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5-HT, serotonin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337282/chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-affects-endogenous-serotonergic-inputs-and-expression-of-synaptic-proteins-in-rat-hypoglossal-nucleus
#1
Xu Wu, Huan Lu, Lijuan Hu, Wankun Gong, Juan Wang, Cuiping Fu, Zilong Liu, Shanqun Li
Evidence has shown that hypoxic episodes elicit hypoglossal neuroplasticity which depends on elevated serotonin (5-HT), in contrast to the rationale of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that deficient serotonergic input to HMs fails to keep airway patency. Therefore, understanding of the 5-HT dynamic changes at hypoglossal nucleus (HN) during chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) will be essential to central pathogenic mechanism and pharmacological therapy of OSA. Moreover, the effect of CIH on BDNF-TrkB signaling proteins was quantified in an attempt to elucidate cellular cascades/synaptic mechanisms following 5-HT alteration...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334024/opposite-effects-of-5-ht-akh-and-octopamine-on-the-crop-contractions-in-adult-drosophila-melanogaster-evidence-of-a-double-brain-gut-serotonergic-circuitry
#2
Paolo Solari, Nicholas Rivelli, Francescaelena De Rose, Lorenzo Picciau, Ludovico Murru, John G Stoffolano, Anna Liscia
This study showed that in adult Drosophila melanogaster, the type of sugar-either present within the crop lumen or in the bathing solution of the crop-had no effect on crop muscle contraction. What is important, however, is the volume within the crop lumen. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that exogenous applications of serotonin on crop muscles increases both the amplitude and the frequency of crop contraction rate, while adipokinetic hormone mainly enhances the crop contraction frequency. Conversely, octopamine virtually silenced the overall crop activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326015/serotonin-regulates-the-firing-of-principal-cells-of-the-subiculum-by-inhibiting-a-t-type-ca-2-current
#3
Anders V Petersen, Camilla S Jensen, Valérie Crépel, Mathias Falkerslev, Jean-François Perrier
The subiculum is the main output of the hippocampal formation. A high proportion of its principal neurons fire action potentials in bursts triggered by the activation of low threshold calcium currents. This firing pattern promotes synaptic release and regulates spike-timing-dependent plasticity. The subiculum receives a high density of fibers originating from the raphe nuclei, suggesting that serotonin (5-HT) modulates subicular neurons. Here we investigated if and how 5-HT modulates the firing pattern of bursting neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324844/serotonin-transporter-and-receptor-ligands-with-antidepressant-activity-as-neuroprotective-and-proapoptotic-agents
#4
REVIEW
Zdzislaw Chilmonczyk, Andrzej J Bojarski, Andrzej Pilc, Ingebrigt Sylte
Serotonin exhibits multiple non-neural functions involved in essential hypertension, early embryogenesis, follicle maturation and behaviour. The growth stimulatory effects of the neurotransmitter have been described for a variety of cell types. 5-HT was found to induce migration of the human prostate cancer cell lines - PC-3 and Du145 - and several 5-HT1A antagonists and serotonin reuptake inhibitors were reported to inhibit the growth of different tumour cell lines in vitro. Recent studies suggest that neurogenesis is involved in the action of antidepressants and an involvement of antidepressants in adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been demonstrated...
January 22, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323941/the-diverse-metabolic-roles-of-peripheral-serotonin
#5
Alyce M Martin, Richard L Young, Lex Leong, Geraint B Rogers, Nick J Spencer, Claire F Jessup, Damien J Keating
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a multi-functional bioamine with important signaling roles in a range of physiological pathways. Almost all the 5-HT in our body is synthesized in specialized enteroendocrine cells within the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa called enterochromaffin (EC) cells. These cells provide all our circulating 5-HT. While we have long appreciated the important roles of 5-HT within the gut including the modulation of GI motility, there is recently emerging evidence of the physiological and clinical significance of gut-derived 5-HT outside of the gut...
March 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322276/identifying-fast-onset-antidepressants-using-rodent-models
#6
M J Ramaker, S C Dulawa
Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and a major contributor to the burden of suicide. A major limitation of classical antidepressants is that 2-4 weeks of continuous treatment is required to elicit therapeutic effects, prolonging the period of depression, disability and suicide risk. Therefore, the development of fast-onset antidepressants is crucial. Preclinical identification of fast-onset antidepressants requires animal models that can accurately predict the delay to therapeutic onset. Although several well-validated assay models exist that predict antidepressant potential, few thoroughly tested animal models exist that can detect therapeutic onset...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322152/serotonin-receptor-binding-characteristics-of-geissoschizine-methyl-ether-an-indole-alkaloid-in-uncaria-hook
#7
Yasushi Ikarashi, Kyoji Sekiguchi, Kazushige Mizoguchi
Geissoschizine methyl ether (GM) is one of the indole alkaloids in Uncaria hook, and an active ingredient of yokukansan (YKS) that improves behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with several types of dementia. The pharmacological action of GM has been related to various serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes. Here we describe previous findings and our own data to review the binding characteristics of GM to the 5-HT receptor subtypes. Competitive receptor-binding assays showed that GM bound the following 5-HT receptor subtypes: 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, 5-HT4, 5-HT5A, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7...
March 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320893/regional-differences-in-nutrient-induced-secretion-of-gut-serotonin
#8
Alyce M Martin, Amanda L Lumsden, Richard L Young, Claire F Jessup, Nick J Spencer, Damien J Keating
Enterochromaffin (EC) cells located in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract provide the vast majority of serotonin (5-HT) in the body and constitute half of all enteroendocrine cells. EC cells respond to an array of stimuli, including various ingested nutrients. Ensuing 5-HT release from these cells plays a diverse role in regulating gut motility as well as other important responses to nutrient ingestion such as glucose absorption and fluid balance. Recent data also highlight the role of peripheral 5-HT in various pathways related to metabolic control...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320272/neurotrophic-factors-bdnf-and-gdnf-and-the-serotonergic-system-of-the-brain
#9
REVIEW
N K Popova, T V Ilchibaeva, V S Naumenko
Neurotrophic factors play a key role in development, differentiation, synaptogenesis, and survival of neurons in the brain as well as in the process of their adaptation to external influences. The serotonergic (5-HT) system is another major factor in the development and neuroplasticity of the brain. In the present review, the results of our own research as well as data provided in the corresponding literature on the interaction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) with the 5-HT-system of the brain are considered...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316078/5-ht3a-driven-gfp-delineates-gustatory-fibers-innervating-sour-responsive-taste-cells-a-labeled-line-for-sour-taste
#10
J M Stratford, E D Larson, R Yang, E Salcedo, T E Finger
Taste buds contain multiple cell types with each type expressing receptors and transduction components for a subset of taste qualities. The sour sensing cells, Type III cells, release serotonin (5-HT) in response to the presence of sour (acidic) tastants and this released 5-HT activates 5-HT3 receptors on the gustatory nerves. We show here, using 5-HT3A GFP mice, that 5-HT3 -expressing nerve fibers preferentially contact and receive synaptic contact from Type III taste cells. Further, these 5-HT3 -expressing nerve fibers terminate in a restricted central-lateral portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS) - the same area that shows increased c-Fos expression upon presentation of a sour tastant (30 mM citric acid)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315323/increased-serotonin-signaling-contributes-to-the-warburg-effect-in-pancreatic-tumor-cells-under-metabolic-stress-and-promotes-growth-of-pancreatic-tumors-in-mice
#11
Shu-Heng Jiang, Jun Li, Fang-Yuan Dong, Jian-Yu Yang, De-Jun Liu, Xiao-Mei Yang, Ya-Hui Wang, Min-Wei Yang, Xue-Liang Fu, Xiao-Xin Zhang, Qing Li, Xiu-Feng Pang, Yan-Miao Huo, Jiao Li, Jun-Feng Zhang, Ho-Young Lee, Su-Jae Lee, Wen-Xin Qin, Jian-Ren Gu, Yong-Wei Sun, Zhi-Gang Zhang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The desmoplasia and poor vascularity cause severe metabolic stress in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator with neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine functions that contributes to tumorigenesis. We investigated the role of 5-HT signaling in the growth of pancreatic tumors. METHODS: We measured the levels of proteins that regulate 5-HT synthesis, packaging, and degradation in pancreata from Kras(G12D/+); Trp53(R172H/+); Pdx1-Cre; (KPC) mice, which develop pancreatic tumors, as well as in PDAC cell lines and a tissue microarray containing 81 human PDAC samples...
March 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301190/involvement-of-serotonin-and-oxytocin-in-neural-mechanism-regulating-amicable-social-signal-in-male-mice-implication-for-impaired-recognition-of-amicable-cues-in-balb-c-strain
#12
Hiroyuki Arakawa
Social signals play a primary role in regulating social relationships among male mice. The present series of experiments investigated the neural mechanisms underlying an induction of amicable cues that facilitate social approach in male mice of the C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c (BALB) strains. Male mice exhibit approach behavior and suppression of territorial scent marking toward amicable counterparts. Exposure of a group-housed mouse that maintains an amicable relationship induced social approach in B6 recipient mice, as expressed by increased preference of stay in proximity and decreased scent marks relevant to those of a single-housed mouse...
April 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300619/brain-neurotransmitters-in-an-animal-model-with-postpartum-depressive-like-behavior
#13
Y Avraham, Y Hants, L Vorobeiv, M Premishlano, Wiessam Abu Ahmad, D Mankuta, E Galun, S Arbel-Alon
Post-Partum Depression (PPD) occurs in 15% of pregnancies and its patho-physiology is not known. We studied female BALB/c ("depressive") and C57BL/6 (control) mice as a model for PPD and assessed their behavior and correlates with brain neurotransmitters (NTs) - norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin and intermediates, during the pre-pregnancy (PREP), pregnancy (PREG) and post-Partum (PP) periods. Depressive-like behavior was evaluated by the Open Field (OFT), Tail Suspension (TST) and Forced Swim (FST) tests...
March 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300552/monoaminergic-modulation-of-gabaergic-transmission-onto-cerebellar-globular-cells
#14
Moritoshi Hirono, Soichi Nagao, Yuchio Yanagawa, Shiro Konishi
Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) project their axon collaterals to underneath of the PC layer and make GABAergic synaptic contacts with globular cells, a subgroup of Lugaro cells. GABAergic transmission derived from the PC axon collaterals is so powerful that it could inhibit globular cells and regulate their firing patterns. However, the physiological properties and implications of the GABAergic synapses on globular cells remain unknown. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from globular cells in the mouse cerebellum, we examined the monoaminergic modulation of GABAergic inputs to these cells...
March 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299200/understanding-the-role-of-serotonin-in-psychiatric-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Donatella Marazziti
Serotonin (5-HT) continues to attract researchers' interest after almost a century. However, despite these efforts, its role has not yet been fully elucidated. It is now evident that 5-HT does not modulate single functions but rather a multiplicity of activities and behaviors present in both normal and several pathological conditions in a less deterministic way than previously assumed. This article aims to briefly review some of the latest advancements in the general role of 5-HT in psychiatry, particularly in depression, and offer the author's personal reflections...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295852/improved-capacity-to-evaluate-changes-in-intestinal-mucosal-surface-area-using-mathematical-modeling
#16
Chasen J Greig, Robert A Cowles
Quantification of intestinal mucosal growth typically relies on morphometric parameters, commonly villus height, as a surrogate for presumed changes in mucosal surface area (MSA). We hypothesized that using mathematical modeling based on multiple unique measurements would improve discrimination of the effects of interventions on MSA compared to standard measures. To determine the ability of mathematical modeling to resolve differences in MSA, a mouse model with enhanced serotonin (5HT) signaling known to stimulate mucosal growth was used...
March 13, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295557/parachlorophenylalanine-induced-5-ht-depletion-alters-behavioural-and-brain-neurotransmitters-levels-in-6-hertz-psychomotor-seizure-model-in-mice
#17
Kausar Jahan, Krishna K Pillai, Divya Vohora
The present study was designed to investigate the role of serotonin and other neurotransmitters namely dopamine (DA), histamine, noradrenaline (NA), glutamate and γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) in the 6-hertz (6 Hz) induced psychomotor seizures in Swiss albino mice. Parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 300 mg/kg/day, i.p for 3 days) treated mice were given 6 Hz stimulation. Sodium valproate (SVP) [200 mg/kg/day, p.o for 3 days] was used as a reference anti-epileptic drug. The behavioral changes induced by 6Hz including increased rearing and grooming, Straub's tail, behavioral arrest, stun position etc were amplified by PCPA...
March 10, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295297/comparative-analysis-of-monoaminergic-cerebrospinal-fluid-contacting-cells-in-osteichthyes-bony-vertebrates
#18
Anna L Xavier, Romain Fontaine, Solal Bloch, Pierre Affaticati, Arnim Jenett, Michaël Demarque, Philippe Vernier, Kei Yamamoto
Cerebrospinal fluid-contacting (CSF-c) cells containing monoamines such as dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) occur in the periventricular zones of the hypothalamic region of most vertebrates except for placental mammals. Here we compare the organization of the CSF-c cells in chicken, Xenopus, and zebrafish, by analyzing the expression of synthetic enzymes of DA and 5-HT, respectively tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), and draw an evolutionary scenario for this cell population. Due to the lack of TH immunoreactivity in this region, the hypothalamic CSF-c cells have been thought to take up DA from the ventricle instead of synthesizing it...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288906/an-aop-analysis-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-ssris-for-fish
#19
REVIEW
M Danielle McDonald
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are found in measureable quantities within the aquatic environment. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are one class of pharmaceutical compound that has received a lot of attention. Consistent with most PPCPs, the pharmacokinetics and physiological impacts of SSRI treatment have been well-studied in small mammals and humans and this, combined with the evolutionary conservation of the serotonergic system across vertebrates, allows for the read-across of known SSRI effects in mammals to potential SSRI impacts on aquatic organisms...
March 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288865/retinal-npy-and-5-ht-inputs-to-the-aged-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-in-common-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#20
Rovena C G J Engelberth, Kayo D de Azevedo Silva, Felipe Porto Fiuza, Joacil Germano Soares, Miriam S M O Costa, Ruthnaldo R de Melo Lima, Expedito Silva do Nascimento, José R Dos Santos, José R L P Cavalcanti, Jeferson S Cavalcante
The circadian timing system (CTS) anticipates optimal physiological patterns in response to environmental fluctuations, such as light-dark cycle. Since age-related disruption of circadian synchronization is linked to several pathological conditions, we characterized alterations of neurochemical constituents and retinal projections to the major pacemaker of CTS, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), in adult and aged marmosets. We used intraocular injections of neural tracer Cholera toxin b (CTb) to report age-related reductions in CTb, neuropeptide Y and serotonin immunoreactivities...
March 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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