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Emotion Processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938425/linking-stress-and-infertility-a-novel-role-for-ghrelin
#1
Luba Sominsky, Deborah M Hodgson, Eileen A McLaughlin, Roger Smith, Hannah M Wall, Sarah J Spencer
Infertility affects a remarkable one in four couples in developing countries. Psychological stress is a ubiquitous facet of life, and while stress affects us all at some point, prolonged or unmanageable stress may become harmful for some individuals, negatively impacting on their health, including fertility. For instance, women who struggle to conceive are twice as likely to suffer from emotional distress than fertile women. Assisted reproductive technology treatments place an additional physical, emotional and financial burden of stress, particularly on women, who are often exposed to invasive techniques associated with treatment...
July 27, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938252/emotional-impact-of-end-of-life-decisions-on-professional-relationships-in-the-icu-an-obstacle-to-collegiality
#2
Alexandra Laurent, Magalie Bonnet, Gilles Capellier, Pierre Aslanian, Paul Hebert
OBJECTIVES: End-of-life decisions are not only common in the ICU but also frequently elicit strong feelings among health professionals. Even though we seek to develop more collegial interprofessional approaches to care and health decision-making, there are many barriers to successfully managing complex decisions. The aim of this study is to better understand how emotions influence the end-of-life decision-making process among professionals working in ICU. DESIGN: Qualitative study with clinical interviews...
September 21, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938219/age-dependent-effects-of-acute-methylphenidate-on-amygdala-reactivity-in-stimulant-treatment-naive-patients-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
Marco A Bottelier, Anouk Schrantee, Bart Ferguson, Hyke G H Tamminga, Cheima Bouziane, J J Sandra Kooij, Michiel B de Ruiter, Liesbeth Reneman
In the present study, we investigate whether methylphenidate (MPH) affects emotional processing and whether this effect is modulated by age. We measured amygdala reactivity with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during processing of angry and fearful facial expressions in male stimulant treatment-naive patients with ADHD (N = 35 boys; N = 46 men) and 23 healthy control subjects (N = 11 boys; N = 12 men). In ADHD patients, we also measured amygdala reactivity 90min after an acute oral challenge with MPH (0...
September 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938175/telomere-length-and-procedural-justice-predict-stress-reactivity-responses-to-unfair-outcomes-in-african-americans
#4
Todd Lucas, Jennifer Pierce, Mark A Lumley, Douglas A Granger, Jue Lin, Elissa S Epel
This experiment demonstrates that chromosomal telomere length (TL) moderates response to injustice among African Americans. Based on worldview verification theory - an emerging psychosocial framework for understanding stress - we predicted that acute stress responses would be most pronounced when individual-level expectancies for justice were discordant with justice experiences. Healthy African Americans (N=118; 30% male; M age=31.63years) provided dried blood spot samples that were assayed for TL, and completed a social-evaluative stressor task during which high versus low levels of distributive (outcome) and procedural (decision process) justice were simultaneously manipulated...
September 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936183/consciousness-across-sleep-and-wake-discontinuity-and-continuity-of-memory-experiences-as-a-reflection-of-consolidation-processes
#5
Caroline L Horton
The continuity hypothesis (1) posits that there is continuity, of some form, between waking and dreaming mentation. A recent body of work has provided convincing evidence for different aspects of continuity, for instance that some salient experiences from waking life seem to feature in dreams over others, with a particular role for emotional arousal as accompanying these experiences, both during waking and while asleep. However, discontinuities have been somewhat dismissed as being either a product of activation-synthesis, an error within the consciousness binding process during sleep, a methodological anomaly, or simply as yet unexplained...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934896/self-uncertainty-and-the-influence-of-alternative-goals-on-self-regulation
#6
Alysson E Light, Kimberly Rios, Kenneth G DeMarree
The current research examines factors that facilitate or undermine goal pursuit. Past research indicates that attempts to reduce self-uncertainty can result in increased goal motivation. We explore a critical boundary condition of this effect-the presence of alternative goals. Though self-regulatory processes usually keep interest in alternative goals in check, uncertainty reduction may undermine these self-regulatory efforts by (a) reducing conflict monitoring and (b) increasing valuation of alternative goals...
September 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934291/emotional-metacontrol-of-attention-top-down-modulation-of-sensorimotor-processes-in-a-robotic-visual-search-task
#7
Marwen Belkaid, Nicolas Cuperlier, Philippe Gaussier
Emotions play a significant role in internal regulatory processes. In this paper, we advocate four key ideas. First, novelty detection can be grounded in the sensorimotor experience and allow higher order appraisal. Second, cognitive processes, such as those involved in self-assessment, influence emotional states by eliciting affects like boredom and frustration. Third, emotional processes such as those triggered by self-assessment influence attentional processes. Last, close emotion-cognition interactions implement an efficient feedback loop for the purpose of top-down behavior regulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933874/wisdom-bias-and-balance-toward-a-process-sensitive-measurement-of-wisdom-related-cognition
#8
Justin P Brienza, Franki Y H Kung, Henri C Santos, D Ramona Bobocel, Igor Grossmann
Philosophers and behavioral scientists refer to wisdom as unbiased reasoning that guides one toward a balance of interests and promotes a good life. However, major instruments developed to test wisdom appear biased, and it is unclear whether they capture balance-related tendencies. We examined whether shifting from global, de-contextualized reports to state-level reports about concrete situations provides a less biased method to assess wise reasoning (e.g., intellectual humility, recognition of uncertainty and change, consideration of the broader context at hand and perspectives of others, integration of these perspectives or compromise), which may be aligned with the notion of balancing interests...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933068/functional-neuroimaging-in-obesity-research
#9
Liliana Letra, Daniela Pereira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Functional neuroimaging is beginning to yield valuable insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of the effects of obesity on neural circuits. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have been used to identify aberrant activation patterns in regions implicated in reward (e.g., striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, insula), emotion and memory (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus), sensory and motor processing (e...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933047/the-right-touch-stroking-of-ct-innervated-skin-promotes-vocal-emotion-processing
#10
Annett Schirmer, Thomas C Gunter
Research has revealed a special mechanoreceptor, called C-tactile (CT) afferent, that is situated in hairy skin and that seems relevant for the processing of social touch. We pursued a possible role of this receptor in the perception of other social signals such as a person's voice. Participants completed three sessions in which they heard surprised and neutral vocal and nonvocal sounds and detected rare sound repetitions. In a given session, participants received no touch or soft brushstrokes to the arm (CT innervated) or palm (CT free)...
September 20, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933023/to-whistleblow-or-not-to-whistleblow-affective-and-cognitive-differences-in-reporting-peers-and-advisors
#11
Tristan McIntosh, Cory Higgs, Megan Turner, Paul Partlow, Logan Steele, Alexandra E MacDougall, Shane Connelly, Michael D Mumford
Traditional whistleblowing theories have purported that whistleblowers engage in a rational process in determining whether or not to blow the whistle on misconduct. However, stressors inherent to whistleblowing often impede rational thinking and act as a barrier to effective whistleblowing. The negative impact of these stressors on whistleblowing may be made worse depending on who engages in the misconduct: a peer or advisor. In the present study, participants are presented with an ethical scenario where either a peer or advisor engages in misconduct, and positive and the negative consequences of whistleblowing are either directed to the wrongdoer, department, or university...
September 20, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931662/-i-have-lost-in-every-facet-of-my-life-the-hidden-burden-of-severe-asthma
#12
Juliet M Foster, Vanessa M McDonald, Michael Guo, Helen K Reddel
People with severe asthma are thought to face a sizeable daily disease burden. This study aimed to explore the little-known life experiences of people living with severe asthma.Adults with severe asthma were invited for telephone interview. Semistructured interviews were conducted until no new themes emerged. The 25 interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically.Four themes emerged. 1) "The body as a hindrance": severe asthma placed broad limits on life from daily chores to career, relationships and family life that left interviewees feeling emotionally distressed...
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930709/responding-to-moral-distress-and-ethical-concerns-at-the-intersection-of-medical-illness-and-unmet-mental-health-needs
#13
Donna D McKlindon, Pamela Nathanson, Chris Feudtner
Some of the most difficult clinical ethics consultations involve patients who have both medical and mental health needs, as these cases can result in considerable moral distress on the part of the bedside staff. In this article we examine the issues that such consults raise through the illustrative example of a particular case: several years ago our ethics consultation service received a request from a critical care attending physician who was considering a rarely performed psychosurgical intervention to address intractable and life-threatening agitation and aggression in an adolescent patient for whom standard treatments had proven unsuccessful...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930704/holding-ashley-x-bestowing-identity-through-caregiving-in-profound-intellectual-disability
#14
Lisa Freitag, Joan Liaschenko
The controversy over the so-called Ashley Treatment (AT), a series of medical procedures that inhibited both growth and sexual development in the body of a profoundly intellectually impaired girl, usually centers either on Ashley's rights, including a right to an intact, unaltered body, or on Ashley's parents' rights to make decisions for her. The claim made by her parents, that the procedure would improve their ability to care for her, is often dismissed as inappropriate or, at best, irrelevant. We argue, however, that caregiving is a central issue in the controversy, as Ashley's need for caregiving is a defining characteristic of her life...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929013/constructing-three-emotion-knowledge-tests-from-the-invariant-measurement-approach
#15
Ana R Delgado, Gerardo Prieto, Debora I Burin
BACKGROUND: Psychological constructionist models like the Conceptual Act Theory (CAT) postulate that complex states such as emotions are composed of basic psychological ingredients that are more clearly respected by the brain than basic emotions. The objective of this study was the construction and initial validation of Emotion Knowledge measures from the CAT frame by means of an invariant measurement approach, the Rasch Model (RM). Psychological distance theory was used to inform item generation...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928096/burnout-is-associated-with-changes-in-error-and-feedback-processing
#16
Patrick D Gajewski, Sylvia Boden, Gabriele Freude, Guy G Potter, Michael Falkenstein
Burnout is a pattern of complaints in individuals with emotionally demanding jobs that is often seen as a precursor of depression. One often reported symptom of burnout is cognitive decline. To analyze cognitive control and to differentiate between subclinical burnout and mild-to-moderate depression a double-blinded study was conducted that investigates changes in the processing of performance errors and feedback in a task switching paradigm. Fifty-one of 76 employees from emotionally demanding jobs showed a sufficient number of errors to be included in the analysis...
September 16, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927655/preferential-processing-of-task-irrelevant-beloved-related-information-and-task-performance-two-event-related-potential-studies
#17
Sandra J E Langeslag, Jan W van Strien
People who are in love have better attention for beloved-related information, but report having trouble focusing on other tasks, such as (home)work. So, romantic love can both improve and hurt cognition. Emotional information is preferentially processed, which improves task performance when the information is task-relevant, but hurts task performance when it is task-irrelevant. Because beloved-related information is highly emotional, the effects of romantic love on cognition may resemble these effects of emotion on cognition...
September 16, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927319/angular-versus-curved-shapes-correspondences-and-emotional-processing
#18
Olesya Blazhenkova, Melisa Maya Kumar
The present work aimed to systematically examine sensory and higher level correspondences to angular and curved shapes. Participants matched angular and curved abstract shapes to sensory experiences in five different modalities as well as to emotion, gender, and name attributes presented as written labels (Study 1) and real experiences (Study 2). The results demonstrated nonarbitrary mapping of angular and curved shapes to attributes from all basic sensory modalities (vision, audition, gustation, olfaction, and tactation) and higher level attributes (emotion, gender, and name)...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926147/do-universal-school-based-mental-health-promotion-programmes-improve-the-mental-health-and-emotional-well-being-of-young-people-a-literature-review
#19
REVIEW
C A O'connor, J Dyson, F Cowdell, R Watson
AIM: To examine evidence-using a range of outcomes- for the effectiveness of school-based mental health and emotional well-being programmes. BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 20% of young people experience mental health difficulties every year. Schools have been identified as an appropriate setting for providing mental health and emotional well-being promotion prompting the need to determine whether current school-based programmes are effective in improving the mental health and emotional well-being of young people...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925026/characterizing-community-courts
#20
Tali Gal, Hadar Dancig-Rosenberg
Community courts (CCs) provide a therapeutic diversion for repeat low-level offenders. This article explores the characteristics of two Israeli CCs using the Criminal Law Taxonomy (CLT), an instrument developed by the authors for assessing process-, stakeholder-, substance-, and outcomes-related characteristics of criminal justice mechanisms. Through court-hearing observations and a process of multi-rater coding of cases, the article analyzes the courtroom dynamics according to a set of 13 measurable parameters...
September 18, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
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