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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101334/implementation-of-short-incubation-maldi-tof-ms-identification-from-positive-blood-cultures-in-routine-diagnostics-and-effects-on-empiric-antimicrobial-therapy
#1
Robin Köck, Jörg Wüllenweber, Dagmar Horn, Christian Lanckohr, Karsten Becker, Evgeny A Idelevich
BACKGROUND: Results of blood culture (BC) diagnostics should be swiftly available to guide treatment of critically ill patients. Conventional BC diagnostics usually performs species identification of microorganisms from mature solid medium colonies. Species identification might be speed up by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) of biomass from shortly incubated solid media. METHODS: This single-center analysis compared the applicability of MALDI-TOF-based species identification from shortly incubated cultures in laboratory routine vs...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100223/surface-attachment-promoted-by-the-actomyosin-system-of-toxoplasma-gondii-is-important-for-efficient-gliding-motility-and-invasion
#2
Jamie A Whitelaw, Fernanda Latorre-Barragan, Simon Gras, Gurman S Pall, Jacqueline M Leung, Aoife Heaslip, Saskia Egarter, Nicole Andenmatten, Shane R Nelson, David M Warshaw, Gary E Ward, Markus Meissner
BACKGROUND: Apicomplexan parasites employ a unique form of movement, termed gliding motility, in order to invade the host cell. This movement depends on the parasite's actomyosin system, which is thought to generate the force during gliding. However, recent evidence questions the exact molecular role of this system, since mutants for core components of the gliding machinery, such as parasite actin or subunits of the MyoA-motor complex (the glideosome), remain motile and invasive, albeit at significantly reduced efficiencies...
January 18, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098719/regional-gray-matter-volumes-as-related-to-psychomotor-slowing-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#3
Karen A Nunley, Christopher M Ryan, Howard J Aizenstein, Rebecca L MacCloud, Trevor J Orchard, Caterina Rosano
OBJECTIVE: Psychomotor slowing is a common cognitive complication in type 1 diabetes (T1D), but its neuroanatomical correlates and risk factors are unclear. In non-diabetic adults, smaller gray matter volume (GMV) and presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with psychomotor slowing. We hypothesize that smaller GMV in prefronto-parietal regions explains T1D-related psychomotor slowing. We also inspect the contribution of microvascular disease and hyperglycemia. METHODS: GMV, WMH, and glucose levels were measured concurrently with a test of psychomotor speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test, DSST) in 95 adults with childhood-onset T1D (mean age/duration=49/41 years) and 135 similarly-aged non-T1D adults...
January 17, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092520/robust-matrix-factorization-by-majorization-minimization
#4
Zhouchen Lin, Chen Xu, Hongbin Zha
L1-norm based low rank matrix factorization in the presence of missing data and outliers remains a hot topic in computer vision. Due to non-convexity and non-smoothness, all the existing methods either lack scalability or robustness, or have no theoretical guarantee on convergence. In this paper, we apply the Majorization Minimization technique to solve this problem. At each iteration, we upper bound the original function with a strongly convex surrogate. By minimizing the surrogate and updating the iterates accordingly, the objective function has sufficient decrease, which is stronger than just being non-increasing that other methods could offer...
January 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091856/daily-rhythmicity-of-the-thermoregulatory-responses-of-locally-adapted-brazilian-sheep-in-a-semiarid-environment
#5
Wilma Emanuela da Silva, Jacinara Hody Gurgel Morais Leite, José Ernandes Rufino de Sousa, Wirton Peixoto Costa, Wallace Sostene Tavares da Silva, Magda Maria Guilhermino, Luis Alberto Bermejo Asensio, Débora Andréa Evangelista Façanha
The goal of this study was to evaluate the daily rhythmicity of the thermoregulatory responses of Morada Nova ewes that were raised in a semiarid environment. The experiment was conducted during the dry season. Data were collected from 5:00 a.m. to 4:00 a.m.. Samples were taken over the course of 8 days, with a 1-week interval between sampling periods. During each day that the data were collected, animals were measured once an hour for 24 h in an area directly exposed to solar radiation. The environment was characterized by measuring the following variables: air temperature (TA), relative humidity (RH), Black Globe Humidity Index (BGHI), radiant heat load (RHL), and wind speed (WS)...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090790/loss-of-interneuron-derived-collagen-xix-leads-to-a-reduction-in-perineuronal-nets-in-the-mammalian-telencephalon
#6
Jianmin Su, James Cole, Michael A Fox
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are lattice-like supramolecular assemblies of extracellular glycoproteins that surround subsets of neuronal cell bodies in the mammalian telencephalon. PNNs emerge at the end of the critical period of brain development, limit neuronal plasticity in the adult brain, and are lost in a variety of complex brain disorders diseases, including schizophrenia. The link between PNNs and schizophrenia led us to question whether neuronally expressed extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules associated with schizophrenia contribute to the assembly of these specialized supramolecular ECM assemblies...
February 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087321/enteric-nervous-system-development-a-crest-cell-s-journey-from-neural-tube-to-colon
#7
REVIEW
Nandor Nagy, Allan M Goldstein
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is comprised of a network of neurons and glial cells that are responsible for coordinating many aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) function. These cells arise from the neural crest, migrate to the gut, and then continue their journey to colonize the entire length of the GI tract. Our understanding of the molecular and cellular events that regulate these processes has advanced significantly over the past several decades, in large part facilitated by the use of rodents, avians, and zebrafish as model systems to dissect the signals and pathways involved...
January 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086901/gpu-accelerated-voxel-driven-forward-projection-for-iterative-reconstruction-of-cone-beam-ct
#8
Yi Du, Gongyi Yu, Xincheng Xiang, Xiangang Wang
BACKGROUND: For cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), which has been playing an important role in clinical applications, iterative reconstruction algorithms are able to provide advantageous image qualities over the classical FDK. However, the computational speed of iterative reconstruction is a notable issue for CBCT, of which the forward projection calculation is one of the most time-consuming components. METHOD AND RESULTS: In this study, the cone-beam forward projection problem using the voxel-driven model is analysed, and a GPU-based acceleration method for CBCT forward projection is proposed with the method rationale and implementation workflow detailed as well...
January 5, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073898/two-stage-isothermal-enzymatic-amplification-for-concurrent-multiplex-molecular-detection
#9
Jinzhao Song, Changchun Liu, Michael G Mauk, Shelley C Rankin, James B Lok, Robert M Greenberg, Haim H Bau
BACKGROUND: The wide array of pathogens responsible for infectious diseases makes it difficult to identify causative pathogens with single-plex tests. Although multiplex PCR detects multiple targets, it is restricted to centralized laboratories, which delays test results or makes multiplexing unavailable, depriving healthcare providers of critical, real-time information. METHODS: To address the need for point-of-care (POC) highly multiplexed tests, we propose the 2-stage, nested-like, rapid (<40 min) isothermal amplification assay, dubbed rapid amplification (RAMP)...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072462/reliability-of-the-electrocortical-response-to-gains-and-losses-in-the-doors-task
#10
Amanda R Levinson, Brittany C Speed, Zachary P Infantolino, Greg Hajcak
The ability to differentiate between rewards and losses is critical for motivated action, and aberrant reward and loss processing has been associated with psychopathology. The reward positivity (RewP) and feedback negativity (FN) are ERPs elicited by monetary gains and losses, respectively, and are promising individual difference measures. However, few studies have reported on the psychometric properties of the RewP and FN-crucial characteristics necessary for valid individual difference measures. The current study examined the internal consistency and 1-week test-retest reliability of the RewP and FN as elicited by the doors task among 59 young adults...
January 10, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070789/priming-facial-gender-and-emotional-valence-the-influence-of-spatial-frequency-on-face-perception-in-asd
#11
Steven Vanmarcke, Johan Wagemans
Adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) performed two priming experiments in which they implicitly processed a prime stimulus, containing high and/or low spatial frequency information, and then explicitly categorized a target face either as male/female (gender task) or as positive/negative (Valence task). Adolescents with ASD made more categorization errors than typically developing adolescents. They also showed an age-dependent improvement in categorization speed and had more difficulties with categorizing facial expressions than gender...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069390/continuous-direct-compression-as-manufacturing-platform-for-sustained-release-tablets
#12
B Van Snick, J Holman, C Cunningham, A Kumar, J Vercruysse, T De Beer, J P Remon, C Vervaet
This study presents a framework for process and product development on a continuous direct compression manufacturing platform. A challenging sustained release formulation with high content of a poorly flowing low density drug was selected. Two HPMC grades were evaluated as matrix former: standard Methocel CR and directly compressible Methocel DC2. The feeding behavior of each formulation component was investigated by deriving feed factor profiles. The maximum feed factor was used to estimate the drive command which strongly depended upon the density of the material...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068669/kinetically-e-selective-macrocyclic-ring-closing-metathesis
#13
Xiao Shen, Thach T Nguyen, Ming Joo Koh, Dongmin Xu, Alexander W H Speed, Richard R Schrock, Amir H Hoveyda
Macrocyclic compounds are central to the development of new drugs, but preparing them can be challenging because of the energy barrier that must be surmounted in order to bring together and fuse the two ends of an acyclic precursor such as an alkene (also known as an olefin). To this end, the catalytic process known as ring-closing metathesis (RCM) has allowed access to countless biologically active macrocyclic organic molecules, even for large-scale production. Stereoselectivity is often critical in such cases: the potency of a macrocyclic compound can depend on the stereochemistry of its alkene; alternatively, one isomer of the compound can be subjected to stereoselective modification (such as dihydroxylation)...
January 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067331/observation-of-transient-overcritical-currents-in-ybco-thin-films-using-high-speed-magneto-optical-imaging-and-dynamic-current-mapping
#14
Frederick S Wells, Alexey V Pan, Igor A Golovchanskiy, Sergey A Fedoseev, Anatoly Rozenfeld
The dynamics of transient current distributions in superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films were investigated during and immediately following an external field ramp, using high-speed (real-time) Magneto-Optical Imaging and calculation of dynamic current profiles. A number of qualitatively unique and previously unobserved features are seen in this novel analysis of the evolution of supercurrent during penetration. As magnetic field ramps up from zero, the dynamic current profile is characterized by strong peaks, the magnitude of which exceed the conventional critical current density (as determined from static current profiles)...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061376/visual-orienting-and-attention-deficits-in-5-and-10-month-old-preterm-infants
#15
Shannon Ross-Sheehy, Sammy Perone, Kelsi L Macek, Bret Eschman
Cognitive outcomes for children born prematurely are well characterized, including increased risk for deficits in memory, attention, processing speed, and executive function. However, little is known about deficits that appear within the first 12 months, and how these early deficits contribute to later outcomes. To probe for functional deficits in visual attention, preterm and full-term infants were tested at 5 and 10 months with the Infant Orienting With Attention task (IOWA; Ross-Sheehy, Schneegans and Spencer, 2015)...
January 3, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059427/evaluation-of-peg-coated-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-as-blood-pool-tracers-for-preclinical-magnetic-particle-imaging
#16
A P Khandhar, P Keselman, S J Kemp, R M Ferguson, P W Goodwill, S M Conolly, K M Krishnan
Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles with optimized and well-characterized properties are critical for Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI). MPI is a novel in vivo imaging modality that promises to integrate the speed of X-ray CT, safety of MRI and sensitivity of PET. Since SPIOs are the source of MPI signal, both the core and surface properties must be optimized to enable efficient in vivo imaging with pharmacokinetics tailored for specific imaging applications. Existing SPIOs like Resovist (ferucarbotran) provide a suboptimal MPI signal, and further limit MPI's in vivo utility due to rapid systemic clearance...
January 19, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057289/clinical-outcomes-of-pedal-artery-angioplasty%C3%A2-for%C3%A2-patients-with-ischemic-wounds-results-from-the-multicenter-rendezvous-registry
#17
Tatsuya Nakama, Nozomi Watanabe, Takuya Haraguchi, Hiroshi Sakamoto, Daisuke Kamoi, Yoshinori Tsubakimoto, Kenji Ogata, Katsuhiko Satoh, Kazushi Urasawa, Hiroshi Andoh, Hiroshi Fujita, Yoshisato Shibata
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of pedal artery angioplasty (PAA) for patients with critical limb ischemia. BACKGROUND: Pedal artery disease is considered a predictor of delayed wound healing (DH) after endovascular therapy. Adjunctive PAA might improve the speed and extent of wound healing. METHODS: Consecutive patients with critical limb ischemia (n = 257) presenting with de novo infrapopliteal and pedal artery disease were retrospectively reviewed from a multicenter registry...
January 9, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056892/correlations-between-physical-activity-and-neurocognitive-domain-functions-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Yusuke Kurebayashi, Junichi Otaki
BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive dysfunction is a critical target symptom of schizophrenia treatment. A positive correlation between physical activity level and neurocognitive function has been reported in healthy individuals, but it is unclear whether such a correlation exists in patients with schizophrenia and whether the relationship is different according to inpatients or outpatients. This study aimed to examine the differences in the correlations between physical activity and multiple neurocognitive domains in inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia and obtain suggestions for further study to facilitate this field...
January 5, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056135/english-listeners-use-suprasegmental-cues-to-lexical-stress-early-during-spoken-word-recognition
#19
Alexandra Jesse, Katja Poellmann, Ying-Yee Kong
Purpose: We used an eye-tracking technique to investigate whether English listeners use suprasegmental information about lexical stress to speed up the recognition of spoken words in English. Method: In a visual world paradigm, 24 young English listeners followed spoken instructions to choose 1 of 4 printed referents on a computer screen (e.g., "Click on the word admiral"). Displays contained a critical pair of words (e.g., 'admiral-'admi'ration) that were segmentally identical for their first 2 syllables but differed suprasegmentally in their 1st syllable: One word began with primary lexical stress, and the other began with secondary lexical stress...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056071/species-specific-responses-of-juvenile-rockfish-to-elevated-pco2-from-behavior-to-genomics
#20
Scott L Hamilton, Cheryl A Logan, Hamilton W Fennie, Susan M Sogard, James P Barry, April D Makukhov, Lauren R Tobosa, Kirsten Boyer, Christopher F Lovera, Giacomo Bernardi
In the California Current ecosystem, global climate change is predicted to trigger large-scale changes in ocean chemistry within this century. Ocean acidification-which occurs when increased levels of atmospheric CO2 dissolve into the ocean-is one of the biggest potential threats to marine life. In a coastal upwelling system, we compared the effects of chronic exposure to low pH (elevated pCO2) at four treatment levels (i.e., pCO2 = ambient [500], moderate [750], high [1900], and extreme [2800 μatm]) on behavior, physiology, and patterns of gene expression in white muscle tissue of juvenile rockfish (genus Sebastes), integrating responses from the transcriptome to the whole organism level...
2017: PloS One
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