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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906059/a-mitochondrial-hsp70-hspa9b-is-linked-to-miltefosine-resistance-and-stress-response-in-leishmania-donovani
#1
P Vacchina, B Norris-Mullins, E S Carlson, M A Morales
BACKGROUND: Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania are responsible for leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease affecting millions worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania donovani, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis with high rates of mortality if left untreated. Current treatments include pentavalent antimonials and amphotericin B. However, high toxicity and emergence of resistance hinder the success of these options. Miltefosine (HePC) is the first oral treatment available for leishmaniasis...
December 1, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902265/oharaeibacter-diazotrophicus-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-diazotrophic-and-facultatively-methylotrophic-bacterium-isolated-from-rice-rhizosphere
#2
Haoxin Lv, Sachiko Masuda, Yoshiko Fujitani, Nurettin Sahin, Akio Tani
A new facultative methanol-utilizing bacterial strain SM30T was isolated from rice rhizosphere. Strain SM30T was Gram-stain negative, aerobic, motile, short rod, and grows optimally at pH 7 and at 28°C. It can tolerate 0 to 2% concentration of NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain SM30T was most closely related to Pleomorphomonas oryzae DSM 16300T, with low similarity of 94.17%. As one of the lanthanide metals, lanthanum could enhance its growth on methanol slightly. Phylogenetic trees based on mxaF, xoxF, and cpn60 genes of SM30T showed its distinct phylogenetic positions with known species...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902239/mucilaginibacter-psychrotolerans-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-riganqiao-peatlands-on-the-tibetan-plateau
#3
Yongcui Deng, Liang Shen, Baiqin Xu, Yongqin Liu, Zhengquan Gu, Hongcan Liu, Yuguang Zhou
A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped without flagella, pink colored, cold-tolerate bacteria strain NH7-4T was isolated from Riganqiao peatlands on the Tibetan Plateau. The novel isolate was classified into the genus Mucilaginibacter. 16S rRNA gene sequence of the novel isolate shares a pairwise similarity ranging from 96.69% to 93.41% with the type strains of the genus Mucilaginibacter. Growth of strain NH7-4T occurred between 0 and 30 °C and at pH 5.0-9.0, with optimum at 20 °C and pH about 7.0. The major isoprenoid quinone is MK-7...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898959/heritabilities-and-genetic-correlations-of-pulmonary-arterial-pressure-and-performance-traits-in-angus-cattle-at-high-altitude
#4
N F Crawford, M G Thomas, T N Holt, S E Speidel, R M Enns
Pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) is an indicator trait for pulmonary hypertension and for the risk of developing high-altitude disease (HAD) in cattle. Pulmonary arterial pressures provide a tool for selection of breeding cattle for tolerance to high altitude in mountainous regions of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate relationships between growth performance traits and yearling PAP (42.4 ± 9.9 mmHg; = 5,776; elevation 2,150 m) using data from 1993 to 2014 in the John E. Rouse Colorado State University Beef Improvement Center (CSU-BIC) Angus herd...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890094/functional-expression-production-and-biochemical-characterization-of-a-laccase-using-yeast-surface-display-technology
#5
Brandt Bertrand, María R Trejo-Hernández, Daniel Morales-Guzmán, Luis Caspeta, Ramón Suárez Rodríguez, Fernando Martínez-Morales
A Trametes versicolor laccase was functionally expressed on the membrane surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY100. Laccase expression was increased 6.57-fold by medium optimization and surpassed production by the native strain. Maximal laccase and biomass production reached 19 735 ± 1719 Ug(-1) and 6.22 ± 0.53 gL(-1) respectively, after 2 d of culture. Optimum oxidization of all substrates by laccase was observed at pH 3. Laccase showed high affinity towards substrates used with Km (mM) and Vmax (μmol min(-1)) values of 0...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889173/variability-in-the-adaptive-acid-tolerance-response-phenotype-of-salmonella-enterica-strains
#6
Alexandra Lianou, George-John E Nychas, Konstantinos P Koutsoumanis
The objective of this study was the assessment of the stationary-phase, low-pH-inducible acid tolerance response (ATR) of different Salmonella enterica strains. For this purpose, 30 strains of the pathogen were grown in tryptone soy broth in the absence (non-adapted cultures) and presence (1% w/v; acid-adapted cultures) of glucose, and then subjected to 4-h acid challenge trials at pH 3.0. Surviving populations of each strain were determined at 1-h intervals, and the Weibull model was fitted to the derived microbiological data...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860267/a-phase-i-randomized-study-of-a-specifically-engineered-ph-sensitive-pcsk9-inhibitor-rn317-pf-05335810-in-hypercholesterolemic-subjects-on-statin-therapy
#7
M Levisetti, T Joh, H Wan, H Liang, P Forgues, B Gumbiner, P D Garzone
This phase I study assessed the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of RN317 (PF-05335810), a specifically engineered, pH-sensitive, humanized proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibody, in hypercholesterolemic subjects (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥ 80 mg/dl) 18-70 years old receiving statin therapy. Subjects were randomized to: single-dose placebo, RN317 (subcutaneous (s.c.) 0.3, 1, 3, 6, or intravenous (i.v.) 1, 3, 6 mg/kg), or bococizumab (s...
November 17, 2016: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857705/isolation-identification-and-characterization-of-yeasts-from-fermented-goat-milk-of-the-yaghnob-valley-in-tajikistan
#8
Linnea A Qvirist, Carlotta De Filippo, Francesco Strati, Irene Stefanini, Maddalena Sordo, Thomas Andlid, Giovanna E Felis, Paola Mattarelli, Duccio Cavalieri
The geographically isolated region of the Yaghnob Valley, Tajikistan, has allowed its inhabitants to maintain a unique culture and lifestyle. Their fermented goat milk constitutes one of the staple foods for the Yaghnob population, and is produced by backslopping, i.e., using the previous fermentation batch to inoculate the new one. This study addresses the yeast composition of the fermented milk, assessing genotypic, and phenotypic properties. The 52 isolates included in this study revealed small species diversity, belonging to Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia fermentans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and one Kazachstania unispora...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852454/characterization-of-poly-allylamine-as-a-polymeric-ligand-for-ion-exchange-protein-chromatography
#9
Ming Li, Yanying Li, Linling Yu, Yan Sun
This work reports poly(allylamine) (PAA), as a polymeric ion-exchange ligand for protein chromatography. Sepharose FF was modified with PAA, and six anion exchangers with ionic capacities (ICs) from 165 to 618mmol/L were prepared. Inverse size exclusion chromatography, adsorption equilibrium, uptake kinetics and column elution were performed. It was found that both the adsorption capacity and effective diffusivity maintained low values in the IC range of 165-373mmol/L, but they started to increase beyond 373mmol/L, and increased by 80% and 23 times, respectively, when the IC reached 618mmol/L...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826291/identification-of-genes-required-for-growth-of-escherichia-coli-mg1655-at-moderately-low-ph
#10
Bram Vivijs, Abram Aertsen, Chris W Michiels
The survival of some pathotypes of Escherichia coli in very low pH environments like highly acidic foods and the stomach has been well documented and contributes to their success as foodborne pathogens. In contrast, the ability of E. coli to grow at moderately low pH has received less attention, although this property can be anticipated to be also very important for the safety of mildly acidic foods. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify cellular functions required for growth of the non-pathogenic strain E...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818658/probiotic-properties-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-rypr1-from-an-indigenous-fermented-beverage-raabadi
#11
Ruby Yadav, Anil K Puniya, Pratyoosh Shukla
Present study documents the potential probiotic Lactobacillus isolated from indigenous fermented beverage Raabadi, consumed during summers in Haryana and Rajasthan regions of India. A total of five Raabadi samples were collected aseptically and 54 isolates were purified using MRS medium. All the isolates were assessed for tolerance to low pH and bile salts. It was observed that out of 54 only 24 isolates could survive the simulated gastric conditions. These isolates were further evaluated in vitro for cell surface hydrophobicity, cell surface hydrophobicity, hypocholesteramic activity, anti-oxidative potential, BSH activity, antagonistic activity, and antibiotic resistance profile...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815348/the-cghaa1-regulon-mediates-response-and-tolerance-to-acetic-acid-stress-in-the-human-pathogen-candida-glabrata
#12
Ruben T Bernardo, Diana V Cunha, Can Wang, Leonel Pereira, Sónia Silva, Sara B Salazar, Markus S Schröder, Michiyo Okamoto, Azusa Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Hiroji Chibana, Toshihiro Aoyama, Isabel Sá-Correia, Joana Azeredo, Geraldine Butler, Nuno Pereira Mira
To thrive in the acidic vaginal tract C. glabrata has to cope with high concentrations of acetic acid. The mechanisms underlying C. glabrata tolerance to acetic acid at low pH remain largely uncharacterized. In this work it is demonstrated the essential role of the CgHaa1 transcription factor (encoded by ORF CAGL0L09339g) in the response and tolerance of C. glabrata to acetic acid. Transcriptomic analysis showed that CgHaa1 regulates, directly or indirectly, the expression of about 75% of the genes activated under acetic acid stress...
November 4, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815194/evolutionary-engineering-reveals-divergent-paths-when-yeast-is-adapted-to-different-acidic-environments
#13
Eugene Fletcher, Amir Feizi, Markus M M Bisschops, Björn M Hallström, Sakda Khoomrung, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
Tolerance of yeast to acid stress is important for many industrial processes including organic acid production. Therefore, elucidating the molecular basis of long term adaptation to acidic environments will be beneficial for engineering production strains to thrive under such harsh conditions. Previous studies using gene expression analysis have suggested that both organic and inorganic acids display similar responses during short term exposure to acidic conditions. However, biological mechanisms that will lead to long term adaptation of yeast to acidic conditions remains unknown and whether these mechanisms will be similar for tolerance to both organic and inorganic acids is yet to be explored...
November 1, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798688/adaptive-response-of-listeria-monocytogenes-to-heat-salinity-and-low-ph-after-habituation-on-cherry-tomatoes-and-lettuce-leaves
#14
Sofia V Poimenidou, Danai-Natalia Chatzithoma, George-John Nychas, Panagiotis N Skandamis
Pathogens found on fresh produce may encounter low temperatures, high acidity and limited nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of habituation of Listeria monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes or lettuce leaves on its subsequent response to inhibitory levels of acid, osmotic and heat stress. Habituation was performed by inoculating lettuce coupons, whole cherry tomatoes or tryptic soy broth (TSB) with a three-strains composite of L. monocytogenes, which were further incubated at 5°C for 24 hours or 5 days...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790973/acidogenicity-and-acid-tolerance-of-streptococcus-oralis-and-streptococcus-mitis-isolated-from-plaque-of-healthy-and-incipient-caries-teeth
#15
Jeffrey A Banas, Min Zhu, Deborah V Dawson, Derek R Blanchette, David R Drake, Hongjie Gu, Ryan Frost, Grant McCaulley, Steven M Levy
BACKGROUND: Non-mutans low pH oral streptococci are postulated to contribute to caries etiology. OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to investigate whether the acidogenicity and acid tolerance of clinical strains of Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus mitis correlate with health or early-stage enamel caries. DESIGN: S. oralis and S. mitis were isolated from plaque samples taken from the occlusal surfaces of second molars sampled at two different visits 4 years apart...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790831/strain-improvement-of-pichia-kudriavzevii-ty13-for-raised-phytase-production-and-reduced-phosphate-repression
#16
Linnea Qvirist, Egor Vorontsov, Jenny Veide Vilg, Thomas Andlid
In this work, we present the development and characterization of a strain of Pichia kudriavzevii (TY1322), with highly improved phytate-degrading capacity. The mutant strain TY1322 shows a biomass-specific phytate degradation of 1.26 mmol g(-1)  h(-1) after 8 h of cultivation in a high-phosphate medium, which is about 8 times higher compared with the wild-type strain. Strain TY1322 was able to grow at low pH (pH 2), at high temperature (46°C) and in the presence of ox bile (2% w/v), indicating this strain's ability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract...
October 28, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782402/3d-printing-of-photoresponsive-biomaterials-for-control-of-bacterial-microenvironments
#17
Jodi L Connell, Eric T Ritschdorff, Jason B Shear
Advances in microscopic three-dimensional (µ3D) printing provide a means to microfabricate an almost limitless range of arbitrary geometries, offering new opportunities to rapidly prototype complex architectures for microfluidic and cellular applications. Such 3D lithographic capabilities present the tantalizing prospect for engineering micromechanical components - for example, pumps and valves - for cellular environments comprised of smart materials whose size, shape, permeability, stiffness, and other attributes might be modified in real time to precisely manipulate ultra-low-volume samples...
October 26, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776295/behavioral-responses-of-arctica-islandica-bivalvia-arcticidae-to-simulated-leakages-of-carbon-dioxide-from-sub-sea-geological-storage
#18
Shaw D Bamber, Stig Westerlund
Sub-sea geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) provides a viable option for the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) approach for reducing atmospheric emissions of this greenhouse gas. Although generally considered to offer a low risk of major leakage, it remains relevant to establish the possible consequences for marine organisms that live in or on sediments overlying these storage areas if such an event may occur. The present study has used a series of laboratory exposures and behavioral bioassays to establish the sensitivity of Arctica islandica to simulated leakages of CO2...
October 11, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773233/physiochemical-and-cytotoxicity-study-of-tpgs-stabilized-nanoemulsion-designed-by-ultrasonication-method
#19
Khushwinder Kaur, Raj Kumar, Arpita, Sumit Goel, Shivani Uppal, Alka Bhatia, S K Mehta
The main aim of the present work was to prepare TPGS stabilized D-α-Tocopherol, lemon oil, tween-80, and water nanoemulsion by low cost and highly effective sonication method. The prepared nanoemulsion showed good stability for 60days at variable temperature conditions i.e. 4, 25 and 37°C. The tolerance of the prepared nanoemulsion to salt (50mM-500mM) and pH (pH 2-pH 7.4) was also studied. The morphology and droplet size of pure and quinine loaded nanoemulsion was characterized with transmission electron microscopy...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762540/electro-photodynamic-visualization-of-singlet-oxygen-induced-by-zinc-porphyrin-modified-microchip-in-aqueous-media
#20
Chuanguang Yao, Hongxin Song, Ying Wan, Kefeng Ma, Chenyu Zheng, Hongda Cui, Peng Xin, Xubo Ji, Sheng-Yuan Deng
A porphyrin-based electro-photodynamic imaging system was fabricated for monitoring the concentration of oxygen. Distinct from the electrochemiluminescent (ECL) inability of numerous organic species in aqueous solutions, a strong and stable red irradiation at 634 nm could be stimulated electrochemically on zinc(II) meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl) porphine (ZnTCPP)/tetraoctylammonium bromide (TOAB) in the physiological condition. In terms of in situ electron paramagnetic resonance and ECL spectroscopies, the nature of ECL was thoroughly investigated, being exactly the chemiluminescence from singlet oxygen (1O2) produced during the successive electro-reduction of ZnTCPP...
October 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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