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5-HT, serotonin

Na Wei, Xian-En Zhao, Shuyun Zhu, Yongrui He, Longfang Zheng, Guang Chen, Jinmao You, Shu Liu, Zhiqiang Liu
This paper, for the first time, reported a simple, rapid, sensitive and environmental friendly ultrasonic-assisted in situ derivatization-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (in situ UAD-DLLME) method followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their biosynthesis precursors and metabolites in rat brain microdialysates. In this work, a commercial reagent, Lissamine rhodamine B sulfonylchloride (LRSC), was proposed as a derivatization reagent...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Shekhar Dethe, M Deepak, Amit Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst., commonly known as Brahmi, is renowned in Indian traditional system for its potent memory enhancing activity, which has been validated by various scientific studies. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to understand the molecular mechanism of memory enhancing activity of BacoMind(®) (BM), a standardized extract of B. monnieri. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BM was screened in vitro in a panel of cell-free and receptor-transfected cell assays...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Rui Zhang, Yan Bi, Weibo Niu, Xiaoye Huang, Shiqing Chen, Xingwang Li, Xi Wu, Yanfei Cao, Fengping Yang, Lu Wang, Weidong Li, Yifeng Xu, Lin He, Tao Yu, Guang He
Schizophrenia (SZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are two common severe mental disorders that have arisen to public awareness in recent years. Serotonin (5-HT) receptors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders especially in MDD and SZ. The aim of this study is to explore whether the variants in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A gene are susceptible to SZ or MDD in the Chinese Han population. Five SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) (rs1364043, rs10042486, rs6313, rs6311, rs17289304) in these genes were genotyped from 752 SZ patients, 568 MDD patients, and 846 normal controls of Chinese Han origin...
October 15, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Katarzyna Kamińska, Karolina Noworyta-Sokołowska, Alexandra Jurczak, Anna Górska, Zofia Rogóż, Krystyna Gołembiowska
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by positive and negative symptoms often accompanied by depression and cognitive deficits. Positive symptoms, like delusions and hallucinations are caused by an excess of dopamine (DA) signaling and are treated with the second generation antipsychotic drugs. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are represented by social withdrawal, apathy and blunted emotional response. It was demonstrated that co-administration of risperidone and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors alleviated depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in animal models of schizophrenia...
September 11, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Muhammad Farhan, Darakshan Jabeen Haleem
Background: Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), has been proposed to be more effective as an antidepressive drug as compared to other SSRIs. After chronic SSRI administration, the increase in synaptic levels of 5-HT leads to desensitization of somatodentritic 5-HT autoreceptors in the raphe nuclei. Chronic stress may alter behavioral, neurochemical and physiological responses to drug challenges and novel stressors. Methods: Twenty four male rats were used in this study. Animals of CMS group were exposed to CMS...
September 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Ryota Tokunaga, Rie Shimoju, Hideshi Shibata, Mieko Kurosawa
Noxious cutaneous stimulation increases, whereas innocuous cutaneous stimulation decreases serotonin (5-HT) release in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in anesthetized rats. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) to those responses. Release of 5-HT in the CeA was monitored by microdialysis before and after 10-min stimulation by pinching or stroking. Increased 5-HT release in the CeA in response to pinching was abolished by CRF2 receptor antagonism in the DRN...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Estelle Louiset, Céline Duparc, Sébastien Lenglet, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez, Hervé Lefebvre
In human adrenal, serotonin (5-HT), produced by mast cells located in zona glomerulosa, stimulates production of corticosteroids through a paracrine mechanism involving the 5-HT receptor type 4 (5-HT4). The aim of the present study was to investigate the transduction mechanisms associated with activation of 5-HT4 receptors in human adrenocortical cells. Our results show that 5-HT4 receptors are present in the outer adrenal cortex, both in glomerulosa and fasciculata zonae. In the zona glomerulosa. 5-HT4 receptor was detected both in immunopositive and immunonegative cells for 11β-hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in cortisol synthesis...
October 12, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Santhanalakshmi Sundaramurthy, Balasubramaniam Annamalai, Devadoss J Samuvel, Toni S Shippenberg, Lankupalle D Jayanthi, Sammanda Ramamoorthy
Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonists produce dysphoria and psychotomimesis. While KOR agonists produce pro-depressant-like effects, KOR antagonists produce anti-depressant-like effects in rodent models. The cellular mechanisms and downstream effector(s) by which KOR ligands produce these effects are not clear. KOR agonists modulate serotonin (5-HT) transmission in the brain regions implicated in mood and motivation regulation. Presynaptic serotonin transporter (SERT) activity is critical in the modulation of synaptic 5-HT and, subsequently, in mood disorders...
October 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Carl L Faingold, Marcus Randall, Chang Zeng, Shifang Peng, Xiaoyan Long, Hua-Jun Feng
Drugs that enhance the action of serotonin (5-hydroxytrypamine, 5-HT), including several selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), reduce susceptibility to seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) that leads to death in the DBA/1 mouse model of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). However, it is not clear if specific 5-HT receptors are important in the action of these drugs and whether the brain is the major site of action of these agents in this SUDEP model. The current study examined the actions of agents that affect the 5-HT3 receptor subtype on S-IRA and whether intracerebroventricular (ICV) microinjection of an SSRI would reduce S-IRA susceptibility in DBA/1 mice...
October 12, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Takayuki Ishiwata, Arisa Oshimoto, Takehito Saito, Yasunori Kotani, Shigeki Nomoto, Yasutsugu Aihara, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Benjamin N Greenwood
We previously reported that tetrodotoxin (TTX) perfusion into the median raphe nucleus (MRN), which contains the cell bodies of serotonin (5-HT) neurons, induced a considerable body temperature reduction under normal and low ambient temperatures (23 and 5°C, respectively) in freely moving rats but showed no such effect under high ambient temperature (35°C). In the present study, we aimed to determine the mechanism(s) of body temperature reduction after TTX perfusion into the MRN by measuring tail skin temperature (an index of heat loss), heart rate (an index of heat production), and locomotor activity (Act) under normal ambient temperature (23°C)...
October 12, 2016: Neuroreport
Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya, Behiye Alyanak
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive behaviors (compulsions). Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are widely used to treat OCD, only half of the patients respond well. Several potentiation strategies including off-label use of antipsychotics (mostly risperidone, quetiapine) have been tried. Ziprasidone is an atypical antipsychotic with the best affinity ratio of 5 HT 2A/D2 and 5HT2C/D2 receptors. There is a limited data on ziprasidone in pediatric groups...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Laura Arroyo, Ricard Carreras, Daniel Valent, Raquel Peña, Eva Mainau, Antonio Velarde, Josefa Sabrià, Anna Bassols
Chemical neurotransmitters (NT) are principal actors in all neuronal networks of animals. The central nervous system plays an important role in stress susceptibility and organizes the response to a stressful situation through the interaction of the dopaminergic and the serotonergic pathways, leading to the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). This study was designed to investigate: a) the effects of stressful handling of pigs at the slaughterhouse on the neurotransmitter profile in four brain areas: amygdala, prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and hypothalamus, and b) whether the alterations in the brain NT profile after stressful handling were associated with fear, determined by the tonic immobility (TI) test...
October 11, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
K R Torres-da-Silva, A V Da Silva, N O Barioni, G W L Tessarin, J A De Oliveira, E Ervolino, J A C Horta-Junior, C A Casatti
The spinal cord is involved in local, ascending and descending neural pathways. Few studies analyzed the distribution of neuromediators in the laminae of non-human primates along all segments. The present study described the classic neuromediators in the spinal cord of the non-human primate Sapajus spp. through histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) method showed neuronal somata in the intermediolateral column (IML), central cervical nucleus (CCN), laminae I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII and X, besides dense presence of nerve fibers in laminae II and IX...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Andrew M Wright, Agustin Zapata, Michael H Baumann, Joshua S Elmore, Alexander F Hoffman, Carl R Lupica
Clinical descriptions of cocaine addiction include compulsive drug seeking and maladaptive decision-making despite substantial aversive consequences. Research suggests that this may result from altered orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) function and its participation in outcome-based behavior. Clinical and animal studies also implicate serotonin in the regulation of OFC function in addiction and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we test the hypothesis that exposure to cocaine, through self-administration (CSA) or yoked-administration (CYA), alters the regulation of OFC function by 5-HT...
October 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Subathra Poopalasundaram, David Chambers, Anthony Graham, Pierre-Marc Bouloux
The hypothalamic gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are a small group of cells that regulate the reproductive axis. These neurons are specified within the olfactory placode, delaminate from this structure and then migrate to enter the forebrain before populating the hypothalamus. We have employed microarray technology to analyse the transcriptome of the olfactory placode at a number of key time points for GnRH ontogeny using the chick embryo. This resulted in the identification of a large number of genes whose expression levels change significantly over this period...
October 12, 2016: Endocrinology
Shun Watanabe, Takayuki Matsumoto, Makoto Ando, Shota Kobayashi, Maika Iguchi, Kumiko Taguchi, Tsuneo Kobayashi
An accumulating body of evidence suggests that males and females differ in vascular function in arteries under pathophysiological states. In this study, we tested whether there was a sex difference associated with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)-mediated contraction in the carotid arteries of long-term streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats [viz. 23 or 24 weeks after STZ (65 mg/kg, intravenously (i.v.)) injection starting at 8 weeks old of rats]. In the control group, the 5-HT- and high-K(+)-induced contractions were greater in females than in males...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
H Li, M Diao, J Ni, P Li, Q Zhu, Y L Wan, Y S Ma, X M Lin
BACKGROUND: Serotonin (5-HT) is known to play an important role in regulating uterine contractions. However, the specific receptors involved have not been well characterized. We evaluated whether 5-HT3 receptors exist in human myometrium, and their effects on myometrial contractility when stimulated by a 5-HT3 agonist. METHODS: Four tissue samples taken from patients undergoing hysterectomy (n=2) and elective cesarean delivery (n=2) were used to detect expression of 5-HT3 receptors on the myometrium using western blotting...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Marta Silva, José Tiago Costa-Pereira, Daniel Martins, Isaura Tavares
Diabetic neuropathy has a profound impact in the quality of life of patients who frequently complain of pain. The mechanisms underlying diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) are no longer ascribed only to damage of peripheral nerves. The effects of diabetes at the central nervous system are currently considered causes of DPN. Management of DNP may be achieved by antidepressants that act on serotonin (5-HT) uptake, namely specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The rostroventromedial medulla (RVM) is a key pain control center involved in descending pain modulation at the spinal cord through local release of 5-HT and plays a peculiar role in the balance of bidirectional control (i...
October 4, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Xi-Ling Jiang, Hong-Wu Shen, Donald E Mager, Stephan Schmidt, Ai-Ming Yu
We have shown recently that concurrent harmaline, a monoamine oxidase-A inhibitor (MAOI), potentiates serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonist 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT)-induced hyperthermia. The objective of this study was to develop an integrated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model to characterize and predict the thermoregulatory effects of such serotonergic drugs in mice. Physiological thermoregulation was described by a mechanism-based indirect-response model with adaptive feedback control...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Alberto Valero-Gracia, Rita Marino, Fabio Crocetta, Valeria Nittoli, Stefano Tiozzo, Paolo Sordino
BACKGROUND: Thaliaceans is one of the understudied classes of the phylum Tunicata. In particular, their phylogenetic relationships remain an issue of debate. The overall pattern of serotonin (5-HT) distribution is an excellent biochemical trait to interpret internal relationships at order level. In the experiments reported here we compared serotonin-like immunoreactivity at different life cycle stages of two salpid, one doliolid, and one pyrosomatid species. This multi-species comparison provides new neuroanatomical data for better resolving the phylogeny of the class Thaliacea...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
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