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Adenylyl cyclases

Jingying Gao, Tao Bai, Lele Ren, Yaqin Ding, Xiangqin Zhong, Hui Wang, Yangyan Guo, Jie Li, Yunfeng Liu, Yi Zhang
Uncarboxylated osteocalcin, a bone matrix protein, has been proposed to regulate glucose metabolism by increasing insulin secretion, improving insulin sensitivity and stimulating β cell proliferation. Our previous study also indicated that uncarboxylated osteocalcin stimulates insulin secretion by inhibiting voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels. The goal of this study is to further investigate the underlying mechanisms for the regulation of Kv channels and insulin secretion by uncarboxylated osteocalcin. Insulin secretion and Kv channel currents were examined by radioimmunoassay and patch-clamp technique, respectively...
October 14, 2016: Peptides
Estelle Louiset, Céline Duparc, Sébastien Lenglet, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez, Hervé Lefebvre
In human adrenal, serotonin (5-HT), produced by mast cells located in zona glomerulosa, stimulates production of corticosteroids through a paracrine mechanism involving the 5-HT receptor type 4 (5-HT4). The aim of the present study was to investigate the transduction mechanisms associated with activation of 5-HT4 receptors in human adrenocortical cells. Our results show that 5-HT4 receptors are present in the outer adrenal cortex, both in glomerulosa and fasciculata zonae. In the zona glomerulosa. 5-HT4 receptor was detected both in immunopositive and immunonegative cells for 11β-hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in cortisol synthesis...
October 12, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Rauf Latif, Ronald B Realubit, Charles Karan, Mihaly Mezei, Terry F Davies
Pathological activation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is caused by thyroid-stimulating antibodies in patients with Graves' disease (GD) or by somatic and rare genomic mutations that enhance constitutive activation of the receptor influencing both G protein and non-G protein signaling. Potential selective small molecule antagonists represent novel therapeutic compounds for abrogation of such abnormal TSHR signaling. In this study, we describe the identification and in vitro characterization of a novel small molecule antagonist by high-throughput screening (HTS)...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Joachim Behar, Ambhighainath Ganesan, Jin Zhang, Yael Yaniv
Sinoatrial nodal cells (SANCs) generate spontaneous action potentials (APs) that control the cardiac rate. The brain modulates SANC automaticity, via the autonomic nervous system, by stimulating membrane receptors that activate (adrenergic) or inactivate (cholinergic) adenylyl cyclase (AC). However, these opposing afferents are not simply additive. We showed that activation of adrenergic signaling increases AC-cAMP/PKA signaling, which mediates the increase in the SANC AP firing rate (i.e., positive chronotropic modulation)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Sumita Chakrabarti, Andrew Chang, Nai-Jiang Liu, Alan R Gintzler
Caveolin-1 is the predominant structural protein of caveolae, a subset of (lipid) membrane rafts that compartmentalize cell signaling. Caveolin-1 binds most to G protein-coupled receptors and their signaling partners, thereby enhancing interactions among signaling cascade components and the relative activation of specific G protein-coupled pathways. This study reveals that chronic opioid exposure of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells (MOR-CHO) and chronic in vivo morphine exposure of rat spinal cord augmented recruitment of multiple components of MOR-adenylyl cyclase (AC) stimulatory signaling by caveolin-1...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Peter Cseplo, Zoltan Vamos, Ivan Ivic, Orsolya Torok, Attila Toth, Akos Koller
RATIONALE: Nebivolol is known to have beta-1 blocker activity, but it was also suggested that it elicits relaxation of the peripheral arteries in part via release of nitric oxide (NO). However, the effect of nebivolol on the vasomotor tone of cerebral arteries is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of nebivolol on the diameter of isolated rat basilar arteries (BA) in control, in the presence of inhibitors of vasomotor signaling pathways of know action and hemolysed blood...
2016: PloS One
Benjamin Kalbe, Marian Schlimm, Sebastian Wojcik, Stathis Philippou, Désirée Maßberg, Fabian Jansen, Paul Scholz, Hermann Luebbert, Burkhard Ubrig, Sabrina Osterloh, Hanns Hatt
Cells of the renal tubule system are in direct contact with compounds dissolved in the urine, such as short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Murine OR78, a member of the olfactory receptor (OR) family, is involved in SCFA-related regulation of renal blood pressure in mice. It is still unclear whether OR signaling has an impact on human renal physiology. In our study, we showed that OR51E1 and OR11H7, both of which can be activated by the SCFA isovaleric acid, are expressed in the HK-2 human proximal tubule cell line...
September 28, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Kevin Vivot, Valentine S Moullé, Bader Zarrouki, Caroline Tremblay, Arturo D Mancini, Hasna Maachi, Julien Ghislain, Vincent Poitout
OBJECTIVE: G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling regulates insulin secretion and pancreatic β cell-proliferation. While much knowledge has been gained regarding how GPCRs are activated in β cells, less is known about the mechanisms controlling their deactivation. In many cell types, termination of GPCR signaling is controlled by the family of Regulators of G-protein Signaling (RGS). RGS proteins are expressed in most eukaryotic cells and ensure a timely return to the GPCR inactive state upon removal of the stimulus...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Petra Micova, Klara Hahnova, Marketa Hlavackova, Barbara Elsnicova, Anna Chytilova, Kristyna Holzerova, Jitka Zurmanova, Jan Neckar, Frantisek Kolar, Olga Novakova, Jiri Novotny
Cardiac resistance against acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury can be enhanced by adaptation to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), but the changes at the molecular level associated with this adaptation are still not fully explored. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) plays an important role in phospholipid metabolism and may contribute to membrane destruction under conditions of energy deprivation during I/R. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of CIH (7000 m, 8 h/day, 5 weeks) on the expression of cytosolic PLA2α (cPLA2α) and its phosphorylated form (p-cPLA2α), as well as other related signaling proteins in the left ventricular myocardium of adult male Wistar rats...
September 30, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Peter X Shaw, Jiahua Fang, Alan Sang, Yan Wang, Michael S Kapiloff, Jeffrey L Goldberg
Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is necessary for retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and axon growth. Here, we further investigate the role of sAC in neuronal differentiation during retinal development. Methods: Chx10 or Math5 promoter-driven Cre-Lox recombination were used to conditionally delete sAC from early and intermediate retinal progenitor cells during retinal development. We examined cell type-specific markers expressed by retinal cells to estimate their relative numbers and characterize retinal laminar morphology by immunofluorescence in adult and newborn mice...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Tao Tong, Ying Shen, Han-Woong Lee, Rina Yu, Taesun Park
Adenylyl cyclase 3 (Adcy3), a member of the mammalian adenylyl cyclase family responsible for generating the second messenger cAMP, has long been known to play an essential role in olfactory signal transduction. Here, we demonstrated that Adcy3 heterozygous null mice displayed increased visceral adiposity in the absence of hyperphagia and developed abnormal metabolic features characterized by impaired insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, and increased plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines on both chow and high-fat diet (HFD)...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nawreen Rahman, Lavoisier Ramos-Espiritu, Teresa A Milner, Jochen Buck, Lonny R Levin
Lysosomes, the degradative organelles of the endocytic and autophagic pathways, function at an acidic pH. Lysosomes are acidified by the proton-pumping vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), but the molecular processes that set the organelle's pH are not completely understood. In particular, pH-sensitive signaling enzymes that can regulate lysosomal acidification in steady-state physiological conditions have yet to be identified. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a widely expressed source of cAMP that serves as a physiological pH sensor in cells...
October 2016: Journal of General Physiology
Robert J Huber, Michael A Myre, Susan L Cotman
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), also known as Batten disease, refers to a group of severe neurodegenerative disorders that primarily affect children. The most common subtype of the disease is caused by loss-of-function mutations in CLN3, which is conserved across model species from yeast to human. The precise function of the CLN3 protein is not known, which has made targeted therapy development challenging. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, loss of Cln3 causes aberrant mid-to-late stage multicellular development...
September 26, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Rudi Tong, Rebecca C Wade, Neil J Bruce
The enzyme adenylyl cyclase (AC) plays a pivotal role in a variety of signal transduction pathways inside the cell, where it catalyzes the cyclization of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into the second- messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Among other roles, AC regulates processes involved in neural plasticity, innervation of smooth muscles of the heart and the endocrine system of the pancreas. The functional diversity of AC is manifested in its different isoforms, each having a specific regulation pattern...
September 26, 2016: Proteins
Weili Wang, Mingshuang Wang, Jiye Wang, Congyi Zhu, Kuang-Ren Chung, Hongye Li
Penicillium digitatum is the causative agent of green mold decay on citrus fruit. The cAMP-mediated signaling pathway plays an important role in the transduction of extracellular signals and has been shown to regulate a wide range of developmental processes and pathogenicity in fungal pathogens. We cloned and characterized a Pdac1 gene of P. digitatum, which encodes a polypeptide similar to fungal adenylyl cyclases. Using a loss-of-function mutation in the Pdac1 gene we demonstrated a critical requirement for hyphal growth and conidial germination...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Erlinda The, Peizhao Du, Yaowei Chang, Fangjie Dai, Chunyan Wei, Jiming Li
PURPOSE: Our previous studies discovered that Heat shock factor 1(HSF1) can alleviate pressure overload induced heart failure in mice. However, its molecular mechanisms are yet to be further explained. Many studies have already verified that Adenylyl Cyclase 6 (AC6) can ameliorate heart failure, but it is still unknown whether or not the pathway HSF1 is involved in the process. Our preliminary experiment showed that the expression level of AC6 is positively associated with HSF1. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to explore whether HSF1 can play its role in ameliorating heart failure by regulating AC6, and how the potential internal mechanisms work...
August 22, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Isabel González-Mariscal, Susan M Krzysik-Walker, Máire E Doyle, Qing-Rong Liu, Raffaello Cimbro, Sara Santa-Cruz Calvo, Soumita Ghosh, Łukasz Cieśla, Ruin Moaddel, Olga D Carlson, Rafal P Witek, Jennifer F O'Connell, Josephine M Egan
Therapeutics aimed at blocking the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor for treatment of obesity resulted in significant improvements in liver function, glucose uptake and pancreatic β-cell function independent of weight loss or CB1 receptor blockade in the brain, suggesting that peripherally-acting only CB1 receptor blockers may be useful therapeutic agents. Neuropsychiatric side effects and lack of tissue specificity precluded clinical use of first-generation, centrally acting CB1 receptor blockers. In this study we specifically analyzed the potential relevance to diabetes of human CB1 receptor isoforms in extraneural tissues involved in glucose metabolism...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sadek Ismail, Marie-Julie Gherardi, Alexander Froese, Madjid Zanoun, Véronique Gigoux, Pascal Clerc, Frederique Gaits-Iacovoni, Jan Steyaert, Viacheslav O Nikolaev, Daniel Fourmy
Until very recently, G-protein dependent signal of GPCRs was thought to originate exclusively from the plasma membrane and internalized GPCRs were considered silent. Here, we demonstrated that, once internalized and located in the membrane of early endosomes, glucose-dependent Insulinotropic receptor (GIPR) continues to trigger production of cAMP and PKA activation. Direct evidence is based on identification of the active form of Gαs in early endosomes containing GIPR using a genetically encoded GFP tagged nanobody, and on detection of a distinct FRET signal accounting for cAMP production at the surface of endosomes containing GIP, compared to endosomes without GIP...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Jai Shankar K Yadlapalli, Benjamin M Ford, Amit Ketkar, Anqi Wan, Narasimha R Penthala, Robert L Eoff, Paul L Prather, Maxim Dobretsov, Peter A Crooks
: This study determined the antinociceptive effects of morphine and morphine-6-O-sulfate (M6S) in both normal and diabetic rats, and evaluated the comparative role of mu-opioid receptors (mu-ORs) and delta-opioid receptors (delta-ORs) in the antinociceptive action of these opioids. In vitro characterization of mu-OR and delta-OR-mediated signaling by M6S and morphine in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells showed that M6S exhibited a 6-fold higher affinity for delta-ORs and modulated G-protein and adenylyl cyclase activity via delta-ORs more potently than morphine...
September 13, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Felipe A Navarrete, Antonio Alvau, Hoi Chang Lee, Lonny R Levin, Jochen Buck, Patricia Martin-De Leon, Celia M Santi, Dario Krapf, Jesse Mager, Rafael A Fissore, Ana M Salicioni, Alberto Darszon, Pablo E Visconti
Mammalian sperm acquire fertilizing capacity in the female tract in a process called capacitation. At the molecular level, capacitation requires protein kinase A activation, changes in membrane potential and an increase in intracellular calcium. Inhibition of these pathways results in loss of fertilizing ability in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrated that transient incubation of mouse sperm with Ca(2+) ionophore accelerated capacitation and rescued fertilizing capacity in sperm with inactivated PKA function...
2016: Scientific Reports
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