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Spatial neglect

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340375/repetitive-tms-in-right-sensorimotor-areas-affects-the-selection-and-completion-of-contralateral-movements
#1
Maria Gutierrez-Herrera, Styrmir Saevarsson, Thomas Huber, Joachim Hermsdörfer, Waltraud Stadler
Although the existence of directional motor deficits (DMD) associated with movement planning and/or execution seems to be widely recognized, neglect and single cell studies examining their neuroanatomical foundation have produced contradictory and inconclusive findings. The present study assessed the occurrence of DMD following the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over two regions, as commonly reported in the neglect literature, namely the right middle frontal gyrus (rMFG) and the right angular gyrus (rAG)...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330962/distinct-white-matter-alterations-following-severe-stroke-longitudinal-dti-study-in-neglect
#2
Roza M Umarova, Lena Beume, Marco Reisert, Christoph P Kaller, Stefan Klöppel, Irina Mader, Volkmar Glauche, Valerij G Kiselev, Marco Catani, Cornelius Weiller
OBJECTIVE: To distinguish white matter remodeling directly induced by stroke lesion from that evoked by remote network dysfunction, using spatial neglect as a model. METHODS: We examined 24 visual neglect/extinction patients and 17 control patients combining comprehensive analyses of diffusion tensor metrics and global fiber tracking with neuropsychological testing in the acute (6.3 ± 0.5 days poststroke) and chronic (134 ± 7 days poststroke) stroke phases. RESULTS: Compared to stroke controls, patients with spatial neglect/extinction displayed longitudinal white matter alterations with 2 defining signatures: (1) perilesional degenerative changes characterized by congruently reduced fractional anisotropy and increased radial diffusivity (RD), axial diffusivity, and mean diffusivity, all suggestive of direct axonal damage by lesion and therefore nonspecific for impaired attention network and (2) transneuronal changes characterized by an increased RD in contralesional frontoparietal and bilateral occipital connections, suggestive of primary periaxonal involvement; these changes were distinctly related to the degree of unrecovered neglect symptoms in chronic stroke, hence emerging as network-specific alterations...
March 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327791/a-tale-of-two-neglected-tropical-infections-using-gis-to-assess-the-spatial-and-temporal-overlap-of-schistosomiasis-and-leprosy-in-a-region-of-minas-gerais-brazil
#3
David Alexander Phillips, José Antonio Ferreira, Deidra Ansah, Herica Sa Teixeira, Uriel Kitron, Thelma de Filippis, Marcelo H de Alcântara, Jessica K Fairley
BACKGROUND: Despite public health efforts to reduce the global burden of leprosy, gaps remain in the knowledge surrounding transmission of infection. Helminth co-infections have been associated with a shift towards the lepromatous end of the disease spectrum, potentially increasing transmission in co-endemic areas. OBJECTIVES: Using this biologically plausible association, we conducted a geographic information systems (GIS) study to investigate the spatial associations of schistosomiasis and leprosy in an endemic area of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325371/the-role-of-spatial-statistics-in-the-control-and-elimination-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-focus-on-human-african-trypanosomiasis-schistosomiasis-and-lymphatic-filariasis
#4
M C Stanton
Disease control and elimination programmes can benefit greatly from accurate information on the spatial variability of disease risk, particularly when risk is highly spatially heterogeneous. Due to advances in statistical methodology, coupled with the increased availability of geospatial technology, this information is becoming increasingly accessible. In this chapter we describe recent advancements in spatial methods associated with the analysis of disease data measured at the point-level and demonstrate their application to the control and elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323684/shifting-spatial-neglect-with-repeated-line-bisections-possible-role-of-lateralized-attentional-fatigue
#5
Mary Woods, John B Williamson, Keith D White, Charles G Maitland, Kenneth M Heilman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Many patients who have signs of neglect immediately after a right hemisphere stroke remain disabled even when they improve on tests of neglect. Few patients are tested for attentional persistence and fatigue despite their importance in many instrumental activities. To investigate whether stimulus repetition might alter the allocation of attention, we repeatedly tested a patient 16 weeks after she developed hemispatial neglect from a right hemisphere stroke. METHODS: During each of three testing sessions given in 1 day, we asked the patient to bisect 90 lines of two lengths, presented in 30-trial blocks in three locations: left, center, and right of her midsagittal plane, partially counterbalanced across sessions...
March 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315613/parietomotor-connectivity-in-the-contralesional-hemisphere-after-stroke-a-paired-pulse-tms-study
#6
Etienne Allart, Arnaud Delval, Alexandre Caux-Dedeystere, Julien Labreuche, Romain Viard, Renaud Lopes, Hervé Devanne
OBJECTIVES: To assess the contralesional connectivity between the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and the motor cortex (M1) in stroke patients, and to probe putative relationships with spatial neglect and motor impairment. METHODS: In 12 right-side stroke patients and 12 age-matched healthy controls, we used paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to assess the contralesional connectivity between three left-side PPC sites (the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), the posterior intraparietal sulcus and the superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC)) and M1...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314918/oculomotor-prismatic-training-is-effective-in-ameliorating-spatial-neglect-a-pilot-study
#7
I Ronga, M Franza, P Sarasso, M Neppi-Modona
Visuomotor prismatic training has been demonstrated to be among the most effective rehabilitative techniques of spatial neglect, a neurological syndrome manifested by a number of right brain-damaged patients characterized by unawareness of the egocentric left half of the world. In the present study, we demonstrate that a novel oculomotor prismatic training procedure only consisting in a sequence of gaze shifts to visual targets, can reduce spatial neglect symptoms. Following oculomotor prismatic training, patients show a significant decrease in neglect severity in straight ahead and paper and pencil tasks...
March 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298004/driven-optical-matter-dynamics-of-electrodynamically-coupled-nanoparticles-in-an-optical-ring-vortex
#8
Patrick Figliozzi, Nishant Sule, Zijie Yan, Ying Bao, Stanislav Burov, Stephen K Gray, Stuart A Rice, Suriyanarayanan Vaikuntanathan, Norbert F Scherer
To date investigations of the dynamics of driven colloidal systems have focused on hydrodynamic interactions and often employ optical (laser) tweezers for manipulation. However, the optical fields that provide confinement and drive also result in electrodynamic interactions that are generally neglected. We address this issue with a detailed study of interparticle dynamics in an optical ring vortex trap using 150-nm diameter Ag nanoparticles. We term the resultant electrodynamically interacting nanoparticles a driven optical matter system...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290071/structural-connectivity-in-spatial-attention-network-reconstruction-from-left-hemispatial-neglect
#9
Takaaki Hattori, Kenji Ito, Chika Nakazawa, Yoshiyuki Numasawa, Mayumi Watanabe, Shigeki Aoki, Hidehiro Mizusawa, Sumio Ishiai, Takanori Yokota
Left hemispatial neglect (neglect) is an impaired state of spatial attention. We aimed to reconstruct structural connectivity in the spatial attention network and to identify disconnection patterns underlying neglect. We enrolled 59 right-handed patients who had their first-ever infarction in the right hemisphere and classified them into neglect group (34 patients with neglect) and control group (25 patients without neglect). The neglect group was further subcategorized into 6 subgroups based on infarcted vascular territories...
March 13, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289255/transmission-dynamics-critical-questions-and-challenges
#10
REVIEW
Janis Antonovics
This article overviews the dynamics of disease transmission in one-host-one-parasite systems. Transmission is the result of interacting host and pathogen processes, encapsulated with the environment in a 'transmission triangle'. Multiple transmission modes and their epidemiological consequences are often not understood because the direct measurement of transmission is difficult. However, its different components can be analysed using nonlinear transmission functions, contact matrices and networks. A particular challenge is to develop such functions for spatially extended systems...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282203/quantitative-agreement-between-electron-optical-phase-images-of-wse_-2-and-simulations-based-on-electrostatic-potentials-that-include-bonding-effects
#11
S Borghardt, F Winkler, Z Zanolli, M J Verstraete, J Barthel, A H Tavabi, R E Dunin-Borkowski, B E Kardynal
The quantitative analysis of electron-optical phase images recorded using off-axis electron holography often relies on the use of computer simulations of electron propagation through a sample. However, simulations that make use of the independent atom approximation are known to overestimate experimental phase shifts by approximately 10%, as they neglect bonding effects. Here, we compare experimental and simulated phase images for few-layer WSe_{2}. We show that a combination of pseudopotentials and all-electron density functional theory calculations can be used to obtain accurate mean electron phases, as well as improved atomic-resolution spatial distribution of the electron phase...
February 24, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272429/individual-movement-strategies-revealed-through-novel-clustering-of-emergent-movement-patterns
#12
Denis Valle, Sreten Cvetojevic, Ellen P Robertson, Brian E Reichert, Hartwig H Hochmair, Robert J Fletcher
Understanding movement is critical in several disciplines but analysis methods often neglect key information by adopting each location as sampling unit, rather than each individual. We introduce a novel statistical method that, by focusing on individuals, enables better identification of temporal dynamics of connectivity, traits of individuals that explain emergent movement patterns, and sites that play a critical role in connecting subpopulations. We apply this method to two examples that span movement networks that vary considerably in size and questions: movements of an endangered raptor, the snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus), and human movement in Florida inferred from Twitter...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264003/significance-of-major-international-seaports-in-the-distribution-of-murine-typhus-in-taiwan
#13
Chi-Chien Kuo, Nicola Wardrop, Chung-Te Chang, Hsi-Chieh Wang, Peter M Atkinson
BACKGROUND: International seaports are hotspots for disease invasion and pathogens can persist in seaports even after ports are abandoned. Transmitted by fleas infected by Rickettsia typhi, murine typhus, a largely neglected and easily misdiagnosed disease, is known to occur primarily in large seaports. However, the significance of seaports in the occurrence of murine typhus has never been validated quantitatively. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the spatial distribution of murine typhus, a notifiable disease, in Taiwan...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258751/assessing-top-and-subsoil-organic-carbon-stocks-of-low-input-high-diversity-systems-using-soil-and-vegetation-characteristics
#14
Sam Ottoy, Koenraad Van Meerbeek, Anicet Sindayihebura, Martin Hermy, Jos Van Orshoven
The soil organic carbon (SOC) stock is an important indicator in ecosystem service assessments. Even though a considerable fraction of the total stock is stored in the subsoil, current assessments often consider the topsoil only. Furthermore, mapping efforts are hampered by the limited spatial density of these topsoil measurements. The aim of this study was to assess the SOC stock in the upper 100cm of soil in 30,556ha of Low-Input High-Diversity systems, such as nature reserves, in Flanders (Belgium) and compare this estimate with the stock found in the topsoil (upper 15cm)...
March 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258469/compounding-effects-of-agricultural-land-use-and-water-use-in-free-flowing-rivers-confounding-issues-for-environmental-flows
#15
Scott A Hardie, Chris J Bobbi
Defining the ecological impacts of water extraction from free-flowing river systems in altered landscapes is challenging as multiple stressors (e.g., flow regime alteration, increased sedimentation) may have simultaneous effects and attributing causality is problematic. This multiple-stressor context has been acknowledged in environmental flows science, but is often neglected when it comes to examining flow-ecology relationships, and setting and implementing environmental flows. We examined the impacts of land and water use on rivers in the upper Ringarooma River catchment in Tasmania (south-east Australia), which contains intensively irrigated agriculture, to support implementation of a water management plan...
March 3, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254649/altered-perceptual-pseudoneglect-in-adhd-evidence-for-a-functional-disconnection-from-early-visual-activation
#16
Jiaqing Chen, Matthias Niemeier
Novel insights into the right-brain dominant functions of spatial attention and visual awareness may come from the peculiar observation that the attentional bias to the left in healthy individuals, called "pseudoneglect," increases with visual noise superimposed onto test stimuli. However, it is unclear if this effect originates from noise activating early visual areas or causing higher-level cognitive interference. Cognitive distraction and load are known to induce neglect-like rightward biases in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
February 28, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242798/visuospatial-asymmetries-arise-from-differences-in-the-onset-time-of-perceptual-evidence-accumulation
#17
Daniel P Newman, Gerard M Loughnane, Simon P Kelly, Redmond G O'Connell, Mark A Bellgrove
Healthy subjects tend to exhibit a bias of visual attention whereby left hemifield stimuli are processed more quickly and accurately than stimuli appearing in the right hemifield. It has long been held that this phenomenon arises from the dominant role of the right cerebral hemisphere in regulating attention, however, methods that would allow for a more precise understanding of the mechanisms underpinning visuospatial bias have remained elusive. We sought to finely trace the temporal evolution of spatial biases by leveraging a novel bilateral dot motion detection paradigm...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241853/gis-supported-epidemiological-analysis-on-canine-angiostrongylus-vasorum-and-crenosoma-vulpis-infections-in-germany
#18
Pavlo Maksimov, Carlos Hermosilla, Anja Taubert, Christoph Staubach, Carola Sauter-Louis, Franz J Conraths, Majda Globokar Vrhovec, Nikola Pantchev
BACKGROUND: Angiostrongylus vasorum infections are the cause of severe cardiopulmonary diseases in dogs. In the past, canine angiostrongylosis has largely been neglected in Europe, although some recent studies indicated an expansion of historically known endemic areas, a phenomenon that might also apply to Crenosoma vulpis. The aim of the present study was to analyse temporal and spatial trends of canine A. vasorum and C. vulpis infections and to perform GIS-supported risk factor analysis to evaluate the role of landscape, age and seasonality in the life-cycle of these nematodes...
February 28, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230392/two-roads-diverged-distinct-mechanisms-of-attentional-bias-differentially-predict-negative-affect-and-persistent-negative-thought
#19
Sandersan Onie, Steven B Most
Attentional biases to threatening stimuli have been implicated in various emotional disorders. Theoretical approaches often carry the implicit assumption that various attentional bias measures tap into the same underlying construct, but attention itself is not a unitary mechanism. Most attentional bias tasks-such as the dot probe (DP)-index spatial attention, neglecting other potential attention mechanisms. We compared the DP with emotion-induced blindness (EIB), which appears to be mechanistically distinct, and examined the degree to which these tasks predicted (a) negative affect, (b) persistent negative thought (i...
February 23, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224761/temporal-order-judgements-as-a-sensitive-measure-of-the-spatial-bias-in-patients-with-visuospatial-neglect
#20
Stefan Van der Stigchel, Tanja C W Nijboer
Visuospatial neglect is not a unitary phenomenon, but can be better considered a syndrome, consisting of a multitude of different spatial and non-spatial components. In this study, we used a temporal order judgement (TOJ) test in a large sample of stroke patients (n = 73) to scrutinize the contribution of a spatial bias to the performance on shape cancellation and line bisection tests. In the TOJ test, patients were presented with two elements, one in each visual field, after which the one needed to indicate which of the two elements was presented earlier...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
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