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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150178/-relationships-between-copd-and-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-pulmonary-infections
#1
REVIEW
C Balavoine, C Andréjak, S Marchand-Adam, F X Blanc
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) pulmonary infections are increasingly frequent in pneumological practice. The diagnosis is based on an association of clinical, microbiological and radiological criteria. Some risk factors for NTM disease have been described, including chronic respiratory diseases, but without specific focus on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD patients have more risk to be infected by NTM than patients with the main other chronic respiratory diseases (except cystic fibrosis) (odds ratio [OR] at 15...
November 14, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149017/the-ms6-mycolyl-arabinogalactan-esterase-lysb-is-essential-for-an-efficient-mycobacteriophage-induced-lysis
#2
Adriano M Gigante, Cheri M Hampton, Rebecca S Dillard, Filipa Gil, Maria João Catalão, José Moniz-Pereira, Elizabeth R Wright, Madalena Pimentel
All dsDNA phages encode two proteins involved in host lysis, an endolysin and a holin that target the peptidoglycan and cytoplasmic membrane, respectively. Bacteriophages that infect Gram-negative bacteria encode additional proteins, the spanins, involved in disruption of the outer membrane. Recently, a gene located in the lytic cassette was identified in the genomes of mycobacteriophages, which encodes a protein (LysB) with mycolyl-arabinogalactan esterase activity. Taking in consideration the complex mycobacterial cell envelope that mycobacteriophages encounter during their life cycle, it is valuable to evaluate the role of these proteins in lysis...
November 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148103/extracytoplasmic-function-sigma-factor-%C3%AF-d-confers-resistance-to-environmental-stress-by-enhancing-mycolate-synthesis-and-modifying-peptidoglycan-structures-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#3
Koichi Toyoda, Inui Masayuki
Mycolates are α-branched, β-hydroxylated, long-chain fatty acid specifically synthesized in bacteria in the suborder Corynebacterineae of the phylum Actinobacteria. They form an outer membrane, which functions as a permeability barrier and confers pathogenic mycobacteria to resistance to antibiotics. Although the mycolate biosynthetic pathway has been intensively studied, knowledge of transcriptional regulation of genes involved in this pathway is limited. Here we report that the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor σ(D) is a key regulator of the mycolate synthetic genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum in the suborder...
November 17, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139177/a-structural-overview-of-mycobacterial-adhesins-key-biomarkers-for-diagnostics-and-therapeutics
#4
REVIEW
Flavia Squeglia, Alessia Ruggiero, Alfonso De Simone, Rita Berisio
Adherence, colonization, and survival of mycobacteria in host cells require surface adhesins, which are attractive pharmacotherapeutic targets. A large arsenal of pilus and non-pilus adhesins have been identified in mycobacteria. These adhesins are capable of interacting with host cells, including macrophages and epithelial cells and are essential to microbial pathogenesis. In the last decade, several structures of mycobacterial adhesins responsible for adhesion to either macrophages or extra cellular matrix proteins have been elucidated...
November 15, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134263/diminished-susceptibility-of-african-americans-to-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-disease
#5
Jerome M Reich, Jong S Kim
The incidence of three granulomatous response diseases-sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, and non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease-differ markedly in African-Americans versus Caucasians. In reviewing a large compendium of non-cystic-fibrosis bronchiectasis, we noted that complicating infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria was relatively infrequent among individuals of African-American descent, confirming previous observations of their inherent resistance. Disease-specific variance among African-Americans in the efficacy of their granulomatous response suggests a nexus, a mediating, immunological mechanism...
November 13, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131627/enhancement-of-9%C3%AE-hydroxy-4-androstene-3-17-dione-production-from-soybean-phytosterols-by-deficiency-of-a-regulated-intramembrane-proteolysis-metalloprotease-in-mycobacterium-neoaurum
#6
Liang-Bin Xiong, Wan-Ju Sun, Yong-Jun Liu, Feng-Qing Wang, Dong-Zhi Wei
Modification of the sterol catabolism pathway in mycobacteria may result in the accumulation of some valuable steroid pharmaceutical intermediates, such as 9α-hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione (9-OHAD). In previous work, the SigD was identified as a negative factor of the 9-OHAD production in M. neoaurum. Here, the deficiency of rip1 putatively coding for a regulated intramembrane proteolysis metalloprotease (Rip1), which could cleave the negative regulator of SigD (anti-SigD), enhanced the transcription of some key genes (choM1, kshA and hsd4A) in the sterol catabolic pathway...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126315/packaging-of-mycobacterium-smegmatis-bacteria-into-fecal-pellets-by-the-ciliate-tetrahymena-pyriformis
#7
Alix M Denoncourt, Valérie E Paquet, Steve J Charette
Mycobacteria are widespread microorganisms that live in various environments, including man-made water systems where they cohabit with protozoa. Environmental mycobacterial species give rise to many opportunistic human infections and can infect phagocytic protozoa. Protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates feeding on bacteria can sometimes get rid of non-digestible or pathogenic material by packaging it into secreted fecal pellets. Usually, packaged bacteria are still viable and are protected against chemical and physical stresses...
November 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126235/clinical-significance-of-interferon-%C3%AE-neutralizing-autoantibodies-against-disseminated-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-disease
#8
Ami Aoki, Takuro Sakagami, Kazutaka Yoshizawa, Kenjiro Shima, Mio Toyama, Yoshinari Tanabe, Hiroshi Moro, Nobumasa Aoki, Satoshi Watanabe, Toshiyuki Koya, Takashi Hasegawa, Kozo Morimoto, Atsuyuki Kurashima, Yoshihiko Hoshino, Bruce C Trapnell, Toshiaki Kikuchi
Background: Interferon-γ neutralizing autoantibodies (nIFNγ-autoAb) are reported in patients with disseminated nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection and may function by increasing the infection risk. Notwithstanding, the prevalence of nIFNγ-autoAb as well as the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and natural history, of disseminated NTM infection in these patients is poorly understood. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, data and sera for 331 Japanese subjects with mycobacterial infection were collected and analyzed...
November 8, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125705/m-tuberculosis-mce3c-promotes-mycobacteria-entry-into-macrophages-through-activation-of-%C3%AE-2-integrin-mediated-signaling-pathway
#9
Yong Zhang, Jie Li, Bingxi Li, Jing Wang, Cui Hua Liu
Establishment of infection by facultative intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires adherence to and internalization by macrophages. However, the effector molecules exploited by Mtb for entry into macrophages remain to be fully understood. The mammalian cell entry (Mce) proteins play an essential role in facilitating the internalization of mycobacteria into mammalian cells. Here we characterized Mtb Mce3C as a new mycobacterial surface protein that could promote mycobacterial adhesion to and invasion of macrophages in an RGD motif-dependent manner...
November 10, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124568/pkng-supports-mycobacterial-adaptation-in-acidic-environment
#10
Ruchi Paroha, Rashmi Chourasia, Rajesh Mondal, Shivendra K Chaurasiya
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), causative agent of human tuberculosis (TB), has the remarkable ability to adapt to the hostile environment inside host cells. Eleven eukaryotic like serine-threonine protein kinases (STPKs) are present in Mtb. Protein kinase G (PknG) has been shown to promote mycobacterial survival inside host cells. A homolog of PknG is also present in Mycobacterium smegmatis (MS), a fast grower, non-pathogenic mycobacterium. In the present study, we have analyzed the role of PknG in mycobacteria during exposure to acidic environment...
November 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123253/the-gene-fmt-encoding-trna-fmet-formyl-transferase-is-essential-for-normal-growth-of-m-bovis-but-not-for-viability
#11
Miriam Vanunu, Ziv Lang, Daniel Barkan
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major health threat, necessitating novel drug targets. Protein synthesis in bacteria uses initiator tRNAi charged with formylated methionine residue. Deletion of the formylase gene, tRNA(fMet)-formyl transferase (fmt), causes severe growth-retardation in E. coli and in S. pneumoniae, but not in P. aeruginosa or S. aureus. fmt was predicted to be essential in M. tuberculosis by transposon library analysis, but this was never formally tested in any mycobacteria. We performed a targeted deletion of fmt in M...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123243/immunohistochemical-detection-of-propionibacterium-acnes-in-the-retinal-granulomas-in-patients-with-ocular-sarcoidosis
#12
Kenji Nagata, Yoshinobu Eishi, Keisuke Uchida, Kazuhito Yoneda, Hiroki Hatanaka, Toru Yasuhara, Maho Nagata, Chie Sotozono, Shigeru Kinoshita
The etiology of sarcoidosis is still obscure; however, Mycobacteria and Propionibacterium acnes are considered the most implicated etiological agent for sarcoidosis. To investigate whether P. acnes is an etiological agent for sarcoid uveitis, we analyzed the frequency of P. acnes detected within the biopsied retinas from patients with ocular sarcoidosis by immunohistochemistry with a P. acnes-specific monoclonal antibody (PAB antibody). Eleven patients (12 eyes) with sarcoid uveitis were enrolled in this study...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122674/antibiofilm-activity-of-nanoemulsions-of-cymbopogon-flexuosus-against-rapidly-growing-mycobacteria
#13
Grazielle Guidolin Rossi, Kevim Bordignon Guterres, Pauline Cordenonsi Bonez, Samanta da Silva Gundel, Vanessa Albertina Aggertt, Fallon Santos Siqueira, Aline Ferreira Ourique, Roger Wagnerd, Bruna Klein, Roberto Christ Vianna Santos, Marli Matiko Anraku de Campos
Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are opportunistic microorganisms that can cause both local and disseminated infections. When in biofilm, these pathogens become highly resistant to antimicrobials used in clinical practice. Composed abundantly of polymeric substances, biofilms delay the diffusion of antimicrobials, preventing the drug from penetrating the deeper layers and having an effective action. Therefore, the search for new and alternative therapeutic options has become of fundamental importance. Natural products fall into these options, especially essential oils...
November 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119867/targeted-macrophages-delivery-of-rifampicin-loaded-lipid-nanoparticles-to-improve-tuberculosis-treatment
#14
Alexandre Cc Vieira, Joana Magalhães, Sónia Rocha, Marcos S Cardoso, Susana G Santos, Margarida Borges, Marina Pinheiro, Salette Reis
AIM: This work aims to develop a mannosylated nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) loaded with rifampicin to improve tuberculosis treatment. MATERIALS & METHODS: An active targeting strategy was used and the nanoparticles were characterized. Effects on cell viability and the antimycobacterial activity of the nanoformulations were evaluated. RESULTS: The nanoparticles developed exhibited a size of about 315 nm and polydispersity <0.2. The drug encapsulation efficiency was higher than 90% and its release was sensitive to pH...
November 9, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119205/secretome-profile-analysis-of-multidrug-resistant-monodrug-resistant-and-drug-susceptible-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#15
Chanyanuch Putim, Narumon Phaonakrop, Janthima Jaresitthikunchai, Ratikorn Gamngoen, Khajornsak Tragoolpua, Sorasak Intorasoot, Usanee Anukool, Chayada Sitthidet Tharincharoen, Ponrut Phunpae, Chatchai Tayapiwatana, Watchara Kasinrerk, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Bordin Butr-Indr
The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis has generated great concern in the control of tuberculosis and HIV/TB patients have established severe complications that are difficult to treat. Although, the gold standard of drug-susceptibility testing is highly accurate and efficient, it is time-consuming. Diagnostic biomarkers are, therefore, necessary in discriminating between infection from drug-resistant and drug-susceptible strains. One strategy that aids to effectively control tuberculosis is understanding the function of secreting proteins that mycobacteria use to manipulate the host cellular defenses...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116636/pe-and-ppe-genes-a-tale-of-conservation-and-diversity
#16
Giovanni Delogu, Michael J Brennan, Riccardo Manganelli
PE and PPE are two large families of proteins typical of mycobacteria whose structural genes in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) occupy about 7% of the total genome. The most ancestral PE and PPE proteins are expressed by genes that belong to the same operon and in most cases are found inserted in the esx clusters, encoding a type VII secretion system. Duplication and expansion of pe and ppe genes, coupled with intragenomic and intergenomic recombination events, led to the emergence of the polymorphic pe_pgrs and ppe_mptr genes in the MTBC genome...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116628/the-biology-and-epidemiology-of-mycobacterium-canettii
#17
Philip Supply, Roland Brosch
Genome-based insights into the evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria are constantly increasing. In particular, the recent genomic and functional characterization of several Myocbacterium canettii strains, which are thought to resemble in many aspects the putative common ancestor of the members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC), has consolidated a plausible scenario of the early evolution of tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria, in which the clonal MTBC, comprising numerous key pathogens of mammalian hosts, has evolved from a generalist mycobacterium living in the environment...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114022/hupb-is-a-bacterial-nucleoid-associated-protein-with-an-indispensable-eukaryotic-like-tail
#18
Joanna Hołówka, Damian Trojanowski, Katarzyna Ginda, Bartosz Wojtaś, Bartłomiej Gielniewski, Dagmara Jakimowicz, Jolanta Zakrzewska-Czerwińska
In bacteria, chromosomal DNA must be efficiently compacted to fit inside the small cell compartment while remaining available for the proteins involved in replication, segregation, and transcription. Among the nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) responsible for maintaining this highly organized and yet dynamic chromosome structure, the HU protein is one of the most conserved and highly abundant. HupB, a homologue of HU, was recently identified in mycobacteria. This intriguing mycobacterial NAP is composed of two domains: an N-terminal domain that resembles bacterial HU, and a long and distinctive C-terminal domain that contains several PAKK/KAAK motifs, which are characteristic of the H1/H5 family of eukaryotic histones...
November 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112990/correction-persistent-mycobacteria-evade-an-antibacterial-program-mediated-by-phagolysosomal-tlr7-8-myd88-in-human-primary-macrophages
#19
Alexandre Gidon, Signe Elisabeth Åsberg, Claire Louet, Liv Ryan, Markus Haug, Trude Helen Flo
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006551.].
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111994/identification-of-the-infection-source-of-an-outbreak-of-mycobacterium-chelonae-keratitis-after-laser-in-situ-keratomileusis
#20
Heloisa Nascimento, Cristina Viana-Niero, Christiane Lourenço Nogueira, Paulo José Martins Bispo, Fernando Pinto, Camila de Paula Pereira Uzam, Cristianne Kayoko Matsumoto, Antônia Maria Oliveira Machado, Sylvia Cardoso Leão, Ana Luisa Höfling-Lima, Denise de Freitas
PURPOSE: Nontuberculous mycobacteria keratitis is a rare but challenging complication of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). This study was conducted to determine the source(s) of infection in a cluster of cases of keratitis after LASIK and to describe this outbreak and patients' outcomes. METHODS: In this retrospective, case series, single-center study, 86 patients were included who underwent LASIK or photorefractive keratectomy between December 2011 and February 2012...
November 2, 2017: Cornea
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