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Spatial neglect

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620345/memory-for-spatial-locations-in-a-patient-with-near-space-neglect-and-optic-ataxia-involvement-of-the-occipitotemporal-stream
#1
Sergio Chieffi, Giovanni Messina, Antonietta Messina, Ines Villano, Vincenzo Monda, Ferdinando Ivano Ambra, Elisabetta Garofalo, Felice Romano, Maria Pina Mollica, Marcellino Monda, Alessandro Iavarone
Previous studies suggested that the occipitoparietal stream orients attention toward the near/lower space and is involved in immediate reaching, whereas the occipitotemporal stream orients attention toward the far/upper space and is involved in delayed reaching. In the present study, we investigated the role of the occipitotemporal stream in attention orienting and delayed reaching in a patient (GP) with bilateral damage to the occipitoparietal areas and optic ataxia. GP and healthy controls took part in three experiments...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618813/ultrasonic-attenuation-of-polycrystalline-materials-with-a-distribution-of-grain-sizes
#2
Andrea P Arguelles, Joseph A Turner
Elastic wave scattering at grain boundaries in polycrystalline media can be quantified to determine microstructural properties. The amplitude drop observed for coherent wave propagation (attenuation) as well as diffuse-field scattering events have been extensively studied. In all cases, the scattering shows a clear dependence on grain size, grain shape, and microstructural texture. Models used to quantify scattering experiments are often developed assuming dependence on a single spatial length scale, usually, mean grain diameter...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618561/capturing-brownian-dynamics-with-an-on-lattice-model-of-hard-sphere-diffusion
#3
Claudia Cianci, Stephen Smith, Ramon Grima
Conventional master equation approaches approximate the diffusion of molecules in continuum space by the process of particles hopping on a spatial lattice. The hopping probability from one voxel (spatial lattice point) to its neighbor is usually considered to be constant throughout space. Such an assumption is only consistent with pointlike molecules and thus neglects volume-exclusion effects due to finite particle size. A few studies have attempted to introduce volume-exclusion effects by choosing the hopping probability from one voxel to a neighboring one to be a linear function of the number density...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612547/-treatment-of-unilateral-neglect-using-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-and-sensory-cueing-sc-in-stroke-patients
#4
Ren-Gang Zhang, Sha-Xin Liu, Feng-Yi Wang, Xi-Chao Ma, Yong-Hong Yang
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and sensory cueing (SC) for improving hemi-spatial attention deficits related to unilateral neglect, upper limb function and independence of stroke patients. METHODS: An assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. Eligible stroke patients were treated with rTMS (n =17) or rTMS combined with SC (n =16) in addition to conventional rehabilitation measures...
March 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611749/sustaining-rare-marine-microorganisms-macroorganisms-as-repositories-and-dispersal-agents-of-microbial-diversity
#5
Marc Troussellier, Arthur Escalas, Thierry Bouvier, David Mouillot
Recent analyses revealed that most of the biodiversity observed in marine microbial communities is represented by organisms with low abundance but, nonetheless essential for ecosystem dynamics and processes across both temporal and spatial scales. Surprisingly, few studies have considered the effect of macroorganism-microbe interactions on the ecology and distribution dynamics of rare microbial taxa. In this review, we synthesize several lines of evidence that these relationships cannot be neglected any longer...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605738/spatial-neglect-predicts-upper-limb-use-in-the-activities-of-daily-living
#6
Tim Vanbellingen, Beatrice Ottiger, Noortje Maaijwee, Tobias Pflugshaupt, Stephan Bohlhalter, René M Müri, Tobias Nef, Dario Cazzoli, Thomas Nyffeler
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Motor tests performed at stroke onset have been shown to predict the recovery of upper limb motor impairment. Less is known about upper limb recovery at the level of functional activity or of participation and how spatial neglect may influence the integration of the upper limb in the activities of daily living (ADL). Our objective was to investigate whether the initial severity of spatial neglect may predict upper limb use in ADL. METHODS: Eighty-two patients with a right-hemispheric stroke (RHS) were prospectively included in the study...
June 13, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602998/the-right-hemisphere-is-independent-from-the-left-hemisphere-in-allocating-visuospatial-attention
#7
Arianna Zuanazzi, Luigi Cattaneo
The capacity to allocate visuospatial attention is traditionally considered right-lateralized according to the effects of unilateral cerebral lesions. Contralateral hemi-spatial neglect occurs much more frequently after lesions of the right hemisphere, which has therefore been dubbed as 'dominant'. This pattern of symptoms is supported by functional models that postulate either independence or reciprocal influences between the two hemispheres. Here we specifically explored the dependency of the right hemisphere (RH) from the left hemisphere (LH) in spatial attention...
June 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602491/effect-of-visuospatial-neglect-on-spatial-navigation-and-heading-after-stroke
#8
Gayatri Aravind, Anouk Lamontagne
BACKGROUND: Visuospatial neglect (VSN) impairs the control of locomotor heading in post-stroke individuals, which may affect their ability to safely avoid moving objects while walking. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare VSN+ and VSN- stroke individuals in terms of changes in heading and head orientation in space while avoiding obstacles approaching from different directions and reorienting toward the final target. METHODS: Stroke participants with VSN (VSN+) and without VSN (VSN-) walked in a virtual environment avoiding obstacles that approached contralesionally, head-on or ipsilesionally...
June 8, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591142/collective-phenomena-in-crowds-where-pedestrian-dynamics-need-social-psychology
#9
Anna Sieben, Jette Schumann, Armin Seyfried
This article is on collective phenomena in pedestrian dynamics during the assembling and dispersal of gatherings. To date pedestrian dynamics have been primarily studied in the natural and engineering sciences. Pedestrians are analyzed and modeled as driven particles revealing self-organizing phenomena and complex transport characteristics. However, pedestrians in crowds also behave as living beings according to stimulus-response mechanisms or act as human subjects on the basis of social norms, social identities or strategies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585743/intraspecific-variation-shapes-community-level-behavioral-responses-to-urbanization-in-spiders
#10
Maxime Dahirel, Jasper Dierick, Maarten De Cock, Dries Bonte
Urban areas are an extreme example of human-changed environments, exposing organisms to multiple and strong selection pressures. Adaptive behavioral responses are thought to play a major role in animals' success or failure in such new environments. Approaches based on functional traits have proven especially valuable to understand how species communities respond to environmental gradients. Until recently, they have, however, often ignored the potential consequences of intraspecific trait variation (ITV). When ITV is prevalent, it may highly impact ecological processes and resilience against stressors...
June 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582620/observation-of-enhanced-chiral-asymmetries-in-the-inner-shell-photoionization-of-uniaxially-oriented-methyloxirane-enantiomers
#11
Maurice Tia, Martin Pitzer, Gregor Kastirke, Janine Gatzke, Hong-Keun Kim, Florian Trinter, Jonas Rist, Alexander Hartung, Daniel Trabert, Juliane Siebert, Kevin Henrichs, Jasper Becht, Stefan Zeller, Helena Gassert, Florian Wiegandt, Robert Wallauer, Andreas Kuhlins, Carl Schober, Tobias Bauer, Natascha Wechselberger, Phillip Burzynski, Jonathan Neff, Miriam Weller, Daniel Metz, Max Kircher, Markus Waitz, Joshua B Williams, Lothar Ph H Schmidt, Anne D Müller, André Knie, Andreas Hans, Ltaief Ben Ltaief, Arno Ehresmann, Robert Berger, Hironobu Fukuzawa, Kiyoshi Ueda, Horst Schmidt-Böcking, Reinhard Dörner, Till Jahnke, Philipp V Demekhin, Markus Schöffler
Most large molecules are chiral in their structure: they exist as two enantiomers, which are mirror images of each other. Whereas the rovibronic sublevels of two enantiomers are almost identical (neglecting a minuscular effect of the weak interaction), it turns out that the photoelectric effect is sensitive to the absolute configuration of the ionized enantiomer. Indeed, photoionization of randomly oriented enantiomers by left or right circularly polarized light results in a slightly different electron flux parallel or antiparallel with respect to the photon propagation direction-an effect termed photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD)...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575711/microplastics-in-the-sediments-of-a-uk-urban-lake
#12
Rebecca Vaughan, Simon D Turner, Neil L Rose
While studies on microplastics in the marine environment show their wide-distribution, persistence and contamination of biota, the freshwater environment remains comparatively neglected. Where studies on freshwaters have been undertaken these have been on riverine systems or very large lakes. We present data on the distribution of microplastic particles in the sediments of Edgbaston Pool, a shallow eutrophic lake in central Birmingham, UK. These data provide, to our knowledge, the first assessment of microplastic concentrations in the sediments of either a small or an urban lake and the first for any lake in the UK...
May 30, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559133/medical-image-classification-based-on-multi-scale-non-negative-sparse-coding
#13
Ruijie Zhang, Jian Shen, Fushan Wei, Xiong Li, Arun Kumar Sangaiah
With the rapid development of modern medical imaging technology, medical image classification has become more and more important in medical diagnosis and clinical practice. Conventional medical image classification algorithms usually neglect the semantic gap problem between low-level features and high-level image semantic, which will largely degrade the classification performance. To solve this problem, we propose a multi-scale non-negative sparse coding based medical image classification algorithm. Firstly, Medical images are decomposed into multiple scale layers, thus diverse visual details can be extracted from different scale layers...
May 27, 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555470/spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-schistosomiasis-in-rwanda-between-2001-and-2012-impact-of-the-national-neglected-tropical-disease-control-programme
#14
Elias Nyandwi, Tom Veldkamp, Frank Badu Osei, Sherif Amer
Schistosomiasis is recognised as a major public health problem in Rwanda. We aimed to identify the spatio-temporal dynamics of its distribution at a fine-scale spatial resolution and to explore the impact of control programme interventions. Incidence data of Schistosoma mansoni infection at 367 health facilities were obtained for the period 2001-2012. Disease cluster analyses were conducted using spatial scan statistics and geographic information systems. The impact of control interventions was assessed for three distinct sub-periods...
May 8, 2017: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533085/return-to-drive-after-non-evolutive-brain-damage-french-recommendations
#15
REVIEW
Anne-Claire D'apolito, Jean-Luc Leguiet, Michel Enjalbert, Francis Lemoine, Jean-Michel Mazaux
Return to drive after brain damage is a crucial question either for patients than health professionals. The Société française de medicine physique et de réadaptation (SOFMER) and Comète France association developed recommandations for patient's identification, evaluation and accompaniment as part of their project to resume to drive. The place of rehabilitation process and patient's focus has been also discussed. AIMS: Using a literature review, the aim was to define clinical pathways to determine people who need a fitness to drive evaluation after a non-evolutive brain damage as well as the assessment process...
May 19, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527457/role-of-quantum-coherence-in-shaping-the-line-shape-of-an-exciton-interacting-with-a-spatially-and-temporally-correlated-bath
#16
Rajesh Dutta, Kaushik Bagchi, Biman Bagchi
Kubo's fluctuation theory of line shape forms the backbone of our understanding of optical and vibrational line shapes, through such concepts as static heterogeneity and motional narrowing. However, the theory does not properly address the effects of quantum coherences on optical line shape, especially in extended systems where a large number of eigenstates are present. In this work, we study the line shape of an exciton in a one-dimensional lattice consisting of regularly placed and equally separated optical two level systems...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505790/multiparticle-collision-simulations-of-two-dimensional-one-component-plasmas-anomalous-transport-and-dimensional-crossovers
#17
Pierfrancesco Di Cintio, Roberto Livi, Stefano Lepri, Guido Ciraolo
By means of hybrid multiparticle collsion-particle-in-cell (MPC-PIC) simulations we study the dynamical scaling of energy and density correlations at equilibrium in moderately coupled two-dimensional (2D) and quasi-one-dimensional (1D) plasmas. We find that the predictions of nonlinear fluctuating hydrodynamics for the structure factors of density and energy fluctuations in 1D systems with three global conservation laws hold true also for 2D systems that are more extended along one of the two spatial dimensions...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485927/high-throughput-biodegradation-screening-test-to-prioritize-and-evaluate-chemical-biodegradability
#18
Timothy J Martin, Andrew K Goodhead, Kishor Acharya, Ian M Head, Jason R Snape, Russell J Davenport
Comprehensive assessment of environmental biodegradability of pollutants is limited by the use of low throughput systems. These are epitomized by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Ready Biodegradability Tests (RBTs), where one sample from an environment may be used to assess a chemical's ability to readily biodegrade or persist universally in that environment. This neglects the considerable spatial and temporal microbial variation inherent in any environment. Inaccurate designations of biodegradability or persistence can occur as a result...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468139/reconstruction-of-extensive-orbital-exenteration-defects-using-an-anterolateral-thigh-vastus-lateralis-chimeric-flap
#19
Tekin Simsek, Murat Sinan Engin, Kamil Yildirim, Enes Agah Kodalak, Ahmet Demir
Neglected malignant tumors within the orbital region can invade the eyeball, extraocular muscles, and bone substance surrounding the eye. Such patients require orbital exenteration, which may involve extraocular skeletal structures (even exposing paranasal sinuses), resulting in 3-dimensional defects requiring reconstruction. This study presents our experience with anterolateral thigh vastus lateralis (ALT/VL) chimeric free flaps for the reconstruction of extensive orbital exenteration defects involving various paranasal sinuses...
May 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463326/adaptive-fusion-of-human-visual-sensitive-features-for-surveillance-video-summarization
#20
Md Musfequs Salehin, Manoranjan Paul
Surveillance video cameras capture large amounts of continuous video streams every day. To analyze or investigate any significant events, it is a laborious and boring job to identify these events from the huge video data if it is done manually. Existing approaches sometimes neglect key frames with significant visual contents and/or select some unimportant frames with low/no activity. To solve this problem, in this paper, a video summarization technique is proposed by combining three multimodal human visual sensitive features, such as foreground objects, motion information, and visual saliency...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
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