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Spatial neglect

Isabel Tissieres, Eleonora Fornari, Stephanie Clarke, Sonia Crottaz-Herbette
Rightward prismatic adaptation (R-PA) was shown to alleviate not only visuo-spatial but also auditory symptoms in neglect. The neural mechanisms underlying the effect of R-PA have been previously investigated in visual tasks, demonstrating a shift of hemispheric dominance for visuo-spatial attention from the right to the left hemisphere both in normal subjects and in patients. We have investigated whether the same neural mechanisms underlie the supramodal effect of R-PA on auditory attention. Normal subjects underwent a brief session of R-PA, which was preceded and followed by an fMRI evaluation during which subjects detected targets within the left, central and right space in the auditory or visual modality...
November 18, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Antonio Carota, Julien Bogousslavsky
A right "minor hemisphere" does not exist as the right hemisphere is dominant for awareness (nosognosia), spatial attention, emotional regulation, facial and voice expressions, visual recognition, and topographical orientation. Without the right hemisphere, the world would be flat, deprived of general and spatial attentions, pointing preferentially to the right side of the space, lacking visual experiences and emotions, exhibiting diminished awareness of the self and environment. Clinical-related syndromes of the right hemisphere are unilateral spatial neglect, object and face visual agnosia, the anosognosia for hemiparesis and/or hemianopia, misidentification syndromes, mania, and other obsessions for the food and the body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Isabel Tissieres, Mona Elamly, Stephanie Clarke, Sonia Crottaz-Herbette
Patients with auditory neglect attend less to auditory stimuli on their left and/or make systematic directional errors when indicating sound positions. Rightward prismatic adaptation (R-PA) was repeatedly shown to alleviate symptoms of visuospatial neglect and once to restore partially spatial bias in dichotic listening. It is currently unknown whether R-PA affects only this ear-related symptom or also other aspects of auditory neglect. We have investigated the effect of R-PA on left ear extinction in dichotic listening, space-related inattention assessed by diotic listening, and directional errors in auditory localization in patients with auditory neglect...
2017: Neural Plasticity
Tingjin Chen, Hongye Jiang, Hengchang Sun, Zhizhi Xie, Pengli Ren, Lu Zhao, Huimin Dong, Mengchen Shi, Zhiyue Lv, Zhongdao Wu, Xuerong Li, Xinbing Yu, Yan Huang, Jin Xu
BACKGROUND: Clonorchis sinensis, the causative agent of clonorchiasis, is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases and affects more than 15 million people globally. This hepatobiliary disease is highly associated with cholangiocarcinoma. As key molecules in the infectivity and subsistence of trematodes, glycolytic enzymes have been targets for drug and vaccine development. Clonorchis sinensis pyruvate kinase (CsPK), a crucial glycolytic enzyme, was characterized in this research...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Tatiana Ogourtsova, Philippe S Archambault, Anouk Lamontagne
BACKGROUND: Hemineglect, defined as a failure to attend to the contralesional side of space, is a prevalent and disabling post-stroke deficit. Conventional hemineglect assessments lack sensitivity as they contain mainly non-functional tasks performed in near-extrapersonal space, using static, two-dimensional methods. This is of concern given that hemineglect is a strong predictor for functional deterioration, limited post-stroke recovery, and difficulty in community reintegration. With the emerging field of virtual reality, several virtual tools have been proposed and have reported better sensitivity in neglect-related deficits detection than conventional methods...
November 7, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
Mieke Van Bockstal, Giuseppe Floris, Christine Galant, Kathleen Lambein, Louis Libbrecht
This viewpoint is a personal reflection on the values and merits of immunohistochemistry in current breast cancer diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry is a validated mainstay in molecular subtyping of invasive breast cancer. Immunohistochemical assessment of hormone receptor status and HER2 expression is used to determine the clinico-pathological surrogate of breast cancer intrinsic subtypes, which guide neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy. The advent of genomic prognostic signatures and qualitative mRNA-based assays makes some clinicians and researchers wonder whether immunohistochemistry should be abandoned...
October 31, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Zoltán Perkó, Thomas R Bortfeld, Theodore S Hong, John Wolfgang, Jan Unkelbach
Avoiding toxicities in radiotherapy requires the knowledge of tolerable organ doses. For new, experimental fractionation schemes (e.g. hypofractionation) these are typically derived from traditional schedules using the Biologically Effective Dose (BED) model. In this report we investigate the difficulties of establishing mean dose tolerances that arise since the mean BED depends on the entire spatial dose distribution, rather than on the dose level alone. Methods: A formula has been derived to establish mean physical dose constraints such that they are mean BED equivalent to a reference treatment scheme...
November 3, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Ángel Sánchez-Cabeza, Elisabet Huertas-Hoyas, Nuria Máximo-Bocanegra, Rosa María Martínez-Piédrola, Marta Pérez-de-Heredia-Torres, Jorge Alegre-Ayala
Objective: To adapt, validate, and translate the Behavioral Inattention Test as an assessment tool for Spanish individuals with unilateral spatial neglect. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: University laboratories. Participants: A sample of 75 Spanish stroke patients and 18 healthy control subjects. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: The Behavioral Inattention Test...
2017: Occupational Therapy International
Eduardo Brandão, Sebastián Romero, Maria Almerice Lopes da Silva, Fred Luciano Neves Santos
BACKGROUND: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevail in conditions of poverty and contribute to the maintenance of social inequality. Out of the NTDs prioritized by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, four parasitic infections require mandatory notification: acute Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, malaria, and schistosomiasis. Data on the behaviour of these NTDs in the young population are currently limited. This study seeks to analyse the epidemiological aspects of these parasitic infections in children and adolescents in Brazil...
November 3, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Selene Schintu, Ivan Patané, Michela Caldano, Romeo Salemme, Karen T Reilly, Laure Pisella, Alessandro Farnè
Rightward prismatic adaptation (RPA) can reduce neglect symptoms in patients whereas adaptation to leftward deviating prisms (LPA) can induce neglect-like behavior in healthy subjects. One influential anatomo-functional model of prismatic adaptation (PA) postulates that it inhibits activity of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) contralateral to the prismatic deviation. By hypo-activating the PPC and thus eventually acting on interhemispheric balance, both LPA and RPA could possibly affect visuospatial perception in healthy subjects, however, such behavioral modulation has seldom been reported after RPA...
October 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
N I Prasianakis, E Curti, G Kosakowski, J Poonoosamy, S V Churakov
Mineral precipitation and dissolution in aqueous solutions has a significant effect on solute transport and structural properties of porous media. The understanding of the involved physical mechanisms, which cover a large range of spatial and temporal scales, plays a key role in several geochemical and industrial processes. Here, by coupling pore scale reactive transport simulations with classical nucleation theory, we demonstrate how the interplay between homogeneous and heterogeneous precipitation kinetics along with the non-linear dependence on solute concentration affects the evolution of the system...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shatha Fawzi Awawdeh, Hui Cui, Xiuying Wang, David Dagan Feng
Contour tree represents the nesting relations of the individual components in the image; however, it neglects the geometric structure of the terrain. In this paper, we propose a new topological representation that provides the nesting and spatial relations of regions for CT image interpretation. The tree is constructed based on the signed distance transformation of binary CT image, and combines intensity based contour tree and a new gradient based topology tree. We also investigate the application of the topological representation as a constraint in target object segmentation...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Mie Andersen, Craig P Plaisance, Karsten Reuter
First-principles screening studies aimed at predicting the catalytic activity of transition metal (TM) catalysts have traditionally been based on mean-field (MF) microkinetic models, which neglect the effect of spatial correlations in the adsorbate layer. Here we critically assess the accuracy of such models for the specific case of CO methanation over stepped metals by comparing to spatially resolved kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulations. We find that the typical low diffusion barriers offered by metal surfaces can be significantly increased at step sites, which results in persisting correlations in the adsorbate layer...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Janet H Bultitude, Ian Walker, Charles Spence
See Legrain (doi:10.1093/awx188) for a scientific commentary on this article. Some patients with complex regional pain syndrome report that movements of the affected limb are slow, more effortful, and lack automaticity. These symptoms have been likened to the syndrome that sometimes follows brain injury called hemispatial neglect, in which patients exhibit attentional impairments and problems with movements affecting the contralesional side of the body and space. Psychophysical testing of patients with complex regional pain syndrome has found evidence for spatial biases when judging visual targets distanced at 2 m, but not in directions that indicate reduced attention to the affected side...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Tetsuya Hayashi, Tetsuya Nakanishi
We investigated the relationships between the capacity limit and various figures of merit (spatial channel density, aggregate effective area ratio to cladding area, and bandwidth density) of few-mode multi-core fibers (FM-MCFs) where the modes in each core are weakly coupled. The capacity limit was estimated based on the Gaussian noise model for nonlinear impairment of single-mode fibers by neglecting crosstalk and intermodal nonlinear effects for simplicity; therefore, the estimated capacity can be the upper bound of the weakly-coupled FM-MCF capacity...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
Ann M Cheney, Christine N Newkirk, Vhuhwavho M Nekhavhambe, Matthew Baron Rotondi, Alison Hamilton
In this article, we examine methamphetamine (meth) use initiation as influenced by Latinas' social positions within institutions (e.g., family and economy). We conducted ethnographic fieldwork in five women's residential substance use treatment facilities in Los Angeles County with women who considered meth to be their primary drug of choice. Using an urban ethnographic framing, we demonstrate the effects of low-income young Latinas' spatial- and social-context rendered vulnerability to abuse and neglect, and the resulting emotional distress, on meth use initiation...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
C Malherbe, R M Umarova, M Zavaglia, C P Kaller, L Beume, G Thomalla, C Weiller, C C Hilgetag
Stroke patients frequently display spatial neglect, an inability to report, or respond to, relevant stimuli in the contralesional space. Although this syndrome is widely considered to result from the dysfunction of a large-scale attention network, the individual contributions of damaged grey and white matter regions to neglect are still being disputed. Moreover, while the neuroanatomy of neglect in right hemispheric lesions is well studied, the contributions of left hemispheric brain regions to visuospatial processing are less well understood...
October 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
M V Zamergrad, O S Levin
Vertigo, instability, oscillopsia and concomitant autonomic disorders are classical and well-known symptoms of vestibular disorders. At the same time, recent studies suggest that there are more complicated vestibular dysfunctions caused by the cortical projections of the vestibular system. The central vestibular system includes parietal temporal cortex and insular, anterior intraparietal sulcus, posterior parietal and medial parts of the superior temporal gyrus, singular gyrus retrosplenial cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal area...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Benedetta Basagni, Antonio De Tanti, Alessio Damora, Laura Abbruzzese, Valentina Varalta, Gabriella Antonucci, Wai Ling Bickerton, Nicola Smania, Mauro Mancuso
Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is a frequent consequence of acquired brain injury, especially following right hemisphere damage. Traditionally, unilateral spatial neglect is assessed with cancellation tests such as the Bells test. Recently, a new cancellation test, the Apples test, has been proposed. The present study aims at comparing the accuracy of these two tests in detecting hemispatial neglect, on a sample of 56 right hemisphere stroke patients with a diagnosis of USN. In order to evaluate the agreement between the Apples and Bells tests, Cohen's kappa and McNemar's test were used to assess differences between the two methods of evaluation...
October 4, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Wei-Chien-Benny Chin, Tzai-Hung Wen, Clive E Sabel, I-Hsiang Wang
A diffusion process can be considered as the movement of linked events through space and time. Therefore, space-time locations of events are key to identify any diffusion process. However, previous clustering analysis methods have focused only on space-time proximity characteristics, neglecting the temporal lag of the movement of events. We argue that the temporal lag between events is a key to understand the process of diffusion movement. Using the temporal lag could help to clarify the types of close relationships...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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