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Spatial neglect

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230392/two-roads-diverged-distinct-mechanisms-of-attentional-bias-differentially-predict-negative-affect-and-persistent-negative-thought
#1
Sandersan Onie, Steven B Most
Attentional biases to threatening stimuli have been implicated in various emotional disorders. Theoretical approaches often carry the implicit assumption that various attentional bias measures tap into the same underlying construct, but attention itself is not a unitary mechanism. Most attentional bias tasks-such as the dot probe (DP)-index spatial attention, neglecting other potential attention mechanisms. We compared the DP with emotion-induced blindness (EIB), which appears to be mechanistically distinct, and examined the degree to which these tasks predicted (a) negative affect, (b) persistent negative thought (i...
February 23, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224761/temporal-order-judgements-as-a-sensitive-measure-of-the-spatial-bias-in-patients-with-visuospatial-neglect
#2
Stefan Van der Stigchel, Tanja C W Nijboer
Visuospatial neglect is not a unitary phenomenon, but can be better considered a syndrome, consisting of a multitude of different spatial and non-spatial components. In this study, we used a temporal order judgement (TOJ) test in a large sample of stroke patients (n = 73) to scrutinize the contribution of a spatial bias to the performance on shape cancellation and line bisection tests. In the TOJ test, patients were presented with two elements, one in each visual field, after which the one needed to indicate which of the two elements was presented earlier...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215657/methodological-considerations-with-data-uncertainty-in-road-safety-analysis
#3
Matthias Schlögl, Rainer Stütz
The analysis of potential influencing factors that affect the likelihood of road accident occurrence has been of major interest for safety researchers throughout the recent decades. Even though steady methodological progresses were made over the years, several impediments pertaining to the statistical analysis of crash data remain. While issues related to methodological approaches have been subject to constructive discussion, uncertainties inherent to the most fundamental part of any analysis have been widely neglected: data...
February 16, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212791/echinococcosis-control-and-prevention
#4
P S Craig, D Hegglin, M W Lightowlers, P R Torgerson, Q Wang
Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been eliminated or significantly reduced as a public health problem in several previously highly endemic regions. This has been achieved by the long-term application of prevention and control measures primarily targeted to deworming dogs, health education, meat inspection, and effective surveillance in livestock and human populations. Human CE, however, remains a serious neglected zoonotic disease in many resource-poor pastoral regions. The incidence of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) has increased in continental Europe and is a major public health problem in parts of Eurasia...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207172/drivers-of-redistribution-of-fishing-and-non-fishing-effort-after-the-implementation-of-a-marine-protected-area-network
#5
Reniel B Cabral, Steven D Gaines, Brett A Johnson, Tom W Bell, Crow White
Marine spatial planning (MSP) is increasingly utilized to sustainably manage ocean uses. Marine protected areas (MPAs), a form of spatial management in which parts of the ocean are regulated to fishing, are now a common tool in MSP for conserving marine biodiversity and managing fisheries. However, the use of MPAs in MSP often neglects, or simplifies, the redistribution of fishing and non-fishing activities inside and outside of MPAs following their implementation. This redistribution of effort can have important implications for effective MSP...
October 3, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190682/perception-of-active-head-rotation-in-patients-with-severe-left-unilateral-spatial-neglect
#6
Shinobu Kaibe, Manabu Okita, Hideto Kaba
Unilateral spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following predominantly right hemisphere damage, and is characterized by a failure to perceive and report stimuli in the contralesional side of space. To test the reference shift hypothesis that contralesional spatial neglect in right-brain-damaged patients is attributed to a rightward deviation of the egocentric reference frame, we measured the final angular position to which controls and left-side neglect patients actively turned their head toward the left in response to a verbal instruction given from each of three locations-right, left, and front-in two conditions, with and without visual feedback...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178375/melatonin-restores-hippocampal-neural-precursor-proliferation-and-prevents-cognitive-deficits-induced-by-jet-lag-simulation-in-adult-mice
#7
Deetje Iggena, York Winter, Barbara Steiner
Frequent flyers and shift workers undergo circadian dysrhythmia with adverse impact on body and mind. The circadian rhythm disorder "jet lag" disturbs hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial cognition, which represent morphological and functional adult brain plasticity. This raises the question if pro-neurogenic stimuli might prevent those consequences. However, suitable measures to mitigate jet lag induced adverse effects on brain plasticity have been neglected so far. Here, we used adult C57Bl6 mice to investigate the pro-neurogenic stimuli melatonin (8mg/kg i...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177156/from-maxwell-s-equations-to-the-theory-of-current-source-density-analysis
#8
Sergey L Gratiy, Geir Halnes, Daniel Denman, Michael J Hawrylycz, Christof Koch, Gaute T Einevoll, Costas A Anastassiou
Despite the widespread use of current-source density (CSD) analysis of extracellular potential recordings in the brain, the physical mechanisms responsible for the generation of the signal are still debated. While the extracellular potential is thought to be exclusively generated by the transmembrane currents, recent studies suggest that extracellular diffusive, advective and displacement currents-traditionally neglected-may also contribute considerably towards extracellular potential recordings. Here, we first justify the application of the electro-quasistatic approximation of Maxwell's equations to describe the electromagnetic field of physiological origin...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176792/meta-optical-chirality-and-emergent-eigen-polarization-modes-via-plasmon-interactions
#9
Matthew Moocarme, Nicholas V Proscia, Luat T Vuong
The response of an individual meta-atom is often generalized to explain the collective response of a metasurface in a manner that neglects the interactions between meta-atoms. Here, we study a metasurface composed of tilted achiral meta-atoms with no spatial variation of the unit cell that derives appreciable optical chirality solely from the asymmetric interactions between meta-atoms. The interactions between meta-atoms are considered to stem from the Lorentz force arising from the Larmor radiation of adjacent plasmonic resonators because their inclusion in a simple model accurately predicts the bonding/anti- bonding modes that are measured experimentally...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167411/which-perseverative-behaviors-are-symptoms-of-spatial-neglect
#10
Meghan D Caulfield, Peii Chen, Michele M Barry, A M Barrett
Spatial neglect is a characterized by a failure to attend or make movements towards left-sided stimuli. Common paper-and-pencil tasks to diagnose spatial neglect are sensitive to perseverative errors, including additional marks over already cancelled targets and "scribbling" out a target. Here, we examine whether functionally distinct perseverative behaviors are related to spatial neglect. Line cancellation tasks of 45 healthy controls and 220 right-hemisphere stroke survivors were examined for recurrent marks (RM) and continuous marks (CM) perseverations...
February 3, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166251/risk-analysis-and-prediction-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-dispersion-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil
#11
Anaiá da Paixão Sevá, Liang Mao, Fredy Galvis-Ovallos, Joanna Marie Tucker Lima, Denis Valle
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important neglected disease caused by a protozoan parasite, and represents a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. It is zoonotic in Europe and Latin America, where infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoir for the parasite and play a key role in VL transmission to humans. In Brazil this disease is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum chagasi, and is transmitted by the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Despite programs aimed at eliminating infection sources, the disease continues to spread throughout the Country...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147535/simulating-the-absorption-spectra-of-helium-clusters-n%C3%A2-%C3%A2-70-150-231-300-using-a-charge-transfer-correction-to-superposition-of-fragment-single-excitations
#12
Qinghui Ge, Yuezhi Mao, Alec F White, Evgeny Epifanovsky, Kristina D Closser, Martin Head-Gordon
Simulations of the n = 2 absorption spectra of HeN (N = 70, 150, 231, 300) clusters are reported, with nuclear configurations sampled by path integral molecular dynamics. The electronic structure is treated by a new approach, ALMO-CIS+CT, which is a formulation of configuration interaction singles (CIS) based on absolutely localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs). The method generalizes the previously reported ALMO-CIS model [K. D. Closser et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 11, 5791 (2015)] to include spatially localized charge transfer (CT) effects...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145929/reconstruction-of-extensive-orbital-exenteration-defects-using-an-anterolateral-thigh-vastus-lateralis-chimeric-flap
#13
Tekin Simsek, Murat Sinan Engin, Kamil Yildirim, Enes Agah Kodalak, Ahmet Demir
Neglected malignant tumors within the orbital region can invade the eyeball, extraocular muscles, and bone substance surrounding the eye. Such patients require orbital exenteration, which may involve extraocular skeletal structures (even exposing paranasal sinuses), resulting in 3-dimensional defects requiring reconstruction. This study presents our experience with anterolateral thigh vastus lateralis (ALT/VL) chimeric free flaps for the reconstruction of extensive orbital exenteration defects involving various paranasal sinuses...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144935/three-dimensional-interstitial-space-mediates-predator-foraging-success-in-different-spatial-arrangements
#14
Stephen G Hesterberg, C Cole Duckett, Elizabeth A Salewski, Susan S Bell
Identifying and quantifying the relevant properties of habitat structure that mediate predator-prey interactions remains a persistent challenge. Most previous studies investigate effects of structural density on trophic interactions and typically quantify refuge quality using one or two-dimensional metrics. Few consider spatial arrangement of components (i.e., orientation and shape) and often neglect to measure the total three-dimensional (3D) space available as refuge. This study tests whether the three-dimensionality of interstitial space, an attribute produced by the spatial arrangement of oyster (Crassostrea virginica) shells, impacts the foraging success of nektonic predators (primary blue crab, Callinectes sapidus) on mud crab prey (Eurypanopeus depressus) in field and mesocosm experiments...
January 31, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139196/habitat-and-social-factors-shape-individual-decisions-and-emergent-group-structure-during-baboon-collective-movement
#15
Ariana Strandburg-Peshkin, Damien R Farine, Margaret C Crofoot, Iain D Couzin
For group-living animals traveling through heterogeneous landscapes, collective movement can be influenced by both habitat structure and social interactions. Yet research in collective behavior has largely neglected habitat influences on movement. Here we integrate simultaneous, high-resolution, tracking of wild baboons within a troop with a 3-dimensional reconstruction of their habitat to identify key drivers of baboon movement. A previously unexplored social influence - baboons' preference for locations that other troop members have recently traversed - is the most important predictor of individual movement decisions...
January 31, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134372/reply-to-the-comment-on-spatial-structure-of-states-of-self-stress-in-jammed-systems-by-e-lerner-soft-matter-2017-13-doi
#16
Daniel M Sussman, Daniel Hexner, Carl P Goodrich, Andrea J Liu
Lerner's theoretical analysis neglects a normalizing factor which distinguishes states of self stress from the stress response to a unit dipolar force along a bond. This factor leads to different spatial profiles upon ensemble averaging.
January 30, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131912/healing-leishmaniasis-in-amazonia-review-of-ethnomedicinal-concepts-and-pharmaco-chemical-analysis-of-traditional-treatments-to-inspire-modern-phytotherapies
#17
REVIEW
Guillaume Odonne, Emeline Houël, Geneviève Bourdy, Didier Stien
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cutaneous/mucocutaneous leishmaniasis are neglected tropical diseases occurring in all intertropical regions of the world. Amazonian populations developed an abundant knowledge related to the disease and its remedies. Therefore, we undertook to review traditional antileishmanial plants in Amazonia, and developed new tools to analyze this somewhat dispersed information. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A review of the literature concerning traditional remedies against cutaneous/mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in the Amazon was conducted, and the obtained data used for the calculation of distribution indexes designed to highlight the most relevant uses in Amazonia...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130656/patients-characteristics-and-outcomes-depending-on-complete-or-incomplete-unilateral-spatial-neglect
#18
Junko Watanabe, Toshiyasu Ogata, Masani Nonaka, Mitsutoshi Iwaasa, Etsuji Shiota, Tooru Inoue
Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is known to depress the activities of daily living. The purpose of this study was to clarify that categorizing the type of USN using line cancelation and line bisection tests is important when evaluating patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In this study, patients with ICH were prospectively evaluated for the presence of USN using line cancelation and line bisection tests. They were classified into an incomplete USN group (iUSN = abnormal results in either test) or a complete USN group (cUSN = abnormal findings in both tests)...
January 27, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129062/-nonspatial-attentional-deficits-interact-with-spatial-position-in-neglect
#19
Dongyun Li, Christopher Rorden, Hans-Otto Karnath
A widely debated question concerns whether or not spatial and nonspatial components of visual attention interact in attentional performance. Spatial neglect is a common consequence of brain injury where individuals fail to respond to stimuli presented on their contralesional side. It has been argued that, beyond the spatial bias, these individuals also tend to exhibit nonspatial perceptual deficits. Here we demonstrate that the "nonspatial" deficits affecting the temporal dynamics of attentional deployment are in fact modulated by spatial position...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116988/efficacy-of-home-based-visuomotor-feedback-training-in-stroke-patients-with-chronic-hemispatial-neglect
#20
Stéphanie Rossit, Christopher S Y Benwell, Larissa Szymanek, Gemma Learmonth, Laura McKernan-Ward, Elaine Corrigan, Keith Muir, Ian Reeves, George Duncan, Philip Birschel, Margaret Roberts, Katrina Livingstone, Hazel Jackson, Pauline Castle, Monika Harvey
Hemispatial neglect is a severe cognitive condition frequently observed after a stroke, associated with unawareness of one side of space, disability and poor long-term outcome. Visuomotor feedback training (VFT) is a neglect rehabilitation technique that involves a simple, inexpensive and feasible training of grasping-to-lift rods at the centre. We compared the immediate and long-term effects of VFT vs. a control training when delivered in a home-based setting. Twenty participants were randomly allocated to an intervention (who received VFT) or a control group (n = 10 each)...
January 24, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
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