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Spatial neglect

Matthew D Hall, Mark E J Woolhouse, Andrew Rambaut
The ongoing large-scale increase in the total amount of genetic data for viruses and other pathogens has led to a situation in which it is often not possible to include every available sequence in a phylogenetic analysis and expect the procedure to complete in reasonable computational time. This raises questions about how a set of sequences should be selected for analysis, particularly if the data are used to infer more than just the phylogenetic tree itself. The design of sampling strategies for molecular epidemiology has been a neglected field of research...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
K Djabelkhir, C Lauvernet, P Kraft, N Carluer
Preferential flow contributes significantly to pesticide fast transfer from surface to groundwater. Modeling this process at several scales is an important challenge for improving the representation of this process which is often neglected. In this study, we developed a dual permeability approach in a hydrological modeling framework, CMF, which is a collaborative environment for developing spatially-integrated models of water fluxes. In the development we propose here, infiltration in macropores which are connected to the surface is activated when the first matrix layer reaches saturation...
October 20, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
C Grassberger, H Paganetti
The variety of treatment options for cancer patients has increased significantly in recent years. Not only do we combine radiation with surgery and chemotherapy, new therapeutic approaches such as immunotherapy and targeted therapies are starting to play a bigger role. Physics has made significant contributions to radiation therapy treatment planning and delivery. In particular, treatment plan optimization using inverse planning techniques has improved dose conformity considerably. Furthermore, medical physics is often the driving force behind tumor control and normal tissue complication modeling...
October 19, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Oliver R Wearn, Chris Carbone, J Marcus Rowcliffe, Henry Bernard, Robert M Ewers
Diversity responses to land-use change are poorly understood at local scales, hindering our ability to make forecasts and management recommendations at scales which are of practical relevance. A key barrier in this has been the underappreciation of grain-dependent diversity responses and the role that β-diversity (variation in community composition across space) plays in this. Decisions about the most effective spatial arrangement of conservation set-aside, for example high conservation value areas, have also neglected β-diversity, despite its role in determining the complementarity of sites...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Bérenger Bourgeois, Eduardo González, Anne Vanasse, Isabelle Aubin, Monique Poulin
The disruption of hydrological connectivity by human activities such as flood regulation or land-use changes strongly impacts riparian plant communities. However, landscape-scale processes have generally been neglected in riparian restoration projects as opposed to local conditions, even though such processes might largely influence community recovery. We surveyed plant composition of field edges and riverbanks in 51 riparian zones restored by tree planting (565 1-m(2) plots) within two agricultural watersheds in southeastern Québec, Canada...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Guohua Shi, Changhui Peng, Meng Wang, Shengwei Shi, Yanzheng Yang, Junyao Chu, Junjun Zhang, Guanghui Lin, Yan Shen, Qiuan Zhu
The lateral transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays an important role in linking the carbon cycles of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Neglecting the lateral flow of dissolved organic carbon can lead to an underestimation of the organic carbon budget of terrestrial ecosystems. It is thus necessary to integrate DOC concentrations and flux into carbon cycle models, particularly with regard to the development of models that are intended to directly link terrestrial and ocean carbon cycles. However, to achieve this goal, more accurate information is needed to better understand and predict DOC dynamics...
2016: PloS One
Lei Cao, Wei Fu, Yanming Zhang, Su Huo, JuBao Du, Lin Zhu, Weiqun Song
Functional connectivity changes in the attention network are viewed as a physiological signature of visual spatial neglect (VSN). The left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC) is known to initiate and monitor top-down attentional control and dynamically adjust behavioral performance. This study aimed to investigate whether increasing the activity of the LDLPFC through intermittent θ burst stimulation (iTBS) could modulate the resting-state functional connectivity in the attention network and facilitate recovery from VSN...
September 29, 2016: Neuroreport
Shan Jiang, Stephen Verderber
OBJECTIVE: This present literature review explores current issues and research inconsistencies regarding the design of hospital circulation zones and the associated health-related outcomes. BACKGROUND: Large general hospitals are immense, highly sophisticated institutions. Empirical studies have indicated excessively institutional environments in large medical centers are a cause of negative effects to occupants, including stress, anxiety, wayfinding difficulties and spatial disorientation, lack of cognitional control, and stress associated with inadequate access to nature...
October 14, 2016: HERD
Teige C Bourke, Catherine R Lowrey, Sean P Dukelow, Stephen D Bagg, Kathleen E Norman, Stephen H Scott
BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect our ability to perform daily activities, although it can be difficult to identify the underlying functional impairment(s). Recent theories highlight the importance of sensory feedback in selecting future motor actions. This selection process can involve multiple processes to achieve a behavioural goal, including selective attention, feature/object recognition, and movement inhibition. These functions are often impaired after stroke, but existing clinical measures tend to explore these processes in isolation and without time constraints...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Citsabehsan Devendran, Thomas Albrecht, Jason Brenker, Tuncay Alan, Adrian Neild
The use of ultrasonic fields to manipulate particles, cells and droplets has become widespread in lab on a chip (LOC) systems. There are two dominant actuation methods, the use of bulk acoustic waves (BAW) or surface acoustic waves (SAW). The development of BAW actuated systems have been underpinned by a robust understanding of the link between the ultrasonic field and forces which can be generated. In this work, we examine this link for standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW) comparing the relative strengths of streaming induced drag and acoustic radiation forces on suspended particles...
September 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Gustavo José Luvizutto, Gabriela Rizzo Soares Rizzati, Marcelo Ortolani Fogaroli, Rodrigo Thomazi Rodrigues, Priscila Watson Ribeiro, Hélio Rubens de Carvalho Nunes, Gabriel Pereira Braga, Rafael Dalle Molle da Costa, Silméia Garcia Zanati Bazan, Luiz Antônio de Lima Resende, Adriana Bastos Conforto, Rodrigo Bazan
BACKGROUND: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is characterized by the inability to report or respond to people or objects that are presented in the spatial hemisphere that is contralateral to the lesioned hemisphere of the brain. USN has been associated with poor functional outcomes and long stays in hospitals and rehabilitation centers. Noninvasive brain stimulation, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has been used in people who have been affected by USN after stroke...
October 3, 2016: Trials
Rebecca N Elisa, Emili Balaguer-Ballester, Benjamin A Parris
Executive function deficits have been linked to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it has been theorized that the symptom inattention is specifically related to problems with complex verbal working memory (WM). Using the Conners Adult ADHD rating scale, adults aged 18-35 were assessed for ADHD symptoms, and completed tasks designed to tap verbal and spatial aspects of WM (Experiment 1). Results showed that high inattention predicted poor performance on both simple and complex verbal WM measures...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Jun-Sik Sin, Hak-Chol Pak, Chung-Sik Sin
For binary solvent mixtures composed of ions and two kinds of polar solvents, the electric double layer near a charged object is strongly affected by not only the binary solvent composition but also the nature of the solvents, such as the volume and dipole moment of the solvent molecule. Accounting for the difference in sizes of solvents and the orientational ordering of solvent dipoles, we theoretically obtain general expressions for the spatial distribution functions of solvents and ions, in planar geometry and within the mean-field approach...
September 29, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
T Brandt, A Welfringer
Neglect is a supramodal, clinically relevant disorder, which occurs in the different sensory modalities as well as in the mental representation. The different manifestations of neglect show interindividual and intraindividual variation. Different spatial and attention-related interventions lead to varying degrees of improvement in neglect symptoms but are often not stable in time or transferable to activities of daily living. Representational deficits or body-related aspects to modify personal neglect are rarely a priority in current therapies...
October 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Lin Qiao, Lirong Gao, Dan Xia, Huiting Huang, Minghui Zheng
Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are easily adsorbed into sediments where they pose potential risks to the ecosystem and human health. Few studies have investigated short- and medium-chain CPs (SCCPs and MCCPs) in sediments. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively investigate contamination levels, spatial distributions, sources and risks posed by CPs in sediments from the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. The sediment samples were analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS)...
September 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Marie Jaeger, Eve Dupierrix, Céline Piscicelli, Anne Chrispin, Patrice Davoine, Dominic Pérennou
OBJECTIVE: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) and verticality perception biases are frequently associated after right hemispheric cerebral stroke (Pérennou et al., 2006). These troubles in spatial cognition have also in common to present different clinical types, according to the space considered: personal (PN) and extra-personal neglect (EPN), and biases in the visual (VV) or the postural (PV) vertical. Here, we hypothesized that PN is specially related to a biased PV, and that EPN could be more related to a biased VV...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Étienne Allart, Cécile Caruel, Mathieu Levecque, Walter Daveluy, Odile Kozlowski, Laure Zeroukhi-Delepouve, Marc Rousseaux
OBJECTIVE: In the spectrum of spatial neglect, personal neglect (body neglect) plays an important role in the difficulties encountered by patients, but its assessment is often centered on the sphere of the face and/or involves tests that have no ecological value. The objective of this study was to develop an assessment tool adressing these two pitfalls. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: The scale includes seven items assessing personal neglect on the entire body (face, but also upper and lower parts of the body)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Jeanne Montastruc, David Amarantini, Valérie Lambert, Evelyne Castel-Lacanal, Philippe Marque, David Gasq
OBJECTIVE: Weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA) at the expense of the paretic side concerns 60% of stroke patients. WBA is associated with poor functional prognosis especially in terms of gait performance [1,2]. The primary objective was to assess the determinants of WBA in stroke patients from clinical and instrumental data. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: The sensitivity (EmNSA), motricity (Fugl-Meyer motor), spatial neglect and visual perception of verticality (VPV) were evaluated in 20 stroke patients (age: 53...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Eleni Papathanasiou, Mathilde Chevignard, Carole Vuillerot, Anne Tiberghien, Ingrid Godard
OBJECTIVE: Paediatric stroke is a relatively rare medical condition, but it often leads to long lasting motor and cognitive impairments. Rehabilitation of motor impairments has been widely studied, with most studies performed in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, CP covers a variety of medical conditions, including brain lesions due to paediatric stroke occurring early in life, but not stroke occurring later on during childhood. The specificity of rehabilitation after paediatric stroke remains understudied...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Laure Christophe, Eric Chabanat, Ludovic Delporte, Patrice Revol, Sophie Jacquin-Courtois, Pierre Volckmann, Yves Rossetti
OBJECTIVE: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is an invalidating chronic condition subsequent to peripheral lesions, with frequent therapeutic failure. There is growing consensus for a central contribution to CRPS. However, the nature of this central body representation disorder is increasingly debated. Although it has been repeatedly argued that CRPS results in motor neglect of the affected side, visual egocentric reference frame was found to be deviated towards the pain, i.e. neglect of the healthy side...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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