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Carmine allergy

Steffie de Gier, Kitty Verhoeckx
Insects represent an alternative for meat and fish in satisfying the increasing demand for sustainable sources of nutrition. Approximately two billion people globally consume insects. They are particularly popular in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Most research on insect allergy has focussed on occupational or inhalation allergy. Research on insect food safety, including allergenicity, is therefore of great importance. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of cases reporting allergy following insect ingestion, studies on food allergy to insects, proteins involved in insect allergy including cross-reactive proteins, and the possibility to alter the allergenic potential of insects by food processing and digestion...
May 3, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Naoko Takeo, Masashi Nakamura, Satoshi Nakayama, Osamu Okamoto, Naoki Sugimoto, Shinichi Sugiura, Nayu Sato, Susumu Harada, Masao Yamaguchi, Naoya Mitsui, Yumiko Kubota, Kayoko Suzuki, Makoto Terada, Akiyo Nagai, Junko Sowa-Osako, Yutaka Hatano, Hiroshi Akiyama, Akiko Yagami, Sakuhei Fujiwara, Kayoko Matsunaga
BACKGROUND: Cochineal dye is used worldwide as a red coloring in foods, drinks, cosmetics, quasi-drugs, and drugs. The main component of the red color is carminic acid (CA). Carmine is an aluminum- or calcium-chelated product of CA. CA and carmine usually contain contaminating proteins, including a 38-kDa protein thought to be the primary allergen. Severe allergic reactions manifest as anaphylaxis. The aim of this study was to review all Japanese reported cases and propose useful diagnostic chart...
April 25, 2018: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Luis Espaillat-Rijo, Lauren Siff, Alexandriah N Alas, Sami A Chadi, Stephen Zimberg, Sneha Vaish, G Willy Davila, Matthew Barber, Eric A Hurtado
OBJECTIVE: To compare different modalities to aid in the evaluation of intraoperative ureteral patency on cystoscopy in the postindigo carmine era. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, participants undergoing pelvic surgery were randomized into one of four groups: saline distention (control), 10% dextrose distention, oral phenazopyridine, or intravenous sodium fluorescein. Our primary outcome was visibility of the ureteral jets. Secondary outcomes included surgeon satisfaction; adverse reactions including allergies, urinary tract infections, urinary retention, cystoscopy times, and ureteral obstruction; and delayed diagnosis...
December 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Koichiro Nandate, Bryan B Voelzke
Indigo carmine (also known as 5,5'-indigodisulfonic acid sodium salt or indigotine) is a blue dye that is administered intravenously to examine the urinary tract and usually is biologically safe and inert. Indigo carmine rarely may cause adverse reactions. We treated a 66-year-old man who had general anesthesia and radical retropubic prostatectomy for prostate cancer. He had a previous history of allergy to bee sting with nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Within 1 minute after injection of indigo carmine for evaluation of the ureters, the patient developed hypotension to 40 mmHg, severe hypoxia (the value of SpO2 (peripheral capillary oxygen saturation) was 75% on 40% inspired oxygen concentration), poor air movement and bilateral diffuse wheezing on auscultation, and marked subcutaneous erythema at the upper extremities...
2016: Case Reports in Urology
Gennaro Liccardi, Luigino Calzetta, Carmine Sapio, Paola Rogliani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
J Liippo, K Lammintausta
BACKGROUND: Positive skin prick test reactions to carmine red (E120) occur in approximately 3% of the patients studied for food allergy. Carmine ingestion associated systemic symptoms are occasionally suspected, but sufficient information of proven carmine allergy is not available. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To analyse carmine related symptoms in skin prick test positive patients a cohort of 23 patients with suspected allergy to carmine red was subjected to a single-blind placebo-controlled oral challenge test with carmine red...
November 2015: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Vincenzo Patella, Cristoforo Incorvaia, Paola Lucia Minciullo, Carmine Oricchio, Salvatore Saitta, Giovanni Florio, Antonella Saija, Sebastiano Gangemi
Oxidative stress occurs in many allergic and immunologic disorders as a result of the imbalance between the endogenous production of free reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or the reduction of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), and nitrosylated proteins (NPs) can be used as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Our objective was to examine the serum levels of AGEs, AOPPs, and NPs in patients with allergic reactions to hymenoptera venom before and after ultrarush venom immunotherapy (VIT)...
January 2015: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Giorgio Ciprandi, Cristoforo Incorvaia, Ilaria Dell'Albani, Simonetta Masieri, Carmine Cavaliere, Paola Puccinelli, Franco Frati
Allergic rhinitis (AR) may be cured by allergen immunotherapy (AIT). However, patient characteristics for prescribing AIT are not well defined. This study aimed at evaluating the patient's profile to be a candidate for AIT in a cohort of patients suffering from AR, evaluated in 20 Italian Allergy or Ear, Nose, and Throat Centers. The study has been performed on 198 patients (98 men; mean age, 26.8 years) with AR (assessed by Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma [ARIA] criteria). The kind and the number of prescribed allergen extracts, type of diagnosis, severity of symptoms, and patient's perception of symptoms and drug use were evaluated...
2013: Allergy & Rhinology
Robert A Swerlick, Caren F Campbell
Excipients are defined as inert substances added to a drug or food to confer a suitable consistency, appearance, or form. They may be added for bulk, to change dissolution or the kinetics of absorption, to improve stability, to influence palatability, or to create a distinctive appearance. The last function may depend heavily on the use of coloring agents, especially when there are multiple dosages (such as with warfarin), and dose confusion may result in profound complications. While described as inert, excipients have been associated with triggering immunological reactions, although this is almost never considered in common practice when patients have reactions to medications, even when they appear to react to many different and distinct drugs...
January 2013: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Soili Mäkinen-Kiljunen, Tari Haahtela
BACKGROUND: : No data have been available on severe allergic reactions in Finland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: : We summarize the data accumulated from 2000 to 2007 in the national register established at the Skin and Allergy Hospital of the Helsinki University Central Hospital, where physicians voluntarily report on patients with severe allergic reactions. RESULTS: : During the period, the 530 reported cases of severe allergic reactions represented an annual frequency of 0...
November 2008: World Allergy Organization Journal
C E Cox, D G Ebo
Here we present a case report of a patient suffering from occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma due to IgE-mediated carmine red allergy. This is the first description of carmine red allergy in a screen-printing worker in which the diagnosis was documented by quantification of specific IgE antibodies, by skin tests, by a flow-assisted basophil activation test, and by a carmine red challenge test.
2012: B-ENT
Vincenzo Patella, Giovanni Florio, Ada Giuliano, Carmine Oricchio, Giuseppe Spadaro, Gianni Marone, Arturo Genovese
Background and Objective. Various venom immunotherapy (VIT) protocols are available for Hymenoptera allergy. Although adverse reactions (ADRs) to VIT are widely reported, controlled trials are still needed. We conducted a randomized prospective study to evaluate ADRs and the efficacy of three VIT regimens. Methods. 76 patients with Hymenoptera allergy, aged 16-76 years, were randomized to receive an ultrarush protocol (group A: 27 patients), a rush protocol (group B: 25), or a slow protocol (group C: 24). Aqueous venom extract was used in incremental phase and an adsorbed depot in maintenance phase...
2012: Journal of Allergy
Kayoko Suzuki, Keiko Hirokawa, Akiko Yagami, Kayoko Matsunaga
Although there are many reported cases of immediate allergy after ingestion of foods containing cochineal, there are few reports of allergic contact dermatitis from carmine. We present a rare case of allergic contact dermatitis due to carmine. A 52-year-old female presented with an itchy erythema on her cheeks at the site where blush had been applied. Patch-tested with her cosmetics, she showed a positive reaction to the blush (30% in petrolatum) and to 0.2% (but not 0.1%) carmine in petrolatum. In this case, the optimum patch-test concentration of carmine was 0...
November 2011: Dermatitis
N D Titova
Adverse reactions to food additives are difficult to diagnose due to the diversity of mechanisms involved in their realization and to the absence of reasonably reliable methods for their determination. Eighty-three patients with allergic diseases were examined using the granulocytic myeloperoxidase release reaction (MRR) to diagnose intolerance reactions to food additives (E102, E122, E124, E132, E110, E2111). MRR revealed leukocyte hypersensitivity to tartrazine in 10.8%, sunset yellow in 4.8%, ponceau in 13...
March 2011: Klinicheskaia Laboratornaia Diagnostika
Francesca Fallarino, Claudia Volpi, Teresa Zelante, Carmine Vacca, Mario Calvitti, Maria C Fioretti, Paolo Puccetti, Luigina Romani, Ursula Grohmann
Originally predicated on the recognition of an increasing prevalence of allergy, the hygiene hypothesis was later found to accommodate the contrasting epidemiologic trends in developed countries for infectious vs autoimmune diseases. Experimentally, reduced exposure to infections will increase the risk of disease in several models of experimental autoimmunity. Although TLRs were initially considered as stimulatory molecules capable of activating early defense mechanisms against invading pathogens, emerging data suggest that they can also exert a regulatory function...
November 15, 2009: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Jussi Liippo, Kaija Lammintausta
BACKGROUND: Positive skin prick test (SPT) reactions to carmine red (E120) have been reported to occur concurrently with reactions to mites. The relationships between positive SPT reactions to carmine, carmine allergy and concurrent mite reactions are unknown. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of carmine sensitization and its clinical importance among patients with suspected allergy to food additives. METHODS: The occurrence of positive SPT reactions to mites was studied in 6,464 patients: 3,164 were tested with carmine and 2,837 with shrimp...
2009: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Matthew Greenhawt, Marc McMorris, James Baldwin
Macrolide hypersensitivity is a rarely reported event. However, carmine dye has become increasingly important as a provocative agent. We present a case of a woman with documented carmine hypersensitivity, who reported anaphylaxis 90 minutes after ingestion of a generic azithromycin. Our investigations revealed that this was an allergy to the carmine dye in the tablet's coating rather than to the antibiotic. Seven extracts were prepared including carmine dye, crushed dried female cochineal insects, crushed tablets of Zithromax (Pfizer Inc...
January 2009: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Yoko Ohgiya, Fumihiro Arakawa, Hiroshi Akiyama, Yasuo Yoshioka, Yoshiki Hayashi, Shinobu Sakai, Sumio Ito, Yuko Yamakawa, Satoru Ohgiya, Zenro Ikezawa, Reiko Teshima
BACKGROUND: Carmine is a natural red pigment obtained from dried gravid female cochineal insects (Dactylopius coccus or Coccus cacti). There have been several reports of allergies to carmine, but the major allergens responsible have not been identified. OBJECTIVE: To identify the major allergenic proteins in cochineal. METHODS: Immunoblots of purified cochineal extract were probed with sera from 3 patients with allergy. Partial amino acid sequences were determined for the proteins bound by IgE, and the corresponding cDNA, containing a complete coding region, was cloned by 5' and 3' rapid cDNA extension and PCR...
May 2009: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Yorihisa Kotobuki, Hiroaki Azukizawa, Youko Nishida, Hiroyuki Murota, Ichiro Katayama, Kunihiko Yoshikawa
We herein describe a 33-year-old female who recurrently exhibited urticaria accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea and dyspnea after taking red-colored food. From her history, we suspected the cochineal dye, the commonly used natural red dye in red-colored food and beverage, to be the cause of her symptoms. Oral provocation test using cochineal dye-stained red-colored boiled-fish-paste induced urticaria and respiratory symptoms. Furthermore the prick tests and the scratch tests with cochineal dye and carminic acid, the major ingredient of cochineal dye, were also positive...
December 2007: Arerugī, [Allergy]
Ursula Grohmann, Claudia Volpi, Francesca Fallarino, Silvia Bozza, Roberta Bianchi, Carmine Vacca, Ciriana Orabona, Maria L Belladonna, Emira Ayroldi, Giuseppe Nocentini, Louis Boon, Francesco Bistoni, Maria C Fioretti, Luigina Romani, Carlo Riccardi, Paolo Puccetti
Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR) on T cells and its natural ligand, GITRL, on accessory cells contribute to the control of immune homeostasis. Here we show that reverse signaling through GITRL after engagement by soluble GITR initiates the immunoregulatory pathway of tryptophan catabolism in mouse plasmacytoid dendritic cells, by means of noncanonical NF-kappaB-dependent induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). The synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone administered in vivo activated IDO through the symmetric induction of GITR in CD4(+) T cells and GITRL in plasmacytoid dendritic cells...
May 2007: Nature Medicine
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