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Emotion Processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166594/individual-differences-in-processing-emotional-images-after-reading-disgusting-and-neutral-sentences
#1
Alex Hartigan, Anne Richards
The present study examined the extent to which Event Related Potentials (ERPs) evoked by disgusting, threatening and neutral photographic images were influenced by disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity and attentional control following exposure to disgusting information. Emotional cognition was manipulated by instructing participants to remember either disgusting or neutral sentences; participants in both groups then viewed emotional images while ERPs were recorded. Disgust propensity was associated with a reduced Late Positive Potential (LPP) gap between threatening and neutral stimuli (an effect driven by a rise in the LPP for neutral images) but only amongst individuals who were exposed to disgusting sentences...
November 19, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165659/age-differences-in-the-influence-of-induced-negative-emotion-on-decision-making-the-role-of-emotion-regulation
#2
Xuqun You, Chengting Ju, Mo Wang, Baoshan Zhang, Pei Liu, Nicole Anderson
Objectives: In this study, we hypothesized that there is an age difference in the influence of negative emotion on decision-making and that this age difference is related to emotion regulation strategies. Method: We carried out two studies. In the first, the older and younger adults completed the ultimatum game (UG) while in either an induced negative emotional or a neutral context. In the second, both the older and younger adults completed the UG while in an induced negative emotion while using either emotion reappraisal or expressive suppression to regulate their emotions during the task...
November 19, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165584/carers-as-system-navigators-exploring-sources-processes-and-outcomes-of-structural-burden
#3
Laura M Funk, Lisette Dansereau, Sheila Novek, Barbara J Bowers
Background and Objectives: Structural features of formal care systems influence the amount, difficulty, and complexity of what carers do as they interface with those systems. In this study, we explored how carers navigate health and social care systems, and their experiences of structural burden related to features such as complexity and fragmentation. Research Design and Methods: This qualitative descriptive inquiry drew on data from in-person interviews with 32 carers of older adults, which were analyzed first using inductive thematic analysis and then using structural burden as a conceptual lens...
November 19, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164726/functional-connectivity-changes-following-interpersonal-reactivity
#4
A L Krause, L Colic, V Borchardt, M Li, B Strauss, A Buchheim, D Wildgruber, P Fonagy, T Nolte, M Walter
Attachment experiences substantially influence emotional and cognitive development. Narratives comprising attachment-dependent content were proposed to modulate activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We studied the effects after listening to prototypical attachment narratives on wellbeing and countertransference-reactions in 149 healthy participants. Neural correlates of these cognitive-emotional schema activations were investigated in a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest fMRI-study (23 healthy males) using functional connectivity (FC) analysis of the social approach network (seed regions: left and right Caudate Nucleus, CN)...
November 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164552/-the-application-of-grief-theories-to-bereaved-family-members
#5
Lee-Jen Suen Wu, Chuan-Chiang Chou, Yen-Chun Lin
Loss is an inevitable experience for humans for which grief is a natural response. Nurses must have an adequate understanding of grief and bereavement in order to be more sensitive to these painful emotions and to provide appropriate care to families who have lost someone they love deeply. This article introduces four important grief theories: Freud's grief theory, Bowlby's attachment theory, Stroebe and Schuts' dual process model, and Neiyemer's meaning reconstruction model. Freud's grief theory holds that the process of grief adaptation involves a bereaved family adopting alternative ways to connect with the death of a loved one and to restore their self-ego...
December 2017: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164447/specific-patterns-of-emotion-recognition-from-faces-in-children-with-asd-results-of-a-cross-modal-matching-paradigm
#6
Ofer Golan, Ilanit Gordon, Keren Fichman, Giora Keinan
Children with ASD show emotion recognition difficulties, as part of their social communication deficits. We examined facial emotion recognition (FER) in intellectually disabled children with ASD and in younger typically developing (TD) controls, matched on mental age. Our emotion-matching paradigm employed three different modalities: facial, vocal and verbal. Results confirmed overall FER deficits in ASD. Compared to the TD group, children with ASD had the poorest performance in recognizing surprise and anger in comparison to happiness and sadness, and struggled with face-face matching, compared to voice-face and word-face combinations...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164362/coping-and-sexual-harassment-how-victims-cope-across-multiple-settings
#7
Jennifer A Scarduzio, Sarah E Sheff, Mathew Smith
The ways sexual harassment occurs both online and in face-to-face settings has become more complicated. Sexual harassment that occurs in cyberspace or online sexual harassment adds complexity to the experiences of victims, current research understandings, and the legal dimensions of this phenomenon. Social networking sites (SNS) are a type of social media that offer unique opportunities to users and sometimes the communication that occurs on SNS can cross the line from flirtation into online sexual harassment...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164143/valence-of-facial-cues-influences-sheep-learning-in-a-visual-discrimination-task
#8
Lucille G A Bellegarde, Hans W Erhard, Alexander Weiss, Alain Boissy, Marie J Haskell
Sheep are one of the most studied farm species in terms of their ability to process information from faces, but little is known about their face-based emotion recognition abilities. We investigated (a) whether sheep could use images of sheep faces taken in situation of varying valence as cues in a simultaneous discrimination task and (b) whether the valence of the situation affects their learning performance. To accomplish this, we photographed faces of sheep in three situations inducing emotional states of neutral (ruminating in the home pen) or negative valence (social isolation or aggressive interaction)...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163870/transdiagnostic-culturally-adapted-cbt-with-farsi-speaking-refugees-a-pilot-study
#9
Schahryar Kananian, Sarah Ayoughi, Arieja Farugie, Devon Hinton, Ulrich Stangier
Background: Approximately half of all asylum seekers suffer from trauma-related disorders requiring treatment, among them Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms. There is a lack of easily accessible, low-threshold treatments taking the cultural background into account. Culturally Adapted CBT (CA CBT) is a well evaluated, transdiagnostic group intervention for refugees, using psychoeducation, meditation, and Yoga-like exercises. Objective: An uncontrolled pilot study with male Farsi-speaking refugees from Afghanistan and Iran was conducted to investigate feasibility with this ethnic group; a group for which no previous CBT trials have been reported...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163856/participant-experiences-of-eye-movement-desensitisation-and-reprocessing-vs-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-grief-similarities-and-differences
#10
Prudence Cotter, Larissa Meysner, Christopher William Lee
Background and Objective: Previous research has used quantitative methods to assess the impact of grief therapy. However, rarely have participants been asked about how they have been affected by treatment using qualitative methods. This study sought to explore participants' experiences of two therapeutic approaches to grief: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR). Method: Nineteen participants were randomly allocated to receive seven weekly therapy sessions of either CBT or EMDR...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163313/intuitive-choices-lead-to-intensified-positive-emotions-an-overlooked-reason-for-intuition-bias
#11
Geir Kirkebøen, Gro H H Nordbye
People have, for many well-documented reasons, a tendency to overemphasize their intuitions and to follow them, even when they should not. This "intuition bias" leads to several kinds of specific intuitive biases in judgments and decision making. Previous studies have shown that characteristics of the decision process have a tendency to "leak" into the experience of the choice outcome. We explore whether intuitive choices influence the experience of the choice outcomes differently from "non-intuitive," analytic choices...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163272/perceived-emotional-intelligence-and-learning-strategies-in-spanish-university-students-a-new-perspective-from-a-canonical-non-symmetrical-correspondence-analysis
#12
María C Vega-Hernández, María C Patino-Alonso, Rosario Cabello, María P Galindo-Villardón, Pablo Fernández-Berrocal
Recent studies have revealed that emotional competences are relevant to the student's learning process and, more specifically, in the use of learning strategies (LSs). The aim of this study is twofold. First, we aim to analyze the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) and LSs applying the scales TMMS-24 and Abridged ACRA to a sample of 2334 Spanish university students, whilst also exploring possible gender differences. Second, we aim to propose a methodological alternative based on the Canonical non-symmetrical correspondence analysis (CNCA), as an alternative to the methods traditionally used in Psychology and Education...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163266/linking-the-positivity-effect-in-attention-with-affective-outcomes-age-group-differences-and-the-role-of-arousal
#13
Cathleen Kappes, Berit Streubel, Kezia L Droste, Kristian Folta-Schoofs
Despite its assumed importance for emotional well-being, studies investigating the positivity effect (PE) in older adults' information processing rarely tested its relationship with immediate or general affective outcome measures like emotional reactivity or emotional well-being. Moreover, the arousal level of the to-be-processed emotional stimuli has rarely been taken into account as a moderator for the occurrence of the PE and its relationship with affective outcomes. Age group differences (young vs. old) in attention (i...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163132/the-influence-of-negative-emotion-on-cognitive-and-emotional-control-remains-intact-in-aging
#14
Artyom Zinchenko, Christian Obermeier, Philipp Kanske, Erich Schröger, Arno Villringer, Sonja A Kotz
Healthy aging is characterized by a gradual decline in cognitive control and inhibition of interferences, while emotional control is either preserved or facilitated. Emotional control regulates the processing of emotional conflicts such as in irony in speech, and cognitive control resolves conflict between non-affective tendencies. While negative emotion can trigger control processes and speed up resolution of both cognitive and emotional conflicts, we know little about how aging affects the interaction of emotion and control...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163106/recent-advances-in-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-for-major-depressive-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Shui Liu, Jiyao Sheng, Bingjin Li, Xuewen Zhang
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS) is a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), which is an affective processing disorder involving abnormal emotional processing. Many studies have shown that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the prefrontal cortex can play a regulatory role in affective processing. Although the clinical efficacy of NBS in MDD has been demonstrated clinically, the precise mechanism of action remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163082/the-way-dogs-canis-familiaris-look-at-human-emotional-faces-is-modulated-by-oxytocin-an-eye-tracking-study
#16
Anna Kis, Anna Hernádi, Bernadett Miklósi, Orsolya Kanizsár, József Topál
Dogs have been shown to excel in reading human social cues, including facial cues. In the present study we used eye-tracking technology to further study dogs' face processing abilities. It was found that dogs discriminated between human facial regions in their spontaneous viewing pattern and looked most to the eye region independently of facial expression. Furthermore dogs played most attention to the first two images presented, afterwards their attention dramatically decreases; a finding that has methodological implications...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163080/behavioral-and-neurochemical-phenotyping-of-mice-incapable-of-homer1a-induction
#17
Michael C Datko, Jia-Hua Hu, Melanie Williams, Cindy M Reyes, Kevin D Lominac, Georg von Jonquieres, Matthias Klugmann, Paul F Worley, Karen K Szumlinski
Immediate early and constitutively expressed products of the Homer1 gene regulate the functional assembly of post-synaptic density proteins at glutamatergic synapses to influence excitatory neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Earlier studies of Homer1 gene knock-out (KO) mice indicated active, but distinct, roles for IEG and constitutively expressed Homer1 gene products in regulating cognitive, emotional, motivational and sensorimotor processing, as well as behavioral and neurochemical sensitivity to cocaine...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163066/from-structure-to-behavior-in-basolateral-amygdala-hippocampus-circuits
#18
REVIEW
Ying Yang, Jian-Zhi Wang
Emotion influences various cognitive processes, including learning and memory. The amygdala is specialized for input and processing of emotion, while the hippocampus is essential for declarative or episodic memory. During emotional reactions, these two brain regions interact to translate the emotion into particular outcomes. Here, we briefly introduce the anatomy and functions of amygdala and hippocampus, and then present behavioral, electrophysiological, optogenetic and biochemical evidence from recent studies to illustrate how amygdala and hippocampus work synergistically to form long-term memory...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162181/effects-of-early-institutionalization-on-emotion-processing-in-12-year-old-youth
#19
Johanna Bick, Rhiannon Luyster, Nathan A Fox, Charles H Zeanah, Charles A Nelson
We examined facial emotion recognition in 12-year-olds in a longitudinally followed sample of children with and without exposure to early life psychosocial deprivation (institutional care). Half of the institutionally reared children were randomized into foster care homes during the first years of life. Facial emotion recognition was examined in a behavioral task using morphed images. This same task had been administered when children were 8 years old. Neutral facial expressions were morphed with happy, sad, angry, and fearful emotional facial expressions, and children were asked to identify the emotion of each face, which varied in intensity...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162179/variation-in-dna-methylation-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-predicts-children-s-resilience-to-prenatal-stress
#20
Izabela Milaniak, Charlotte A M Cecil, Edward D Barker, Caroline L Relton, Tom R Gaunt, Wendy McArdle, Sara R Jaffee
Emerging research in epigenetics has shown that there is variability in how environmental exposures "get under the skin" through mechanisms like DNA methylation to influence gene expression that may lead to differential adaptations to stress. This is the first study to examine prospectively the relationship between DNA methylation at birth and resilience to prenatal environmental stressors in several domains (conduct, hyperactivity, emotional problems, and global symptomatology) in middle childhood. We focused on DNA methylation in the vicinity of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene as it has been previously associated with impairments in social-cognitive processes that may underlie a wide range of childhood psychopathology...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
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