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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231696/performance-differences-of-rhode-island-red-bashang-long-tail-chicken-and-their-reciprocal-crossbreds-under-natural-cold-stress
#1
Shanshan Xie, Xukai Yang, Yahui Gao, Wenjie Jiao, Xinghua Li, Yajie Li, Zhonghua Ning
Objective: The Bashang Long-tail chicken (BS), an indigenous Chinese breed, is considered cold tolerant. We selected BS, the Rhode Island Red (RIR), and their reciprocal crossbreds for the present study. The objectives were: 1) to validate whether BS is cold tolerant and whether egg production and cold tolerance of crossbreds could be improved; and 2) to determine the physiological characteristics that underlie cold tolerance and favorable egg production performance in cold environments...
February 23, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231558/alleviating-effects-of-calcium-on-cobalt-toxicity-in-two-barley-genotypes-differing-in-cobalt-tolerance
#2
Jonas Lwalaba Wa Lwalaba, Gerald Zvobgo, Liangbo Fu, Xuelei Zhang, Theodore Mulembo Mwamba, Noor Muhammad, Robert Prince Mukobo Mundende, Guoping Zhang
Cobalt (Co) contamination in soils is becoming a severe issue in environment safety and crop production. Calcium (Ca)(,) as a macro-nutrient element, shows the antagonism with many divalent heavy metals and the capacity of alleviating oxidative stress in plants. In this study, the protective role of Ca in alleviating Co stress was hydroponically investigated using two barley genotypes differing in Co toxicity tolerance. Barley seedlings exposed to 100µM Co showed the significant reduction in growth and photosynthetic rate, and the dramatic increase in the contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes, with Ea52 (Co-sensitive) being much more affected than Yan66 (Co-tolerant)...
February 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231513/increasing-ascorbate-levels-in-crops-to-enhance-human-nutrition-and-plant-abiotic-stress-tolerance
#3
REVIEW
Richard C Macknight, William A Laing, Sean M Bulley, Ronan C Broad, Alexander At Johnson, Roger P Hellens
Ascorbate (or vitamin C) is an essential human micronutrient predominantly obtained from plants. In addition to preventing scurvy, it is now known to have broader roles in human health, for example as a cofactor for enzymes involved in epigenetic programming and as regulator of cellular iron uptake. Furthermore, ascorbate is the major antioxidant in plants and underpins many environmentally induced abiotic stress responses. Biotechnological approaches to enhance the ascorbate content of crops therefore have potential to improve both human health and abiotic stress tolerance of crops...
February 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231501/hsp70-expression-in-biomphalaria-glabrata-snails-exposed-to-cadmium
#4
Rebeca da Silva Cantinha, Sueli Ivone Borrely, Nancy Oguiura, Carlos Alberto de Bragança Pereira, Marcela M Rigolon, Eliana Nakano
In this study, the effects of the heavy metal cadmium on the stress protein HSP70 are investigated in freshwater mollusks Biomphalaria glabrata. Adult snails were exposed for 96h to CdCl2 at concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 0.7mgL(-1) (LC50/96h=0.34 (0.30-0.37). Time and concentration-dependent increases in the expression of HSP70 were observed at sub-lethal levels in the immunoblotting assay. Further, an increased survival to a lethal heat shock was observed in animals pre-exposed to a nonlethal concentration of cadmium, evidencing the induction of acquired tolerance...
February 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231417/genetic-and-genomic-evidence-of-niche-partitioning-and-adaptive-radiation-in-mountain-pine-beetle-fungal-symbionts
#5
Dario I Ojeda Alayon, Clement K M Tsui, Nicolas Feau, Arnaud Capron, Braham Dhillon, Yiyuan Zhang, Sepideh Massoumi Alamouti, Celia K Boone, Allan L Carroll, Janice E K Cooke, Amanda D Roe, Felix A H Sperling, Richard C Hamelin
Bark beetles form multipartite symbiotic associations with blue stain fungi (Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota). These symbionts play an important role during the beetle's life cycle by providing nutritional supplementation, overcoming tree defenses and modifying host tissues to favor brood development. The maintenance of stable multipartite symbioses with seemingly less competitive symbionts in similar habitats is of fundamental interest to ecology and evolution. We tested the hypothesis that the coexistence of three fungal species associated with the mountain pine beetle is the result of niche partitioning and adaptive radiation using SNP genotyping coupled with genotype-environment association analysis and phenotypic characterization of growth rate under different temperatures...
February 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230282/ablation-of-cyclophilin-d-results-in-an-activation-of-fak-akt-and-erk-pathways-in-the-mouse-heart
#6
Jelena Klawitter, Tamas Seres, Alexander Pennington, Jonathan-Thomas Beatty, Jost Klawitter, Uwe Christians
Cyclophilin D (CypD) is a mitochondrial chaperone that regulates the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Metabolically, deletion of Ppif (the gene encoding CypD) in mice is associated with elevated levels of mitochondrial matrix Ca(2+) that leads to increased glucose as relative to fatty acid oxidation. Here, we characterized the adaptive mechanisms involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism including the regulation of Akt and ERK kinases that we evaluated by Western blot analysis of Ppif-/-in comparison to wild type (WT) mouse hearts...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230163/ectopic-expression-of-arabidopsis-target-of-rapamycin-attor-improves-water-use-efficiency-and-yield-potential-in-rice
#7
Achala Bakshi, Mazahar Moin, M Udaya Kumar, Aramati Bindu Madhava Reddy, Maozhi Ren, Raju Datla, E A Siddiq, P B Kirti
The target of Rapamycin (TOR) present in all eukaryotes is a multifunctional protein, regulating growth, development, protein translation, ribosome biogenesis, nutrient, and energy signaling. In the present study, ectopic expression of TOR gene of Arabidopsis thaliana in a widely cultivated indica rice resulted in enhanced plant growth under water-limiting conditions conferring agronomically important water-use efficiency (WUE) trait. The AtTOR high expression lines of rice exhibited profuse tillering, increased panicle length, increased plant height, high photosynthetic efficiency, chlorophyll content and low ∆(13)C...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229383/mirna-based-heavy-metal-homeostasis-and-plant-growth
#8
Ali Noman, Muhammad Aqeel
Plants have been naturally gifted with mechanisms to adjust under very high or low nutrient concentrations. Heavy metal toxicity is considered as a major growth and yield-limiting factor for plants. This stress includes essential as well as non-essential metals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known for mediating post-transcriptional regulation by cleaving transcripts or translational inhibition. It is commonly agreed that an extensive understanding of plant miRNAs will significantly help in the induction of tolerance against environmental stresses...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229018/-genomic-data-mining-of-the-marine-actinobacteria-streptomyces-sp-h-kf8-unveils-insights-into-multi-stress-related-genes-and-metabolic-pathways-involved-in-antimicrobial-synthesis
#9
Agustina Undabarrena, Juan A Ugalde, Michael Seeger, Beatriz Cámara
Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 is an actinobacterial strain isolated from marine sediments of a Chilean Patagonian fjord. Morphological characterization together with antibacterial activity was assessed in various culture media, revealing a carbon-source dependent activity mainly against Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and L. monocytogenes). Genome mining of this antibacterial-producing bacterium revealed the presence of 26 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) for secondary metabolites, where among them, 81% have low similarities with known BGCs...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228774/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-wheat-argos-genes-influencing-plant-growth-and-stress-tolerance
#10
Yue Zhao, Xuejun Tian, Yuanyuan Li, Liyuan Zhang, Panfeng Guan, Xiaoxia Kou, Xiaobo Wang, Mingming Xin, Zhaorong Hu, Yingyin Yao, Zhongfu Ni, Qixin Sun, Huiru Peng
Auxin Regulated Gene involved in Organ Size (ARGOS) is significantly and positively associated with organ size and is involved in abiotic stress responses in plants. However, no studies on wheat ARGOS genes have been reported to date. In the present study, three TaARGOS homoeologous genes were isolated and located on chromosomes 4A, 4B, and 4D of bread wheat, all of which are highly conserved in wheat and its wild relatives. Comparisons of gene expression in different tissues demonstrated that the TaARGOSs were mainly expressed in the stem...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226238/defense-priming-an-adaptive-part-of-induced-resistance
#11
Brigitte Mauch-Mani, Ivan Baccelli, Estrella Luna, Victor Flors
Priming is an adaptive strategy that improves the defensive capacity of plants. This phenomenon is marked by an enhanced activation of induced defense mechanisms. Stimuli from pathogens, beneficial microbes, or arthropods, as well as chemicals and abiotic cues, can trigger the establishment of priming by acting as warning signals. Upon stimulus perception, changes may occur in the plant at the physiological, transcriptional, metabolic, and epigenetic levels. This phase is called the priming phase. Upon subsequent challenge, the plant effectively mounts a faster and/or stronger defense response that defines the postchallenge primed state and results in increased resistance and/or stress tolerance...
February 2, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226230/genomics-physiology-and-molecular-breeding-approaches-for-improving-salt-tolerance
#12
Abdelbagi M Ismail, Tomoaki Horie
Salt stress reduces land and water productivity and contributes to poverty and food insecurity. Increased salinization caused by human practices and climate change is progressively reducing agriculture productivity despite escalating calls for more food. Plant responses to salt stress are fairly well understood, involving numerous critical processes that are each controlled by multiple genes. Knowledge of the critical mechanisms controlling salt uptake and exclusion from functioning tissues, signaling of salt stress, and the arsenal of protective metabolites is advancing...
February 22, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226194/melatonin-systemically-ameliorates-drought-stress-induced-damage-in-medicago-sativa-plants-by-modulating-nitro-oxidative-homeostasis-and-proline-metabolism
#13
Chrystalla Antoniou, Giannis Chatzimichail, Rafaella Xenofontos, Giannis Pavlou, Evangelia Panagiotou, Anastasis Christou, Vasileios Fotopoulos
Recent reports have uncovered the multifunctional role of melatonin in plant physiological responses under optimal and sub-optimal environmental conditions. In this study, we explored whether melatonin pretreatment could provoke priming effects in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants subsequently exposed to prolonged drought stress (7 days), by withholding watering. Results revealed that the rhizospheric application of melatonin (10 μM) remarkably enhanced the drought tolerance of alfalfa plants, as evidenced by the observed plant tolerant phenotype, as well as by the higher levels of chlorophyll fluorescence and stomatal conductance, compared with non-treated drought-stressed plants...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225205/greater-endurance-capacity-and-improved-dyspnoea-with-acute-oxygen-supplementation-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-patients-without-resting-hypoxaemia
#14
Leona M Dowman, Christine F McDonald, Steven Bozinovski, Ross Vlahos, Rebecca Gillies, Dodie Pouniotis, Catherine J Hill, Nicole S L Goh, Anne E Holland
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Supplemental oxygen is commonly prescribed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), although its benefits have not been proven. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of oxygen on oxidative stress, cytokine production, skeletal muscle metabolism and physiological response to exercise in IPF. METHODS: Eleven participants with IPF received either oxygen, at an FiO2 of 0.50, or compressed air for 1 h at rest and during a cycle endurance test at 85% of peak work rate...
February 22, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224921/lemna-minor-plants-chronically-exposed-to-ionising-radiation-rna-seq-analysis-indicates-a-dose-rate-dependent-shift-from-acclimation-to-survival-strategies
#15
Arne Van Hoeck, Nele Horemans, Robin Nauts, May Van Hees, Hildegarde Vandenhove, Ronny Blust
Ecotoxicological research provides knowledge on ionising radiation-induced responses in different plant species. However, the sparse data currently available are mainly extracted from acute exposure treatments. To provide a better understanding of environmental exposure scenarios, the response to stress in plants must be followed in more natural relevant chronic conditions. We previously showed morphological and biochemical responses in Lemna minor plants continuously exposed for 7days in a dose-rate dependent manner...
April 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224920/genetic-engineering-of-the-biosynthesis-of-glycinebetaine-leads-to-alleviate-salt-induced-potassium-efflux-and-enhances-salt-tolerance-in-tomato-plants
#16
Dandan Wei, Wen Zhang, Cuicui Wang, Qingwei Meng, Gang Li, Tony H H Chen, Xinghong Yang
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. 'Moneymaker') was transformed with the choline oxidase gene codA from Arthrobacter globiformis, which was modified to allow for targeting to both chloroplasts and the cytosol. Glycine betaine (GB) was accumulated in transformed plants, while no detectable GB was found in wild-type (WT) plants. Compared to WT plants, transgenic lines showed significantly higher photosynthetic rates (Pn) and antioxidant enzyme activities and lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in the leaves when exposed to salt stress...
April 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224747/why-do-lactobacilli-dominate-the-human-vaginal-microbiota
#17
REVIEW
S S Witkin, I M Linhares
: Lactobacilli are the most abundant vaginal bacteria in women. They inhibit binding of other bacteria to epithelial cells and produce lactic acid that kills or inhibits the growth of many other bacteria. Lactic acid blocks histone deacetylases, thereby enhancing gene transcription and DNA repair. Lactic acid induces autophagy in epithelial cells to degrade intracellular microorganisms and promote homeostasis. Lactobacilli are tolerated by vaginal epithelial cells and inhibit induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
March 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224449/the-exerrt-trial-exercise-to-regadenoson-in-recovery-trial-a-phase-3b-open-label-parallel-group-randomized-multicenter-study-to-assess-regadenoson-administration-following-an-inadequate-exercise-stress-test-as-compared-to-regadenoson-without-exercise-for-myocardial
#18
Gregory S Thomas, S James Cullom, Therese M Kitt, Kathleen M Feaheny, Karthikeyan Ananthasubramaniam, Robert J Gropler, Diwakar Jain, Randall C Thompson
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the non-inferiority and safety of regadenoson administration during recovery from inadequate exercise compared with administration without exercise. METHODS: Patients unable to achieve adequate exercise stress were randomized to regadenoson 0.4 mg either during recovery (Ex-Reg) or 1 hour after inadequate exercise (Regadenoson) (MPI1). All patients also underwent non-exercise regadenoson MPI 1-14 days later (MPI2). The number of segments with reversible perfusion defects (RPDs) detected using single photon emission computerized tomography imaging was categorized...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224261/determination-of-glucose-exchange-rates-and-permeability-of-erythrocyte-membrane-in-preeclampsia-and-subsequent-oxidative-stress-related-protein-damage-using-dynamic-19-f-nmr
#19
Elizabeth Dickinson, John R P Arnold, Julie Fisher
The cause of the pregnancy condition preeclampsia (PE) is thought to be endothelial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress. As abnormal glucose tolerance has also been associated with PE, we use a fluorinated-mimic of this metabolite to establish whether any oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in the erythrocyte membrane has increased cell membrane permeability. Data were acquired using (19)F Dynamic-NMR (DNMR) to measure exchange of 3-fluoro-3-deoxyglucose (3-FDG) across the membrane of erythrocytes from 10 pregnant women (5 healthy control women, and 5 from women suffering from PE)...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224212/upregulation-of-thioredoxin-1-in-activated-human-nk-cells-confers-increased-tolerance-to-oxidative-stress
#20
Kousaku Mimura, Ley-Fang Kua, Noriko Shimasaki, Kensuke Shiraishi, Shotaro Nakajima, Lim Kee Siang, Asim Shabbir, Jimmy So, Wei-Peng Yong, Koji Kono
Adoptive transfer of immune cells, such as T lymphocytes and NK cells, has potential to control cancer growth. However, this can be counteracted by immune escape mechanisms within the tumor microenvironment, including those mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we determined the levels of anti-oxidant molecules in NK cells and their capacity to overcome ROS-induced immune suppression. We investigated the effect of H2O2 on resting NK cells, IL-2-activated NK cells and NK cells expanded by coculture with the K562 leukemia cell line genetically modified to express membrane-bound IL-15 and 4-1BB ligand (K562-mb15-41BBL)...
February 21, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
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