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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350798/research-priorities-for-harnessing-plant-microbiomes-in-sustainable-agriculture
#1
Posy E Busby, Chinmay Soman, Maggie R Wagner, Maren L Friesen, James Kremer, Alison Bennett, Mustafa Morsy, Jonathan A Eisen, Jan E Leach, Jeffery L Dangl
Feeding a growing world population amidst climate change requires optimizing the reliability, resource use, and environmental impacts of food production. One way to assist in achieving these goals is to integrate beneficial plant microbiomes-i.e., those enhancing plant growth, nutrient use efficiency, abiotic stress tolerance, and disease resistance-into agricultural production. This integration will require a large-scale effort among academic researchers, industry researchers, and farmers to understand and manage plant-microbiome interactions in the context of modern agricultural systems...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346818/regulation-of-low-temperature-stress-in-plants-by-micrornas
#2
REVIEW
Swati Megha, Urmila Basu, Nat N V Kav
Low temperature is one of the most common environmental stresses that seriously affects the growth and development of plants. However, plants have the plasticity in their defense mechanisms enabling them to tolerate and, sometimes, even survive adverse environmental conditions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, approximately 19-21 nucleotides in length, and are being increasingly recognized as regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and have the ability to influence a broad range of biological processes...
March 27, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345963/accumulation-and-speciation-of-cd-in-avicennia-marina-tissues
#3
Li Jian, Yan Chongling, Du Daolin, Lu Haoliang, Liu Jingchun
Avicennia marina is a high Cd tolerant species in the mangrove wetlands. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to research the accumulation and chemical form distribution of Cd in the tissues of A. marina under different concentration and time of Cd stress. It was found that the concentrations of Cd in plant tissues followed the order of root> stem>leaf. The data suggested that root activity decreased, Cd accumulation ability weakened in roots and the Translocation Factor increased in stems and leaves with the increase of stress time...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345029/tidal-heat-pulses-on-a-reef-trigger-a-fine-tuned-transcriptional-response-in-corals-to-maintain-homeostasis
#4
Lupita J Ruiz-Jones, Stephen R Palumbi
For reef-building corals, extreme stress exposure can result in loss of endosymbionts, leaving colonies bleached. However, corals in some habitats are commonly exposed to natural cycles of sub-bleaching stress, often leading to higher stress tolerance. We monitored transcription in the tabletop coral Acropora hyacinthus daily for 17 days over a strong tidal cycle that included extreme temperature spikes, and show that increases in temperature above 30.5°C triggered a strong transcriptional response. The transcriptomic time series data allowed us to identify a set of genes with coordinated expression that were activated only on days with strong tides, high temperature, and large diel pH and oxygen changes...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344958/perioperative-administration-of-propranolol-to-women-undergoing-ovarian-cancer-surgery-a-pilot-study
#5
Hye-In Jang, Soo-Hyun Lim, Yoo-Young Lee, Tae-Joong Kim, Chel Hun Choi, Jeong-Won Lee, Byoung-Gie Kim, Duk-Soo Bae
OBJECTIVE: This study was done to evaluate whether perioperative propranolol (ß-blocker) in ovarian cancer patients undergoing debulking surgery reduced perioperative tumor growth induced by surgical stress. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized single institution analysis. The primary objective was to compare the changes in CA 125 level (changes between preoperation day 2 and postoperative day 7). As a study arm, patients received a low dose of propranolol 40 mg/day (4×10 mg) starting two days before surgery and 40 mg twice daily for three days following surgery...
March 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344715/the-emotional-intelligence-of-pediatric-residents-a-descriptive-cross-sectional-study
#6
Scott A McLeod, Lyn K Sonnenberg
BACKGROUND: Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a type of social intelligence. Excellent scores are achieved by displaying high levels of empathy in interpersonal relationships, strong skills in managing stressful situations as well as other personal competencies. Many of the social competencies that EI describes may have a direct impact on patient care. The objective of this study was to describe EI of pediatric residents and to identify if there are EI skills that should be selected for targeted intervention...
February 2017: Canadian Medical Education Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344650/improving-carbohydrate-and-starch-accumulation-in-chlorella-sp-ae10-by-a-novel-two-stage-process-with-cell-dilution
#7
Dujia Cheng, Dengjin Li, Yizhong Yuan, Lin Zhou, Xuyang Li, Tong Wu, Liang Wang, Quanyu Zhao, Wei Wei, Yuhan Sun
BACKGROUND: Microalgae are highly efficient cellular factories that capture CO2 and are also alternative feedstock for biofuel production. Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are major biochemical components in microalgae. Carbohydrates or starch in microalgae are possible substrates in yeast fermentation for biofuel production. The carbon partitioning in microalgae could be regulated through environmental stresses, such as high concentration of CO2, high light intensity, and nitrogen starvation conditions...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344585/ectopic-expression-of-ossta2-enhances-salt-stress-tolerance-in-rice
#8
Manu Kumar, Juyoung Choi, Gynheung An, Seong-Ryong Kim
Salt stress can severely reduce crop yields. To understand how rice (Oryza sativa) plants respond to this environmental challenge, we investigated the genes involved in conferring salt tolerance by screening T-DNA tagging lines and identified OsSta2-D (Oryza sativa Salt tolerance activation 2-Dominant). In that line, expression of OsSta2 was enhanced by approximately eightfold when compared with the non-transformed wild type (WT). This gene was highly expressed in the callus, roots, and panicles. To confirm its role in stress tolerance, we generated transgenic rice that over-expresses OsSta2 under a maize ubiquitin promoter...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344583/rbm25-mediates-abiotic-responses-in-plants
#9
Chunhong Cheng, Zhijuan Wang, Bingjian Yuan, Xia Li
Alternative splicing (AS) of pre-mRNAs is one of the most important post-transcriptional regulations that enable a single gene to code for multiple proteins resulting in the biodiversity of proteins in eukaryotes. Recently, we have shown that an Arabidopsis thaliana RNA recognition motif-containing protein RBM25 is a novel splicing factor to modulate plant response to ABA during seed germination and post-germination through regulating HAB1 pre-mRNA AS. Here, we show that RBM25 is preferentially expressed in stomata and vascular tissues in Arabidopsis and is induced by ABA and abiotic stresses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344081/plasma-membrane-crpk1-mediated-phosphorylation-of-14-3-3-proteins-induces-their-nuclear-import-to-fine-tune-cbf-signaling-during-cold-response
#10
Ziyan Liu, Yuxin Jia, Yanglin Ding, Yiting Shi, Zhen Li, Yan Guo, Zhizhong Gong, Shuhua Yang
In plant cells, changes in fluidity of the plasma membrane may serve as the primary sensor of cold stress; however, the precise mechanism and how the cell transduces and fine-tunes cold signals remain elusive. Here we show that the cold-activated plasma membrane protein cold-responsive protein kinase 1 (CRPK1) phosphorylates 14-3-3 proteins. The phosphorylated 14-3-3 proteins shuttle from the cytosol to the nucleus, where they interact with and destabilize the key cold-responsive C-repeat-binding factor (CBF) proteins...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343998/carnosic-acid-ca-attenuates-collagen-induced-arthritis-in-db-db-mice-via-inflammation-suppression-by-regulating-ros-dependent-p38-pathway
#11
Guangtao Xia, Xia Wang, Hongsheng Sun, Yuhong Qin, Min Fu
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease, characterized by inflammation of synovial joints. Carnosic acid (CA) is a phenolic diterpene isolated from Rosmarinus officinails, playing a central role in cytoprotective responses to oxidative stress and inflammation response. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of CA on RA progression in diabetic animals. Carnosic acid (CA) was used to treat collagen-induced arthritis (CIA)-induced db/db mice. Blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were investigated to explore insulin resistance...
March 23, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343634/identification-of-heavy-metal-pollutant-tolerance-associated-genes-in-avicennia-marina-forsk-by-suppression-subtractive-hybridization
#12
Jicheng Zhang, Jinfeng Yu, Hualong Hong, Jingchun Liu, Haoliang Lu, Chongling Yan
The halophytic Avicennia marina (Forsk.) is one of the pioneer mangroves along the south coast of China. It is an appropriate material for understanding molecular mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance in mangrove plants. A forward and a reverse cDNA library was constructed by PCR-based suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) to isolate these tolerance-associated genes from A. marina leaves. A total of 99 ESTs obtained from the forward and reverse libraries showed significant differential expressions. Twenty-nine genes selected by SSH were studied by real-time PCR in order to analyze their expression level...
March 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343575/expression-analysis-of-toll-like-receptors-and-interleukins-in-tharparkar-cattle-during-acclimation-to-heat-stress-exposure
#13
Jaya Bharati, S S Dangi, S R Mishra, V S Chouhan, V Verma, O Shankar, M K Bharti, A Paul, Dilip K Mahato, G Rajesh, G Singh, V P Maurya, S Bag, Puneet Kumar, M Sarkar
Six male Tharparkar cattle of 2-3 years old were selected for the study. After 15 days acclimation at thermo neutral zone (TNZ) in psychrometric chamber, animals were exposed at 42°C for 6h up to 23 days followed by 12 days of recovery period. Blood samples were collected during control period at TNZ (day 1, 5 and 12), after heat stress exposure (day 1-10, Short Term Heat Stress Acclimation - STHSA; day 15-23, Long Term Heat Stress Acclimation - LTHSA) and recovery period (day 7 and 12) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated for RNA and protein extraction...
April 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343358/expression-of-the-cyanobacterial-enzyme-cyanase-increases-cyanate-metabolism-and-cyanate-tolerance-in-arabidopsis
#14
Rashad Kebeish, Omar Al-Zoubi
Cyanate and its derivatives are considered as environmental hazardous materials. Cyanate is released to the environment through many chemical industries and mining wastewater. Cyanase enzyme converts cyanate into CO2 and NH3 in a bicarbonate-dependent reaction. At low cyanate concentrations, the endogenous plant cyanases play a vital role in cyanate detoxification. However, such cyanate biodegradation system is probably insufficient due to the excess cyanate concentrations at contaminated sites. In this study, we have transferred the activity of the cyanobacterial cyanase into Arabidopsis thaliana plants in order to enhance plant resistance against cyanate toxicity...
March 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343262/cavin-1-deficiency-modifies-myocardial-and-coronary-function-stretch-responses-and-ischaemic-tolerance-roles-of-nos-over-activity
#15
Mika Kaakinen, Melissa E Reichelt, Zhibin Ma, Charles Ferguson, Nick Martel, Enzo R Porrello, James E Hudson, Walter G Thomas, Robert G Parton, John P Headrick
Caveolae and associated cavin and caveolins may govern myocardial function, together with responses to mechanical and ischaemic stresses. Abnormalities in these proteins are also implicated in different cardiovascular disorders. However, specific roles of the cavin-1 protein in cardiac and coronary responses to mechanical/metabolic perturbation remain unclear. We characterised cardiovascular impacts of cavin-1 deficiency, comparing myocardial and coronary phenotypes and responses to stretch and ischaemia-reperfusion in hearts from cavin-1 (+/+) and cavin-1 (-/-) mice...
May 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343043/clonal-integration-increases-tolerance-of-a-phalanx-clonal-plant-to-defoliation
#16
Pu Wang, Huan Li, Xiao-Yu Pang, Ao Wang, Bi-Cheng Dong, Jing-Pin Lei, Fei-Hai Yu, Mai-He Li
Defoliation by herbivores commonly imposes negative effects on plants, and physiological integration (resource sharing) can enhance the ability of guerilla clonal plants to tolerate stresses. Here we examined whether physiological integration can increase the ability of phalanx clonal plants to withstand defoliation. On a high mountain grassland in southwestern China, we subjected the phalanx clonal plant Iris delavayi within 10cm×10cm plots to three levels of defoliation intensity, i.e., control (no defoliation), moderate (50% shoot removal to simulate moderate herbivory) and heavy defoliation (100% shoot removal to simulate heavy herbivory), and kept rhizomes at the plot edges connected (allowing physiological integration) or disconnected (preventing integration) with intact ramets outside the plots...
March 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342331/drought-stress-obliterates-the-preference-for-ammonium-as-an-n-source-in-the-c4-plant-spartina-alterniflora
#17
Kamel Hessini, Herbert J Kronzucker, Chedly Abdelly, Cristina Cruz
The C4 grass Spartina alterniflora is known for its unique salt tolerance and strong preference for ammonium (NH4(+)) as a nitrogen (N) source. We here examined whether Spartina's unique preference for NH4(+) results in improved performance under drought stress. Manipulative greenhouse experiments were carried out to measure the effects of variable water availability and inorganic N sources on plant performance (growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant, and N metabolism). Drought strongly reduced leaf number and area, plant fresh and dry weight, and photosynthetic activity on all N sources, but the reduction was most pronounced on NH4(+)...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341699/genomic-comparison-of-indigenous-african-and-northern-european-chickens-reveals-putative-mechanisms-of-stress-tolerance-related-to-environmental-selection-pressure
#18
Damarius S Fleming, Steffen Weigend, Henner Simianer, Annett Weigend, Max Rothschild, Carl Schmidt, Christopher Ashwell, Mike Persia, James Reecy, Susan J Lamont
Global climate change is increasing the magnitude of environmental stressors, such as temperature, pathogens, and drought that limit survivability and sustainability of livestock production. Poultry production and its expansion are dependent upon robust animals that are able to cope with stressors in multiple environments. Understanding the genetic strategies that indigenous, non-commercial breeds have evolved to survive in their environment could help to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying biological traits of environmental adaptation...
March 24, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341056/temporal-changes-in-plasma-markers-of-oxidative-stress-following-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-in-subjects-with-impaired-glucose-regulation
#19
Sarah L Prior, Jonathan D Barry, Scott Caplin, Thinzar Min, Danielle A Grant, Jeffrey W Stephens
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective treatment for obesity and associated metabolic complications. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased oxidative stress. Previous studies have examined changes in plasma oxidative stress after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, but there is limited evidence of the effects of LSG. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of LSG on plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant status (TAOS) at 1 and 6 months after LSG in patients with obesity and impaired glucose regulation...
February 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341024/-biochemical-basis-of-tolerance-to-osmotic-stress-in-phytopathogenic-fungus-the-case-of-macrophomina-phaseolina-tassi-goid
#20
Rodolfo Martínez-Villarreal, Tamar S Garza-Romero, Víctor R Moreno-Medina, Sanjuana Hernández-Delgado, Netzahualcoyotl Mayek-Pérez
Fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. is the causative agent of charcoal rot disease which causes significant yield losses in major crops such as maize, sorghum, soybean and common beans in Mexico. This fungus is a facultative parasite which shows broad ability to adapt itself to stressed environments where water deficits and/or high temperature stresses commonly occur. These environmental conditions are common for most cultivable lands throughout Mexico. Here we describe some basic facts related to the etiology and epidemiology of the fungus as well as to the importance of responses to stressed environments, particularly to water deficits, based on morphology and growth traits, as well as on physiology, biochemistry and pathogenicity of fungus M...
October 2016: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
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