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Luke J Alderwick, Helen L Birch, Karin Krumbach, Michael Bott, Lothar Eggeling, Gurdyal S Besra
Arabinogalactan (AG) is an essential structural macromolecule present in the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , serving to connect peptidoglycan with the outer mycolic acid layer. The D-arabinan segment is a highly branched component of AG and is assembled in a step-wise fashion by a variety of arabinofuranosyltransferases (AraT). We have previously used Corynebacterium glutamicum as a model organism to study these complex processes which are otherwise essential in mycobacteria. In order to further our understanding of the molecular basis of AG assembly, we investigated the role of a fourth AraT, now termed AftD by generating single (Δ aftD ) and double deletion (Δ aftB Δ aftD ) mutants of C...
March 2018: The cell surface
S Q Wang, G L Jiang, G M Wei, F M Huo, L L Dong, L P Zhao, H R Huang, G R Wang
Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility and genotyping of Mycobacterium intracellulare . Methods: A total of 150 M . intracellulare isolates were collected. The susceptibility against 15 antimicrobial agents widely used for treatment of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) infections, was tested by broth microdilution assay. Variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) assay was also performed using the 16-loci genotyping method. Results: The drug susceptibility test revealed that clarithromycin (97...
July 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Tunç Akkoç, Deniz Genç, Noushin Zibandeh, Tolga Akkoç
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) has been used for the treatment of allergic diseases by inducing T regulatory cells in the periphery. Mycobacteria can be used as an adjuvant to induce T regulatory cells. However, it is unclear whether intranasal immunotherapy in combination with Mycobacteria adjuvant induce regulatory T cell differentiation and attenuate allergic responses in vivo. To investigate the role of intranasal OVA treatment alone and in combination with Mycobacteria vaccae, frequency of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells and anti-inflammatory responses were evaluated in a murine model of asthma...
July 10, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Xinwei Feng, Junfeng Lu, Zitian He, Yidan Wang, Fangfang Qi, Rongbiao Pi, Ge Zhang
Both pathogenic and non-pathogenic Mycobacteria can induce the differentiation of immune cells into dendritic cells (DC) or DC-like cells. In addition, pathogenic Mycobacteria is found to stimulate cell differentiation in the nerves system. Whether non-pathogenic Mycobacteria interacts with nerve cells remains unknown. In this study, we found that co-incubation with fast-growing Mycobacteria smegmatis induced neuron-like morphological changes of PC12 and C17.2 cells. Moreover, the M. smegmatis culture supernatant which was ultrafiltrated through a membrane with a 10 kDa cut-off, induced neurite outgrowth and differentiation in an autophagy-independent pathway in PC12 and C17...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Xin-Xin Liu, Meng-Jia Shen, Wei-Bing Liu, Bang-Ce Ye
Assimilation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) plays an important role in the survival and lipid biosynthesis of Mycobacteria . However, regulation of this process has not been thoroughly described. In the present work, we demonstrate that GlnR as a well-known nitrogen-sensing regulator transcriptionally modulates the AMP-forming propionyl-CoA synthetase (MsPrpE), and acetyl-CoA synthetases (MsAcs) is associated with SCFAs assimilation in Mycobacterium smegmatis , a model Mycobacterium . GlnR can directly activate the expression of MsprpE and Msacs by binding to their promoter regions based upon sensed nitrogen starvation in the host...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Pierre Santucci, Sadia Diomandé, Isabelle Poncin, Laetitia Alibaud, Albertus Viljoen, Laurent Kremer, Chantal de Chastellier, Stéphane Canaan
Within tuberculous granulomas, a sub-population of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resides inside foamy macrophages (FM) that contain abundant cytoplasmic lipid bodies (LB) filled with triacylglycerol (TAG). Upon fusion of LB with M. tuberculosis -containing phagosomes, TAG is hydrolyzed and reprocessed by the bacteria into their own lipids, which accumulate as intracytosolic lipid inclusions (ILI). This phenomenon is driven by many mycobacterial lipases, among which LipY participates in the hydrolysis of host and bacterial TAG...
July 9, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Sanna-Kaisa E Harjula, Markus J T Ojanen, Sinja Taavitsainen, Matti Nykter, Mika Rämet
Tuberculosis ranks as one of the world's deadliest infectious diseases causing more than a million casualties annually. IL10 inhibits the function of Th1 type cells, and IL10 deficiency has been associated with an improved resistance against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a mouse model. Here, we utilized M. marinum infection in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model for studying Il10 in the host response against mycobacteria. Unchallenged, nonsense il10e46/e46 mutant zebrafish were fertile and phenotypically normal...
July 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Weihui Li, Lihua Hu, Zhiwei Xie, Hui Xu, Meng Li, Tao Cui, Zheng-Guo He
Cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a global signaling molecule that modulates diverse cellular processes through its downstream receptors. However, no study has fully clarified the mechanisms by which c-di-GMP organizes functionally divergent regulators to drive the gene expression for coping with environmental stress. Here, we reported that c-di-GMP can integrate two functionally opposite receptor transcription factors, namely, LtmA and HpoR, into a pathway to regulate the antioxidant processes in Mycobacterium smegmatis...
July 3, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Aaron I Gardner, Elliot McClenaghan, Gemma Saint, Paul S McNamara, Malcolm Brodlie, Matthew F Thomas
Background: Infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is of growing clinical concern in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). The epidemiology of infection in children and young people remains poorly understood. We wished to investigate the epidemiology of NTM infection in the paediatric age-group using data from the United Kingdom CF Registry. Methods: Data from 2010-2015 for children and young people aged <16 years (23,200 observations from 5,333 unique individuals) were obtained...
July 5, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Maxine S Eikani, Melodee Nugent, Arash Poursina, Pippa Simpson, Hara Levy
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is increasing globally. However, the related epidemiology, comorbidities, and clinical impact of NTM infection remains unclear in the progress of CF lung disease and patient survival. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, case-control, cohort study (10 years), comparing NTM culture-positive CF patients (N = 28) to matched controls (N = 26). NTM positive patients were divided in to two groups of slow-growing (N = 17) and rapid- growing NTM (N = 8)...
July 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Surang Leelawat, Kawin Leelawat
Background: Hydnocarpus anthelminthicus is primarily used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of leprosy. Previous studies demonstrated that the clinical course of leprosy and the susceptibility to mycobacteria are recognized by the immune response of the host. The current study aims to investigate the effect of H. anthelminthicus seed oil and extracts on the secretion of cytokines from PBMCs involved in immune regulation. Methods: PBMCs from healthy volunteers were cultured and treated with LPS and H...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
LiuLin Luo, Wen Cao, WeiWei Chen, RanRan Zhang, LinJie Jing, HuiPing Chen, FangYou Yu, Jun Yue
Different Mycobacterium spp. infections may indicate varied treatment regimens in the clinic. Thus, the species-level identification of Mycobacterium spp. is one of the most important tasks for a clinical microbiology laboratory. Although matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a rapid and accurate method for the identification of mycobacteria, this method lacks a comprehensive evaluation of the identification accuracy for clinically collected mycobacteria using VITEK MS Knowledge Base Version 3...
July 4, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Jessica M Groenevelt, Lisa M Meints, Alicyn I Stothard, Anne W Poston, Taylor J Fiolek, David H Finocchietti, Victoria M Mulholand, Peter J Woodruff, Benjamin M Swarts
Trehalosamine (2-amino-2-deoxy-α,α-D-trehalose) is an aminoglycoside with antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and it is also a versatile synthetic intermediate used to access imaging probes for mycobacteria. To overcome inefficient chemical synthesis approaches, we report a 2-step chemoenzymatic synthesis of trehalosamine that features trehalose synthase (TreT)-catalyzed glycosylation as the key transformation. Soluble and recyclable immobilized forms of TreT were successfully employed...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
J Hongler, J Musaazi, B Ledergerber, N Eberhard, C Sekaggya-Wiltshire, P M Keller, J Fehr, B Castelnuovo
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to clarify how HIV infection affects tuberculosis liquid and solid culture results in a resource-limited setting. METHODS: We used baseline data from the Study on Outcomes Related to Tuberculosis and HIV Drug Concentrations in Uganda (SOUTH), which included 268 HIV/tuberculosis (TB)-coinfected individuals. Culture results from Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) solid culture and mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture systems and culture-based correlates for bacillary density from the sputum of HIV/TB-coinfected individuals at baseline were analysed...
July 3, 2018: HIV Medicine
F Scasso, G Ferrari, G C DE Vincentiis, A Arosio, S Bottero, M Carretti, A Ciardo, S Cocuzza, A Colombo, B Conti, A Cordone, M DE Ciccio, E Delehaye, L Della Vecchia, I DE Macina, C Dentone, P DI Mauro, R Dorati, R Fazio, A Ferrari, G Ferrea, S Giannantonio, I Genta, M Giuliani, D Lucidi, L Maiolino, G Marini, P Marsella, D Meucci, T Modena, B Montemurri, A Odone, S Palma, M L Panatta, M Piemonte, P Pisani, S Pisani, L Prioglio, A Scorpecci, L Scotto DI Santillo, A Serra, C Signorelli, E Sitzia, M L Tropiano, M Trozzi, F M Tucci, L Vezzosi, B Viaggi
Emerging and re-emerging infectious disease in otorhinolaryngology (ENT) are an area of growing epidemiological and clinical interest. The aim of this section is to comprehensively report on the epidemiology of key infectious disease in otorhinolaryngology, reporting on their burden at the national and international level, expanding of the need of promoting and implementing preventive interventions, and the rationale of applying evidence-based, effective and cost- effective diagnostic, curative and preventive approaches...
April 2018: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
Shota Myojin, Kahoru Fukuoka, Asako Kanemaru, Shintaro Baba, Yuki Okamoto, Hiromichi Suzuki, Keisuke Kamada, Atsushi Yoshida, Ken Kikuchi, Yuho Horikoshi
Mycobacterium abscessus is one of the most pathogenic and chemotherapy resistant rapid-growing mycobacteria. This mycobacterium should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic otitis media in children, and treatment might be challenging because of its resistance to multiple antibiotics. There are no reports that describe the therapeutic use of tigecycline treating the chronic otitis media caused by M. abscessus. A 10 year-old-boy was referred to our hospital with a 7-year history of recurrent otitis media despite of treatment by antibiotics and ventilation tubes...
June 29, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Michele Totaro, Beatrice Casini, Paola Valentini, Mario Miccoli, Pier Luigi Lopalco, Angelo Baggiani
Italian Directives recommend the good quality of natural mineral waters but literature data assert a potential risk from microorganisms colonizing wellsprings and mineral water bottling plants. We evaluated the presence of microorganisms in spring waters (SW) and bottled mineral waters (BMW) samples. Routine microbiological indicators, additional microorganisms like Legionella spp., Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and amoebae (FLA) were assessed in 24 SW and 10 BMW samples performing cultural and molecular methods...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Hossein Kazemian, Hamid Heidari, Jalil Kardan Yamchi, Hengameh Zandi, Asieh Taji, Fateme Yazdani, Roya Ghanavati, Hossein Ali Rahdar, Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis as an intracellular pathogen causes tuberculosis (TB). Due to the long time required for treatment, hepatotoxicity of drugs and also emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extremely drug resistant (XDR) strains, TB is currently a major public health problem. Some medicinal plants possess remarkable activity against Mycobacterium. Among them, Lamiaceae family are of pharmaceutical interest because of their potential antimicrobial properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro activities of Satureja rechingeri, Satureja khuzestanica and Zataria multiflora against MDR M...
June 26, 2018: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Eleanor L Axson, Chloe I Bloom, Jennifer K Quint
Previous UK studies investigating nontuberculous mycobacteria have been limited to reporting isolation from culture, not burden of disease. We assessed the burden of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease (NTMD) in UK primary care from 2006 to 2016. Using electronic healthcare records, we identified patients with NTMD using a strict definition including patients with guideline-directed treatment/monitoring. We described treatment regimens and incidence/prevalence in the general population and in patients with underlying chronic respiratory diseases...
June 27, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Daniel Perez-Risco, David Rodriguez-Temporal, Ivan Valledor-Sanchez, Fernando Alcaide
The rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTUBC) in clinical samples is essential for successful treatment. New techniques such as Real-Time PCR have been developed in order to facilitate rapid diagnosis, but their sensitivity is low in extrapulmonary specimens, due to the low bacillary load in such samples. A next-generation assay has recently been developed to try to overcome this limitation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (GX-Ultra) for the detection of MTUBC DNA in 108 smear-negative extrapulmonary specimens that were MTUBC culture-positive...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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