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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646299/effective-combined-water-and-sideband-suppression-for-low-speed-tissue-and-in-vivo-mas-nmr
#1
Yalda Liaghati Mobarhan, Jochem Struppe, Blythe Fortier-McGill, André J Simpson
High-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR is a powerful technique that can provide metabolic profiles and structural constraints on intact biological and environmental samples such as cells, tissues and living organisms. However, centripetal force from fast spinning can lead to a loss of sample integrity. In analyses focusing on structural organization, metabolite compartmentalization or in vivo studies, it is critical to keep the sample intact. As such, there is growing interest in slow spinning studies that preserve sample longevity...
June 23, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644666/frictional-resistance-within-the-wake-of-frictional-rupture-fronts
#2
Ilya Svetlizky, Elsa Bayart, Gil Cohen, Jay Fineberg
Frictional resistance to slip, τ, is determined by the real area of contact, A, and the shear strength of the contacts forming the frictional interface. We perform simultaneous high-speed local measurements of τ and A at the tail of propagating rupture fronts. Rate dependence is investigated over 2 orders of magnitude of local slip velocities which reach up to ∼1  m/s. A critical slip velocity is observed that signifies a transition in the frictional behavior: enhanced velocity weakening of A and τ...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643152/the-impact-of-speed-of-play-in-gambling-on-psychological-and-behavioural-factors-a-critical-review
#3
REVIEW
Andrew Harris, Mark D Griffiths
Conceptually, there is a common association between gambling games with fast speeds of play and problem gambling. This relationship however, is largely correlational in nature, which comes at the expense of carefully controlled empirical investigation. Research that does exist aimed towards investigating the impact of gambling speeds on psychological and behavioural factors, is in its relative infancy, and the research possesses disparate methodologies and variables of interest. The aims of the current review is therefore to evaluate and summarise the existing body of evidence relating to speed of play in gambling, as well as discuss how this evidence can be used to inform harm minimisation approaches aimed at facilitating self-control during gambling...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637820/dynamic-mechanisms-of-visually-guided-3d-motion-tracking
#4
Kathryn L Bonnen, Alexander C Huk, Lawrence Kevin Cormack
The continuous perception of motion-through-depth is critical both for navigation and interacting with objects in a dynamic three dimensional (3D) world. Here we used 3D tracking to simultaneously assess the perception of motion in all directions, facilitating comparisons of responses to motion-through-depth to frontoparallel motion. Observers manually tracked a stereoscopic target as it moved in a 3D Brownian random walk. We found that continuous tracking of motion-through-depth was selectively impaired, showing different spatiotemporal properties compared to frontoparallel motion tracking...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632188/smartphone-based-food-diagnostic-technologies-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Giovanni Rateni, Paolo Dario, Filippo Cavallo
A new generation of mobile sensing approaches offers significant advantages over traditional platforms in terms of test speed, control, low cost, ease-of-operation, and data management, and requires minimal equipment and user involvement. The marriage of novel sensing technologies with cellphones enables the development of powerful lab-on-smartphone platforms for many important applications including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and food safety analysis. This paper reviews the recent advancements and developments in the field of smartphone-based food diagnostic technologies, with an emphasis on custom modules to enhance smartphone sensing capabilities...
June 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630943/parasites-lacking-the-micronemal-protein-mic2-are-deficient-in-surface-attachment-and-host-cell-egress-but-remain-virulent-in-vivo
#6
Simon Gras, Allison Jackson, Stuart Woods, Gurman Pall, Jamie Whitelaw, Jacqueline M Leung, Gary E Ward, Craig W Roberts, Markus Meissner
Background: Micronemal proteins of the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) family are believed to play essential roles during gliding motility and host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites, and currently represent major vaccine candidates against Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria. However, recent evidence suggests that they play multiple and different roles than previously assumed. Here, we analyse a null mutant for MIC2, the TRAP homolog in Toxoplasma gondii. Methods: We performed a careful analysis of parasite motility in a 3D-environment, attachment under shear stress conditions, host cell invasion and in vivo virulence...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629025/polycaprolactone-and-polycaprolactone-ceramic-based-3d-bioplotted-porous-scaffolds-for-bone-regeneration-a-comparative-study
#7
K K Gómez-Lizárraga, C Flores-Morales, M L Del Prado-Audelo, M A Álvarez-Pérez, M C Piña-Barba, C Escobedo
One of the critical challenges that scaffolding faces in the organ and tissue regeneration field lies in mimicking the structure, and the chemical and biological properties of natural tissue. A high-level control over the architecture, mechanical properties and composition of the materials in contact with cells is essential to overcome such challenge. Therefore, definition of the method, materials and parameters for the production of scaffolds during the fabrication stage is critical. With the recent emergence of rapid prototyping (RP), it is now possible to create three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with the essential characteristics for the proliferation and regeneration of tissues, such as porosity, mechanical strength, pore size and pore interconnectivity, and biocompatibility...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628523/effectiveness-of-surgery-for-adults-with-hallux-valgus-deformity-a-systematic-review
#8
Jitka Klugarova, Victoria Hood, Fiona Bath-Hextall, Miloslav Klugar, Jana Mareckova, Zuzana Kelnarova
BACKGROUND: Hallux valgus (HV) is a common foot deformity. In severe stages of this condition, surgery is often necessary. Currently, there is no systematic review comparing the effectiveness of surgery over conservative treatment. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to establish the effectiveness of surgery compared to conservatory management for adults with HV. INCLUSION CRITERIA TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS: The current review included adults (18 years or over) with HV deformity, excluding adults with neurological problems causing foot deformities, for example, cerebral palsy, neuropathy, stroke and multiple sclerosis...
June 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628179/nucleated-dewetting-in-supported-ultra-thin-liquid-films-with-hydrodynamic-slip
#9
Matthias Lessel, Joshua D McGraw, Oliver Bäumchen, Karin Jacobs
This study reveals the influence of the surface energy and solid/liquid boundary condition on the breakup mechanism of dewetting ultra-thin polymer films. Using silane self-assembled monolayers, SiO2 substrates are rendered hydrophobic and provide a strong slip rather than a no-slip solid/liquid boundary condition. On undergoing these changes, the thin-film breakup morphology changes dramatically - from a spinodal mechanism to a breakup which is governed by nucleation and growth. The experiments reveal a dependence of the hole density on film thickness and temperature...
June 19, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627505/monitoring-alert-and-drowsy-states-by-modeling-eeg-source-nonstationarity
#10
Sheng-Hsiou Hsu, Tzyy-Ping Jung
As a human brain performs various cognitive functions within ever-changing environments, states of the brain characterized by recorded brain activities such as electroencephalogram (EEG) are inevitably nonstationary. The challenges of analyzing the nonstationary EEG signals include finding neurocognitive sources that underlie different brain states and using EEG data to quantitatively assess the state changes. Approach. This study hypothesizes that brain activities under different states, e.g. levels of alertness, can be modeled as distinct compositions of statistically independent sources using independent component analysis (ICA)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627041/prior-exercise-speeds-pulmonary-oxygen-uptake-kinetics-and-increases-critical-power-during-supine-but-not-upright-cycling
#11
Richie P Goulding, Denise M Roche, Simon Marwood
Critical power (CP) is a fundamental parameter defining high-intensity exercise tolerance and is related to the time constant of phase II pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics (τV̇O2 ). To test the hypothesis that this relationship is causal we determined the impact of prior exercise ("priming") on CP and τV̇O2 in the upright and supine positions. 17 healthy men were assigned to either upright or supine exercise groups, whereby CP, τV̇O2 and muscle deoxyhaemoglobin kinetics (τ[HHb] ) were determined via constant-power tests to exhaustion at four work-rates with (primed) and without (control) priming exercise at ∼31%Δ...
June 19, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624618/a-sample-to-answer-real-time-convective-polymerase-chain-reaction-system-for-point-of-care-diagnostics
#12
Bowen Shu, Chunsun Zhang, Da Xing
Timely and accurate molecular diagnostics at the point-of-care (POC) level is critical to global health. To this end, we propose a handheld convective-flow real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system capable of direct sample-to-answer genetic analysis for the first time. Such a system mainly consists of a magnetic bead-assisted photothermolysis sample preparation, a closed-loop convective PCR reactor, and a wireless video camera-based real-time fluorescence detection. The sample preparation exploits the dual functionality of vancomycin-modified magnetic beads (VMBs) for bacteria enrichment and photothermal conversion, enabling cell pre-concentration and lysis to be finished in less than 3min...
June 8, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620167/high-throughput-rapid-prototyping-of-low-cost-paper-based-microfluidics
#13
Fariba Ghaderinezhad, Reza Amin, Mikail Temirel, Bekir Yenilmez, Adam Wentworth, Savas Tasoglu
Paper-based micro analytical devices offer significant advantages compared to the conventional microfluidic chips including cost-effectiveness, ease of fabrication, and ease of use while preserving critical features including strong capillary action and biological compatibility. In this work, we demonstrate an inexpensive, rapid method for high-throughput fabrication of paper-based microfluidics by patterning hydrophobic barriers using a desktop pen plotter integrated with a custom-made, low-cost paper feeder...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619381/recent-experimental-advances-for-understanding-bubble-particle-attachment-in-flotation
#14
REVIEW
Yaowen Xing, Xiahui Gui, Lei Pan, Bat-El Pinchasik, Yijun Cao, Jiongtian Liu, Michael Kappl, Hans-Jürgen Butt
Bubble-particle interaction is of great theoretical and practical importance in flotation. Significant progress has been achieved over the past years and the process of bubble-particle collision is reasonably well understood. This, however, is not the case for bubble-particle attachment leading to three-phase contact line formation due to the difficulty in both theoretical analysis and experimental verification. For attachment, surface forces play a major role. They control the thinning and rupture of the liquid film between the bubble and the particle...
May 31, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618548/probability-of-noise-and-rate-induced-tipping
#15
Paul Ritchie, Jan Sieber
We propose an approximation for the probability of tipping when the speed of parameter change and additive white noise interact to cause tipping. Our approximation is valid for small to moderate drift speeds and helps to estimate the probability of false positives and false negatives in early-warning indicators in the case of rate- and noise-induced tipping. We illustrate our approximation on a prototypical model for rate-induced tipping with additive noise using Monte Carlo simulations. The formula can be extended to close encounters of rate-induced tipping and is otherwise applicable to other forms of tipping...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613251/dynamic-speed-adaptation-for-path-tracking-based-on-curvature-information-and-speed-limits
#16
Citlalli Gámez Serna, Yassine Ruichek
A critical concern of autonomous vehicles is safety. Different approaches have tried to enhance driving safety to reduce the number of fatal crashes and severe injuries. As an example, Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) systems warn the driver when the vehicle exceeds the recommended speed limit. However, these systems only take into account fixed speed limits without considering factors like road geometry. In this paper, we consider road curvature with speed limits to automatically adjust vehicle's speed with the ideal one through our proposed Dynamic Speed Adaptation (DSA) method...
June 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609735/typical-winter-haze-pollution-in-zibo-an-industrial-city-in-china-characteristics-secondary-formation-and-regional-contribution
#17
Hui Li, Yongliang Ma, Fengkui Duan, Kebin He, Lidan Zhu, Tao Huang, Takashi Kimoto, Xiaoxuan Ma, Tao Ma, Lili Xu, Beiyao Xu, Shuo Yang, Siqi Ye, Zhenli Sun, Jiutao An, Zhaolu Zhang
Heavy haze pollution occurs frequently in northern China, most critically in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area (BTH). Zibo, an industrial city located in Shandong province, is often listed as one of the top ten most polluted cities in China, particularly in winter. However, no studies of haze in Zibo have been conducted, which limits the understanding of the source and formation of haze pollution in this area, as well as mutual effects with the BTH area. We carried out online and continuous integrated field observation of particulate matter in winter, from 11 to 25 January 2015...
June 10, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608504/biophysical-regulation-of-osteotomy-healing-an-animal-study
#18
Liao Wang, Maziar Aghvami, John Brunski, Jill Helms
BACKGROUND: Osteotomies have been performed for centuries yet there remains a remarkable lack of consensus on optimal methods for cutting bone. There is universal agreement, however, that preserving cell viability is critical. PURPOSE: To identify mechanobiological parameters influencing bone formation after osteotomy site preparation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A murine maxillary osteotomy model was used to evaluate healing. Computational modeling characterized stress and strain distributions in the osteotomy, as well as the magnitude and distribution of heat generated by drilling...
June 13, 2017: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605807/visual-sensory-and-visual-cognitive-function-and-rate-of-crash-and-near-crash-involvement-among-older-drivers-using-naturalistic-driving-data
#19
Carrie Huisingh, Emily B Levitan, Marguerite R Irvin, Paul MacLennan, Virginia Wadley, Cynthia Owsley
Purpose: An innovative methodology using naturalistic driving data was used to examine the association between visual sensory and visual-cognitive function and rates of future crash or near-crash involvement among older drivers. Methods: The Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP2) Naturalistic Driving Study was used for this prospective analysis. The sample consisted of N = 659 drivers aged ≥70 years and study participation lasted 1 or 2 years for most participants...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605647/physiological-determinants-of-individual-variation-in-sensitivity-to-an-organophosphate-pesticide-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#20
David J McKenzie, Felipe R Blasco, Thiago C Belão, Shaun S Killen, Nathan D Martins, Edwin W Taylor, F Tadeu Rantin
Individual variation in sub-lethal sensitivity to the organophosphate pesticide trichlorfon was investigated in Nile tilapia, using critical swimming speed (Ucrit) as an indicator. Tilapia exposed for 96h to 500μgl(-1) trichlorfon at 26°C (Tcfn group, n=27) showed a significant decline in mean Ucrit, compared to their own control (pre-exposure) performance in clean water (-14.5±2.3%, mean±SEM), but also compared to a Sham group (n=10) maintained for 96h in clean water. Individuals varied in their relative sensitivity to the pesticide, with the decline in Ucrit after exposure varying from 1 to 41%...
June 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
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