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Spatial neglect

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345714/from-discrete-to-continuous-description-of-spherical-surface-charge-distributions
#1
Anže Lošdorfer Božič
The importance of electrostatic interactions in soft matter and biological systems can often be traced to non-uniform charge effects, which are commonly described using a multipole expansion of the corresponding charge distribution. The standard approach when extracting the charge distribution of a given system is to treat the constituent charges as points. This can, however, lead to an overestimation of multipole moments of high order, such as dipole, quadrupole, and higher moments. Focusing on distributions of charges located on a spherical surface - characteristic of numerous biological macromolecules, such as globular proteins and viral capsids, as well as of inverse patchy colloids - we develop a novel way of representing spherical surface charge distributions based on the von Mises-Fisher distribution...
January 18, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342945/hyperspectral-features-of-oil-polluted-sea-ice-and-the-response-to-the-contamination-area-fraction
#2
Bingxin Liu, Ying Li, Chengyu Liu, Feng Xie, Jan-Peter Muller
Researchers have studied oil spills in open waters using remote sensors, but few have focused on extracting reflectance features of oil pollution on sea ice. An experiment was conducted on natural sea ice in Bohai Bay, China, to obtain the spectral reflectance of oil-contaminated sea ice. The spectral absorption index (SAI), spectral peak height (SPH), and wavelet detail coefficient (DWT d5) were calculated using stepwise multiple linear regression. The reflectances of some false targets were measured and analysed...
January 15, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340998/on-pacing-trials-while-scanning-brain-hemodynamics-the-case-of-the-snarc-effect
#3
Sabrina Brigadoi, Sara Basso Moro, Roberta Falchi, Simone Cutini, Roberto Dell'Acqua
Experimental designs used to describe psychological effects on overt human behavior are seldom suited to localize their corresponding neural substrates based on the analysis of stimulus-evoked brain hemodynamic responses. This is because stimuli in behavioral studies are usually separated by intertrial intervals (ITIs) in the order of 1 second or so following a behavioral response, which is notoriously too brief a time to detect a corresponding hemodynamic response. In fact, a solution commonly adopted in neuroimaging studies is to prolong the ITI up to several seconds...
January 16, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330378/mechanisms-controlling-the-impact-of-multi-year-drought-on-mountain-hydrology
#4
Roger C Bales, Michael L Goulden, Carolyn T Hunsaker, Martha H Conklin, Peter C Hartsough, Anthony T O'Geen, Jan W Hopmans, Mohammad Safeeq
Mountain runoff ultimately reflects the difference between precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET), as modulated by biogeophysical mechanisms that intensify or alleviate drought impacts. These modulating mechanisms are seldom measured and not fully understood. The impact of the warm 2012-15 California drought on the heavily instrumented Kings River basin provides an extraordinary opportunity to enumerate four mechanisms that controlled the impact of drought on mountain hydrology. Two mechanisms intensified the impact: (i) evaporative processes have first access to local precipitation, which decreased the fractional allocation of P to runoff in 2012-15 and reduced P-ET by 30% relative to previous years, and (ii) 2012-15 was 1 °C warmer than the previous decade, which increased ET relative to previous years and reduced P-ET by 5%...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329980/a-mass-spectrometry-imaging-approach-for-investigating-how-drug-drug-interactions-influence-drug-blood-brain-barrier-permeability
#5
Theodosia Vallianatou, Nicole Strittmatter, Anna Nilsson, Mohammadreza Shariatgorji, Gregory Hamm, Marcela Pereira, Patrik Källback, Per Svenningsson, Maria Karlgren, Richard J A Goodwin, Per E Andrén
There is a high need to develop quantitative imaging methods capable of providing detailed brain localization information of several molecular species simultaneously. In addition, extensive information on the effect of the blood-brain barrier on the penetration, distribution and efficacy of neuroactive compounds is required. Thus, we have developed a mass spectrometry imaging method to visualize and quantify the brain distribution of drugs with varying blood-brain barrier permeability. With this approach, we were able to determine blood-brain barrier transport of different drugs and define the drug distribution in very small brain structures (e...
January 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329561/strongyloides-stercoralis-and-hookworm-co-infection-spatial-distribution-and-determinants-in-preah-vihear-province-cambodia
#6
Armelle Forrer, Virak Khieu, Fabian Schär, Penelope Vounatsou, Frédérique Chammartin, Hanspeter Marti, Sinuon Muth, Peter Odermatt
BACKGROUND: Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm are two soil-transmitted helminths (STH) that are highly prevalent in Cambodia. Strongyloides stercoralis causes long-lasting infections and significant morbidity but is largely neglected, while hookworm causes the highest public health burden among STH. The two parasites have the same infection route, i.e. skin penetration. The extent of co-distribution, which could result in potential high co-morbidities, is unknown in highly endemic settings like Cambodia...
January 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324760/bionomics-of-phlebotomus-argentipes-in-villages-in-bihar-india-with-insights-into-efficacy-of-irs-based-control-measures
#7
David M Poché, Rajesh B Garlapati, Shanta Mukherjee, Zaria Torres-Poché, Epco Hasker, Tahfizur Rahman, Aakanksha Bharti, Vishnu P Tripathi, Suman Prakash, Rahul Chaubey, Richard M Poché
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly vector-borne disease. Approximately 90% of Indian VL cases occur in Bihar, where the sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes, is the principal vector. Sand fly control in Bihar consists of indoor residual spraying (IRS), the practice of spraying the inner walls of village dwellings with insecticides. Prior researchers have evaluated success of IRS-control by estimating vector abundance in village houses, but the number of sampling periods (n = 2-3) were minimal, and outdoor-resting P...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316244/hemispatial-neglect-and-serial-order-in-verbal-working-memory
#8
Sophie Antoine, Mariagrazia Ranzini, Jean-Philippe van Dijck, Hichem Slama, Mario Bonato, Ann Tousch, Myrtille Dewulf, Jean-Christophe Bier, Wim Gevers
Working memory refers to our ability to actively maintain and process a limited amount of information during a brief period of time. Often, not only the information itself but also its serial order is crucial for good task performance. It was recently proposed that serial order is grounded in spatial cognition. Here, we compared performance of a group of right hemisphere-damaged patients with hemispatial neglect to healthy controls in verbal working memory tasks. Participants memorized sequences of consonants at span level and had to judge whether a target consonant belonged to the memorized sequence (item task) or whether a pair of consonants were presented in the same order as in the memorized sequence (order task)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313478/schistosomiasis-and-infertility-in-east-africa
#9
Patricia A Woodall, Michael R Kramer
Case reports and pathology series suggest associations of female genital schistosomiasis (Schistosoma haematobium) with infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Differential geographic distribution of infertility is not explained by analyses of known risk factors. In this cross-sectional multilevel semi-ecologic study, interpolated prevalence maps for S. haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni in East Africa were created using data from two open-access Neglected Tropical Diseases Databases. Prevalence was extracted to georeferenced survey sample points for Demographic and Health Surveys for Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda for 2000 and 2010...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306707/biased-temporal-order-judgments-in-chronic-neglect-influenced-by-trunk-position
#10
Christopher Rorden, Dongyun Li, Hans-Otto Karnath
Numerous studies have reported that temporal order perception is biased in neurological patients with extinction and neglect. These individuals tend to perceive two objectively simultaneous stimuli as occurring asynchronously, with the ipsilesional item being perceived as appearing prior to the contralesional item. Likewise, they report that two stimuli occurred simultaneously in situations where the contralesional item is presented substantially prior to the ipsilesional item. Therefore, they exhibit a biased point of subjective simultaneity (PSS)...
December 21, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278932/correspondence-and-cluster-analysis-of-free-drawn-clocks-in-a-group-of-children-and-adolescents-with-neurological-and-psychiatric-diseases
#11
Izabela Kaczmarek, Paweł Kleka, Piotr Fliciński, Barbara Steinborn
The present work addresses the identification and qualitative assessment of errors that appear in a free-drawn clock-drawing test representing the time 8:20 in a sample of 455 children and adolescents with neurological diseases and their controls. The authors sought to verify whether the occurrence of particular errors in the clock drawings significantly differentiates the clinical groups. For statistical evaluation of the results, we applied correspondence analysis and cluster analysis. The results of the study showed that three types of errors played an important role in the differentiation of the groups: spatial neglect, mirror reflection, and phonological depletion...
December 26, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261435/understanding-q-fever-risk-to-humans-in-minnesota-through-the-analysis-of-spatiotemporal-trends
#12
Julio Alvarez, Tory Whitten, Adam J Branscum, Teresa Garcia-Seco, Jeff B Bender, Joni Scheftel, Andres Perez
Q fever is a widely distributed, yet, neglected zoonotic disease, for which domestic ruminants are considered the main reservoirs in some countries. There are still many gaps in our knowledge of its epidemiology, and the source of sporadic cases is often not determined. In this study, we show how Q fever surveillance data in combination with information routinely collected by government agencies in Minnesota during 1997 to 2015 can be used to characterize patterns of occurrence of Q fever illnesses and detect variables potentially associated with increased human illness...
December 20, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250891/physical-neglect-during-childhood-alters-white-matter-connectivity-in-healthy-young-males
#13
Indira Tendolkar, Johan Mårtensson, Simone Kühn, Floris Klumpers, Guillén Fernández
BACKGROUND: Childhood adversity (CA) leads to greater vulnerability for psychopathology by causing structural as well as functional brain abnormalities. Recent findings on gray matter effects point towards the importance of identifying CA outcome as a function of different CA types, varying in the dimensions of threat and deprivation. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we investigate whether different forms of CA impact differently on white matter connectivity in a healthy cohort not confounded by other aspects of disease...
December 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249158/multi-scale-spatial-modeling-of-human-exposure-from-local-sources-to-global-intake
#14
Cedric Wannaz, Peter Fantke, Olivier Jolliet
Exposure studies, used in human health risk and impact assessments of chemicals are largely performed locally or regionally. It is usually not known how global impacts resulting from exposure to point source emissions compare to local impacts. To address this problem, we introduce Pangea, an innovative multi-scale, spatial multimedia fate and exposure assessment model. We study local to global population exposure associated with emissions from 126 point sources matching locations of waste-to-energy plants across France...
December 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246100/investigating-population-continuity-with-ancient-dna-under-a-spatially-explicit-simulation-framework
#15
Nuno Miguel Silva, Jeremy Rio, Mathias Currat
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in sequencing technologies have allowed for the retrieval of ancient DNA data (aDNA) from skeletal remains, providing direct genetic snapshots from diverse periods of human prehistory. Comparing samples taken in the same region but at different times, hereafter called "serial samples", may indicate whether there is continuity in the peopling history of that area or whether an immigration of a genetically different population has occurred between the two sampling times...
December 15, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244144/species-composition-of-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae-and-modeling-the-spatial-distribution-of-main-vectors-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-hormozgan-province-southern-iran
#16
Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Mehdi Khoobdel, Moussa Soleimani-Ahmadi, Kourosh Azizi, Abbas Aghaei Afshar, Seyed Aghil Jaberhashemi, Sajjad Fekri, Reza Safari
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the main neglected vector-borne diseases in the Middle East, including Iran. This study aimed to map the spatial distribution and species composition of sand flies in Hormozgan Province and to predict the best ecological niches for main CL vectors in this area. A database that included all earlier studies on sand flies in Hormozgan Province was established. Sand flies were also collected from some localities across the province. Prediction maps for main vectors were developed using MaxEnt model...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240840/a-simplified-model-of-biosonar-echoes-from-foliage-and-the-properties-of-natural-foliages
#17
Chen Ming, Hongxiao Zhu, Rolf Müller
Foliage echoes could play an important role in the sensory ecology of echolocating bats, but many aspects of their sensory information content remain to be explored. A realistic numerical model for these echoes could support the development of hypotheses for the relationship between foliage properties and echo parameters. In prior work by the authors, a simple foliage model based on circular disks distributed uniformly in space has been developed. In the current work, three key simplifications used in this model have been examined: (i) representing leaves as circular disks, (ii) neglecting shading effects between leaves, and (iii) the uniform spatial distribution of the leaves...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229850/human-presence-diminishes-the-importance-of-climate-in-driving-fire-activity-across-the-united-states
#18
Alexandra D Syphard, Jon E Keeley, Anne H Pfaff, Ken Ferschweiler
Growing human and ecological costs due to increasing wildfire are an urgent concern in policy and management, particularly given projections of worsening fire conditions under climate change. Thus, understanding the relationship between climatic variation and fire activity is a critically important scientific question. Different factors limit fire behavior in different places and times, but most fire-climate analyses are conducted across broad spatial extents that mask geographical variation. This could result in overly broad or inappropriate management and policy decisions that neglect to account for regionally specific or other important factors driving fire activity...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228961/does-the-edge-effect-impact-on-the-measure-of-spatial-accessibility-to-healthcare-providers
#19
Fei Gao, Wahida Kihal, Nolwenn Le Meur, Marc Souris, Séverine Deguen
BACKGROUND: Spatial accessibility indices are increasingly applied when investigating inequalities in health. Although most studies are making mentions of potential errors caused by the edge effect, many acknowledge having neglected to consider this concern by establishing spatial analyses within a finite region, settling for hypothesizing that accessibility to facilities will be under-reported. Our study seeks to assess the effect of edge on the accuracy of defining healthcare provider access by comparing healthcare provider accessibility accounting or not for the edge effect, in a real-world application...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228503/an-integrated-framework-for-environmental-multi-impact-spatial-risk-analysis
#20
Valentina Ferretti, Gilberto Montibeller
Quantitative risk analysis is being extensively employed to support policymakers and provides a strong conceptual framework for evaluating decision alternatives under uncertainty. Many problems involving environmental risks are, however, of a spatial nature, i.e., containing spatial impacts, spatial vulnerabilities, and spatial risk-mitigation alternatives. Recent developments in multicriteria spatial analysis have enabled the assessment and aggregation of multiple impacts, supporting policymakers in spatial evaluation problems...
December 11, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
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