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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087944/laboratory-diagnosis-and-susceptibility-testing-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Gary W Procop
The laboratory, which utilizes some of the most sophisticated and rapidly changing technologies, plays a critical role in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Some of these tools are being employed in resource-challenged countries for the rapid detection and characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Foremost, the laboratory defines appropriate specimen criteria for optimal test performance. The direct detection of mycobacteria in the clinical specimen, predominantly done by acid-fast staining, may eventually be replaced by rapid-cycle PCR...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087528/engineering-mycobacteria-for-the-production-of-self-assembling-biopolyesters-displaying-mycobacterial-antigens-for-use-as-tuberculosis-vaccine
#2
Jason W Lee, Natalie A Parlane, Bernd H A Rehm, Bryce M Buddle, Axel Heiser
: Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis and still remains one of the world's biggest global health burdens. Recently, engineered polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biobeads produced in both E. coli and Lactococcus lactis displaying mycobacterial antigens were found to induce significant cell mediated immune responses in mice. We observed that such PHA beads contained host cell proteins as impurities which we hypothesized to have the potential to induce immunity...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084673/applying-the-one-health-concept-to-mycobacterial-research-overcoming-parochialism
#3
REVIEW
S Thirunavukkarasu, K M Plain, K de Silva, B J Marais, R J Whittington
Mycobacterial infections remain a public health problem. Historically important, globally ubiquitous and with a wide host range, we are still struggling to control mycobacterial infections in humans and animals. While previous reviews have focused on individual mycobacterial infections in either humans or animals, a comprehensive review of the zoonotic aspect of mycobacteria in the context of the One Health initiative is lacking. With the purpose of providing a concise and comprehensive resource, we have collated literature to address the zoonotic potential of different mycobacterial species and elaborate on the necessity for an inter-sectorial approach to attain a new vision to combat mycobacterial infections...
January 13, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084211/rapidly-growing-mycobacteria
#4
Barbara A Brown-Elliott, Julie V Philley
Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) compose approximately one-half of the currently validated mycobacterial species and are divided into six major groups, including the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, M. chelonae/M. abscessus complex, M. smegmatis group, M. mucogenicum group, M. mageritense/M. wolinskyi, and the pigmented RGM. This review discusses each group and highlights the major types of infections associated with each group. Additionally, phenotypic and molecular laboratory identification methods, including gene sequencing, mass spectrometry, and the newly emerging whole-genome sequencing, are detailed, along with a discussion of the current antimicrobial susceptibility methods and patterns of the most common pathogenic species...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084209/the-role-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-mycobacterial-infections
#5
Charles Peloquin
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of infectious death. Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause a wide variety of difficult-to-treat infections in various human hosts. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) remains a standard clinical technique that uses plasma drug concentrations to determine dose. The reason to do this is simple: drug exposure (that is, the free drug area under the plasma concentration-time curve) relative to the MIC and not the dose per se largely determines the outcome of the infections. TDM provides objective information that clinician can use to make informed dosing decisions...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084199/epidemiology-and-host-factors
#6
Jay B Mehta, Asim K Dutt
In 2014, WHO reported approximately 9.6 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) in the world, more than half of which are contributed by developing countries in Asia and Africa. Lack of modern diagnostic tools, underreporting of the new cases and underutilization of directly observed therapy (DOT) remain a concern in developing countries. Transient resurgence of TB during the HIV epidemic has subsided and the annual decline has resumed in developed countries including the USA. In 2014 though, the rate of decline has slowed down resulting in leveling of TB incidence in the USA...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083914/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-1-2-4-triazole-3-thione-and-1-3-4-oxadiazole-2-thione-as-anti-mycobacterial-agents
#7
Amol D Sonawane, Navnath D Rode, Laxman Nawale, Rohini R Joshi, Ramesh A Joshi, Anjali P Likhite, Dhiman Sarkar
Resistance among dormant mycobacteria leading to multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extremely-drug resistant(XDR) tuberculosis is one of the major threats. Hence, a series of 1,2,4-triazole-3-thione and 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thione derivatives (4a-5c) have been synthesised and screened for their anti-tubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (H37Ra). Thetriazolethiones4b and 4v showed high anti-tubercular activity (both MIC and IC50 ) against the dormant H37Ra by in vitro and ex vivo. They were shown to have more specificity towards mycobacteria than other gram-negative and gram-positive pathogenic bacteria...
January 12, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082270/modern-healthcare-versus-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-who-will-have-the-upper-hand
#8
EDITORIAL
Matthew B Crist, Joseph F Perz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081227/diagnostic-accuracy-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-comparison-to-conventional-drug-susceptibility-testing-method-for-the-diagnosis-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#9
Pratikshya Pandey, Narayan Dutt Pant, Komal Raj Rijal, Bhawana Shrestha, Sirita Kattel, Megha Raj Banjara, Bhagwan Maharjan, Rajendra Kc
Xpert MTB/RIF assay is regarded as a great achievement of modern medicine for the rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The main purpose of this study was to determine the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) method for the diagnosis of MDR-TB. A comparative cross sectional study was carried out at German-Nepal Tuberculosis Project, Kathmandu, Nepal, from April 2014 to September 2014. A total of 88 culture positive clinical samples (83 pulmonary and 5 extra-pulmonary) received during the study period were analyzed for detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis by both GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay and conventional DST method...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077628/the-creatininase-homolog-mfte-from-mycobacterium-smegmatis-catalyzes-a-peptide-cleavage-reaction-in-the-biosynthesis-of-a-novel-ripp
#10
Nathan A Bruender, Vahe Bandarian
Most ribosomally-synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide (RiPP) natural products are processed by tailoring enzymes to create complex natural products that are still recognizably peptide-based. However, some tailoring enzymes dismantle the peptide en route to synthesis of small molecules. The biosynthesis of a small-molecule natural product of as yet unknown structure, mycofactocin, is thought to be synthesized in this way, via the mft gene cluster found in many strains of Mycobacteria. This cluster harbors at least six genes, which appear to be conserved across species...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077517/two-phase-hospital-associated-outbreak-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-investigation-and-mitigation
#11
Arthur W Baker, Sarah S Lewis, Barbara D Alexander, Luke F Chen, Richard J Wallace, Barbara A Brown-Elliott, Pamela J Isaacs, Lisa C Pickett, Chetan B Patel, Peter K Smith, John M Reynolds, Jill Engel, Cameron R Wolfe, Carmelo A Milano, Jacob N Schroder, Robert D Davis, Matthew G Hartwig, Jason E Stout, Nancy Strittholt, Eileen K Maziarz, Jennifer Horan Saullo, Kevin C Hazen, Richard J Walczak, Ravikiran Vasireddy, Sruthi Vasireddy, Celeste M McKnight, Deverick J Anderson, Daniel J Sexton
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) commonly colonize municipal water and cause healthcare-associated outbreaks. We investigated a biphasic outbreak of Mycobacterium abscessus at a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Case patients had recent hospital exposure and laboratory-confirmed colonization or infection with M. abscessus from January 2013 through December 2015. We conducted a multidisciplinary epidemiologic, field, and laboratory investigation. RESULTS: The incidence rate of M...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076350/emergence-of-rare-species-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-as-potential-pathogens-in-saudi-arabian-clinical-setting
#12
Bright Varghese, Mushira Enani, Mohammed Shoukri, Sahar AlThawadi, Sameera AlJohani, Sahal Al-Hajoj
BACKGROUND: Clinical relevance of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is increasing worldwide including in Saudi Arabia. A high species diversity of NTM's has been noticed in a recent study. However, the identification in diagnostic laboratories is mostly limited to common species. The impact of NTM species diversity on clinical outcome is so far neglected in most of the clinical settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During April 2014 to September 2015, a nationwide collection of suspected NTM clinical isolates with clinical and demographical data were carried out...
January 11, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075574/visualization-of-mycobacterial-membrane-dynamics-in-live-cells
#13
Frances P Rodriguez-Rivera, Xiaoxue Zhou, Julie A Theriot, Carolyn R Bertozzi
Mycobacteria are endowed with a highly impermeable mycomembrane that confers intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics. Several unique mycomembrane glycolipids have been isolated and structurally characterized, but the underlying organization and dynamics of glycolipids within the cell envelope remain poorly understood. We report here a study of mycomembrane dynamics that was enabled by trehalose-fluorophore conjugates capable of labeling trehalose glycolipids in live actinomycetes. We identified fluorescein-trehalose analogs that are metabolically incorporated into the trehalose mycolates of representative Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium, Nocardia and Rhodococcus species...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075556/biosynthesis-of-the-methylthioxylose-capping-motif-of-lipoarabinomannan-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#14
Shiva Kumar Angala, Michael R McNeil, Libin Shi, Maju Joe, Ha Pham, Sophie Zuberogoitia, Jerome Nigou, Claudia M Boot, Todd L Lowary, Martine Gilleron, Mary Jackson
Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a lipoglycan found in abundant quantities in the cell envelope of all mycobacteria. The non-reducing arabinan termini of LAM display species-specific structural micro-heterogeneity that impacts the biological activity of the entire molecule. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for instance, produces mannoside caps made of one to three α(1→2)-Manp-linked residues that may be further substituted with an α(1→4)-linked methylthio-D-xylose (MTX) residue. While the biological functions and catalytic steps leading to the formation of the mannoside caps of M...
January 11, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074866/-mycobacterium-massilipolynesiensis-sp-nov-a-rapidly-growing-mycobacterium-of-medical-interest-related-to-mycobacterium-phlei
#15
M Phelippeau, S Asmar, D Aboubaker Osman, M Sassi, C Robert, C Michelle, D Musso, M Drancourt
In French Polynesia, respiratory tract clinical isolate M26, displayed unusual phenotype and contradictory phylogenetic affiliations, suggesting a hitherto unidentified rapidly-growing Mycobacterium species. The phenotype of strain M26 was further characterized and its genome sequenced. Strain M26 genome consists in a 5,732,017-bp circular chromosome with a G + C% of 67.54%, comprising 5,500 protein-coding genes and 52 RNA genes (including two copies of the 16 S rRNA gene). One region coding for a putative prophage was also predicted...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073877/pacemaker-pocket-infection-due-to-mycobacterium-goodii-a-rapidly-growing-mycobacteria
#16
David K Yoo, Seyed M Hosseini-Moghaddam
A woman aged 74 years with an implanted dual-chamber pacemaker presented with pacemaker site infection after failing empiric antimicrobial therapy. The pathogen was later identified as Mycobacterium goodii, a rapidly growing mycobacteria species. The pacemaker was subsequently removed and the patient was treated with oral ciprofloxacin and doxycycline with clinical improvement. In this article, we describe a rare case of pacemaker site infection by M. goodii.
January 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070335/prevalence-and-diversity-of-chlamydiales-and-other-amoeba-resisting-bacteria-in-domestic-drinking-water-systems
#17
J Lienard, A Croxatto, A Gervaix, Y Lévi, J-F Loret, K M Posfay-Barbe, G Greub
A growing number of human infections incriminate environmental bacteria that have evolved virulent mechanisms to resist amoebae and use them as a replicative niche. These bacteria are designated amoeba-resisting bacteria (ARB). Despite the isolation of these ARB in various human clinical samples, the possible source of infection remains undetermined in most cases. However, it is known that the ARB Legionella pneumophila, for instance, causes a respiratory infection in susceptible hosts after inhalation of contaminated water aerosols from various sources...
January 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069821/characterization-of-engineered-preq1-riboswitches-for-inducible-gene-regulation-in-mycobacteria
#18
Erik R Van Vlack, Shana Topp, Jessica C Seeliger
: We report here the behavior of naturally occurring and rationally engineered preQ1 riboswitches and their application to inducible gene regulation in mycobacteria. Because mycobacteria lack preQ1 biosynthetic genes, we hypothesized that preQ1 could be used as an exogenous non-metabolite ligand to control riboswitches in mycobacteria. Selected naturally occurring preQ1 riboswitches were assayed and successfully drove preQ1-dependent repression of a GFP reporter in Mycobacterium smegmatis Using structure-based design, we engineered three preQ1 riboswitches from Thermoanaerobacter tencongensis, Bacillus subtilis, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus towards achieving higher response ratios and increased repression...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069816/the-interaction-of-the-cd43-sialomucin-with-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-cpn60-2-chaperonin-mediates-macrophage-tnf-%C3%AE-production
#19
Alvaro Torres-Huerta, Tomas Villaseñor, Angel Flores-Alcantar, Cristina Parada, Estefanía Alemán-Navarro, Clara Espitia, Gustavo Pedraza-Alva, Yvonne Rosenstein
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causal agent of tuberculosis. TNF-α, TGF-β and IFN-γ secreted by activated macrophages and lymphocytes are considered essential to contain Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The CD43 sialomucin has been reported to act as a receptor for bacilli through its interaction with the chaperonin Cpn60.2, facilitating mycobacteria-macrophage contact. We report here that Cpn60.2 induces both THP-1 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) to produce TNF-α and that this production is CD43 dependent...
January 9, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069651/inhibition-by-avibactam-and-clavulanate-of-the-%C3%AE-lactamases-kpc-2-and-ctx-m-15-harboring-the-substitution-n132g-in-the-conserved-motif-sdn
#20
Clément Ourghanlian, Daria Soroka, Michel Arthur
The substitution N(132)G in the motif SDN of class A β-lactamases from rapidly-growing mycobacteria was previously shown to impair their inhibition by avibactam but to improve the stability of acyl-enzymes formed with clavulanate. The same substitution was introduced in KPC-2 and CTX-M-15 to assess its impact on β-lactamases from Enterobacteriaceae and evaluate whether it could lead to resistance to the ceftazidime-avibactam combination. Kinetic parameters for the inhibition of the β-lactamases by avibactam and clavulanate were determined by spectrophotometry using nitrocefin as the substrate...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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