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5-HT, serotonin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641389/acute-tryptophan-depletion-the-first-method-validation-in-an-avian-species-gallus-gallus-domesticus
#1
Patrick Birkl, Joergen B Kjaer, William Szkotnicki, Paul Forsythe, Alexandra Harlander-Matauschek
Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) is a valuable non-invasive nutritional tool in human and rodent research to study dysfunctions of the serotonergic system and related behavioral disorders. Serotonergic dysfunction is thought to be involved in the pathology of feather pecking behavior of laying hens, one of the most relevant welfare and production issues in modern intensive egg-production systems. ATD temporarily compromises the influx of tryptophan (TRP) across the blood brain barrier which reduces central availability of TRP, the substrate for serotonin (5-HT) synthesis...
June 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637246/effect-of-psilocybin-on-empathy-and-moral-decision-making
#2
Thomas Pokorny, Katrin H Preller, Michael Kometer, Isabel Dziobek, Franz X Vollenweider
Background: Impaired empathic abilities lead to severe negative social consequences and influence the development and treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, empathy has been shown to play a crucial role in moral and prosocial behaviour. Although the serotonin (5-HT) system has been implicated in modulating empathy and moral behaviour, the relative contribution of the various 5-HT receptor subtypes is still unknown. Methods: We investigated the acute effect of psilocybin (0...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633646/role-of-serotonin-on-the-intestinal-mucosal-immune-response-to-stress-induced-diarrhea-in-weaning-mice
#3
Yulan Dong, Yanan Han, Zixu Wang, Zhuoming Qin, Chenyu Yang, Jing Cao, Yaoxing Chen
BACKGROUND: During weaning, babies and young animal often experience diarrhea from food intolerance and/or decreasing levels of maternal antibodies, and diarrhea tends to be particularly severe during the early-weaned period, which often exhibits an underdeveloped immune system, a disturbed gut environment and results in nutrient malabsorption and dehydration. It was deduced that neuroendocrine might have close relation with diarrhea, especially 5-HT. METHODS: To explore the role of serotonin (5-HT) in weaning mice subjected to stress-induced diarrhea, 21-day-old weaned mice were divided into the following groups: control group, stress-induced diarrhea group (restrained by binding the hind limbs and intragastric administration of folium sennae with 0...
June 21, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631232/activation-of-brain-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-contributes-to-depressive-like-behavior-induced-by-an-intracerebroventricular-injection-of-streptozotocin-in-mice
#4
Leandro Cattelan Souza, Cristiano R Jesse, Marcelo Gomes de Gomes, Lucian Del Fabbro, André Tiago Rossito Goes, Franciele Donato, Silvana Peterini Boeira
There is a lack of information concerning the molecular events underlying the depressive-like effect of an intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in mice. The elevated activity of the tryptophan-degrading enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been proposed to mediate depression in inflammatory disorders. In the present study, we reported that ICV-STZ activates IDO in the hippocampus of mice and culminates in depressive-like behaviors, as measured by the increased duration of immobility in the tail suspension test and decreased sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test...
June 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630769/comparing-the-expression-of-genes-related-to-serotonin-5-ht-in-c57bl-6j-mice-and-humans-based-on-data-available-at-the-allen-mouse-brain-atlas-and-allen-human-brain-atlas
#5
C A Acevedo-Triana, L A León, F P Cardenas
Brain atlases are tools based on comprehensive studies used to locate biological characteristics (structures, connections, proteins, and gene expression) in different regions of the brain. These atlases have been disseminated to the point where tools have been created to store, manage, and share the information they contain. This study used the data published by the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas (2004) for mice (C57BL/6J) and Allen Human Brain Atlas (2010) for humans (6 donors) to compare the expression of serotonin-related genes...
2017: Neurology Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628756/atypical-sympathomimetic-drug-lerimazoline-mediates-contractile-effects-in-rat-aorta-predominantly-by-5-ht2a-receptors
#6
Eldina Rizvić, Goran Janković, Slađana Kostić-Rajačić, Miroslav M Savić
Lerimazoline is a sympathomimetic drug that belongs to the imidazoline class of compounds, and is used as a nasal decongestant. Studies on lerimazoline are rare, and its pharmacological profile is not completely understood. Here, we analyzed the affinity of lerimazoline for dopamine receptor D2, serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors and α1-adrenoceptor, and investigated lerimazoline contractile effects in isolated rat thoracic aorta. We also determined the effect of several antagonists on the contractile response to lerimazoline, including prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), RX 821002 and rauwolscine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonists), JP 1302 (α2C-adrenoceptor antagonist), methiothepin (non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist), SB 224289 (5-HT1B receptor antagonist), BRL 15572 (5-HT1D receptor antagonist), and ketanserin (5-HT2A receptor antagonist)...
June 19, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628658/effects-of-obesogenic-diet-and-estradiol-on-dorsal-raphe-gene-expression-in-old-female-macaques
#7
Cynthia L Bethea, Kevin Mueller, Arubala P Reddy, Steven G Kohama, Henryk F Urbanski
The beneficial effects of bioidentical ovarian steroid hormone therapy (HT) during the perimenopause are gaining recognition. However, the positive effects of estrogen (E) plus or minus progesterone (P) administration to ovariectomized (Ovx) lab animals were recognized in multiple systems for years before clinical trials could adequately duplicate the results. Moreover, very large numbers of women are often needed to find statistically significant results in clinical trials of HT; and there are still opposing results being published, especially in neural and cardiovascular systems...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626072/5-ht-causes-splanchnic-venodilation
#8
Bridget Mahon Seitz, Hakan Orer, Teresa Krieger-Burke, Emma S Darios, Janice M Thompson, Gregory D Fink, Stephanie W Watts
Serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytrypamine) causes relaxation of the isolated superior mesenteric vein (SMV), a splanchnic blood vessel, through activation of the 5-HT7 receptor. As part of studies designed to identify the mechanism(s) through which chronic (>24 hours) infusion of 5-HT lowers blood pressure, we test the hypothesis that 5-HT causes an in vitro and in vivo splanchnic venodilation that is 5-HT7 receptor-dependent. In tissue baths for measurement of isometric contraction, the portal vein (PV) and abdominal inferior vena cava (Ab IVC) relaxed to 5-HT and the 5-HT1/7 receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT); relaxation was abolished by the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB269970...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625786/drug-induces-depression-like-phenotypes-and-alters-gene-expression-profiles-in-drosophila
#9
Ming-Di Jiang, Ya Zheng, Jia-Lin Wang, Yu-Feng Wang
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe mental illness that affects more than 350 million people worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms of depression are currently unclear. Studies suggest that Drosophila and humans have similar depression-like symptoms under pressure. In this research, we choose Drosophila melanogaster as the animal model to explore the molecular mechanisms that trigger depression. RESULTS: We found that feeding D. melanogaster with the medium containing Levodopa or Chlorpromazine could induce depression-like phenotypes in both behavioral and biochemical biomarkers, including significantly decreased food intake, mating frequency, serotonin (5-HT) concentration, and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration as well as reduced activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD)...
June 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625179/dietary-l-tryptophan-leaves-a-lasting-impression-on-the-brain-and-the-stress-response
#10
Erik Höglund, Øyvind Øverli, Madelene Å Andersson, Patricia Silva, Danielle Caroline Laursen, Maria M Moltesen, Åshild Krogdahl, Joachim Schjolden, Svante Winberg, Marco A Vindas, Ian Mayer, Marie Hillestad
Comparative models suggest that effects of dietary tryptophan (Trp) on brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) neurochemistry and stress responsiveness are present throughout the vertebrate lineage. Moreover, hypothalamic 5-HT seems to play a central role in control of the neuroendocrine stress axis in all vertebrates. Still, recent fish studies suggest long-term effects of dietary Trp on stress responsiveness, which are independent of hypothalamic 5-HT. Here, we investigated if dietary Trp treatment may result in long-lasting effects on stress responsiveness, including changes in plasma cortisol levels and 5-HT neurochemistry in the telencephalon and hypothalamus of Atlantic salmon...
June 19, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623179/modulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-and-erk-signaling-pathways-mediates-the-anti-fibrotic-effect-of-mirtazapine-in-mice
#11
Dalia M El-Tanbouly, Walaa Wadie, Rabab H Sayed
Serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated as a key driver of liver fibrosis, acting via 5-HT2 receptor activation in the hepatic stellate cells. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of mirtazapine, a 5-HT2A antagonist, in a mouse model of liver fibrosis. Mice received thioacetamide (TAA, 150mg/kg/biweekly, ip) for nine successive weeks for induction of liver fibrosis. Administration of mirtazapine significantly improved the plasma aminotransferases, reduced hepatic 5-HT concentration and ameliorated TAA-induced liver fibrosis, as demonstrated by reduced portal blood pressure, liver procollagen I content and α alpha smooth muscle actin expression...
June 13, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611598/early-paradoxical-increase-of-dopamine-a-neurochemical-study-of-olfactory-bulb-in-asymptomatic-and-symptomatic-mptp-treated-monkeys
#12
Christian Pifl, Harald Reither, Natalia Lopez-Gonzalez Del Rey, Carmen Cavada, Jose A Obeso, Javier Blesa
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with both motor and non-motor manifestations. Hyposmia is one of the early non-motor symptoms, which can precede motor symptoms by several years. The relationship between hyposmia and PD remains elusive. Olfactory bulb (OB) pathology shows an increased number of olfactory dopaminergic cells, protein aggregates and dysfunction of neurotransmitter systems. In this study we examined tissue levels of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and their metabolites, of noradrenaline (NA) and of the amino acid neurotransmitters aspartate, glutamate, taurine and γ-aminobutyric acid in OBs of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treated Macaca fascicularis in different stages, including monkeys who were always asymptomatic, monkeys who recovered from mild parkinsonian signs, and monkeys with stable moderate or severe parkinsonism...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611585/role-of-n-arachidonoyl-serotonin-aa-5-ht-in-sleep-wake-cycle-architecture-sleep-homeostasis-and-neurotransmitters-regulation
#13
Eric Murillo-Rodríguez, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Sergio Machado, Nuno B Rocha, André B Veras, Geraldo A M Neto, Henning Budde, Oscar Arias-Carrión, Gloria Arankowsky-Sandoval
The endocannabinoid system comprises several molecular entities such as endogenous ligands [anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)], receptors (CB1 and CB2), enzymes such as [fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAHH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL)], as well as the anandamide membrane transporter. Although the role of this complex neurobiological system in the sleep-wake cycle modulation has been studied, the contribution of the blocker of FAAH/transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT) in sleep has not been investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607170/oxytocin-and-serotonin-brain-mechanisms-in-the-non-human-primate
#14
Lefevre Arthur, Richard Nathalie, Jazayeri Mina, Beuriat Pierre-Aurélien, Fieux Sylvain, Zimmer Luc, Duhamel Jean-René, Sirigu Angela
Oxytocin is increasingly studied for its therapeutic potential in psychiatric disorders which are associated with the deregulation of several neurotransmission systems. Studies in rodents demonstrated that the interaction between oxytocin (OT) and serotonin (5-HT) is critical for several aspects of social behavior. Using PET-scan in humans we have recently found that 5-HT 1A receptor (5-HT1AR) function is modified after intra-nasal oxytocin intake. However, the underlying mechanism between OT and 5-HT remains unclear...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606822/genistein-a-dietary-soy-isoflavone-exerts-antidepressant-like-effects-in-mice-involvement-of-serotonergic-system
#15
Pei Hu, Li Ma, Yan-Gui Wang, Feng Ye, Chuang Wang, Wen-Hua Zhou, Xin Zhao
Genistein, a principal isoflavone property of soybeans, possesses multiple pharmacological activities such as neuroprotection. Recently, it was reported that genistein exerted antidepressant-like effects in animal models, but the mechanism of action remains ambiguous. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of genistein in mice and explore the underlying mechanism(s), using two mouse models of depression, i.e. forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Chronic, but not acute (single dose), genistein treatment (5, 15 or 45 mg/kg, p...
June 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606116/characterization-of-serotonin-induced-inhibition-of-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#16
Zhen Tian, Manabu Yamanaka, Matteo Bernabucci, Ming-Gao Zhao, Min Zhuo
Excitatory synaptic transmission in central synapses is modulated by serotonin (5-HT). The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is an important cortical region for pain perception and emotion. ACC neurons receive innervation of projecting serotonergic nerve terminals from raphe nuclei, but the possible effect of 5-HT on excitatory transmission in the ACC has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the role of 5-HT on glutamate neurotransmission in the ACC slices of adult mice. Bath application of 5-HT produced dose-dependent inhibition of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs)...
June 12, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598863/characterization-of-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#17
Michael D Berquist, Lisa E Baker
Recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in the early 2000s prompted numerous scientific investigations of its behavioral and neurochemical effects. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the interoceptive stimulus effects of MDPV using a validated in-vivo drug-detection assay. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.3 mg/kg MDPV from saline under a fixed ratio 20 (FR 20) schedule of food reinforcement. After stimulus control was established with MDPV (∼35 training sessions), substitution tests were commenced with drugs from several chemical classes, including drugs with predominantly dopaminergic actions [MDPV, D-amphetamine, (+)-methamphetamine, (-)-cocaine], drugs with predominantly serotonergic actions [(+)-lysergic acid diethylamide, (+)-fenfluramine], and drugs with both serotonergic and dopaminergic actions (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 4-methylmethcathinone)...
June 8, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597539/developmental-effects-of-antipsychotic-drugs-on-serotonin-receptor-subtypes
#18
Yong Kee Choi, Matthew P Gardner, Frank I Tarazi
Antipsychotic medications are increasingly prescribed to pediatric and adolescent patients with psychotic diseases in spite of limited knowledge on the long-term effects of dissimilar antipsychotic drugs on developing brain. In this study, we quantified the levels of two major serotonin 5-HT1A , and 5-HT2A receptors in brain regions of developing rats after 3 weeks of treatment with typical (fluphenazine) and atypical (clozapine and olanzapine) antipsychotics, and compared to similarly treated adult rats treated with olanzapine, risperidone and quetiapine examined in previous studies...
June 8, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588453/refining-the-role-of-5-ht-in-postnatal-development-of-brain-circuits
#19
REVIEW
Anne Teissier, Mariano Soiza-Reilly, Patricia Gaspar
Changing serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) brain levels during critical periods in development has long-lasting effects on brain function, particularly on later anxiety/depression-related behaviors in adulthood. A large part of the known developmental effects of 5-HT occur during critical periods of postnatal life, when activity-dependent mechanisms remodel neural circuits. This was first demonstrated for the maturation of sensory brain maps in the barrel cortex and the visual system. More recently this has been extended to the 5-HT raphe circuits themselves and to limbic circuits...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585544/serotonin-modulates-a-depression-like-state-in-drosophila-responsive-to-lithium-treatment
#20
Ariane-Saskia Ries, Tim Hermanns, Burkhard Poeck, Roland Strauss
Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects millions of patients; however, the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Rodent models have been developed using chronic mild stress or unavoidable punishment (learned helplessness) to induce features of depression, like general inactivity and anhedonia. Here we report a three-day vibration-stress protocol for Drosophila that reduces voluntary behavioural activity. As in many MDD patients, lithium-chloride treatment can suppress this depression-like state in flies. The behavioural changes correlate with reduced serotonin (5-HT) release at the mushroom body (MB) and can be relieved by feeding the antidepressant 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan or sucrose, which results in elevated 5-HT levels in the brain...
June 6, 2017: Nature Communications
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