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Spatial neglect

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108306/bone-remodeling-as-a-spatial-evolutionary-game
#1
Marc D Ryser, Kevin A Murgas
Bone remodeling is a complex process involving cell-cell interactions, biochemical signaling and mechanical stimuli. Early models of the biological aspects of remodeling were non-spatial and focused on the local dynamics at a fixed location in the bone. Several spatial extensions of these models have been proposed, but they generally suffer from two limitations: first, they are not amenable to analysis and are computationally expensive, and second, they neglect the role played by bone-embedded osteocytes. To address these issues, we developed a novel model of spatial remodeling based on the principles of evolutionary game theory...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107653/re-assessing-acalculia-distinguishing-spatial-and-purely-arithmetical-deficits-in-right-hemisphere-damaged-patients
#2
S Benavides-Varela, D Piva, F Burgio, L Passarini, G Rolma, F Meneghello, C Semenza
Arithmetical deficits in right-hemisphere damaged patients have been traditionally considered secondary to visuo-spatial impairments, although the exact relationship between the two deficits has rarely been assessed. The present study implemented a voxelwise lesion analysis among 30 right-hemisphere damaged patients and a controlled, matched-sample, cross-sectional analysis with 35 cognitively normal controls regressing three composite cognitive measures on standardized numerical measures. The results showed that patients and controls significantly differ in Number comprehension, Transcoding, and Written operations, particularly subtractions and multiplications...
December 26, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093412/beyond-bernoulli-improving-the-accuracy-and-precision-of-noninvasive-estimation-of-peak-pressure-drops
#3
Fabrizio Donati, Saul Myerson, Malenka M Bissell, Nicolas P Smith, Stefan Neubauer, Mark J Monaghan, David A Nordsletten, Pablo Lamata
BACKGROUND: Transvalvular peak pressure drops are routinely assessed noninvasively by echocardiography using the Bernoulli principle. However, the Bernoulli principle relies on several approximations that may not be appropriate, including that the majority of the pressure drop is because of the spatial acceleration of the blood flow, and the ejection jet is a single streamline (single peak velocity value). METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed the accuracy of the Bernoulli principle to estimate the peak pressure drop at the aortic valve using 3-dimensional cardiovascular magnetic resonance flow data in 32 subjects...
January 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092542/bayesian-face-sketch-synthesis
#4
Nannan Wang, Xinbo Gao, Leiyu Sun, Jie Li
xemplar-based face sketch synthesis has been widely applied to both digital entertainment and law enforcement. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian framework for face sketch synthesis, which provides a systematic interpretation for understanding the common properties and intrinsic difference in different methods from the perspective of probabilistic graphical modelsxemplar-based face sketch synthesis has been widely applied to both digital entertainment and law enforcement. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian framework for face sketch synthesis, which provides a systematic interpretation for understanding the common properties and intrinsic difference in different methods from the perspective of probabilistic graphical modelsE...
January 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081452/differential-white-matter-involvement-associated-with-distinct-visuospatial-deficits-after-right-hemisphere-stroke
#5
Alex R Carter, Mark P McAvoy, Joshua S Siegel, Xin Hong, Serguei V Astafiev, Jennifer Rengachary, Kristi Zinn, Nicholas V Metcalf, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
Visuospatial attention depends on the integration of multiple processes, and people with right hemisphere lesions after a stroke may exhibit severe or no visuospatial deficits. The anatomy of core components of visuospatial attention is an area of intense interest. Here we examine the relationship between the disruption of core components of attention and lesion distribution in a heterogeneous group (N = 70) of patients with right hemisphere strokes regardless of the presence of clinical neglect. Deficits of lateralized spatial orienting, measured as the difference in reaction times for responding to visual targets in the contralesional or ipsilesional visual field, and deficits in re-orienting attention, as measured by the difference in reaction times for invalidly versus validly cued targets, were measured using a computerized spatial orienting task...
December 20, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069820/comprehensive-spatial-analysis-of-the-borrelia-burgdorferi-lipoproteome-reveals-a-compartmentalization-bias-toward-the-bacterial-surface
#6
Alexander S Dowdell, Maxwell D Murphy, Christina Azodi, Selene K Swanson, Laurence Florens, Shiyong Chen, Wolfram R Zückert
: The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is unique among bacteria in its large number of lipoproteins that are encoded by a small, exceptionally fragmented and predominantly linear genome. Peripherally anchored in either the inner or outer membrane and facing either the periplasm or the external environment, these lipoproteins assume varied roles. A prominent subset functioning as the apparent linchpins of the enzootic tick-vertebrate infection cycle has been explored as vaccine targets...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067020/spatial-detection-of-outlier-loci-with-moran-eigenvector-maps-mem
#7
Helene H Wagner, Mariana Chávez-Pesqueira, Brenna R Forester
The spatial signature of micro-evolutionary processes structuring genetic variation may play an important role in the detection of loci under selection. However, the spatial location of samples hasn't yet been used to quantify this. Here, we present a new two-step method of spatial outlier detection at the individual and deme levels using the power spectrum of Moran eigenvector maps (MEM). The MEM power spectrum quantifies how the variation in a variable, such as the frequency of an allele at a SNP locus, is distributed across a range of spatial scales defined by MEM spatial eigenvectors...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049565/adapting-the-concepts-of-brain-and-cognitive-reserve-to-post-stroke-cognitive-deficits-implications-for-understanding-neglect
#8
Roza M Umarova
Advanced lesion mapping and connectivity analyses are currently the main tools used to understand the mechanisms underlying post-stroke cognitive deficits. However, the factors contributing to pre-stroke architecture of cognitive networks are often ignored, even though they reportedly play a decisive role in the manifestation of cognitive impairment in neurodegeneration. The present review on post-stroke cognitive deficits therefore adopts the concept of brain and cognitive reserve, which was originally developed to account for the individual differences in the course of aging and neurodegenerative diseases...
December 16, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040577/activity-spaces-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men-an-initial-exploration-of-geographic-variation-in-locations-of-routine-potential-sexual-risk-and-prevention-behaviors
#9
Adam S Vaughan, Michael R Kramer, Hannah L F Cooper, Eli S Rosenberg, Patrick S Sullivan
Theory and research on HIV and among men who have sex with men (MSM) have long suggested the importance of non-residential locations in defining structural exposures. Despite this, most studies within these fields define place as a residential context, neglecting the potential influence of non-residential locations on HIV-related outcomes. The concept of activity spaces, defined as a set of locations to which an individual is routinely exposed, represents one theoretical basis for addressing this potential imbalance...
December 24, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039678/studying-the-neural-bases-of-prism-adaptation-using-fmri-a-technical-and-design-challenge
#10
Janet H Bultitude, Alessandro Farnè, Romeo Salemme, Danielle Ibarrola, Christian Urquizar, Jacinta O'Shea, Jacques Luauté
Prism adaptation induces rapid recalibration of visuomotor coordination. The neural mechanisms of prism adaptation have come under scrutiny since the observations that the technique can alleviate hemispatial neglect following stroke, and can alter spatial cognition in healthy controls. Relative to non-imaging behavioral studies, fMRI investigations of prism adaptation face several challenges arising from the confined physical environment of the scanner and the supine position of the participants. Any researcher who wishes to administer prism adaptation in an fMRI environment must adjust their procedures enough to enable the experiment to be performed, but not so much that the behavioral task departs too much from true prism adaptation...
December 30, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026905/identification-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-susceptible-areas-using-spatial-modelling-in-southern-caucasus
#11
M Rajabi, P Pilesjö, A Bazmani, A Mansourian
This study explores the application of spatial modelling techniques to generate susceptibility maps for a neglected zoonotic disease, visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in an endemic area in southern Caucasus that includes Iran, Armenia and Azerbaijan. The social and physical environment of southern Caucasus has been mainly characterized by the presence of several factors that are strongly associated with VL, which has caused a significant number of infections during the past decade. Three popular spatial modelling techniques, consisting of the weights of evidence, logistic regression and fuzzy logic methods, were evaluated and trained using a study area in north-western Iran where an inventory of highly infected areas and high-quality evidential factors was available...
December 27, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018180/local-field-potentials-myths-and-misunderstandings
#12
REVIEW
Oscar Herreras
The intracerebral local field potential (LFP) is a measure of brain activity that reflects the highly dynamic flow of information across neural networks. This is a composite signal that receives contributions from multiple neural sources, yet interpreting its nature and significance may be hindered by several confounding factors and technical limitations. By and large, the main factor defining the amplitude of LFPs is the geometry of the current sources, over and above the degree of synchronization or the properties of the media...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010947/temporal-spatial-reach-parameters-derived-from-inertial-sensors-comparison-to-3d-marker-based-motion-capture
#13
Katelyn Cahill-Rowley, Jessica Rose
Reaching is a well-practiced functional task crucial to daily living activities, and temporal-spatial measures of reaching reflect function for both adult and pediatric populations with upper-extremity motor impairments. Inertial sensors offer a mobile and inexpensive tool for clinical assessment of movement. This research outlines a method for measuring temporal-spatial reach parameters using inertial sensors, and validates these measures with traditional marker-based motion capture. 140 reaches from 10 adults, and 30 reaches from nine children aged 18-20 months, were recorded and analyzed using both inertial-sensor and motion-capture methods...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998667/validity-and-reliability-of-a-novel-instrumented-one-legged-hop-test-in-patients-with-knee-injuries
#14
Karin Mani, William F Brechue, Bernd Friesenbichler, Nicola A Maffiuletti
BACKGROUND: Conventional one-legged hop tests simply evaluate the total hop distance, thus neglecting important temporal and spatial parameters related to the strategy of execution, such as foot contact time. AIM: To examine the validity and reliability of an instrumented one-legged hop test, the "four hops, three contacts" (4H3C) test, in patients with knee injuries. METHODS: The 4H3C test consists of four consecutive one-legged hops, of which individual hop distance and foot contact time are recorded by a validated floor-based photocell system...
December 17, 2016: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986428/rehabilitation-of-unilateral-neglect-evidence-based-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Philippe Azouvi, Sophie Jacquin-Courtois, Jacques Luauté
BACKGROUND: In the last decades, several rehabilitation methods have been developed to improve spatial neglect. These can be classified according to their theoretical basis: (i) enhance awareness of neglect behaviour through a top-down mechanism; (ii) low-level bottom-up sensory stimulation; (iii) modulation of inhibitory processes; (iv) increase arousal. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the evidence on the effectiveness of rehabilitation procedures for unilateral neglect...
December 13, 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984663/community-assembly-and-the-functioning-of-ecosystems-how-metacommunity-processes-alter-ecosystems-attributes
#16
Mathew A Leibold, Jonathan M Chase, S K Morgan Ernest
Recent work linking community structure and ecosystem function has primarily focused on the effects of local species richness but has neglected the dispersal-dependent processes of community assembly that are ultimately involved in determining community structure and its relation to ecosystems. Here we combine simple consumer-resource competition models and metacommunity theory with discussion of case studies to outline how spatial processes within metacommunities can alter community assembly and modify expectations about how species diversity and composition influence ecosystem attributes at local scales...
December 16, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977072/mechanical-pinprick-pain-in-patients-with-unilateral-spatial-neglect-the-influence-of-space-representation-on-the-perception-of-nociceptive-stimuli
#17
V Vizzari, S Barba, P Gindri, S Duca, D Giobbe, P Cerrato, G Geminiani, D M Torta
BACKGROUND: Crossing the hands over the midline can reduce the perceived intensity of nociceptive stimuli applied onto the hands. It remains unclear to what extent intact representation of peripersonal space influences this effect. Here we used the crossed-hands paradigm in patients with unilateral spatial neglect, a neuropsychological condition characterized by the inability to detect, attend and respond to contralesional (most often left) stimuli, and spared ability to process stimuli in the non-affected space...
December 15, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951747/differences-between-left-and-right-sided-neglect-revisited-a-large-cohort-study-across-multiple-domains
#18
Antonia F Ten Brink, Jurre H Verwer, J Matthijs Biesbroek, Johanna M A Visser-Meily, Tanja C W Nijboer
: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is a syndrome that can occur after right- and left-hemisphere damage. It is generally accepted that left-sided USN is more severe than right-sided USN. Evidence for such a difference in other domains is lacking. Primary aims were to compare frequency, severity, region specificity, cognition, physical functioning, and physical independence between left and right USN. Secondary aims were to compare lesion characteristics. A total of 335 stroke patients admitted for inpatient rehabilitation were included...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939198/indicators-of-improved-water-access-in-the-context-of-schistosomiasis-transmission-in-rural-eastern-region-ghana
#19
Alexandra V Kulinkina, Karen C Kosinski, Jeanine D Plummer, John L Durant, Kwabena M Bosompem, Michael N Adjei, Jeffrey K Griffiths, David M Gute, Elena N Naumova
Populations with poor access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) infrastructure are disproportionately affected by the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). As a result, WASH has gained increasing prominence in integrated control and elimination of NTDs, including schistosomiasis. In order to identify underserved populations, relevant measures of access to WASH infrastructure at sub-national or local levels are needed. We conducted a field survey of all public water sources in 74 rural communities in the Eastern Region of Ghana and computed indicators of water access using two methods: one based on the design capacity and another on the spatial distribution of water sources...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936184/freshwater-detention-by-oyster-reefs-quantifying-a-keystone-ecosystem-service
#20
David A Kaplan, Maitane Olabarrieta, Peter Frederick, Arnoldo Valle-Levinson
Oyster reefs provide myriad ecosystem services, including water quality improvement, fisheries and other faunal support, shoreline protection from erosion and storm surge, and economic productivity. However, their role in directing flow during non-storm conditions has been largely neglected. In regions where oyster reefs form near the mouth of estuarine rivers, they likely alter ocean-estuary exchange by acting as fresh water "dams". We hypothesize that these reefs have the potential to detain fresh water and influence salinity over extensive areas, thus providing a "keystone" ecosystem service by supporting estuarine functions that rely on the maintenance of estuarine (i...
2016: PloS One
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