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Stress tolerance

Floriane Rudwill, Donal O'Gorman, Etienne Lefai, Isabelle Chery, Alexandre Zahariev, Sylvie Normand, Allan F Pagano, Angèle Chopard, Anthony Damiot, Claire Laurens, Leanne Hodson, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas, Martina Heer, Petra Frings Meuthen, Judith Buehlmeier, Natalie Baecker, Laure Meiller, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Stéphane Blanc, Chantal Simon, Audrey Bergouignan
Context: The effects of energy balanced bed-rest on metabolic flexibility has not been thoroughly examined. Objective: We investigated the effects of 21-days bed-rest, with and without whey protein supplementation, on metabolic flexibility while maintaining energy balance. We further hypothesized protein supplementation mitigates metabolic inflexibility by preventing muscle atrophy. Design & Setting: Randomized cross-over longitudinal study conducted at the German Aerospace Center, Cologne, Germany...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Raúl Cassia, Macarena Nocioni, Natalia Correa-Aragunde, Lorenzo Lamattina
Here, we review information on how plants face redox imbalance caused by climate change, and focus on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in this response. Life on Earth is possible thanks to greenhouse effect. Without it, temperature on Earth's surface would be around -19°C, instead of the current average of 14°C. Greenhouse effect is produced by greenhouse gasses (GHG) like water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), nitrous oxides (Nx O) and ozone (O3 ). GHG have natural and anthropogenic origin. However, increasing GHG provokes extreme climate changes such as floods, droughts and heat, which induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in plants...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiulin Wang, Xiaxiang Zhang, Jing Chen, Xiao Wang, Jian Cai, Qin Zhou, Tingbo Dai, Weixing Cao, Dong Jiang
Drought is the major abiotic stress that decreases plant water status, inhibits photosynthesis, induces oxidative stress, restricts growth and finally lead to the reduction of wheat yield. It has been proven that drought priming during vegetative growth stage could enhance tolerance to drought stress at grain filling in wheat. However, whether drought priming imposed at grain filling in parental plants could induce drought tolerance in the offspring is not known. In this study, drought priming was successively applied in the first, the second and the third generation of wheat to obtain the plants of T1 (primed for one generation), T2 (primed for two generations), T3 (primed for three generations)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shumeng Kou, Gilles Vincent, Emmanuel Gonzalez, Frederic E Pitre, Michel Labrecque, Nicholas J B Brereton
Industrial and agricultural activities have caused extensive metal contamination of land throughout China and across the globe. The pervasive nature of metal pollution can be harmful to human health and can potentially cause substantial negative impact to the biosphere. To investigate the impact of anthropogenic metal pollution found in high concentrations in industrial, agricultural, and urban environments, 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to track change in the amplified microbial community after metal contamination in a large-scale field experiment in Shanghai...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Muhammad Abid, Shafaqat Ali, Lei Kang Qi, Rizwan Zahoor, Zhongwei Tian, Dong Jiang, John L Snider, Tingbo Dai
Defining the metabolic strategies used by wheat to tolerate and recover from drought events will be important for ensuring yield stability in the future, but studies addressing this critical research topic are limited. To this end, the current study quantified the physiological, biochemical, and agronomic responses of a drought tolerant and drought sensitive cultivar to periods of water deficit and recovery. Drought stress caused a reversible decline in leaf water relations, membrane stability, and photosynthetic activity, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation and membrane injury...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qian-Wen Deng, Xiang-Dong Luo, Ya-Ling Chen, Yi Zhou, Fan-Tao Zhang, Biao-Lin Hu, Jian-Kun Xie
BACKGROUND: Low phosphorus availability is a major factor restricting rice growth. Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) has many useful genes lacking in cultivated rice, including stress resistance to phosphorus deficiency, cold, salt and drought, which is considered to be a precious germplasm resource for rice breeding. However, the molecular mechanism of regulation of phosphorus deficiency tolerance is not clear. RESULTS: In this study, cDNA libraries were constructed from the leaf and root tissues of phosphorus stressed and untreated Dongxiang wild rice seedlings, and transcriptome sequencing was performed with the goal of elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in phosphorus stress response...
March 15, 2018: Biological Research
Babu Nageswararao Kanuri, Sanjay C Rebello, Priya Pathak, Hobby Agarwal, Jitendra S Kanshana, Deepika Awasthi, Anand P Gupta, Jiaur R Gayen, Kumaravelu Jagavelu, Madhu Dikshit
Oxidative stress due to enhanced production or reduced scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been associated with diet (dyslipidemia) induced obesity and insulin resistance (IR). The present study was undertaken to assess the role of p47phox in IR using wild type (WT) and p47phox-/- mice, fed with different diets (HFD, LFD or Chow). Augmented body weight, glucose intolerance and reduced insulin sensitivity were observed in p47phox-/- mice fed with 45% HFD and 10% LFD. Further, body fat and circulating lipids was increased significantly with 5 weeks LFD feeding in p47phox-/- mice, while parameters of energy homeostasis were reduced as compared to WT mice...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
Jozef Kováčik, Sławomir Dresler, Petr Babula
Short-term (24 h) responses of Cladonia arbuscula subsp. mitis (formerly known as Cladina and this name is used to distinguish the tested species) and Cladonia furcata to nickel (Ni2+ ) excess (10 or 100 μM) were compared. Cladonia accumulated more Ni at higher Ni dose (1.717 mg total Ni/g DW), K amount was unaffected and Ca amount decreased in Cladina only. Fluorescence microscopy detection of total/general ROS and hydrogen peroxide showed Ni-stimulated increase in both species being more pronounced in Cladonia and in mycobiont partner mainly...
March 6, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Yanping Chen, Yingjun Chi, Qingchang Meng, Xiaolin Wang, Deyue Yu
In plants, various proteins are regulated by the ubiquitin-mediated system in response to different environmental stresses, such as drought, cold and heat. The Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF) complex, one of the multisubunit E3 ligases, has been shown to be involved in abiotic response pathways. In this study, Glycine max SKP1-like 1 (GmSK1), which had the typical characteristics of an SKP1 protein, with an alpha/beta structure, targeted to the cytoplasm and nucleus, was isolated from soybean [Glycine max (L.)]. GmSK1 was constitutively expressed in all the tested tissues, especially in the roots...
March 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Sajitha Biju, Sigfredo Fuentes, Dorin Gupta
Lentil (Lens culinaris, Medik.) is an important legume crop, which often experience drought stress especially at the flowering and grain filling phenological stages. The availability of efficient and robust screening tools based on relevant non-destructive quantifiable traits would facilitate research on crop improvement for drought tolerance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the drought tolerance of 37 lentil genotypes using infrared thermal imaging (IRTI), drought tolerance parameters and multivariate data analysis...
March 8, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Harshini Manohar, Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder commonly associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the prevalence ranging from 14-70%. The current study attempted to assess the impact of comorbid ADHD in children with ASD, in terms of challenges in diagnosis, treatment, intervention outcomes and parental stress and coping through a naturalistic design. METHODS: Fifty children aged 2-6 years with ASD were recruited, assessed and followed up for six months...
March 2, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Lingfei Shangguan, Xiang Fang, Lide Chen, Liwen Cui, Jinggui Fang
Grapevine autophagy-related genes (ARGs) include 35 members that have unique evolutionary backgrounds and expression patterns, with some of them responding to abiotic stresses, including copper stress. Autophagy is one of the most crucial self-regulating phenomena in livings organisms, including animals, plants, yeasts, etc. In the genomes of plants, like Arabidopsis, rice, tobacco, and barley, more than 30 autophagy-related genes (ARGs) have been found. These ARGs are involved in plant development, programed cell death, and the stress response process...
March 14, 2018: Planta
Tony L R Silveira, Gabriel B Martins, William B Domingues, Mariana H Remião, Bruna F Barreto, Ingrid M Lessa, Lucas Santos, Danillo Pinhal, Odir A Dellagostin, Fabiana K Seixas, Tiago Collares, Ricardo B Robaldo, Vinicius F Campos
Silversides are fish that inhabit marine coastal waters, coastal lagoons, and estuarine regions in southern South America. The freshwater (FW) silversides have the ability to tolerate salinity variations. Odontesthes humensis have similar habitats and biological characteristics of congeneric O. bonariensis , the most studied silverside species and with great economic importance. Studies revealed that O. bonariensis is not fully adapted to FW, despite inhabiting hyposmotic environments in nature. However, there is little information about stressful environments for cultivation of silverside O...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Cuimei Zhang, Shangli Shi
Drought severely limits global plant distribution and agricultural production. Elucidating the physiological and molecular mechanisms governing alfalfa stress responses will contribute to the improvement of drought tolerance in leguminous crops. In this study, the physiological and proteomic responses of two alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) varieties contrasting in drought tolerance, Longzhong (drought-tolerant) and Gannong No. 3 (drought-sensitive), were comparatively assayed when seedlings were exposed to -1...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Leandro Ferreira Moreno, Vania Aparecida Vicente, Sybren de Hoog
Black yeasts (BY) comprise a group of polyextremotolerant fungi, mainly belonging to the order Chaetothyriales, which are capable of colonizing a wide range of extreme environments. The tolerance to hostile habitats can be explained by their intrinsic ability to survive under acidic, alkaline, and toxic conditions, high temperature, low nutrient availability, and osmotic and mechanical stress. Occasionally, some species can cause human chromoblastomycosis, a chronic subcutaneous infection, as well as disseminated or cerebral phaeohyphomycosis...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
José Maria Farah Costa Junior, Camile Irene Mota da Silva, Abner Ariel da Silva Lima, Dario Rodrigues Júnior, Luiz Carlos de Lima Silveira, Givago da Silva Souza, Maria da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro
Riverine communities are exposed to mercury due to the high ingestion of fish in their diet. In order to evaluate the levels of exposure in the Tapajós region, also assessing the fish ingestion frequency, a study was conducted in adults living in riverine communities in the municipality of Itaituba in the State of Pará. Hair samples were collected for the determination of total mercury and the weekly frequency data of fish ingestion was recorded. The mean concentration of total mercury varied from 7.25μg/g (in 2013) to 10...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Oren Akhberdi, Qian Zhang, Dan Wang, Haichuan Wang, Xiaoran Hao, Yanjie Liu, Dongsheng Wei, Xudong Zhu
The velvet family proteins have been shown to play critical roles in fungal secondary metabolism and development. However, variations of the roles have been observed in different fungi. We report here the observation on the role of three velvet complex components VeA, VelB, and LaeA in Pestalotiopsis microspora , a formerly reported taxol-producing fungus. Deletion of individual members led to the retardation of vegetative growth and sporulation and pigmentation, suggesting critical roles in these processes...
March 14, 2018: Genes
M V Efimova, V A Khripach, E V Boyko, M K Malofii, L V Kolomeichuk, O K Murgan, A N Vidershpun, E A Mukhamatdinova, V V Kuznetsov
This is the first study to show that brief pretreatment of potato plants with two brassinosteroids differing in structure causes in plants the ability to react to delayed salt stress by accumulation of compounds with antioxidant activity and by increased salt tolerance.
January 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Emanuele D'Artibale, Paul B Laursen, John B Cronin
Performance in motorcycle road racing is typically considered as the summation of interactions between rider, motorcycle, tires, and environment. Despite the substantial investments made towards the development of motorcycle technology and the business interests of manufacturers, published research focusing on the riders is relatively sparse, and a bike-centered mentality tends to dominate the sport. This manuscript reviews the known human performance aspects of motorcycle road racing and suggests directions for future research...
March 13, 2018: Sports Medicine
Chieun Song, Jimin Lee, Taeyoon Kim, Jong Chan Hong, Chae Oh Lim
Under normal growth conditions, Arabidopsis VOZ1 interacts with DREB2C and acts as a transcriptional repressor by reducing DNA binding of DREB2C. Under heat stress conditions, VOZ1 is degraded by ubiquitination, and DREB2C, which is freed from VOZ1, functions as a transcription activator. To investigate the mechanism by which the DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING FACTOR 2C (DREB2C)-dependent signaling cascade regulates heat stress (HS) responses, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening using the DREB2C APETALA2 (AP2) DNA-binding domain as the bait against a cDNA library derived from Arabidopsis...
March 13, 2018: Planta
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