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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821451/5-ht7-receptor-antagonism-sb-269970-attenuates-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-rats-via-downregulating-oxidative-burden-and-inflammatory-cascades-and-ameliorating-collagen-deposition-comparison-to-terguride
#1
Mona K Tawfik, Samy Makary
The neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is involved in regulation of local tissue inflammation and repair through a set of receptors (5-HT1-7 receptors), which are expressed in the lung. Considering the protective importance of 5-HT receptor antagonists against development of pulmonary fibrosis, we evaluated whether 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (SB-269970) modulates lung inflammatory and fibrogenic processes in comparison with 5-HT2A/B receptor antagonist (terguride), in bleomycin (BLM)-induced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) model...
August 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819255/mouse-strain-differences-in-ssri-sensitivity-correlate-with-serotonin-transporter-binding-and-function
#2
Zeng-Liang Jin, Xiao-Fei Chen, Yu-Hua Ran, Xiao-Rong Li, Jie Xiong, Yuan-Yuan Zheng, Na-Na Gao, Yun-Feng Li
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) bind 5-HT transporters, leading to the accumulation of 5-HT and amelioration of depression. Although different mouse strains show varying sensitivity to SSRIs in mouse models of depression, the underlying mechanism of these strain differences remains unclear. Here, the SSRI citalopram dose-dependently reduced immobility time in both the FST and TST in DBA/2J mice but not C57BL/6J mice, whereas fluoxetine showed the opposite results. Paroxetine similarly reduced immobility time in both strains...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802861/contrasting-effects-of-vortioxetine-and-paroxetine-on-pineal-gland-biochemistry-in-a-tryptophan-depletion-model-of-depression-in-female-rats
#3
M Franklin, N Hlavacova, Y Li, I Bermudez, A Csanova, C Sanchez, D Jezova
We studied the effects of the multi-modal antidepressant, vortioxetine and the SSRI, paroxetine on pineal melatonin and monoamine synthesis in a sub-chronic tryptophan (TRP) depletion model of depression based on a low TRP diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised to groups a) control, b) low TRP diet, c) low TRP diet+paroxetine and d) low TRP diet+vortioxetine. Vortioxetine was administered via the diet (0.76mg/kg of food weight) and paroxetine via drinking water (10mg/kg/day) for 14days. Both drugs resulted in SERT occupancies >90%...
August 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799778/how-important-is-tryptophan-in-human-health
#4
Joanna Kałużna-Czaplińska, Paulina Gątarek, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Max Stanley Chartrand, Geir Bjørklund
Tryptophan (Trp) is an amino acid and an essential component of the human diet. It plays a crucial role in many metabolic functions. Clinicians can use Trp levels in the course of diagnosing various metabolic disorders and the symptoms associated with those diseases. Furthermore, supplementation with this amino acid is considered in the treatment of depression and sleep disorders, mainly due to the Trp relationship with the synthesis of serotonin (5-HT) and melatonin. It is also used in helping to resolve cognitive disorders, anxiety, or neurodegenerative diseases...
August 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798976/5-ht-modulation-of-pain-perception-in-humans
#5
Sarah L Martin, Andrea Power, Yvonne Boyle, Ian M Anderson, Monty A Silverdale, Anthony K P Jones
INTRODUCTION: Although there is clear evidence for the serotonergic regulation of descending control of pain in animals, little direct evidence exists in humans. The majority of our knowledge comes from the use of serotonin (5-HT)-modulating antidepressants as analgesics in the clinical management of chronic pain. OBJECTIVES: Here, we have used an acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to manipulate 5-HT function and examine its effects of ATD on heat pain threshold and tolerance, attentional manipulation of nociceptive processing and mood in human volunteers...
August 10, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797891/the-impact-of-peripheral-serotonin-on-leptin-brain-serotonin-axis-bone-metabolism-and-strength-in-growing-rats-with-experimental-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Dariusz Pawlak, Tomasz Domaniewski, Beata Znorko, Ewa Oksztulska-Kolanek, Paweł Lipowicz, Michał Doroszko, Malgorzata Karbowska, Krystyna Pawlak
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in decreased bone strength. Serotonin (5-HT) is one of the critical regulators of bone health, fulfilling distinct functions depending on its synthesis site: brain-derived serotonin (BDS) favors osteoblast proliferation, whereas gut-derived serotonin (GDS) inhibits it. We assessed the role of BDS and peripheral leptin in the regulation of bone metabolism and strength in young rats with 5/6 nephrectomy. BDS synthesis was accelerated during CKD progression. Decreased peripheral leptin in CKD rats was inversely related to BDS content in the hypothalamus, brainstem and frontal cortex...
August 7, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796998/microrna-dependent-control-of-serotonin-induced-pulmonary-arterial-contraction
#7
Diana Dahan, Tran Thi Hien, Philip Tannenberg, Mari Ekman, Catarina Rippe, Thomas Boettger, Thomas Braun, Karin Tran-Lundmark, Phan-Kiet Tran, Karl Swärd, Sebastian Albinsson
BACKGROUND: Serotonin (5-HT) is considered to play a role in pulmonary arterial hypertension by regulating vascular remodeling and smooth muscle contractility. Here, arteries from mice with inducible and smooth muscle-specific deletion of Dicer were used to address mechanisms by which microRNAs control 5-HT-induced contraction. METHODS: Mice were used 5 weeks after Dicer deletion, and pulmonary artery contractility was analyzed by wire myography. RESULTS: No change was seen in right ventricular systolic pressure following dicer deletion, but systemic blood pressure was reduced...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792478/marine-inspired-2-5-halo-1h-indol-3-yl-n-n-dimethylethanamines-as-modulators-of-serotonin-receptors-an-example-illustrating-the-power-of-bromine-as-part-of-the-uniquely-marine-chemical-space
#8
Mohamed A Ibrahim, Abir T El-Alfy, Kelly Ezel, Mohamed O Radwan, Abbas G Shilabin, Anna J Kochanowska-Karamyan, Howaida I Abd-Alla, Masami Otsuka, Mark T Hamann
In previous studies, we have isolated several marine indole alkaloids and evaluated them in the forced swim test (FST) and locomotor activity test, revealing their potential as antidepressant and sedative drug leads. Amongst the reported metabolites to display such activities was 5-bromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Owing to the importance of the judicious introduction of halogens into drug candidates, we synthesized two series built on a 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-N,N-dimethylethanamine scaffold with different halogen substitutions...
August 9, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783845/serotonin-shapes-the-migratory-potential-of-nk-cells-an-in-vitro-approach
#9
Philipp Zimmer, Wilhelm Bloch, Markus Kieven, Lukas Lövenich, Jonas Lehmann, Michelle Holthaus, Sebastian Theurich, Alexander Schenk
Increased serotonin (5-HT) levels have been shown to influence natural killer cell (NK cell) function. Acute exercise mobilizes and activates NK cells and further increases serum 5-HT concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of different serum 5-HT concentrations on NK cell migratory potential and cytotoxicity.The human NK cell line KHYG-1 was assigned to 4 conditions, including 3 physiological concentrations of 5-HT (100, 130 or 170 µg/l 5-HT) and one control condition...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782490/unmet-needs-in-schizophrenia
#10
Maurizio Pompili, Herbert Y Meltzer
The objectives of this article are to describe current trends in the treatment of schizophrenia and the most interesting new approaches to optimizing outcome and fostering the development of new schizophrenia treatments. RESULTS: Increasing utilization of diverse types of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g. clozapine-type serotonin (5-HT)2A and weak dopamine (DA) D2 antagonist, amisulpride, a D2/D3/5-HT7 antagonist, and cariprazine, a D3 partial agonist with additional neurotransmitter targets, is occurring as their advantages in efficacy, especially for cognitive impairment and mood symptoms, and side effects is becoming appreciated...
August 3, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777821/anatomy-and-behavioral-function-of-serotonin-receptors-in-drosophila-melanogaster-larvae
#11
Annina Huser, Melanie Eschment, Nazli Güllü, Katharina A N Collins, Kathrin Böpple, Lyubov Pankevych, Emilia Rolsing, Andreas S Thum
The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) is an important neuroactive molecule in the central nervous system of the majority of animal phyla. 5-HT binds to specific G protein-coupled and ligand-gated ion receptors to regulate particular aspects of animal behavior. In Drosophila, as in many other insects this includes the regulation of locomotion and feeding. Due to its genetic amenability and neuronal simplicity the Drosophila larva has turned into a useful model for studying the anatomical and molecular basis of chemosensory behaviors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775068/active-sleep-unmasks-apnea-and-delayed-arousal-in-infant-rat-pups-lacking-central-serotonin
#12
Jacob O Young, Aron M Geurts, Matthew Robert Hodges, Kevin J Cummings
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), occurring during sleep periods, is highly associated with abnormalities within serotonin (5-HT) neurons, including reduced 5-HT. There is evidence that future SIDS cases experience more apnea and have abnormal arousal from sleep. In rodents, a loss of 5-HT neurons is associated with apnea in early life and, in adulthood, delayed arousal. As the activity of 5-HT neurons changes with vigilance state, we hypothesized that the degree of apnea and delayed arousal displayed by rat pups specifically lacking central 5-HT varies with state...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774871/enteric-serotonin-and-oxytocin-endogenous-regulation-of-severity-in-a-murine-model-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#13
Kara Gross Margolis, Jennifer Vittorio, Maria Talavera, Karen Gluck, Zhishan Li, Alina Iuga, Korey Stevanovic, Virginia Saurman, Narek Israelyan, Martha G Welch, Michael D Gershon
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a gastrointestinal inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, causes a great deal of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. The liver as well as the gut may be affected in NEC. We tested the hypothesis that signaling molecules, which are endogenous to the bowel, regulate the severity of experimental NEC in mice. Specifically, we postulated that mucosal serotonin (5-HT), which is proinflammatory, would increase the severity of NEC and that oxytocin (OT), which is present in enteric neurons and is anti-inflammatory, would oppose NEC...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771712/organization-of-alpha-transducin-immunoreactive-system-in-the-brain-and-retina-of-larval-and-young-adult-sea-lamprey-petromyzon-marinus-and-their-relationship-with-other-neural-systems
#14
Antón Barreiro-Iglesias, Blanca Fernández-López, Daniel Sobrido-Cameán, Ramón Anadón
We employed an anti-transducin antibody (Gαt-S), in combination with other markers, to characterize the Gαt-S-immunoreactive (ir) system in the CNS of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. Gαt-S immunoreactivity was observed in some neuronal populations and numerous fibers distributed throughout the brain. Double Gαt-S- and opsin-ir neurons (putative photoreceptors) are distributed in the hypothalamus (postoptic commissure nucleus, dorsal and ventral hypothalamus) and caudal diencephalon, confirming results of García-Fernández et al...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769770/regulatory-mechanisms-controlling-maturation-of-serotonin-neuron-identity-and-function
#15
William C Spencer, Evan S Deneris
The brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system has been extensively studied for its role in normal physiology and behavior, as well as, neuropsychiatric disorders. The broad influence of 5-HT on brain function, is in part due to the vast connectivity pattern of 5-HT-producing neurons throughout the CNS. 5-HT neurons are born and terminally specified midway through embryogenesis, then enter a protracted period of maturation, where they functionally integrate into CNS circuitry and then are maintained throughout life...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769763/development-of-serotonergic-fibers-in-the-post-natal-mouse-brain
#16
Giacomo Maddaloni, Alice Bertero, Marta Pratelli, Noemi Barsotti, Annemarie Boonstra, Andrea Giorgi, Sara Migliarini, Massimo Pasqualetti
Serotonin (5-HT)-synthetizing neurons, which are confined in the raphe nuclei of the rhombencephalon, provide a pervasive innervation of the central nervous system (CNS) and are involved in the modulation of a plethora of functions in both developing and adult brain. Classical studies have described the post-natal development of serotonergic axons as a linear process of terminal field innervation. However, technical limitations have hampered a fine morphological characterization. With the advent of genetic mouse models, the possibility to label specific neuronal populations allowed the rigorous measurement of their axonal morphological features as well as their developmental dynamics...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767225/new-trends-and-current-status-of%C3%A2-pet-and-spect-radioligands-for-neuronal%C3%A2-5-ht%C3%A2-receptors-5-htrs-and-serotonin-transporter-sert
#17
Puja Panwar Hazari, Ankita Pandey, Shubhra Chaturvedi, Anil Kumar Mishra
The critical role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and its receptors (5-HTRs) in the pathophysiology of various neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders render them attractive diagnostic/therapeutic targets for brain disorders. Therefore, in vivo assessment of binding of 5-HT receptor ligands under a multitude of physiologic and pathologic scenario may support the more accurate identification of disease and its progression, patient's response to therapy, and the screening of novel therapeutic strategies...
August 2, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764154/effect-of-agonist-and-antagonist-on-the-in-vitro-contractility-of-inflamed-vermiform-appendix
#18
Phani Bhushan Singh, Pushpakant Tiwary, Sanjeev K Singh, Ratna Pandey, Atanu Roy, Amrita Ghosh Kar, Somprakas Basu, Anil Kumar Tiwari
INTRODUCTION: Appendicitis poses a great health problem worldwide. Previous studies demonstrated structural damage to neuronal network and interstitial cell of Cajal in appendicitis. Above observations suggest for the alterations in appendicular motility/contractility in appendicitis. But the mechanisms involved in mediating the contractility in inflamed vermiform appendix is not known till date. AIM: The present in vitro study was performed to find out the mechanisms responsible for contractility in the inflamed human vermiform appendix...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761080/serotonin-inputs-to-the-dorsal-bnst-modulate-anxiety-in-a-5-ht1a-receptor-dependent-manner
#19
A L Garcia-Garcia, S Canetta, J M Stujenske, N S Burghardt, M S Ansorge, A Dranovsky, E D Leonardo
Serotonin (5-HT) neurons project from the raphe nuclei throughout the brain where they act to maintain homeostasis. Here, we study 5-HT inputs into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a major subdivision of the extended amygdala that has been proposed to regulate responses to anxiogenic environments in humans and rodents. While the dorsal part of the BNST (dBNST) receives dense 5-HT innervation, whether and how 5-HT in the dBNST normally modulates anxiety remains unclear. Using optogenetics, we demonstrate that activation of 5-HT terminals in the dBNST reduces anxiety in a highly anxiogenic environment...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758583/new-trends-in-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia
#20
Herbert Y Meltzer
The objectives of this article are to describe current trends in the treatment of schizophrenia and the most interesting new approaches to optimizing outcome and fostering the development of new schizophrenia treatments. RESULTS: Increasing utilization of diverse types of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g. clozapine-type serotonin (5-HT)2A and weak dopamine (DA) D2 antagonist, amisulpride, a D2/D3/5-HT7 antagonist, and cariprazine, a D3 partial agonist with additional neurotransmitter targets, is occurring as their advantages in efficacy, especially for cognitive impairment and mood symptoms, and side effects is becoming appreciated...
July 28, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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