfare aims at transferring non-critical patients to district or regional hospitals. We report the results of our Quality Improvement Project (QIP) on ED overcrowding, especially focusing on reducing length of stay (LOS) in ED...
April 14, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Binjun Wang, Ying Han, Shang Xu, Lu Qiu, Feng Ding, Jun Lou, Yang Lu
As the critical feature sizes of integrated circuits approaching sub-10 nm, ultrathin gold nanowires (diameter <10 nm) have emerged as one of the most promising candidates for next-generation interconnects in nanoelectronics. Also due to their ultrasmall dimensions, however, the structures and morphologies of ultrathin gold nanowires are more prone to be damaged during practical services, for example, Rayleigh instability can significantly alter their morphologies upon Joule heating, hindering their applications as interconnects...
April 17, 2018: Small
Claudie Bolduc, Nisreen Maghraby, Patrick Fok, The Minh Luong, Valerie Homier
IntroductionMass-casualty incidents (MCIs) easily overwhelm a health care facility's human and material resources through the extraordinary influx of casualties. Efficient and accurate triage of incoming casualties is a critical step in the hospital disaster response.Hypothesis/ProblemTraditionally, triage during MCIs has been manually performed using paper cards. This study investigated the use of electronic Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) triage as compared to the manual method. METHODS: This observational, crossover study was performed during a live MCI simulation at an urban, Canadian, Level 1 trauma center on May 26, 2016...
April 17, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Y Hou, L Cai, X Wang, X Chen, D Zhu, D Johnson, X Shi
A series of stepped velocity tests were carried out in a Brett-type swimming respirometer and the overall range in swimming performance for twelve Schizothoracinae species was measured. The relative critical swimming speed Ucrit and burst speed Uburst decreased with body length, while absolute Ucrit and Uburst increased with body length. Ucrit increased with temperature up to approximately 15o C and then decreased. Species with a high Ucrit also displayed a higher Uburst .
April 16, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Fanqing Guo
Leksell Gamma Plan (LGP), the treatment planning system for the Leksell Gamma Knife (LGK) stereotactic radiosurgery, has evolved from the primitive KULA system to the present-day powerful version of image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery. Through many years of development, LGP has improved on its dose calculation accuracy, speed, and user interface. This allows more accurate irradiation of the target while sparing the nearby normal tissues and critical structures better.
April 12, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Adam Flintoff, Ewen Speed, Susan McPherson
From the 1980s onwards, discourses of risk have continued to grow, almost in ubiquity. Ideas and practices of risk and risk aversion have extended to UK mental health care where services are expected to assess and manage risks, and high-quality clinical assessment has been revised to incorporate risk assessment. This article problematises practices of risk assessment in mental health provision, focussing on the base-rate problem. It presents an analysis of audio recordings of risk assessments completed within a primary care mental health service...
April 1, 2018: Health (London)
Eva Piatrikova, Ana C Sousa, Javier T Gonzalez, Sean Williams
PURPOSE: To assess the concurrent and predictive validity of the 3-min all-out test (3MT) against conventional methods (CM) of determining critical speed (CS) and curvature constant (D'), and to examine the test-retest reliability of the 3MT in highly-trained swimmers. METHODS: Thirteen highly-trained swimmers (age: 16 ± 2 y, weight: 64.7 ± 8.5 kg, height: 1.76 ± 0.07 m) completed four time trials, and two 3MT over 2 weeks. The distance-time (DT) and speed-1/time (1/T) models were used to determine CS and D' from four time trials...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Andrea Soto-Padilla, Rick Ruijsink, Ody C M Sibon, Hedderik van Rijn, Jean-Christophe Billeter
Temperature influences physiology and behavior of all organisms. For ectotherms, which lack central temperature regulation, temperature adaptation requires sheltering from or moving to a heat source. As temperature constrains the rate of metabolic reactions, it can directly affect ectotherm physiology and thus behavioral performance. This direct effect is particularly relevant for insects whose small body readily equilibrates with ambient temperature. In fact, models of enzyme kinetics applied to insect behavior predict performance at different temperatures, suggesting that thermal physiology governs behavior...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Amit Pathak
Motile cells sense the stiffness of their extracellular matrix (ECM) through adhesions and respond by modulating the generated forces, which in turn lead to varying mechanosensitive migration phenotypes. Through modeling and experiments, cell migration speed is known to vary with matrix stiffness in a biphasic manner, with optimal motility at an intermediate stiffness. Here, we present a two-dimensional cell model defined by nodes and elements, integrated with subcellular modeling components corresponding to mechanotransductive adhesion formation, force generation, protrusions and node displacement...
April 12, 2018: Physical Biology
Wei Zhang, Wei He, Licong Peng, Ying Zhang, Jian-Wang Cai, Richard F L Evans, Qun Xiang Zhang, Zhao-Hua Cheng
The critical outcome of the interactions between light and nanostructured ferromagnetic film has been demonstrated that the ultrashort laser pulse can directly switch the magentic domains. It leads to the dawn of a new era for breaking the ultimate physical limit for the speed of magnetic switching and manipulation, which is relevant to current and future information storage. However, the fundamental understanding for the interactions between spins, electrons and lattices far from equilibrium induced by laser pulse is still lacking in the case of magnetic heterostructures with nanoscale domain configurations...
April 12, 2018: Nanotechnology
Jeffrey D Dawson, Elizabeth Bair, Nazan Askan, Kelly Sewell, Jon Tippin, Matthew Rizzo
In naturalistic studies, Global Positioning System (GPS) data and date/time stamps can link driver exposure to specific environments (e.g., road types, speed limits, night driving, etc.), providing valuable context for analyzing critical events, such as crashes, near crashes, and breaches of accelerometer limits. In previous work, we showed how to automate this contextualization, using GPS data obtained at 1 Hz and merging this with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) databases maintained by the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT)...
June 2017: Proceedings of the ... International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design
Marzia Umari, Stefano Falini, Matteo Segat, Michele Zuliani, Marco Crisman, Lucia Comuzzi, Francesco Pagos, Stefano Lovadina, Umberto Lucangelo
In thoracic surgery, the introduction of video-assisted thoracoscopic techniques has allowed the development of fast-track protocols, with shorter hospital lengths of stay and improved outcomes. The perioperative management needs to be optimized accordingly, with the goal of reducing postoperative complications and speeding recovery times. Premedication performed in the operative room should be wisely administered because often linked to late discharge from the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Inhalatory anesthesia, when possible, should be preferred based on protective effects on postoperative lung inflammation...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Xudong Ge, Prosper Adangwa, Ja Young Lim, Yordan Kostov, Leah Tolosa, Richard Pierson, Daniel Herr, Govind Rao
Blood gas measurements provide vital clinical information in critical care. The current "gold standard" for blood gas measurements involves obtaining blood samples, which can be painful and can lead to bleeding, thrombus formation, or infection. Mass transfer equilibrium-based transcutaneous blood gas monitors have been used since the 1970s, but they require heating the skin to ≥42 °C to speed up the transcutaneous gas diffusion. Thus, these devices have a potential risk for skin burns. Here we report a new generation of noninvasive device for respiratory status assessment...
April 5, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
Girish J Kotwal, Michael D Martin, Sufan Chien
Delayed wound healing is one of the hallmarks of diabetic complications and certain autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Extensive wound healing studies in rabbits have indicated that the delivery of ATP encapsulated in unilamellar nanoliposomes causes rapid cell proliferation and fast tracks the wound healing process. In the current study, we explored the possible molecular mechanism underlying this response by comparing gene expression in cultured rabbit kidney cells treated with either ATP nanoliposomes (containing 1mgMg-ATP/ml formulation) or control nanoliposomes (containing 1 mg/ml unmetabolisable gamma-thio-ATP/ml formulation)...
April 5, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Ivette Cejas, Christine M Mitchell, Michael Hoffman, Alexandra L Quittner
OBJECTIVES: To make longitudinal comparisons of intelligence quotient (IQ) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) and typical hearing peers from early in development to the school-age period. Children with additional comorbidities and CIs were also evaluated. To estimate the impact of socioeconomic status and oral language on school-age cognitive performance. DESIGN: This longitudinal study evaluated nonverbal IQ in a multicenter, national sample of 147 children with CIs and 75 typically hearing peers...
April 5, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Chandrasekaran Jayaraman, Shenan Hoppe-Ludwig, Susan Deems-Dluhy, Matt McGuire, Chaithanya Mummidisetty, Rachel Siegal, Aileen Naef, Brian E Lawson, Michael Goldfarb, Keith E Gordon, Arun Jayaraman
Regular use of prostheses is critical for individuals with lower limb amputations to achieve everyday mobility, maintain physical and physiological health, and achieve a better quality of life. Use of prostheses is influenced by numerous factors, with prosthetic design playing a critical role in facilitating mobility for an amputee. Thus, prostheses design can either promote biomechanically efficient or inefficient gait behavior. In addition to increased energy expenditure, inefficient gait behavior can expose prosthetic user to an increased risk of secondary musculoskeletal injuries and may eventually lead to rejection of the prosthesis...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Svenja Memmert, Marjan Nokhbehsaim, Anna Damanaki, Andressa V B Nogueira, Alexandra K Papadopoulou, Christina Piperi, Efthimia K Basdra, Birgit Rath-Deschner, Werner Götz, Joni A Cirelli, Andreas Jäger, James Deschner
BACKGROUND: Cathepsin S is a cysteine protease, which is expressed in human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells under inflammatory and infectious conditions. This in vitro study was established to investigate the effect of cathepsin S on PDL cell wound closure. METHODS: An in vitro wound healing assay was used to monitor wound closure in wounded PDL cell monolayers for 72 h in the presence and absence of cathepsin S. In addition, the effects of cathepsin S on specific markers for apoptosis and proliferation were studied at transcriptional level...
April 5, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Saba Rezvanian, Thurmon Lockhart, Christopher Frames, Rahul Soangra, Abraham Lieberman
Parkinson's disease (PD) can be divided into two subtypes based on clinical features-namely tremor dominant (TD) and postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD). This categorization is important at the early stage of PD, since identifying the subtypes can help to predict the clinical progression of the disease. Accordingly, correctly diagnosing subtypes is critical in initiating appropriate early interventions and tracking the progression of the disease. However, as the disease progresses, it becomes increasingly difficult to further distinguish those attributes that are relevant to the subtypes...
April 5, 2018: Sensors
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