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Adenylyl cyclases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521061/extracellular-camp-activates-molecular-signalling-pathways-associated-with-sperm-capacitation-in-bovines
#1
Carlos Agustín I Alonso, Claudia E Osycka-Salut, Luciana Castellano, Andreína Cesari, Nicolás Di Siervi, Adrián Mutto, Anders Johannisson, Jane M Morrell, Carlos Davio, Silvina Perez-Martinez
STUDY QUESTION: Is extracellular cAMP involved in the regulation of signalling pathways in bovine sperm capacitation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Extracellular cAMP-induced sperm capacitation through the activation of different signalling pathways that involve phospholipase C (PLC), PKC/ERK1-2 signalling and an increase in sperm Ca2+ levels, as well as soluble AC and cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signalling. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In order to fertilize the oocyte, ejaculated spermatozoa must undergo a series of changes in the female reproductive tract, known as capacitation...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512295/camp-dependent-cell-differentiation-triggered-by-activated-crhr1-in-hippocampal-neuronal-cells
#2
Carolina Inda, Juan José Bonfiglio, Paula A Dos Santos Claro, Sergio A Senin, Natalia G Armando, Jan M Deussing, Susana Silberstein
Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) activates the atypical soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in addition to transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Both cAMP sources were shown to be required for the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 triggered by activated G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) CRHR1 in neuronal and neuroendocrine contexts. Here, we show that activated CRHR1 promotes growth arrest and neurite elongation in neuronal hippocampal cells (HT22-CRHR1 cells). By characterising CRHR1 signalling mechanisms involved in the neuritogenic effect, we demonstrate that neurite outgrowth in HT22-CRHR1 cells takes place by a sAC-dependent, ERK1/2-independent signalling cascade...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512254/catecholamines-facilitate-vegf-dependent-angiogenesis-via-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-induced-epac1-and-pka-activation
#3
Jaspal Garg, Yu-Xi Feng, Sepp R Jansen, Julian Friedrich, Frank Lezoualc'h, Martina Schmidt, Thomas Wieland
Chronic stress has been associated with the progression of cancer and antagonists for β-adrenoceptors (βAR) are regarded as therapeutic option. As they are also used to treat hemangiomas as well as retinopathy of prematurity, a role of endothelial β2AR in angiogenesis can be envisioned. We therefore investigated the role of β2AR-induced cAMP formation by analyzing the role of the cAMP effector molecules exchange factor directly activated by cAMP 1 (Epac1) and protein kinase A (PKA) in endothelial cells (EC)...
April 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500710/characterization-of-the-blue-light-activated-adenylyl-cyclase-mpac-by-flash-photolysis-and-ftir-spectroscopy
#4
Silke Kerruth, Pit Langner, Sarah Raffelberg, Wolfgang Gärtner, Joachim Heberle
The recently discovered photo-activated adenylyl cyclase (mPAC from Microcoleus chthonoplastes) is the first PAC that owes a light-, oxygen- and voltage-sensitive (LOV) domain for blue-light sensing. The photoreaction of the mPAC receptor was studied by time-resolved UV/vis and light-induced Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption difference spectroscopy. The photocycle comprises of the typical triplet state LOV715 and the thio-adduct state LOV390 . While the adduct state decays with a time constant of 8 s, the lifetime of the triplet state is with 656 ns significantly shorter than in all other reported LOV domains...
May 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500222/energy-requirements-of-odor-transduction-in-the-chemosensory-cilia-of-olfactory-sensory-neurons-rely-on-oxidative-phosphorylation-and-glycolytic-processing-of-extracellular-glucose
#5
Pablo S Villar, Ricardo Delgado, Cecilia Vergara, Juan G Reyes, Juan Bacigalupo
The mechanisms that power the physiological events occuring in cilia, flagella and microvilli are of fundamental importance for the functions of these important and ubicuous organelles. The olfactory epithelium (OE) is mostly populated by ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and surrounding sustentacular cells (SCs) with apical microvilli. The only OSN dendrite extends to the surface forming a knob projecting several chemosensory cilia of approximately 50 x 0.2 μm, devoid of inner membranes embedded in a mucus layer...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476673/soluble-adenylyl-cyclase-mediates-mitochondrial-pathway-of-apoptosis-and-atp-metabolism-in-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-exposed-to-elevated-co2
#6
Xiudan Wang, Mengqiang Wang, Jiachao Xu, Zhihao Jia, Zhaoqun Liu, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Ocean acidification (OA) has deleterious impacts on immune response and energy homeostasis status of Mollusca. In the present study, the apoptosis ratio of hemocytes and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) allocation in gill tissues were determined after Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas were exposed to elevated CO2 environment (pH = 7.50) for 16 days.The apoptosis ratio in CO2 exposure group (35.2%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in the control group, and the increased apoptosis ratio induced by elevated CO2 could be significantly inhibited (p < 0...
May 2, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473847/the-radial-organization-of-neuronal-primary-cilia-is-acutely-disrupted-by-seizure-and-ischemic-brain-injury
#7
Gregory W Kirschen, Hanxiao Liu, Tracy Lang, Xuelin Liang, Shaoyu Ge, Qiaojie Xiong
BACKGROUND: Neuronal primary cilia are sensory organelles that are critically involved in the proper growth, development, and function of the central nervous system (CNS). Recent work also suggests that they signal in the context of CNS injury, and that abnormal ciliary signaling may be implicated in neurological diseases. METHODS: We quantified the distribution of neuronal primary cilia alignment throughout the normal adult mouse brain by immunohistochemical staining for the primary cilia marker adenylyl cyclase III (ACIII) and measuring the angles of primary cilia with respect to global and local coordinate planes...
April 2017: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473465/expression-purification-and-spectral-tuning-of-rhogc-a-retinylidene-guanylyl-cyclase-fusion-protein-and-optogenetics-tool-from-the-aquatic-fungus-blastocladiella-emersonii
#8
Melissa M Trieu, Erin L Devine, Lindsey B Lamarche, Aaron E Ammerman, Jordan A Greco, Robert R Birge, Douglas L Theobald, Daniel D Oprian
RhoGC is a rhodopsin (Rho)-guanylyl cyclase (GC) gene fusion molecule that is central to zoospore phototaxis in the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii It has generated considerable excitement because of its demonstrated potential as a tool for optogenetic manipulation of cell-signaling pathways involving cyclic nucleotides. However, a reliable method for expressing and purifying RhoGC is currently lacking. We present here an expression and purification system for isolation of the full-length RhoGC protein expressed in HEK293 cells in detergent solution...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469516/camp-signaling-enhances-hiv-1-long-terminal-repeat-ltr-directed-transcription-and-viral-replication-in-bone-marrow-progenitor-cells
#9
Anupam Banerjee, Luna Li, Vanessa Pirrone, Fred C Krebs, Brian Wigdahl, Michael R Nonnemacher
CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells have been shown to be susceptible to HIV-1 infection, possibly due to a low-level expression of CXCR4, a coreceptor for HIV-1 entry. Given these observations, we have explored the impact of forskolin on cell surface expression of CXCR4 in a cell line model (TF-1). The elevation of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) by forskolin through adenylyl cyclase (AC) resulted in transcriptional upregulation of CXCR4 with a concomitant increase in replication of the CXCR4-utilizing HIV-1 strain IIIB...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466587/camp-signalling-in-insulin-and-glucagon-secretion
#10
REVIEW
A Tengholm, E Gylfe
The "second messenger" archetype cAMP is one of the most important cellular signalling molecules with central functions including the regulation of insulin and glucagon secretion from the pancreatic β- and α-cells, respectively. cAMP is generally considered as an amplifier of insulin secretion triggered by Ca(2+) elevation in the β-cells. Both messengers are also positive modulators of glucagon release from α-cells, but in this case cAMP may be the important regulator and Ca(2+) have a more permissive role...
May 3, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464471/chemical-activation-of-adenylyl-cyclase-rv1625c-inhibits-growth-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-on-cholesterol-and-modulates-intramacrophage-signaling
#11
Richard M Johnson, Guangchun Bai, Christopher M DeMott, Nilesh K Banavali, Christine R Montague, Caroline Moon, Alexander Shekhtman, Brian VanderVen, Kathleen A McDonough
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) uses a complex 3'-5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling network to sense and respond to changing environments encountered during infection, so perturbation of cAMP signaling might be leveraged to disrupt Mtb pathogenesis. However, understanding of cAMP signaling pathways is hindered by the presence of at least 15 distinct adenylyl cyclases (ACs). Recently, the small molecule V-58 was shown to inhibit Mtb replication within macrophages and stimulate cAMP production in Mtb. Here we determined that V-58 rapidly and directly activates Mtb AC Rv1625c to produce high levels of cAMP regardless of the bacterial environment or growth medium...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459158/functional-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptors-in-rat-left-atria-effect-of-foot-shock-stress
#12
Andre Luiz de Moura, Stephen Hyslop, Dora Maria Grassi-Kassisse, Regina Celia Spadari
Altered sensitivity to the chronotropic effect of catecholamines and a reduction in the β1/β2-adrenoceptor ratio have previously been reported in right atria of stressed rats, human failing heart and aging. In this report, we investigated whether left atrial inotropism was affected by foot-shock stress. Male rats were submitted to three foot-shock sessions and the left atrial inotropic response, adenylyl cyclase activity and β-adrenoceptor expression were investigated. Left atria of stressed rats were supersensitive to isoprenaline when compared to control rats and this effect was abolished by ICI118,551, a selective β2-receptor antagonist...
April 30, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452078/daily-oscillation-of-odorant-detection-in-rat-olfactory-epithelium
#13
Adrien Francois, Vincent Bombail, David Jarriault, Adrien Acquistapace, Denise Grebert, Xavier Grosmaitre, Nicolas Meunier
Most of biological variables follow a daily rhythm. It holds true as well for sensory capacities as two decades of research have demonstrated that the odorant induced activity in the olfactory bulbs oscillates during the day. Olfactory bulbs are the first central nervous system structures which receive inputs from the olfactory neurons located in the nose olfactory epithelium in vertebrates. So far, data on variation of odorant detection in the olfactory epithelium throughout the day are missing. Using electroolfactogram recordings in rats housed under daily light and dark cycles, we found that the olfactory epithelium responsiveness varies during the day with a maximum in the beginning of the light phase...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448009/using-primary-neurosphere-cultures-to-study-primary-cilia
#14
Issei S Shimada, Hemant Badgandi, Bandarigoda N Somatilaka, Saikat Mukhopadhyay
The primary cilium is fundamentally important for the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells and for neuronal differentiation during embryonic, postnatal, and adult life. In addition, most differentiated neurons possess primary cilia that house signaling receptors, such as G-protein-coupled receptors, and signaling molecules, such as adenylyl cyclases. The primary cilium determines the activity of multiple developmental pathways, including the sonic hedgehog pathway during embryonic neuronal development, and also functions in promoting compartmentalized subcellular signaling during adult neuronal function...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445587/cb1-receptors-downregulate-a-camp-epac2-plc-pathway-to-silence-the-nerve-terminals-of-cerebellar-granule-cells
#15
Beatris Alonso, David Bartolomé-Martín, José Javier Ferrero, Jorge Ramírez-Franco, Magdalena Torres, José Sánchez-Prieto
Cannabinoid receptors mediate short-term retrograde inhibition of neurotransmitter release, as well as long-term depression of synaptic transmission at excitatory synapses. The responses of individual nerve terminals in VGLUT1-pHluorin transfected cerebellar granule cells to cannabinoids have shown that prolonged activation of cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1Rs) silences a subpopulation of previously active synaptic boutons. Adopting a combined pharmacological and genetic approach to study the molecular mechanisms of CB1R-induced silencing, we found that adenylyl cyclase inhibition decreases cAMP levels while it increases the number of silent synaptic boutons and occludes the induction of further silencing by the cannabinoid agonist HU-210...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442666/role-of-pituitary-adenylyl-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-in-intracellular-calcium-dynamics-of-neurons-and-satellite-cells-in-rat-superior-cervical-ganglia
#16
Kanako Isobe, Takuya Yokoyama, Kasumi Moriguchi-Mori, Miho Kumagai, Yoh-Ichi Satoh, Akiyoshi Kuji, Tomoyuki Saino
Pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a bioactive peptide with diverse effects in the nervous system. The present study investigated whether stimulation of PACAP receptors (PACAPRs) induces responses in neurons and satellite cells of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG), with special reference to intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) changes. The expression of PACAPRs in SCG was detected by reverse transcription-PCR. PACAP type 1 receptor (PAC1R), vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor type (VPAC)1R, and VPAC2R transcripts were expressed in SCG, with PAC1R showing the highest levels...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442641/regulation-of-uridine-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase-2b15-expression-during-ovulation-in-the-rat
#17
Phuong T M Dam, You-Jee Jang, Jae-Il Park, Bum-Chae Choi, Sang-Jin Song, Sang-Young Chun
Uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15 (UGT2B15) conjugates 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol (3α-diol) to 3α-diol glucuronide (3α-diol G) in steroid target tissues. The present study investigated the regulation of UGT2B15 expression during the ovulatory process in the rat. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that treatment of immature rats with equine chorionic gonadotropin followed by human chorionic gonadotropin transiently stimulated UGT2B15 gene expression in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles within 6 h...
April 22, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442571/beta-2-adrenergic-receptor-activation-mobilizes-intracellular-calcium-via-a-non-canonical-camp-independent-signaling-pathway
#18
Monica Galaz-Montoya, Sara J Wright, Gustavo J Rodriguez, Olivier Lichtarge, Theodore G Wensel
Beta adrenergic receptors (βARs) are G protein-coupled receptors essential for physiological responses to the hormones/neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine which are found in the nervous system and throughout the body. They are the targets of numerous widely used drugs, especially in the case of the most extensively studied βAR, β2AR, whose ligands are used for asthma and cardiovascular disease. βARs signal through Gαs G proteins and via activation of adenylyl cyclase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase, but some alternative downstream pathways have also been proposed, which could be important for understanding normal physiological functioning of β2AR signaling and its disruption in disease...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434990/role-of-circadian-rhythm-and-rem-sleep-for-memory-consolidation
#19
REVIEW
Zhengui Xia, Dan Storm
Although sleep is strongly implicated in memory consolidation, the molecular basis for the role of sleep in memory is not known. It has been established that the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory depends on the activation of the Erk1,2 MAP kinase (MAPK) pathway which activates de novo CRE-mediated transcription and translation, two processes required for memory consolidation pathway. The activation of MAPK during memory formation and its nuclear translocation both depend upon cAMP signals generated by the calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases, type 1 and type 8 (AC1 and AC8)...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429325/gravitaxis-in-euglena
#20
Donat-P Häder, Ruth Hemmersbach
Motile microorganisms utilize a number of responses to external stimuli including light, temperature, chemicals as well as magnetic and electric fields. Gravity is a major clue to select a niche in their environment. Positive gravitaxis leads an organism down into the water column and negative gravitaxis brings it to the surface. In Euglena the precision of gravitaxis is regulated by an internal rhythm entrained by the daily light/dark cycle. This and the cooperation with phototaxis bring the cells into an optimal position in the water column...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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