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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444658/comparing-the-immune-genomic-effects-of-vilazodone-and-paroxetine-in-late-life-depression-a-pilot-study
#1
Harris Eyre, Prabha Siddarth, Natalie Cyr, Hongyu Yang, Steve Cole, Malcolm Forbes, Helen Lavretsky
Vilazodone is a novel antidepressant agent that combines selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) activity and 5-HT(1A) receptor partial agonist activity. A pilot study was conducted to compare vilazodone (novel compound) and paroxetine (gold standard) on antidepressant effects, tolerability, and inflammation and immune modulation. A 12-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 56 nondemented older adults diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD). Between-group differences in mood, tolerability, and safety, as well as genomic markers of inflammation and immune modulation, were examined...
April 25, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442790/serotonergic-dysfunctions-and-abnormal-iron-metabolism-relevant-to-mental-fatigue-of-parkinson-disease
#2
Li-Jun Zuo, Shu-Yang Yu, Yang Hu, Fang Wang, Ying-Shan Piao, Teng-Hong Lian, Qiu-Jin Yu, Rui-Dan Wang, Li-Xia Li, Peng Guo, Yang Du, Rong-Yan Zhu, Zhao Jin, Ya-Jie Wang, Xiao-Min Wang, Piu Chan, Sheng-Di Chen, Yong-Jun Wang, Wei Zhang
Fatigue is a very common non-motor symptom in Parkinson disease (PD) patients. It included physical fatigue and mental fatigue. The potential mechanisms of mental fatigue involving serotonergic dysfunction and abnormal iron metabolism are still unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the fatigue symptoms, classified PD patients into fatigue group and non-fatigue group, and detected the levels of serotonin, iron and related proteins in CSF and serum. In CSF, 5-HT level is significantly decreased and the levels of iron and transferrin are dramatically increased in fatigue group...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438641/improving-therapeutics-in-anorexia-nervosa-with-tryptophan
#3
REVIEW
Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem
A growing body of evidence suggests that our diet is an important contributing factor in the development, management and prevention of a number of psychiatric illnesses. Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the sole precursor of neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin). Administration of tryptophan can boost serotonin neurotransmission to produce therapeutically important effects in serotonin deficiency disorders. Anorexia nervosa (AN) an eating disorder associated with high levels of psychiatric comorbidity including psychosis, hyperactivity, depression and anxiety has highest lethality of all psychiatric illnesses...
April 21, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434742/endocrine-and-metabolic-changes-in-transition-dairy-cows-are-affected-by-prepartum-infusions-of-a-serotonin-precursor
#4
Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Laura L Hernandez, Helga Sauerwein, Rupert M Bruckmaier
Serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to be involved in calcium homeostasis, modulating calcium concentration in blood. In addition, 5-HT participates in a variety of metabolic pathways, mainly through the modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. The hypothesis of the present study was that the prepartum administration of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a 5-HT precursor, would affect endocrine systems related to calcium homeostasis, and interact with other endocrine and metabolic pathways during the transition period...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432009/the-lateral-hypothalamus-to-lateral-habenula-projection-but-not-the-ventral-pallidum-to-lateral-habenula-projection-regulates-voluntary-ethanol-consumption
#5
Chandni Sheth, Teri M Furlong, Kristen A Keefe, Sharif A Taha
The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic brain region implicated in aversive processing via negative modulation of midbrain dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) systems. Given the role of the LHb in inhibiting DA and 5-HT systems, it is thought to be involved in various psychiatric pathologies, including drug addiction. In support, it has been shown that LHb plays a critical role in cocaine- and ethanol-related behaviors, most likely by mediating drug-induced aversive conditioning. In our previous work, we showed that LHb lesions increased voluntary ethanol consumption and operant ethanol self-administration and blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol self-administration...
April 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430979/effect-of-physical-exercise-and-acute-escitalopram-on-the-excitability-of-brain-monoamine-neurons-in-vivo-electrophysiological-study-in-rats
#6
Eliyahu Dremencov, Kristína Csatlósová, Barbora Durišová, Lucia Lapínová, Lubica Lacinová, Daniela Ježová
Background: The antidepressant effect of physical exercise has been reported in several clinical and animal studies. Since serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine and dopamine play a central role in depression, it is possible that the beneficial effects of physical exercise are mediated via monoamine pathways. This study investigates the effects of voluntary wheel running (VWR) on the excitability of monoamine neurons. Material and methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425496/3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-increases-affiliative-behaviors-in-squirrel-monkeys-in-a-serotonin-2a-receptor-dependent-manner
#7
Elizabeth G Pitts, Adelaide R Minerva, Erika B Oliver, Jordan N Kohn, Meghan T Logun, Agnieszka Sulima, Kenner C Rice, Leonard L Howell
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) increases sociality in humans and animals. Release of serotonin (5-HT) is thought to play an important role in the increase in social behaviors, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. Despite the advantages of nonhuman primate models, no studies have examined the mechanisms of the social effects of MDMA in nonhuman primates. The behavior and vocalizations of four group-housed squirrel monkeys were examined following administration of MDMA, its enantiomers, and methamphetamine...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421966/regulatory-forum-review-utility-of-in-vitro-secondary-pharmacology-data-to-assess-risk-of-drug-induced-valvular-heart-disease-in-humans-regulatory-considerations
#8
Thomas Papoian, Gowraganahalli Jagadeesh, Muriel Saulnier, Natalie Simpson, Arippa Ravindran, Baichun Yang, Adebayo A Laniyonu, Imran Khan, Ana Szarfman
Drug-induced valvular heart disease (VHD) is a serious side effect linked to long-term treatment with 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2B (5-HT2B) agonists. Safety assessment for off-target pharmacodynamic activity is a common approach used to screen drugs for this undesired property. Such studies include in vitro assays to determine whether the drug is a 5-HT2B agonist, a necessary pharmacological property for development of VHD. Measures of in vitro binding affinity (IC50, Ki) or cellular functional activity (EC50) are often compared to maximum therapeutic free plasma drug levels ( fCmax) from which safety margins (SMs) can be derived...
April 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420875/down-regulation-of-cholinergic-signaling-in-the-habenula-induces-anhedonia-like-behavior
#9
Seungrie Han, Soo Hyun Yang, Jin Yong Kim, Seojung Mo, Esther Yang, Ki Myung Song, Byung-Joo Ham, Naguib Mechawar, Gustavo Turecki, Hyun Woo Lee, Hyun Kim
Dysfunction of cholinergic signaling in the brain has long been believed to be associated with depressive disorders. However, the functional impact of habenular cholinergic signaling on the specified depressive behaviors is not well understood. Here, we demonstrated that the expression levels of cholinergic signaling genes (CHAT, VACHT, CHT, CHRNA3, CHRNB3 and CHRNB4) were down-regulated in a chronic restraint stress (CRS) rat model of depression, in which rats display depression-like behaviors such as anhedonia and mood despair...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418735/polymorphisms-of-comt-c-649g-a-mao-a-c-1460c-t-net-c-1287g-a-genes-and-the-level-of-catecholamines-serotonin-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Jolanta Florczak-Wyspianska, Agata Rozycka, Lukasz Wolny, Margarita Lianeri, Wojciech Kozubski, Jolanta Dorszewska
The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of plasma norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and serotonin (5-HT) in two collections, after a 30-min supine (I) and 5-min upright position (II), and polymorphisms of genes, COMT (c.649G>A), MAO-A (c.1460C>T), and NET (c.1287G>A), in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and other degenerative parkinsonism and controls. The study was performed in 49 PD patients, 19 parkinsonism patients, and 48 controls. The level of NE, E, and 5-HT was determined by HPLC/EC...
April 18, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414094/effect-of-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology-on-brain-monoamines-in-mice
#11
C U Von Linstow, M Severino, A Metaxas, J Waider, A A Babcock, K P Lesch, J B Gramsbergen, B Finsen
Aging is the greatest single risk factor of the neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD). The monoaminergic system, including serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) modulates cognition, which is affected in AD. Changes in monoamine levels have been observed in AD, but these can both be age- and/or disease-related. We examined whether brain monoamine levels change as part of physiological aging and/or AD-like disease in APPSWE/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice. The neocortex, hippocampus, striatum, brainstem and cerebellum of 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old B6C3 wild-type (WT) mice and of 18-month old APP/PS1 and WT mice were analysed for 5-HT, DA and NA contents by high-pressured liquid chromatography (HPLC), along with neocortex from 14-month-old APP/PS1 and WT mice...
April 13, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413824/perturbation-of-serotonin-homeostasis-during-adulthood-affects-serotonergic-neuronal-circuitry
#12
Marta Pratelli, Sara Migliarini, Barbara Pelosi, Francesco Napolitano, Alessandro Usiello, Massimo Pasqualetti
Growing evidence shows that the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) modulates the fine-tuning of neuron development and the establishment of wiring patterns in the brain. However, whether serotonin is involved in the maintenance of neuronal circuitry in the adult brain remains elusive. Here, we use a Tph2(fl)°(x) conditional knockout (cKO) mouse line to assess the impact of serotonin depletion during adulthood on serotonergic system organization. Data show that the density of serotonergic fibers is increased in the hippocampus and decreased in the thalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) as a consequence of brain serotonin depletion...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413715/brain-serotonin-4-receptor-binding-is-inversely-associated-with%C3%A2-verbal-memory-recall
#13
Dea S Stenbæk, Patrick M Fisher, Brice Ozenne, Emil Andersen, Liv V Hjordt, Brenda McMahon, Steen G Hasselbalch, Vibe G Frokjaer, Gitte M Knudsen
BACKGROUND: We have previously identified an inverse relationship between cerebral serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT 4R) binding and nonaffective episodic memory in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate in a novel sample if the association is related to affective components of memory, by examining the association between cerebral 5-HT 4R binding and affective verbal memory recall. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy volunteers were scanned with the 5-HT 4R radioligand [(11)C]SB207145 and positron emission tomography, and were tested with the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408644/human-derived-gut-microbiota-modulates-colonic-secretion-in-mice-by-regulating-5-ht3-receptor-expression-via-acetate-production
#14
Yogesh Bhattarai, Bradley A Schmidt, David R Linden, Eric D Larson, Madhusudan Grover, Arthur Beyder, Gianrico Farrugia, Purna C Kashyap
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), an important neurotransmitter and a paracrine messenger in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, regulates intestinal secretion by its action primarily on 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors. Recent studies highlight the role of gut microbiota in 5-HT biosynthesis. In this study we determine if human-derived gut microbiota affect host secretory response to 5-HT and 5-HT receptor expression. We used proximal colonic mucosa-submucosa preparation from age matched Swiss Webster germ free (GF) and humanized (HM; ex-GF colonized with human gut microbiota) mice...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406285/serotonin-and-serotonin-transporters-in-the-adrenal-medulla-a-potential-hub-for-modulation-of-the-sympathetic-stress-response
#15
Rebecca L Brindley, Mary Beth Bauer, Randy D Blakely, Kevin P M Currie
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system where it modulates circuits involved in mood, cognition, movement, arousal, and autonomic function. The 5-HT transporter (SERT; SLC6A4) is a key regulator of 5-HT signaling, and genetic variations in SERT are associated with various disorders including depression, anxiety, and autism. This review focuses on the role of SERT in the sympathetic nervous system. Autonomic/sympathetic dysfunction is evident in patients with depression, anxiety, and other diseases linked to serotonergic signaling...
April 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404880/serotonergic-system-antagonists-target-breast-tumor-initiating-cells-and-synergize-with-chemotherapy-to-shrink-human-breast-tumor-xenografts
#16
William D Gwynne, Robin M Hallett, Adele Girgis-Gabardo, Bojana Bojovic, Anna Dvorkin-Gheva, Craig Aarts, Kay Dias, Anita Bane, John A Hassell
Breast tumors comprise an infrequent tumor cell population, termed breast tumor initiating cells (BTIC), which sustain tumor growth, seed metastases and resist cytotoxic therapies. Hence therapies are needed to target BTIC to provide more durable breast cancer remissions than are currently achieved. We previously reported that serotonergic system antagonists abrogated the activity of mouse BTIC resident in the mammary tumors of a HER2-overexpressing model of breast cancer. Here we report that antagonists of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) biosynthesis and activity, including US Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved antidepressants, targeted BTIC resident in numerous breast tumor cell lines regardless of their clinical or molecular subtype...
March 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401654/is-there-sexual-dimorphism-of-hyperserotonemia-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Lauren C Shuffrey, Stephen J Guter, Shannon Delaney, Suma Jacob, George M Anderson, James S Sutcliffe, Edwin H Cook, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
Approximately 30% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have elevated whole blood serotonin (5-HT) levels. Genetic linkage and association studies of ASD and of whole blood 5-HT levels as a quantitative trait have revealed sexual dimorphism. Few studies have examined the presence of a sex difference on hyperserotonemia within ASD. To assess whether the rate of hyperserotonemia is different in males than in females with ASD, we measured whole blood 5-HT levels in 292 children and adolescents with ASD, the largest sample in which this biomarker has been assessed...
April 12, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392460/mesoporous-hydroxyapatite-as-a-carrier-of-olanzapine-for-long-acting-antidepression-treatment-in-rats-with-induced-depression
#18
Yan-Jye Shyong, Mao-Hsien Wang, Li-Wei Kuo, Chang-Fu Su, Wei-Ting Kuo, Kuo-Chi Chang, Feng-Huei Lin
An antidepressant carrier, mesoporous hydroxyapatite olanzapine (mesoHAP-OLZ), was designed to maintain 3weeks of constant medication release. The carrier was intramuscularly (IM) injected, where cellular activity played a role in achieving the goal of constant release. The efficiency of the treatment was evaluated from 3 perspectives in in vivo studies: locomotor activities, biomarkers, and learning and memory ability. MesoHAP-OLZ can increase the locomotor activity in rats with induced depression determined by open field test (OFT) and forced swim test (FST)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385052/perinatal-ssri-exposure-permanently-alters-cerebral-serotonin-receptor-mrna-in-mice-but-does-not-impact-adult-behaviors
#19
Lauritz R Meyer, Benjamin Dexter, Cecilia Lo, Elizabeth Kenkel, Takahito Hirai, Robert D Roghair, Sarah E Haskell
PURPOSE: Associations have been made between maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use during pregnancy and altered behavior in offspring, including an increased risk of autism. Given the important role serotonin plays in behavior, we hypothesized SSRI exposure in the perinatal period would alter central serotonin receptor expression and program adult behaviors in mice. METHODS: Female mice were injected with sertraline or saline throughout pregnancy...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383321/antidepressive-like-effect-of-imperatorin-from-angelica-dahurica-in-prenatally-stressed-offspring-rats-through-5-hydroxytryptamine-system
#20
Yanjun Cao, Jiahui Liu, Qiong Wang, Minghui Liu, Ying Cheng, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Tianwei Lin, Zhongliang Zhu
Adolescence is a time of continued brain maturation, particularly in limbic and cortical regions, which undoubtedly plays a role in the physiological and emotional changes. Prenatally stressed offspring rats were used to investigate the potential antidepressive-like effects of imperatorin (IMP) extracted from the root of radix angelica. After 4 weeks of treatment of IMP, behavioral tests (sucrose-preference test, forced-swimming test, and open-field test) were measured. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration in the hippocampus and frontal cortex was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
May 24, 2017: Neuroreport
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