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Spatial neglect

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926447/motivation-and-attention-following-hemispheric-stroke
#1
E Olgiati, C Russell, D Soto, P Malhotra
Spatial neglect (SN) is an extremely common disorder of attention; it is most frequently a consequence of stroke, especially to the right cerebral hemisphere. The current view of SN is that it is not a unitary deficit but a multicomponent syndrome. Crucially, it has been repeatedly shown that it has a considerable negative impact on rehabilitation outcome. Although a number of behavioral and pharmacological therapies have been developed, none of these appears to be applicable to all patients with SN or has proved unequivocally successful in clinical trials...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919075/land-use-intensification-causes-multitrophic-homogenization-of-grassland-communities
#2
Martin M Gossner, Thomas M Lewinsohn, Tiemo Kahl, Fabrice Grassein, Steffen Boch, Daniel Prati, Klaus Birkhofer, Swen C Renner, Johannes Sikorski, Tesfaye Wubet, Hartmut Arndt, Vanessa Baumgartner, Stefan Blaser, Nico Blüthgen, Carmen Börschig, Francois Buscot, Tim Diekötter, Leonardo Ré Jorge, Kirsten Jung, Alexander C Keyel, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Sandra Klemmer, Jochen Krauss, Markus Lange, Jörg Müller, Jörg Overmann, Esther Pašalić, Caterina Penone, David J Perović, Oliver Purschke, Peter Schall, Stephanie A Socher, Ilja Sonnemann, Marco Tschapka, Teja Tscharntke, Manfred Türke, Paul Christiaan Venter, Christiane N Weiner, Michael Werner, Volkmar Wolters, Susanne Wurst, Catrin Westphal, Markus Fischer, Wolfgang W Weisser, Eric Allan
Land-use intensification is a major driver of biodiversity loss. Alongside reductions in local species diversity, biotic homogenization at larger spatial scales is of great concern for conservation. Biotic homogenization means a decrease in β-diversity (the compositional dissimilarity between sites). Most studies have investigated losses in local (α)-diversity and neglected biodiversity loss at larger spatial scales. Studies addressing β-diversity have focused on single or a few organism groups (for example, ref...
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916756/-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-for-higher-brain-function-deficits
#3
Yukichi Inoue
The management of higher brain dysfunctions such as stroke-induced unilateral spatial neglect (USN) or aphasia is crucial because these dysfunctions have devastating neurological repercussions on the patients' daily life and quality of life. Impairment of the physiological interhemispheric rivalry is often the result of brain insults such as strokes or traumatic injuries, and it may lead to USN or aphasia. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive brain stimulation method, is a promising tool for restoring the pathological imbalance in interhemispheric rivalry by either suppressing the hyperactivity of the unaffected hemisphere or facilitating hypoactivity in the affected hemisphere...
December 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916670/pseudoneglect-in-line-bisection-judgement-is-associated-with-a-modulation-of-right-hemispheric-spatial-attention-dominance-in-right-handers
#4
Laure Zago, Laurent Petit, Gael Jobard, Julien Hay, Bernard Mazoyer, Nathalie Tzourio-Mazoyer, Hans-Otto Karnath, Emmanuel Mellet
The objective of this study was to validate a line bisection judgement (LBJ) task for use in investigating the lateralized cerebral bases of spatial attention in a sample of 51 right-handed healthy participants. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the participants performed a LBJ task that was compared to a visuomotor control task during which the participants made similar saccadic and motoric responses. Cerebral lateralization was determined using a voxel-based functional asymmetry analysis and a hemispheric functional lateralization index (HFLI) computed from fMRI contrast images...
December 1, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908068/perception-of-music-dynamics-in-concert-hall-acoustics
#5
Jukka Pätynen, Tapio Lokki
Dynamics is one of the principal means of expressivity in Western classical music. Still, preceding research on room acoustics has mostly neglected the contribution of music dynamics to the acoustic perception. This study investigates how the different concert hall acoustics influence the perception of varying music dynamics. An anechoic orchestra signal, containing a step in music dynamics, was rendered in the measured acoustics of six concert halls at three seats in each. Spatial sound was reproduced through a loudspeaker array...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894608/brucellosis-in-cattle-and-micro-scale-spatial-variability-of-pastoral-household-income-from-dairy-production-in-south-western-uganda
#6
Pius Mbuya Nina, Samuel Mugisha, Herwig Leirs, Gilbert Isabirye Basuta, Patrick Van Damme
Brucellosis in cattle and humans has received world-wide research attention as a neglected and re-emerging zoonotic disease with many routes of transmission. Studies of brucellosis in Uganda have emphasized occupational exposures and also revealed variations in prevalence levels by region and cattle production systems. To date, research linking pastoralist household income from dairy production to brucellosis and its transmission risk pathways do not exist in Uganda. We assessed whether spatial differences in unit milk prices can be explained by brucellosis prevalence in cattle along a distance gradient from Lake Mburo National Park in Uganda...
November 25, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889411/modelling-three-dimensional-fungal-growth-in-response-to-environmental-stimuli
#7
G Vidal-Diez de Ulzurrun, J M Baetens, J Van den Bulcke, B De Baets
Most fungi grow by developing complex networks that enable the translocation of nutrients over large distances. Spatially explicit mathematical models are able to capture both the complexity of the fungal network and the biomass evolution, as such providing a powerful alternative to classical modelling paradigms. Unfortunately, most of these models restrict growth to two dimensions or confine it to a lattice, thereby resulting in unrealistic representations of fungal networks. In addition, interactions between fungi and their environment are often neglected...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887906/complex-regional-pain-syndrome-associated-with-hyperattention-rather-than-neglect-for-the-healthy-side-a-comprehensive-case-study
#8
Laure Christophe, Ludovic Delporte, Patrice Revol, Annick DePaepe, Gilles Rode, Sophie Jacquin-Courtois, Yves Rossetti
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a dehabilitating chronic condition occurring with peripheral lesions. There is growing consensus for a central contribution to CRPS. Although the nature of this central body representation disorder is increasingly debated, it has been repeatedly argued that CRPS results in motor neglect of the affected side. The present article describes a comprehensive and quantitative case report demonstrating that: (1) not all patients with chronic CRPS exhibit decreased spatial attention for the affected side and (2) patients may actually exhibit a substantial, broad and reliable attentional bias toward the painful side, akin to spatial neglect for the healthy side...
November 22, 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887696/reprint-of-neurocysticercosis-related-mortality-in-brazil-2000-2011-epidemiology-of-a-neglected-neurologic-cause-of-death
#9
Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo, Alberto Novaes Ramos, Marta Guimarães Cavalcanti, Carlos Henrique Alencar, Jorg Heukelbach
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of severe neurological disease mainly in low- and middle-income countries, but data on NCC mortality from endemic areas are scarce. Here we analysed the epidemiological patterns of NCC-related mortality in Brazil. We included all deaths recorded in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which NCC was mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated cause of death. NCC was identified in 1829/12,491,280 deaths (0.015%), 1130 (61.8%) as underlying cause, and 699 (38...
November 22, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872402/effect-of-training-exercise-on-urinary-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-and-cognitive-performances-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-a-pilot-study
#10
Angelo Russo, Livia Buratta, Roberto Pippi, Cristina Aiello, Claudia Ranucci, Elisa Reginato, Valerio Santangelo, Pierpaolo DeFeo, Claudia Mazzeschi
Exercise-mediated, brain-derived neurotrophic factor induction benefits health and cognitive functions. The multifaceted interplay between physical activity, urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive functioning has been largely neglected in previous literature. In this pilot study, two bouts of training exercise (65% and 70% of heart rate reserve) influenced urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive performances in 12 overweight and obese participants. Percent heart rate reserve, expenditure energy, brain-derived neurotrophic factor urinary levels and cognitive performances were measured before and after the exercise...
November 21, 2016: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869541/callosal-disconnection-neglect-reassessment-after-34-years
#11
Allison J Good, Michele K Harris, Adam D Falchook, Robert T Watson, Kenneth M Heilman
In 1984, Watson and Heilman reported a patient with a partial callosal disconnection following an infarction of the anterior portion of her corpus callosum. This woman's performance on line-bisection tasks revealed "callosal disconnection neglect." The objective of this research is to reexamine this woman 34 years after her callosal disconnection to gain information about her recovery. The patient completed visual line-bisection tasks in which horizontal lines were placed in the right, left, and center hemispaces and she performed these bisections using her right or left hand...
November 21, 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856055/mains-water-leakage-implications-for-phosphorus-source-apportionment-and-policy-responses-in-catchments
#12
Daren C Gooddy, Matthew J Ascott, Dan J Lapworth, Robert S Ward, Helen P Jarvie, Mike J Bowes, Edward Tipping, Rachael Dils, Ben Wj Surridge
Effective strategies to reduce phosphorus (P)-enrichment of aquatic ecosystems require accurate quantification of the absolute and relative importance of individual sources of P. In this paper, we quantify the potential significance of a source of P that has been neglected to date. Phosphate dosing of raw water supplies to reduce lead and copper concentrations in drinking water is a common practice globally. However, mains water leakage (MWL) potentially leads to a direct input of P into the environment, bypassing wastewater treatment...
November 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820972/effects-of-repetitive-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-on-spatial-neglect-and-verticality-perception-a-randomised-sham-controlled-trial
#13
Katharina Volkening, Georg Kerkhoff, Ingo Keller
Recent evidence shows that bipolar galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) with the cathode on the left (CL) or right (CR) mastoid ameliorates spatial neglect, extinction and verticality perception transiently and partly permanently. However, no randomised controlled trial evaluated the long-term effects of repetitive GVS in comparison to sham-GVS on exploration and verticality perception. To compare the effects of CL-GVS, CR-GVS and Sham-GVS on spatial exploration and verticality perception in right-hemispheric stroke patients with left neglect we conducted a randomised controlled trial with minimisation...
November 7, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809916/immunological-profiling-of-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-leads-to-identification-of-two-inflammatory-conditions-and-cd1a-as-a-disease-marker
#14
M Föhlinger, P Palamides, U Mansmann, F Beigel, M Siebeck, R Gropp
BACKGROUND: Conventional approaches to understand mechanisms underlying the development of pathological manifestations in ulcerative colitis (UC) mostly rely on identification of certain cell types and cytokines followed by verification of their roles in vitro and in vivo. In light of the highly dynamic processes in UC, requiring the cross talk of immune cells, epithelial-, endothelial-, muscle cells and fibrocytes, this approach might neglect temporal and spatial connectivity of individually differing inflammatory responses...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802663/counterion-induced-swelling-of-ionic-microgels
#15
Alan R Denton, Qiyun Tang
Ionic microgel particles, when dispersed in a solvent, swell to equilibrium sizes that are governed by a balance between electrostatic and elastic forces. Tuning of particle size by varying external stimuli, such as pH, salt concentration, and temperature, has relevance for drug delivery, microfluidics, and filtration. To model swelling of ionic microgels, we derive a statistical mechanical theorem, which proves exact within the cell model, for the electrostatic contribution to the osmotic pressure inside a permeable colloidal macroion...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798295/spatial-evolutionary-epidemiology-of-spreading-epidemics
#16
S Lion, S Gandon
Most spatial models of host-parasite interactions either neglect the possibility of pathogen evolution or consider that this process is slow enough for epidemiological dynamics to reach an equilibrium on a fast timescale. Here, we propose a novel approach to jointly model the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of spatially structured host and pathogen populations. Starting from a multi-strain epidemiological model, we use a combination of spatial moment equations and quantitative genetics to analyse the dynamics of mean transmission and virulence in the population...
October 26, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774296/the-effects-of-sampling-strategy-on-the-quality-of-reconstruction-of-viral-population-dynamics-using-bayesian-skyline-family-coalescent-methods-a-simulation-study
#17
Matthew D Hall, Mark E J Woolhouse, Andrew Rambaut
The ongoing large-scale increase in the total amount of genetic data for viruses and other pathogens has led to a situation in which it is often not possible to include every available sequence in a phylogenetic analysis and expect the procedure to complete in reasonable computational time. This raises questions about how a set of sequences should be selected for analysis, particularly if the data are used to infer more than just the phylogenetic tree itself. The design of sampling strategies for molecular epidemiology has been a neglected field of research...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773384/development-of-a-dual-permeability-model-within-a-hydrological-catchment-modeling-framework-1d-application
#18
K Djabelkhir, C Lauvernet, P Kraft, N Carluer
Preferential flow contributes significantly to pesticide fast transfer from surface to groundwater. Modeling this process at several scales is an important challenge for improving the representation of this process which is often neglected. In this study, we developed a dual permeability approach in a hydrological modeling framework, CMF, which is a collaborative environment for developing spatially-integrated models of water fluxes. In the development we propose here, infiltration in macropores which are connected to the surface is activated when the first matrix layer reaches saturation...
October 20, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758980/methodologies-in-the-modeling-of-combined-chemo-radiation-treatments
#19
C Grassberger, H Paganetti
The variety of treatment options for cancer patients has increased significantly in recent years. Not only do we combine radiation with surgery and chemotherapy, new therapeutic approaches such as immunotherapy and targeted therapies are starting to play a bigger role. Physics has made significant contributions to radiation therapy treatment planning and delivery. In particular, treatment plan optimization using inverse planning techniques has improved dose conformity considerably. Furthermore, medical physics is often the driving force behind tumor control and normal tissue complication modeling...
October 19, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755763/grain-dependent-responses-of-mammalian-diversity-to-land-use-and-the-implications-for-conservation-set-aside
#20
Oliver R Wearn, Chris Carbone, J Marcus Rowcliffe, Henry Bernard, Robert M Ewers
Diversity responses to land-use change are poorly understood at local scales, hindering our ability to make forecasts and management recommendations at scales which are of practical relevance. A key barrier in this has been the underappreciation of grain-dependent diversity responses and the role that β-diversity (variation in community composition across space) plays in this. Decisions about the most effective spatial arrangement of conservation set-aside, for example high conservation value areas, have also neglected β-diversity, despite its role in determining the complementarity of sites...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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