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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930653/fishing-for-answers-in-human-mycobacterial-infections
#1
Miriam Bolz, Joel D Ernst
Two recent studies (Cambier et al., 2017; Madigan et al., 2017) reveal in vivo functions for specific phenolic glycolipids (PGLs) in the mycobacteria that cause tuberculosis or leprosy. M. tuberculosis (and M. marinum) PGL promotes bacterial spread to growth-permissive macrophages, while M. leprae PGL-1 induces macrophages to cause nerve demyelination characteristic of human leprosy.
September 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930014/surveillance-of-extrapulmonary-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-infections-oregon-usa-2007-2012
#2
Emily Henkle, Katrina Hedberg, Sean D Schafer, Kevin L Winthrop
Limited data are available describing extrapulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections in the general population. We describe results from statewide population-based laboratory surveillance in Oregon, USA, during 2007-2012. We defined a case of extrapulmonary NTM infection as >1 isolate from skin/soft tissue, disseminated sites, lymph node, joint, or other sites. The annual incidence of extrapulmonary NTM infection (other than Mycobacterium gordonae) was stable, averaging 1.5 cases/100,000 population...
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928258/implantable-cardiac-defibrillator-infections-the-emerging-importance-of-mycobacterium-fortuitum
#3
Menfil Orellana-Barrios, David A Sotello Aviles, Olusegun Oyenuga, Kenneth Nugent
Infection is a clinically relevant complication associated with intracardiac devices. Atypical mycobacteria, particularly Mycobacterium fortuitum, have been increasingly implicated in cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections. We present a case of M. fortuitum CIED infection in a patient with ischaemic cardiomyopathy occurring approximately 3 weeks after insertion. The recognition and adequate treatment, including device removal, tissue sampling and the determination of antimicrobial sensitivities, are essential in the proper management of these patients...
September 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925956/sulfadiazine-salicylaldehyde-based-schiff-bases-synthesis-antimicrobial-activity-and-cytotoxicity
#4
Martin Krátký, Magdaléna Dzurková, Jiří Janoušek, Klára Konečná, František Trejtnar, Jiřina Stolaříková, Jarmila Vinšová
The resistance among microbes has brought an urgent need for new drugs. Thus, we synthesized a series of Schiff bases derived from the sulfa drug sulfadiazine and various salicylaldehydes. The resulting 4-[(2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino]-N-(pyrimidin-2-yl)benzene-sulfonamides were characterized and evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, moulds, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacteria (M. kansasii, M. avium) and their cytotoxicity was determined. Among bacteria, the genus Staphylococcus, including methicillin-resistant S...
September 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925518/chemistry-of-peptidoglycan-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-life-style-an-off-the-wall-balance-of-synthesis-and-degradation
#5
Flavia Squeglia, Alessia Ruggiero, Rita Berisio
The cell wall envelope of mycobacteria is structurally distinct from that of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, this cell wall has unique structural features and plays a crucial role in drug resistance and macrophage survival under stress conditions. Peptidoglycan is the major constituent of this cell wall, with an important structural role, giving structural strength, and counteracting the osmotic pressure of the cytoplasm. Synthesis of this complex polymer takes place in three stages that occur at three different locations in the cell, from the cytoplasm to the external side of the cell membrane, where polymerization occurs...
September 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924121/pleuritis-caused-by-mycobacterium-kyorinense-without-pulmonary-involvement
#6
Tatsuyoshi Ikeue, Hiroshi Yoshida, Eiichiro Tanaka, Issei Ohi, Susumu Noguchi, Akari Fukao, Satoshi Terashita, Sadao Horikawa, Takakazu Sugita
We herein describe the first known case of pleuritis caused by Mycobacterium kyorinense without pulmonary involvement. A 48-year-old man undergoing immunosuppressant therapy presented with cough and dyspnea. An accumulation of pleural fluid was noted; however, computed tomography revealed no pulmonary lesions. Cultures of the fluid yielded non-tuberculous mycobacteria, which was identified as Mycobacterium kyorinense. The patient recovered after 6 months of therapy with clarithromycin and moxifloxacin. Clinicians should be aware that Mycobacterium kyorinense can cause pleuritis without pulmonary involvement...
September 15, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923675/respiratory-infections-due-to-nontuberculous-mycobacterias
#7
REVIEW
Luis Máiz Carro, Esther Barbero Herranz, Rosa Nieto Royo
The most common infections caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are lung infections. The microorganisms causing these infections most frequently are Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Their incidence has increased in the last three decades. After identifying an NTM in the respiratory tract, clinical and radiological aspects must be considered to determine if isolations are clinically relevant. Predisposing conditions that could contribute to infection must also be investigated...
September 15, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920836/mycobacterium-aquiterrae-sp-nov-a-rapidly-growing-bacterium-isolated-from-groundwater
#8
Jae-Chan Lee, Kyung-Sook Whang
A strain representing a rapidly growing, Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-sporulating and non-pigmented species of the genus Mycobacterium, designated strain S-I-6T, was isolated from groundwater at Daejeon in Korea. The strain grew at temperatures between 10 and 37 °C (optimal growth at 25 °C), between pH 4.0 and 9.0 (optimal growth at pH 7.0) and at salinities of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on multilocus sequence analysis of the 16S rRNAgene, hsp65, rpoB and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer indicated that strain S-I-6T belonged to the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium sphagni...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920054/controlling-extra-and-intramacrophagic-mycobacterium-abscessus-by-targeting-mycolic-acid-transport
#9
Albertus Viljoen, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Oluseye K Onajole, Jozef Stec, Alan P Kozikowski, Laurent Kremer
Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) causing serious infections especially among cystic fibrosis patients. Extremely limited therapeutic options against M. abscessus and a rise in infections with this mycobacterium require novel chemotherapies and a better understanding of how the bacterium causes infection. Different from most RGM, M. abscessus can survive inside macrophages and persist for long durations in infected tissues. We recently delineated differences in the infective programs followed by smooth (S) and rough (R) variants of M...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919618/molecular-detection-and-differentiation-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-and-non-tuberculous-mycobacterium-in-the-clinical-specimens-by-real-time-pcr
#10
M M Rahman, M R Rahim, A Khaled, T A Nasir, F Nasrin, M A Hasan
Mycobacteria are subdivided into three groups: the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the non-tuberculous mycobacteria called NTM or MOTT (Mycobacteria Other Than Tuberculosis) and Mycobacterium leprae. Over the past few decades, the incidence of infections caused by NTM has increased world wide. The differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from NTM is of primary importance for infection control and choice of antimicrobial therapy. However, there is so far no report in Bangladesh about the detection of NTM and hence differentiation of MTB and NTM...
July 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919416/identification-of-eukaryotic-udp-galactopyranose-mutase-inhibitors-using-the-thermofad-assay
#11
Julia S Martín Del Campo, Meital Eckshtain-Levi, Pablo Sobrado
Aspergillus fumigatus is a human pathogen responsible for deadly infections in immune-compromised patients. A potential strategy for treating A. fumigatus infections is by targeting the biosynthesis of cell wall components, such as galactofuranase, which is absent in humans. Galactofuranose biosynthesis is initiated by the flavoenzyme UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM), which converts UDP-galactopyranose (UDP-Galp) to UDP-galactofuranose (UDP-Galf). UGM requires the reduced form of the flavin for activity, which is obtained by reacting it with NADPH...
September 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919338/diagnostic-accuracy-of-xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-for-tuberculous-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Nathan C Bahr, Edwin Nuwagira, Emily E Evans, Fiona V Cresswell, Philip V Bystrom, Adolf Byamukama, Sarah C Bridge, Ananta S Bangdiwala, David B Meya, Claudia M Denkinger, Conrad Muzoora, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: WHO recommends Xpert MTB/RIF as initial diagnostic testing for tuberculous meningitis. However, diagnosis remains difficult, with Xpert sensitivity of about 50-70% and culture sensitivity of about 60%. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the new Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) for tuberculous meningitis. METHODS: We prospectively obtained diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens during screening for a trial on the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in Mbarara, Uganda...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917991/enhanced-expression-of-pd-l1-and-ifn-%C3%AE-on-dendritic-cells-is-associated-with-bcg-induced-th2-inhibition
#13
A C C Gouveia, F G Braga, M Mota, F M C Silva, A S S Brugiolo, E E Oliveira, M C Ayupe, H C Teixeira, A P Ferreira
Accumulating evidence indicates that the exposure to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prevents the development of allergy and the airway dendritic cells (DCs) may be involved in this protective effect. However, studies to better characterize the specific interactions between BCG and DCs and their role in this mycobacteria-mediated Th2 cell suppression are still ongoing. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the neonatal BCG vaccination in the innate immune response in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation...
September 14, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917089/the-trehalose-specific-transporter-lpqy-sugabc-is-required-for-antimicrobial-and-anti-biofilm-activity-of-trehalose-analogues-in-mycobacterium-smegmatis
#14
Jeffrey M Wolber, Bailey L Urbanek, Lisa M Meints, Brent F Piligian, Irene C Lopez-Casillas, Kailey M Zochowski, Peter J Woodruff, Benjamin M Swarts
Mycobacteria, including the bacterial pathogen that causes human tuberculosis, possess distinctive pathways for synthesizing and utilizing the non-mammalian disaccharide trehalose. Trehalose metabolism is essential for mycobacterial viability and has been linked to in vitro biofilm formation, which may bear relevance to in vivo drug tolerance. Previous research has shown that some trehalose analogues bearing modifications at the 6-position inhibit growth of various mycobacterial species. In this work, 2-, 5-, and 6-position-modified trehalose analogues were synthesized using our previously reported one-step chemoenzymatic method and shown to inhibit growth and biofilm formation in the two-to three-digit micromolar range in Mycobacterium smegmatis...
August 9, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915071/transcriptional-response-of-respiratory-epithelium-to-nontuberculous-mycobacteria
#15
Masashi Matsuyama, Andrew J Martins, Shamira Shallom, Olena Kamenyeva, Anuj Kashyap, Elizabeth P Sampaio, Juraj Kabat, Kenneth N Olivier, Adrian M Zelazny, John S Tsang, Steven M Holland
RATIONALE: The incidence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease is increasing, but host responses in respiratory epithelium infected with NTM are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify infection-relevant gene expression signatures of NTM infection of the respiratory epithelium. METHODS: We infected air-liquid interface (ALI) primary respiratory epithelial cell cultures with Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAC) or Mycobacterium abscessuss subsp...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911363/bronchial-angles-are-associated-with-nodular-bronchiectatic-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-lung-disease
#16
T Lee, J Y Park, H Y Lee, H-J Lim, J S Park, Y-J Cho, T J Kim, K W Lee, J H Lee, C-T Lee, H I Yoon
BACKGROUND: The nodular bronchiectatic (NB) form of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease usually involves the right middle lobe (RML) and the left upper lobe lingular segment. However, the reason underlying this preference is not known. METHODS: Fifty patients with NB NTM lung disease who had both positive NTM culture(s) and NB lesions in the RML or lingular segment on computed tomography (CT) of the chest, and 100 healthy subjects matched for sex, age, height and body weight with normal chest CT, were randomly selected...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910983/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-host-responses-triggered-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-human-macrophage-cells
#17
Hua Li, Sha Wei, Yuan Fang, Min Li, Xia Li, Zhe Li, Jibin Zhang, Guofeng Zhu, Chuanyou Li, Lijun Bi, Guimin Zhang, Dianbing Wang, Xian-En Zhang
Macrophages are primary host of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and the central effector of in vivo innate immune responses against bacteria. Though the interaction between macrophages and mycobacteria has been widely investigated, the molecular mechanisms of M.tb pathogenesis in macrophages are still not clear. In this work, we investigated the altered protein expression profiles of macrophages after virulent H37Rv strain and avirulent H37Ra strain infection by tandem mass tag-based quantitative proteomics...
September 1, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904991/bioelectrospray-methodology-for-dissection-of-the-host-pathogen-interaction-in-human-tuberculosis
#18
Liku B Tezera, Magdalena K Bielecka, Paul T Elkington
Standard cell culture models have been used to investigate disease pathology and to test new therapies for over fifty years. However, these model systems have often failed to mimic the changes occurring within three-dimensional (3-D) space where pathology occurs in vivo. To truthfully represent this, an emerging paradigm in biology is the importance of modelling disease in a physiologically relevant 3-D environment. One of the approaches for 3-D cell culture is bioelectrospray technology. This technique uses an alginate-based 3-D environment as an inert backbone within which mammalian cells and extracellular matrix can be incorporated...
July 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903728/increased-survival-and-proliferation-of-the-epidemic-strain-mycobacterium-abscessus-subsp-massiliense-crm0019-in-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#19
Giovanni Monteiro Ribeiro, Cristianne Kayoko Matsumoto, Fernando Real, Daniela Teixeira, Rafael Silva Duarte, Renato Arruda Mortara, Sylvia Cardoso Leão, Cristiane de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of infections caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria have been reported worldwide generally associated with medical procedures. Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense CRM0019 was obtained during an epidemic of postsurgical infections and was characterized by increased persistence in vivo. To better understand the successful survival strategies of this microorganism, we evaluated its infectivity and proliferation in macrophages (RAW and BMDM) and alveolar epithelial cells (A549)...
September 13, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902922/molecular-clustering-of-patients-with-diabetes-and-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Francles Blanco-Guillot, Guadalupe Delgado-Sánchez, Norma Mongua-Rodríguez, Pablo Cruz-Hervert, Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Elizabeth Ferreira-Guerrero, Mercedes Yanes-Lane, Rogelio Montero-Campos, Miriam Bobadilla-Del-Valle, Pedro Torres-González, Alfredo Ponce-de-León, José Sifuentes-Osornio, Lourdes Garcia-Garcia
INTRODUCTION: Many studies have explored the relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) demonstrating increased risk of TB among patients with DM and poor prognosis of patients suffering from the association of DM/TB. Owing to a paucity of studies addressing this question, it remains unclear whether patients with DM and TB are more likely than TB patients without DM to be grouped into molecular clusters defined according to the genotype of the infecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillus...
2017: PloS One
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