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Spatial neglect

Kazuhiro Yasuda, Daisuke Muroi, Mizuki Hirano, Kenta Saichi, Hiroyasu Iwata
In clinical practice, therapists often encounter cases of unilateral spatial neglect (USN) observed in far and near space. In this case report, immersive virtual reality (VR) technology was adopted as a therapy tool in a patient with stroke with severe near and far space neglect. Neuropsychological tests in near and far space as well as the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS), as an index of neglect in daily living, were measured preintervention and postintervention. Improvement of neuropsychological tests, particularly in far space, was clearly demonstrated postintervention...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Giovanni Berlucchi, Giuseppe Vallar
The development and change of knowledge on the function of the parietal lobe from the second half of the 19th century to the early 1970s are reviewed. Motor and somatosensory functions were initially localized in a broad frontoparietal region. At the beginning of the 20th century the motor cortex was restricted to the posterior frontal lobe. The separate attribution of somatosensory functions to the parietal lobe was initially based on anatomic considerations, but mostly on localized bodily sensations elicited by electric stimulation in awake patients...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Giuseppe Vallar, Elena Calzolari
Unilateral spatial neglect is a disabling neurologic deficit, most frequent and severe after right-hemispheric lesions. In most patients neglect involves the left side of space, contralateral to a right-hemispheric lesion. About 50% of stroke patients exhibit neglect in the acute phase. Patients fail to orient, respond to, and report sensory events occurring in the contralateral sides of space and of the body, to explore these portions of space through movements by action effectors (eye, limbs), and to move the contralateral limbs...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Marianne Dieterich, Thomas Brandt
The vestibular cortex differs in various ways from other sensory cortices. It consists of a network of several distinct and separate temporoparietal areas. Its core region, the parietoinsular vestibular cortex (PIVC), is located in the posterior insula and retroinsular region and includes the parietal operculum. The entire network is multisensory (in particular, vestibular, visual, and somatosensory). The peripheral and central vestibular systems are bilaterally organized; there are various pontomesencephalic brainstem crossings and at least two transcallosal connections of both hemispheres, between the PIVC and the motion-sensitive visual cortex areas, which also mediate vestibular input...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Pedro J Garrote, Gemma Calvo, Magdalena Żywiec, Miguel Delibes, Alberto Suárez-Esteban, José M Fedriani
Fruit-frugivore interactions are critical for the dynamics and evolution of many plant communities. The strength of the interactions between a given plant species and different frugivore guilds (e.g., seed dispersers, seed predators) often vary in space due to changes in plant extrinsic factors (e.g., frugivore abundances) and plant traits (e.g., fruit size and reward). By reciprocally translocating Pyrus bourgaeana ripe fruits representative of five Mediterranean localities during 2 consecutive years, we experimentally quantified guild-specific variations among populations in frugivory strength, while accounted for plant-intrinsic and- extrinsic factors...
March 2, 2018: Oecologia
Nicole V Coggan, Matthew W Hayward, Heloise Gibb
1.Ecosystem engineers have been widely studied for terrestrial systems, but global trends in research encompassing the range of taxa and functions have not previously been synthesised. 2.We reviewed contemporary understanding of engineer fauna in terrestrial habitats and assessed the methods used to document patterns and processes, asking: 1.Which species act as ecosystem engineers and with whom do they interact? 2. What are the impacts of ecosystem engineers in terrestrial habitats and how are they distributed? 3...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Luísa Magalhães, Simão Correia, Xavier de Montaudouin, Rosa Freitas
Cerastoderma edule (edible cockle) is among the most exploited bivalves in Europe playing an important socio-economic role. Cockles live in estuaries and lagoons where their population is controlled by several environmental factors including parasitism. Parasites represent an important part of the world known biodiversity but are often neglected. Trematodes are the most prevalent macroparasites of cockles being able to exert an impact both at the individual and population levels. Therefore, it is of prime relevance to recognize and understand the parasite-host system dynamics in order to better predict potential conservation threats to bivalve populations and to maximize the success of stock and disease episodes management...
February 24, 2018: Environmental Research
Yining Xu, Yaxian Zheng, Lei Wu, Xi Zhu, Zhirong Zhang, Yuan Huang
Although nanoparticles (NPs) have been demonstrated as promising tools for improving oral absorption of biotherapeutics, most of them still have very limited oral bioavailability. Lyso-endosomal degradation in epithelial cells is one of important but often-neglected physiological barriers, limiting the transport of cargoes across the intestinal epithelium. We herein reported a solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) platform with a unique feature of endosomal escape for oral protein drug delivery. The SLNs consisted of a solid-lipid shell, which contained an endosomal escape agent (GLFEAIEGFIENGWEGMIDGWYG, HA2), and an aqueous core that loaded with insulin (INS HA2-O-SLNs)...
February 27, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Filomena Anelli, Stefano Avanzi, Shahar Arzy, Mauro Mancuso, Francesca Frassinetti
Numerous studies agree that time is represented in spatial terms in the brain. Here we investigate how a deficit in orienting attention in space influences the ability to mentally travel in time, that is to recall the past and anticipate the future. Right brain-damaged patients, with (RBD-N+) and without neglect (RBD-N-), and healthy controls (HC) were subjected to a Mental Time Travel (MTT) task. Participants were asked to project themselves in time to past, present or future (i.e., self-projection) and, for each self-projection, to judge whether events were located relatively in the past or the future (i...
February 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Walter Schirmacher, Behnam Abaie, Arash Mafi, Giancarlo Ruocco, Marco Leonetti
Anderson localization of light is traditionally described in analogy to electrons in a random potential. Within this description, the random potential depends on the wavelength of the incident light. For transverse Anderson localization, this leads to the prediction that the distribution of localization lengths-and, hence, its average-strongly depends on the wavelength. In an alternative description, in terms of a spatially fluctuating electric modulus, this is not the case. Here, we report on an experimentum crucis in order to investigate the validity of the two conflicting theories using optical samples exhibiting transverse Anderson localization...
February 9, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Arnaud Saj, Vincent Verdon, Claude-Alain Hauert, Patrik Vuilleumier
Spatial neglect is a complex neuropsychological disorder, in which patients fail to detect and respond to contralesional stimuli. Recent studies suggest that these symptoms may reflect a combination of different component deficits, associated with different lesion substrates. Thus, damage to right lateral prefrontal and inferior parietal regions produce different degrees of left neglect on cancellation and line bisection tasks, respectively. Here we tested for dissociable behaviors across two tasks designed to assess distinct cognitive processes possibly mediating such components, in 14 patients with right focal lesion in either the frontal or parietal lobe...
February 22, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Rebeca Lauren Emerson, Alberto García-Molina, Jaume López Carballo, Juan García Fernández, Celeste Aparicio-López, Junquera Novo, Rocío Sánchez-Carrión, Antonia Enseñat-Cantallops, Jordi Peña-Casanova
The objective of this study was to examine visual scanning performance in patients with Unilateral Spatial Neglect (USN) in a visual search task. Thirty-one right hemisphere stroke patients with USN were recruited. They performed a dynamic visual search task with two conditions, with and without distractors, while eye movements were monitored with an eye-tracker. The main goal of the task was to select target stimuli that appeared from the top of the screen and moved vertically downward. Target detection and visual scanning percentage were assessed over two hemispaces (right, left) on two conditions (distractor, no distractor)...
February 22, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Xiaoguang Tian, Masatoshi Yoshida, Ziad M Hafed
Microsaccades are systematically modulated by peripheral spatial cues, and these eye movements have been implicated in perceptual and motor performance changes in cueing tasks. However, an additional oculomotor factor that may also influence performance in these tasks, fixational eye position itself, has been largely neglected so far. Using precise eye tracking and real-time retinal-image stabilization, we carefully analyzed fixational eye position dynamics and related them to microsaccade generation during spatial cueing...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Kimberly Hreha, Glen Gillen, Natalia Noce, Dawn Nilsen
Background Strokes resulting in cognitive and motor problems can be debilitating and prolong recovery. Risk of a second stroke occurs for 40% of all first-time stroke survivors within five years. Prism adaptation treatment (PAT) may simultaneously improve functions of both spatial and motor systems. This has not been studied with a cohort comprised of multiple strokes nor measured change using specific motor outcomes. Objectives To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of using PAT to improve spatial and motor functions in stroke survivors with multiple strokes...
February 19, 2018: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
Yuri Gori, Ana Stradiotti, Federica Camin
BACKGROUND: Local timber is still one of the main sources of work and income for mountain communities. However, illegal logging is a major cause of deforestation in many countries and has significant impacts on local communities and biodiversity. Techniques for tracing timber would provide a useful tool to protect local timber industries and contribute to the fight against illegal logging. Although considerable progress has been made in food traceability, timber provenance is still a somewhat neglected research area...
2018: PloS One
Zsigmond Varga, James W Swan
The normal modes and relaxation rates of weak colloidal gels are investigated in calculations using different models of the hydrodynamic interactions between suspended particles. The relaxation spectrum is computed for freely draining, Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa, and accelerated Stokesian dynamics approximations of the hydrodynamic mobility in a normal mode analysis of a harmonic network representing several colloidal gels. We find that the density of states and spatial structure of the normal modes are fundamentally altered by long-ranged hydrodynamic coupling among the particles...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Edwin S Dalmaijer, Korina M S Li, Nikos Gorgoraptis, Alexander P Leff, David L Cohen, Andrew D Parton, Masud Husain, Paresh A Malhotra
OBJECTIVE: Unilateral neglect is a poststroke disorder that impacts negatively on functional outcome and lacks established, effective treatment. This multicomponent syndrome is characterised by a directional bias of attention away from contralesional space, together with impairments in several cognitive domains, including sustained attention and spatial working memory. This study aimed to test the effects of guanfacine, a noradrenergic alpha-2A agonist, on ameliorating aspects of neglect...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Changhong Su, Huifang Liu, Shuai Wang
Soil provides various indispensable ecosystem services for human society. Soil's complex structure and property makes the soil ecological processes complicated and brings about tough challenges for soil ecosystem services study. Most of the current frameworks on soil services focus exclusively on services per se, neglecting the links and underlying ecological mechanisms. This article put forward a framework on soil services by stressing the underlying soil mechanisms and processes, which includes: 1) analyzing soil natural capital stock based on soil structure and property, 2) disentangling the underlying complex links and soil processes, 3) soil services valuation based on field investigation and spatial explicit models, and 4) enacting soil management strategy based on soil services and their driving factors...
January 29, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Federico Camicia, Ana M Celentano, Malcolm E Johns, John D Chan, Lucas Maldonado, Hugo Vaca, Nicolás Di Siervi, Laura Kamentezky, Ana M Gamo, Silvia Ortega-Gutierrez, Mar Martin-Fontecha, Carlos Davio, Jonathan S Marchant, Mara C Rosenzvit
BACKGROUND: Cestodes are a diverse group of parasites, some of them being agents of neglected diseases. In cestodes, little is known about the functional properties of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) which have proved to be highly druggable targets in other organisms. Notably, serotonergic G-protein coupled receptors (5-HT GPCRs) play major roles in key functions like movement, development and reproduction in parasites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three 5-HT GPCRs from Echinococcus granulosus and Mesocestoides corti were cloned, sequenced, bioinformatically analyzed and functionally characterized...
February 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Daniel Zeller, Marcus Hullin
A right-hemispheric specificity has been suggested both for spatial attention and for the feeling of body-ownership. Here, we assessed lateralization of spatial attention (Milner landmark task), rubber hand illusion (RHI), and their relationship in a group of 59 healthy elderly subjects. The occurrence of the RHI was assessed by objective (proprioceptive drift) and subjective (questionnaire) measures. Spatial attention was asymmetrical, with a slight, neglect-like overestimation of the right segment of mid-bisected lines...
February 6, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
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