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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783107/effect-of-cd-on-growth-physiological-response-cd-subcellular-distribution-and-chemical-forms-of-koelreuteria-paniculata
#1
Lan Peng Yang, Jian Zhu, Ping Wang, Jing Zeng, Rong Tan, Yu Zhong Yang, Zhi Ming Liu
Koelreuteria paniculata were cultivated in nutrient solution with different concentrations of Cd (0, 50, 150, 250 and 500 µM) and sampled after 90 days. The resistance, translocation, accumulation and stress responses in Koelreuteria paniculata were investigated by hydroponic experiments. The results showed that Koelreuteria paniculata is an efficient Cd excluder that can tolerate high concentrations of Cd (up to 150-250 µM of Cd). The concentration of Cd never exceeds 5 ppm in leaves and 10 ppm in roots...
May 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783097/regulation-of-phytosterol-biosynthetic-pathway-during-drought-stress-in-rice
#2
M S Sujith Kumar, Ibandalin Mawlong, Kishwar Ali, Aruna Tyagi
Plants respond to drought stress in the form of various physio-biochemical and molecular changes at both cellular and molecular levels. Drought stress causes the destruction of cell membranes by disintegration of membrane lipids. One of the major groups of membrane lipids that plays important role in preserving the integrity of cell membranes is phytosterols. HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) is the principal enzyme in the biosynthesis of plant sterols, synthesized via mevalonic acid pathway. Phospholipid: sterol acyltransferase (PSAT) is another important enzyme that plays an important role in turnover of phytosterols into steryl esters and helps maintain homeostasis of membrane lipids...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783045/factors-affecting-gene-expression-and-activity-of-heme-and-manganese-dependent-catalases-in-lactobacillus-casei-strains
#3
Annamaria Ricciardi, Rocco Gerardo Ianniello, Eugenio Parente, Teresa Zotta
Catalases reduce oxidative stress by degrading hydrogen peroxide to molecular oxygen and water. The presence of heme-dependent or manganese-dependent catalases was observed for a long time in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) but, to date, knowledge on the factors affecting gene expression and enzymatic functionality are limited to a very few strains. In this study, the effect of atmosphere of incubation (not aerated static growth vs aerated shaken growth) and supplementation with Fe2+ , hemin, Mn2+ or their combinations on the catalase production of respiration-competent strain Lactobacillus casei N87 was evaluated using a 24 factorial design...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782030/the-genomes-of-three-bradyrhizobium-sp-isolated-from-root-nodules-of-lupinus-albescens-grown-in-extremely-poor-soils-display-important-genes-for-resistance-to-environmental-stress
#4
Camille E Granada, Luciano K Vargas, Fernando Hayashi Sant'Anna, Eduardo Balsanelli, Valter Antonio de Baura, Fábio de Oliveira Pedrosa, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza, Tiago Falcon, Luciane M P Passaglia
Lupinus albescens is a resistant cover plant that establishes symbiotic relationships with bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhizobium genus. This symbiosis helps the development of these plants in adverse environmental conditions, such as the ones found in arenized areas of Southern Brazil. This work studied three Bradyrhizobium sp. (AS23, NAS80 and NAS96) isolated from L. albescens plants that grow in extremely poor soils (arenized areas and adjacent grasslands). The genomes of these three strains were sequenced in the Ion Torrent platform using the IonXpress library preparation kit, and presented a total number of bases of 1,230,460,823 for AS23, 1,320,104,022 for NAS80, and 1,236,105,093 for NAS96...
May 17, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782021/exploring-the-root-microbiome-extracting-bacterial-community-data-from-the-soil-rhizosphere-and-root-endosphere
#5
Tuesday Simmons, Daniel F Caddell, Siwen Deng, Devin Coleman-Derr
The intimate interaction between plant host and associated microorganisms is crucial in determining plant fitness, and can foster improved tolerance to abiotic stresses and diseases. As the plant microbiome can be highly complex, low-cost, high-throughput methods such as amplicon-based sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene are often preferred for characterizing its microbial composition and diversity. However, the selection of appropriate methodology when conducting such experiments is critical for reducing biases that can make analysis and comparisons between samples and studies difficult...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781573/overexpression-of-ostf1l-a-rice-hd-zip-transcription-factor-promotes-lignin-biosynthesis-and-stomatal-closure-that-improves-drought-tolerance
#6
Seung Woon Bang, Dong-Keun Lee, Harin Jung, Pil Joong Chung, Youn Shic Kim, Yang Do Choi, Joo-Won Suh, Ju-Kon Kim
Drought stress seriously impacts on plant development and productivity. Improvement of drought tolerance without yield penalty is a great challenge in crop biotechnology. Here, we report that the rice (Oryza sativa) homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor gene, OsTF1L (Oryza sativa transcription factor 1-like), is a key regulator of drought tolerance mechanisms. Overexpression of the OsTF1L in rice significantly increased drought tolerance at the vegetative stages of growth and promoted both effective photosynthesis and a reduction in the water loss rate under drought conditions...
May 21, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781184/pre-operative-dobutamine-stress-echocardiography-in-patients-undergoing-orthotopic-liver-transplantation
#7
Krishna K Patel, Laura Young, William Carey, Kathryn A Kohn, Richard A Grimm, L Leonardo Rodriguez, Brian P Griffin, Milind Y Desai
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with increased mortality in patients that undergo orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Due to chronic vasodilatory state and poor exercise tolerance in patients with end stage liver disease, dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) is preferred for preoperative evaluation of CAD prior to OLT. We sought to a) study the incidence of positive DSE results and b) test whether there is an association between DSE results and perioperative and longer-term events...
May 20, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780373/regulation-mechanism-mediated-by-trans-encoded-srna-nc117-in-short-chain-alcohols-tolerance-in-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803
#8
Yanqi Bi, Guangsheng Pei, Tao Sun, Zixi Chen, Lei Chen, Weiwen Zhang
Microbial small RNAs (sRNAs) play essential roles against many stress conditions in cyanobacteria. However, little is known on their regulatory mechanisms on biofuels tolerance. In our previous sRNA analysis, a trans -encoded sRNA Nc117 was found involved in the tolerance to ethanol and 1-butanol in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. However, its functional mechanism is yet to be determined. In this study, functional characterization of sRNA Nc117 was performed. Briefly, the exact length of the trans -encoded sRNA Nc117 was determined to be 102 nucleotides using 3' RACE, and the positive regulation of Nc117 on short chain alcohols tolerance was further confirmed...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780356/physiological-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-methionine-restriction
#9
REVIEW
Mary Neslund Latimer, Khalid Walid Freij, Beth M Cleveland, Peggy R Biga
Methionine restriction (MR) has been studied extensively over the last 25 years for its role in altering metabolic hallmarks of disease. Animals subjected to MR, display changes in metabolic flexibility demonstrated by increases in energy expenditure, glucose tolerance, and lifespan. These changes have been well characterized in a number of model systems and significant progress has been made in understanding how hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 links MR to several components of its metabolic phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780273/ectopic-ring-zinc-finger-gene-from-hot-pepper-induces-totally-different-genes-in-lettuce-and-tobacco
#10
Mahipal Singh Kesawat, Dong Kyun Kim, Naheed Zeba, Mi Chung Suh, Xinli Xia, Choo Bong Hong
Advances in molecular biology have improved crops through transferring genes from one organism to new hosts, and these efforts have raised concerns about potential unexpected outcomes. Here, we provide evidence that a gene with a specific function in one organism can yield completely different effects in a new host. CaRZFP1 is a C3HC4-type RING zinc finger protein gene previously isolated from a cDNA library for heat-stressed hot pepper. In our previous work investigating in vivo CaRZFP1 function, we transferred CaRZFP1 into tobacco; transgenic tobacco exhibited enhanced growth and tolerance to abiotic stresses...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780215/expression-of-a-rice-soluble-starch-synthase-gene-in-transgenic-wheat-improves-the-grain-yield-under-heat-stress-conditions
#11
Bin Tian, Shyamal K Talukder, Jianming Fu, Allan K Fritz, Harold N Trick
Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is a temperate cereal with an optimum temperature range of 15-22°C during the grain filling stage. Heat stress is one of the major environmental constraints for wheat production worldwide. Temperatures above 25°C during the grain filling stage significantly reduced wheat yield and quality. This reduction was reported due to the inactivation of the soluble starch synthase, a key heat-labile enzyme in starch transformation of wheat endosperm. To improve wheat productivity under heat stress, the rice soluble starch synthase I, under the control of either a constitutive promoter or an endosperm-specific promoter, was expressed in wheat and the transgenic lines were monitored for expression and the effects on yield-related traits...
2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Plant: Journal of the Tissue Culture Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780062/effect-of-chlorella-ingestion-on-oxidative-stress-and-fatigue-symptoms-in-healthy-men
#12
Hirotaka Okada, Noriko Yoshida, Tatsuyuki Kakuma, Kouji Toyomasu
OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of dietary chlorella ingestion on oxidative stress and fatigue symptoms in healthy men under resting and fatigue conditions. METHOD: We conducted a double-blind, parallel-arm controlled study. Twenty-seven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 35.4±10.4 years) were randomly divided into the chlorella and placebo groups, and received chlorella (6 g/day) and lactose as placebo (7.2 g/day), respectively, for 4 weeks. To simulate mild fatigue, subjects underwent exercise (40% of the heart rate reserve) for 30 minutes...
May 21, 2018: Kurume Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779966/developing-and-deploying-climate-resilient-maize-varieties-in-the-developing-world
#13
REVIEW
Jill E Cairns, B M Prasanna
In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Asia maize yields remain variable due to climate shocks. Over the past decade extensive progress has been made on the development and delivery of climate-resilient maize. In 2016 over 70000 metric tonnes of drought-tolerant maize seed was commercialized in 13 countries in SSA, benefiting an estimated 53 million people. Significant progress is also being made with regard to the development and deployment of elite heat-tolerant maize varieties in South Asia. Increased genetic gain in grain yield under stress-prone environments, coupled with faster replacement of old/obsolete varieties, through intensive engagement with seed companies is essential to protect maize crops grown by smallholders from the changing climates in SSA and Asia...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779706/plant-water-transport-and-aquaporins-in-oxygen-deprived-environments
#14
Xiangfeng Tan, Hao Xu, Shanjida Khan, Maria A Equiza, Seong H Lee, Maryamsadat Vaziriyeganeh, Janusz J Zwiazek
Oxygen deprivation commonly affects plants exposed to flooding and soil compaction. The resulting root hypoxia has an immediate effect on plant water relations and upsets water balance. Hypoxia inhibits root water transport and triggers stomatal closure. The processes contributing to the inhibition of root hydraulic conductivity and conductance (hydraulic conductivity of the whole root system) are complex and involve changes in root morphology and the functions of aquaporins. Aquaporins (AQPs) comprise a group of membrane intrinsic proteins that are responsible for the transport of water, as well as some small neutral solutes and ions...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779078/effects-of-elevated-pressure-on-pseudanabaena-galeata-b%C3%A3-cher-in-varying-light-and-dark-environments
#15
Helayaye Damitha Lakmali Abeynayaka, Takashi Asaeda, M Harun Rashid
To understand the effect of the hydrostatic pressure on Pseudanabaena galeata Böcher cells in both stratified and frequently mixed lakes, separate laboratory-scale models were developed. The pressure conditions in the stratified and mixed lakes were simulated in those models, and the variations of the cell and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration were analyzed. It was observed that an increase in pressure and darkness significantly reduced the cell concentration and pigmentation in P. galeata (p < 0...
May 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778839/spermidine-mediated-hydrogen-peroxide-signaling-enhances-the-antioxidant-capacity-of-salt-stressed-cucumber-roots
#16
Jianqiang Wu, Sheng Shu, Chengcheng Li, Jin Sun, Shirong Guo
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is a key signaling molecule that mediates a variety of physiological processes and defense responses against abiotic stress in higher plants. In this study, our aims are to clarify the role of H2 O2 accumulation induced by the exogenous application of spermidine (Spd) to cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings in regulating the antioxidant capacity of roots under salt stress. The results showed that Spd caused a significant increase in endogenous polyamines and H2 O2 levels, and peaked at 2 h after salt stress...
May 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778495/protection-of-photosynthesis-in-desiccation-tolerant-resurrection-plants
#17
Dinakar Challabathula, Qingwei Zhang, Dorothea Bartels
Inhibition of photosynthesis is a central, primary response that is observed in both desiccation-tolerant and desiccation-sensitive plants affected by drought stress. Decreased photosynthesis during drought stress can either be due to the limitation of carbon dioxide entry through the stomata and the mesophyll cells, due to increased oxidative stress or due to decreased activity of photosynthetic enzymes. Although the photosynthetic rates decrease in both desiccation-tolerant and sensitive plants during drought, the remarkable difference lies in the complete recovery of photosynthesis after rehydration in desiccation-tolerant plants...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778468/herd-level-associations-between-human-animal-relationship-management-fecal-cortisol-metabolites-and-udder-health-of-organic-dairy-cows
#18
S Ivemeyer, C Simantke, A Ebinghaus, P H Poulsen, J T Sorensen, T Rousing, R Palme, U Knierim
Impact patterns of human-animal relationship (HAR) and herd stress level on udder health were investigated in a cross-sectional study on 30 German and Danish organic dairy herds also taking into account influencing factors regarding housing and management. Cow behavior (avoidance distance, tolerance to tactile interaction, release behavior) was assessed in tests, milkers' behavior recorded during milking, and information about contacts with animals during routine work gathered by interview. Additionally, stockpersons' attitudes were recorded via questionnaires...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777502/oxi1-kinase-plays-a-key-role-in-resistance-of-arabidopsis-towards-aphids-myzus-persicae
#19
Tahsin Shoala, Martin G Edwards, Marc R Knight, Angharad M R Gatehouse
Plants have co-evolved with a diverse array of pathogens and insect herbivores and so have evolved an extensive repertoire of constitutive and induced defence mechanisms activated through complex signalling pathways. OXI1 kinase is required for activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and is an essential part of the signal transduction pathway linking oxidative burst signals to diverse downstream responses. Furthermore, changes in the levels of OXI1 appear to be crucial for appropriate signalling...
May 17, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777132/the-modulation-of-acetic-acid-pathway-genes-in-arabidopsis-improves-survival-under-drought-stress
#20
Sultana Rasheed, Khurram Bashir, Jong-Myong Kim, Marina Ando, Maho Tanaka, Motoaki Seki
The Arabidopsis histone deacetylase 6 (HDA6) mutant exhibits increased tolerance to drought stress by negatively regulating the expression of ALDH2B7 and PDC1. Therefore, it was logical to determine if transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing PDC1 or ALDH2B7 using a suitable promoter would also exhibit tolerance to drought stress. An analysis of published microarray data indicated the up-regulation of the TSPO gene, which encodes an outer membrane tryptophan-rich sensory protein (TSPO), by drought stress. RT-qPCR, as well as GUS analysis of the promoter, confirmed the up-regulation of TSPO by drought stress in Arabidopsis roots and shoots...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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