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Low ph tolerance

Chuanguang Yao, Hongxin Song, Ying Wan, Kefeng Ma, Chenyu Zheng, Hongda Cui, Peng Xin, Xubo Ji, Sheng-Yuan Deng
A porphyrin-based electro-photodynamic imaging system was fabricated for monitoring the concentration of oxygen. Distinct from the electrochemiluminescent (ECL) inability of numerous organic species in aqueous solutions, a strong and stable red irradiation at 634 nm could be stimulated electrochemically on zinc(II) meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl) porphine (ZnTCPP)/tetraoctylammonium bromide (TOAB) in the physiological condition. In terms of in situ electron paramagnetic resonance and ECL spectroscopies, the nature of ECL was thoroughly investigated, being exactly the chemiluminescence from singlet oxygen (1O2) produced during the successive electro-reduction of ZnTCPP...
October 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jizhe Sun, Huimin Yu, Jie Chen, Hui Luo, Zhongyao Shen
Rhodococcus ruber TH was selected as a parent strain to engineer for biomanufacturing of ammonium acrylate; the characteristics of this strain included accelerated growth rate, high cell tolerance and natively overexpressed nitrile hydratase (NHase). Transcriptome analysis revealed that the transcription levels of the native NHase, amidase and nitrilase were extremely high, moderate and extremely low, respectively. Through NHase-amidase double-knockout and amidase single-knockout, the engineered strains R. ruber THdAdN and R...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Kirsten Rowcliff, Koert de Waal, Abdel-Latif Mohamed, Tejasvi Chaudhari
: Noradrenaline (NA) is beneficial in the treatment of term newborns with cardiovascular compromise due to sepsis or pulmonary hypertension, but experiences with NA in preterm infants are limited. The aim of this study is to describe the efficacy and safety of NA in preterm infants. Patient records of preterm infants ≤32 weeks' gestation admitted to two hospitals between 2004 and 2015 and who received NA were reviewed for perinatal morbidities and mortality. Clinical details were collected at the time of NA use, and response on blood pressure, perfusion and oxygenation was documented as well as possible side effects...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Joshua R Hancock, Sean P Place
As we move into the Anthropocene, organisms inhabiting marine environments will continue to face growing challenges associated with changes in ocean pH (ocean acidification), dissolved oxygen (dead zones) and temperature. These factors, in combination with naturally variable environments such as the rocky intertidal zone, may create extreme physiological challenges for organisms that are already performing near their biological limits. Although numerous studies have examined the impacts of climate-related stressors on intertidal animals, little is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms driving adaptation to ocean acidification and how this may alter organism interactions, particularly in marine vertebrates...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Araceli Rodríguez-Romero, Michael D Jarrold, Gloria Massamba-N'Siala, John I Spicer, Piero Calosi
Little is known of the capacity that marine metazoans have to evolve under rapid p CO 2 changes. Consequently, we reared a marine polychaete, Ophryotrocha labronica, previously cultured for approximately 33 generations under a low/variable pH regime, under elevated and low p CO 2 for six generations. The strain used was found to be tolerant to elevated p CO 2 conditions. In generations F1 and F2 females' fecundity was significantly lower in the low p CO 2 treatment. However, from generation F3 onwards there were no differences between p CO 2 treatments, indicating that trans-generational effects enabled the restoration and maintenance of reproductive output...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
Mai Yamamoto, Ritchie Ly, Biban Gill, Yujie Zhu, Jose Moran-Mirabal, Philip Britz-McKibbin
Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) represents a high efficiency microscale separation platform for untargeted profiling of polar/ionic metabolites that is ideal for volume-restricted biological specimens with minimal sample workup. Despite these advantages, the long-term stability of CE-MS remains a major obstacle hampering its widespread application in metabolomics notably for routine analysis of anionic metabolites under negative ion mode conditions. Herein, we report for the first time that commonly used ammonia containing buffers compatible with electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS can compromise the integrity of fused-silica capillaries via aminolysis of their outer polyimide coating...
October 10, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Madushini N Dharmasena, Catherine M Feuille, Carly Elizabeth C Starke, Arvind A Bhagwat, Scott Stibitz, Dennis J Kopecko
The licensed oral, live-attenuated bacterial vaccine for typhoid fever, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a, has also been utilized as a vaccine delivery platform for expression of diverse foreign antigens that stimulate protection against shigellosis, anthrax, plague, or human papilloma virus. However, Ty21a is acid-labile and, for effective oral immunization, stomach acidity has to be either neutralized with buffer or by-passed with Ty21a in an enteric-coated capsule (ECC). Several studies have shown that efficacy is reduced when Ty21a is administered in an ECC versus as a buffered liquid formulation, the former limiting exposure to GI tract lymphoid tissues...
2016: PloS One
Luis Felipe Pineda De Castro, Mark Dopson, Ran Friedman
Archaea such as Sulfolobus acidocaldarius tolerate extreme temperatures and high acidity and can grow in the presence of toxic metals and low concentrations of Na(+) or K(+). It is believed that their unique tetraether membranes protect them from harsh environments and allow their survival under such conditions. We used molecular dynamics simulations to study membranes comprising glycerol dialkylnonitol tetraether lipids, which are the main component of S. acidocaldarius membranes, in solutions containing different concentrations of NaCl and KCl or with Na(+) or K(+) counterions (trace cations, 0 M)...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Linlin Ma, Fan Yang, Simon Vu, Jie Zheng
TRPV1 is a polymodal nociceptor for diverse physical and chemical stimuli that interact with different parts of the channel protein. Recent cryo-EM studies revealed detailed channel structures, opening the door for mapping structural elements mediating activation by each stimulus. Towards this goal, here we have combined unstructured peptide-insertion screening (UPS) with electrophysiological and fluorescence recordings to explore structural and functional roles of the intracellular regions of TRPV1 in mediating various activation stimuli...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Dongni Yan, Xiaobao Lin, Yanli Qi, Hui Liu, Xiulai Chen, Liming Liu, Jian Chen
The asexual facultative aerobic haploid yeast Candida glabrata is widely used in the industrial production of various organic acids. To elucidate the physiological function of the transcription factor CgCrz1p and its role in tolerance to acid stress we deleted or overexpressed the corresponding gene CgCRZ1 Deletion of CgCRZ1 resulted in a 60% decrease in dry cell weight (DCW) and a 50% drop in cell viability compared to the wild type at pH 2.0. Expression of lipid metabolism-associated genes was also significantly down-regulated...
September 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Xiao Huang, Jie Bai, Kui-Ran Li, Yang-Guo Zhao, Wei-Jun Tian, Jia-Jia Dang
To achieve a better contaminant removal efficiency in a low-temperature and high-salt environment, two novel strains of cold- and salt-tolerant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), i.e., Ochrobactrum sp. (HXN-1) and Aquamicrobium sp. (HXN-2), were isolated from the surface sediment of Liaohe Estuarine Wetland (LEW), China. The optimization of initial ammonia nitrogen concentration, pH, carbon-nitrogen ratio, and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) to improve the ammonia-oxidation capacity of the two bacterial strains was studied...
September 9, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Youssef Rouphael, Elvira Rea, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Michael Bitterlich, Dietmar Schwarz, Giuseppe Colla
Low-pH and aluminum (Al) stresses are the major constraints that limit crop yield in acidic soils. Grafting vegetable elite cultivars onto appropriate rootstocks may represent an effective tool to improve crop tolerance to acidity and Al toxicity. Two greenhouse hydroponic experiments were performed to evaluate growth, yield, biomass production, chlorophyll index, electrolyte leakage, mineral composition, and assimilate partitioning in plant tissues of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. "Ekron") either non-grafted or grafted onto "P360" (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne; E/C) or figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché; E/F)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Catia Velez, Etelvina Figueira, Amadeu M V M Soares, Rosa Freitas
Marine bivalves have been used to assess environmental As contamination and the effects of seawater acidification when both factors are acting alone, but limited information is available regarding the impacts of both factors acting in combination. The aim of this study was to compare physiological (glycogen) and biochemical (lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and alkaline phosphatase) responses in both native (Ruditapes decussatus) and introduced (R. philippinarum) clams, when exposed to the combined effects of pH (7...
September 10, 2016: Environmental Research
Felipe B Beato, Basti Bergdahl, Carlos A Rosa, Jochen Forster, Andreas K Gombert
Fourteen indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from the barks of three tree species located in the Atlantic Rain Forest and Cerrado biomes in Brazil were genetically and physiologically compared to laboratory strains and to strains from the Brazilian fuel ethanol industry. Although no clear correlation could be found either between phenotype and isolation spot or between phenotype and genomic lineage, a set of indigenous strains with superior industrially relevant traits over commonly known industrial and laboratory strains was identified: strain UFMG-CM-Y257 has a very high specific growth rate on sucrose (0...
November 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Yurong Gu, Wenyi Dong, Cheng Luo, Tongzhou Liu
Hydrated electron (eaq(-)) induced reduction techniques are promising for decomposing recalcitrant organic pollutants. However, its vigorous reactivity with copresent scavenging species and the difficulty in minimizing the competitive reactions make the proportion of eaq(-) participating in pollutant decomposition low, reflecting by slow decomposition kinetics. In this study, a high photon flux UV/sulfite system was employed to promote eaq(-) production. Its feasibility in enhancing a notorious recalcitrant pollutant, PFOS, decomposition was investigated...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Akinori Matsushika, Kanako Negi, Toshihiro Suzuki, Tetsuya Goshima, Tamotsu Hoshino
The use of yeasts tolerant to acid (low pH) and salt stress is of industrial importance for several bioproduction processes. To identify new candidate genes having potential roles in low-pH tolerance, we screened an expression genomic DNA library of a multiple-stress-tolerant yeast, Issatchenkia orientalis (Pichia kudriavzevii), for clones that allowed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to grow under highly acidic conditions (pH 2.0). A genomic DNA clone containing two putative open reading frames was obtained, of which the putative protein-coding gene comprising 1629 bp was retransformed into the host...
2016: PloS One
Feng Wang, Jingwen Gao, Zhongwei Tian, Yang Liu, Muhammad Abid, Dong Jiang, Weixing Cao, Tingbo Dai
Because soil acidification accompanies ammonium (NH4(+)) stress, the tolerance of higher plants to ammonium is associated with their adaptation to root medium acidification. However, the underlying mechanisms of this adaptation have not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was thus to elucidate the effect of rhizosphere pH on NH4(+) tolerance in different winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were carried out on two wheat cultivars: AK58 (an NH4(+)-sensitive cultivar) and XM25 (an NH4(+)-tolerant cultivar)...
August 12, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Chia Sing Chan, Lee Li Sin, Kok-Gan Chan, Mohd Shahir Shamsir, Fazilah Abd Manan, Rajesh Kumar Sani, Kian Mau Goh
BACKGROUND: In general, biofuel production involves biomass pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification, followed by the subsequent sugar conversion to biofuel via fermentation. The crucial step in the production of biofuel from biomass is the enzymatic saccharification. Many of the commercial cellulase enzyme cocktails, such as Spezyme(®) CP (Genencor), Acellerase™ 1000 (Genencor), and Celluclast(®) 1.5L (Novozymes), are ineffectively to release free glucose from the pretreated biomass without additional β-glucosidase...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Iris da Silva Ferrari, Jane Viana de Souza, Cintia Lacerda Ramos, Mateus Matiuzzi da Costa, Rosane Freitas Schwan, Francesca Silva Dias
This study aimed to select autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic and functional properties from goat dairies and test their addition to artisanal cheese for the inhibition of Salmonella typhi. In vitro tests, including survival in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), auto- and co-aggregation, the hemolytic test, DNase activity, antimicrobial susceptibility, antibacterial activity, tolerance to NaCl and exopolysaccharide (EPS), gas and diacetyl production were conducted for sixty isolates. Based on these tests, four LAB isolates (UNIVASF CAP 16, 45, 84 and 279) were selected and identified...
December 2016: Food Microbiology
Junpei Zhou, Limei He, Yajie Gao, Nanyu Han, Rui Zhang, Qian Wu, Junjun Li, Xianghua Tang, Bo Xu, Junmei Ding, Zunxi Huang
A glycoside hydrolase family 32 invertase from Bacillus sp. HJ14 was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme (rInvHJ14) showed typical biochemical properties of low-temperature-active and alkaline enzymes: (i) rInvHJ14 was active and stable in the range of pH 7.0-9.5 with an apparent pH optimum of 8.0; (ii) rInvHJ14 was most active but not stable at 30-32.5 °C, with 19.7, 48.2 and 82.1% of its maximum activity when assayed at 0, 10 and 20 °C, respectively, and the Ea, ΔG(*) (30 °C), Km (30 °C) and kcat (30 °C) values for hydrolysis of sucrose by rInvHJ14 was 47...
2016: Scientific Reports
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