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HPV, Cervical Cancer, Gardasil

Chaevia Clendinen, Yapei Zhang, Rebecca N Warburton, Donald W Light
BACKGROUND: Nearly all of the 500,000 new cases of cervical cancer and 270,000 deaths occur in middle or lower income countries. Yet the two most prevalent HPV vaccines are unaffordable to most. Even prices to Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, are unaffordable to graduating countries, once they lose Gavi subsidies. Merck and Glaxosmithkline (GSK) claim their prices to Gavi equal their manufacturing costs; but these costs remain undisclosed. We undertook this investigation to estimate those costs...
October 19, 2016: Vaccine
Joël Ladner, Marie-Hélène Besson, Etienne Audureau, Mariana Rodrigues, Joseph Saba
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the greatest cause of age-weighted years of life lost in the developing world. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with a high proportion of cervical cancers, and HPV vaccination may help to reduce the incidence of cancer. The aim of the study was to identify barriers, obstacles, and strategies and to analyze key concerns and lessons learned with respect to the implementation of HPV vaccination program in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: The Gardasil Access Program (GAP) is a donation program established to enable organizations and institutions in eligible low-resource countries to gain operational experience designing and implementing HPV vaccination programs...
October 13, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
K Jeyachelvi, S Juwita, D Norwati
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer though preventable is still the leading cause of cancer death among women secondary to breast cancer. Persistent infection with HPV has been causally linked to the disease. A school based HPV vaccination program was introduced in late 2010 in Malaysia and nurse support is essential for its success. OBJECTIVES: To determine nurses knowledge and attitudes about HPV infection and its vaccines, and factors associated with their knowledge...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Beniamino Palmieri, Dimitri Poddighe, Maria Vadalà, Carmen Laurino, Carla Carnovale, Emilio Clementi
Human papilloma virus (HPV) is recognized as a major cause for cervical cancer among women worldwide. Two HPV vaccines are currently available: Gardasil(®) and Cervarix(®). Both vaccines enclose viral antigenic proteins, but differ as to the biological systems of culture and the adjuvant components. Recently, a collection of symptoms, indicating nervous system dysfunction, has been described after HPV vaccination. We retrospectively described a case series including 18 girls (aged 12-24 years) referred to our "Second Opinion Medical Network" for the evaluation of "neuropathy with autonomic dysfunction" after HPV vaccination...
August 9, 2016: Immunologic Research
Nathalie Largeron, Karl Ulrich Petry, Jorge Jacob, Florence Bianic, Delphine Anger, Mathieu Uhart
INTRODUCTION: Since 2007, the German Standing Vaccination Committee recommends HPV vaccination for girls aged 12-17 with a 2- (Cervarix®) or 4-valent (Gardasil®) vaccine. A 9-valent vaccine (Gardasil 9®) recently received a European market authorization in 2015. METHODS: A dynamic transmission model was calibrated to the German setting and used to estimate costs and QALYs associated with vaccination strategies. RESULTS: Compared to the current vaccination program, the 9-valent vaccine extended to boys shows further reductions of 24% in the incidence of cervical cancer, 30% and 14% in anal cancer for males and females, as well as over a million cases of genital warts avoided after 100 years...
February 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Sung Jong Lee, Andrew Yang, T C Wu, Chien Fu Hung
Cervical cancer is the fourth most lethal women's cancer worldwide. Current treatments against cervical cancer include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and anti-angiogenic agents. However, despite the various treatments utilized for the treatment of cervical cancer, its disease burden remains a global issue. Persistent infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as an essential step of pathogenesis of cervical cancer and many other cancers, and nation-wide HPV screening as well as preventative HPV vaccination program have been introduced globally...
September 2016: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Vikrant Chadrakant Sangar, Balasaheb Ghongane, Gaurav Mathur
The casual relationship concerning Human papillomaviruses (HPV) and cervical cancer is already established. Therefore, such HPV-associated malignancies might be prevented by prophylactic HPV vaccines. From 2009, two prophylactic HPV L1 Virus-Like Particle vaccines namely, Gardasil®; - quadrivalent (Merck) and Cervarix™ - bivalent (GlaxoSmithKline) are widely commercially available. By Aug 2014, 58 countries had introduced HPV vaccination in their national immunization program; this has led to numerous publications on safety and real world effectiveness...
2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Hsu-Kun Wang, Qing Wei, Zina Moldoveanu, Warner K Huh, Huong Lan Vu, Thomas R Broker, Jiri Mestecky, Louise T Chow
The prevalent human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect human epithelial tissues. Infections by the mucosotropic HPV genotypes cause hyperproliferative ano-genital lesions. Persistent infections by high-risk (HR) HPVs such as HPV-16, HPV-18 and related types can progress to high grade intraepithelial neoplasias and cancers. Prophylactic HPV vaccines are based on DNA-free virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of the major capsid protein L1 of HPV-16, -18, -6 and -11 (Gardasil) or HPV-16 and -18 (Cervarix). Sera from vaccinated animals effectively prevent HPV pseudovirions to infect cell lines and mouse cervical epithelia...
June 8, 2016: Vaccine
Lukai Zhai, Ebenezer Tumban
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of human neoplasias such as warts and cancers. There are ∼19 HPV types associated with cancers, which has made it very challenging for first generation HPV vaccines to offer complete protection against all cancer-causing HPV types. Recently, a second generation HPV vaccine, Gardasil-9, has been approved to protect against more HPV types. Worldwide, Gardasil-9 will protect against HPV types associated with ∼90% of cervical cancer case in women and 80-95% of other HPV-associated anogenital cancers in both men and women...
June 2016: Antiviral Research
Janine T Bryan, Barry Buckland, Jennifer Hammond, Kathrin U Jansen
In 2006, the first human papillomavirus (HPV) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine was licensed. Gardasil(®), the quadrivalent HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 recombinant VLP vaccine (4vHPV), developed by Merck demonstrated remarkable efficacy in prevention of important clinical pre-cursors to cervical cancer and genital warts. The vaccine was designed to protect against HPV 16 and 18 that cause ∼70% of cervical cancers and HPV 6 and 11 that cause ∼90% of genital warts. Initially, Gardasil(®) was indicated in the United States for women 9-26 years of age for the prevention of HPV 16 and 18-related cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer, HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18-related genital intraepithelial neoplasia and the prevention of HPV 6 and 11-related genital warts...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
N Tathiah, M Naidoo, I Moodley
In South Africa (SA), >4,000 women die annually of cervical cancer, a disease caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Infections caused by certain genotypes of HPV increase the risk of cervical cancer. HIV-infected women in particular are more likely to have persistent HPV infection, with higher-risk genotypes. In SA, two vaccines (HPV quadrivalent (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine, recombinant (Gardasil) and HPV bivalent (types 16 and 18) vaccine, recombinant (Cervarix)) are currently registered for the prevention of HPV-related disease...
November 2015: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Haijuan Gao, Titilayo A Okoror, Gerald C Hyner
An increasing need for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in China remains unmet in the mainland and the knowledge and intentions of Chinese youth regarding vaccination is unknown. In the fall of 2013, 44 Chinese international students (CIS) attending a university in the United States Midwest participated in 10 focus group discussions (five female and five male). Result showed that participants have limited awareness and knowledge about HPV infection and vaccination, participants erroneously believed that the causes of cervical cancer are abortion and miscarriage...
October 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Zheng Quan Toh, Paul V Licciardi, James Fong, Suzanne M Garland, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Fiona M Russell, Edward K Mulholland
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the primary cause of genital warts, some oropharyngeal cancers and anogenital cancers, including cervical, vagina, vulvar, anal and penile cancers. Primary prevention of cervical cancer requires the prevention of high-risk HPV infections, particularly HPV genotypes 16 and 18. Both Gardasil® and Cervarix® vaccines when administered by a three-dose schedule have been demonstrated to be effective against cervical, vulva, and vaginal cancer precursors from vaccine genotypes in phase III clinical trials, and post-marketing studies; Gardasil® vaccine also offers additional protection against anal cancer precursors...
September 22, 2015: Vaccine
Natalie Kash, Michael A Lee, Ramya Kollipara, Christopher Downing, Jacqueline Guidry, Stephen K Tyring
Since the discovery of the causal association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, efforts to develop an effective prophylactic vaccine to prevent high-risk HPV infections have been at the forefront of modern medical research. HPV causes 530,000 cervical cancer cases worldwide, which is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in women; a worldwide collaboration among epidemiologists, molecular biologists, vaccinologists, virologists, and clinicians helped lead to the development of two highly effective prophylactive HPV vaccines...
2015: Journal of Clinical Medicine
A Fruscalzo, A P Londero, S Bertozzi, R J Lellé
A chronic infection with "high risk" human papillomavirus (HPV) is as an obligated step in the development of cervical dysplasia and cancer and, less frequently, other types of cancers. It has been suggested to be responsible for an estimated 100% of cases of cervical cancer, 90% of anal cancers, 40% of vulvar, vaginal and penile cancers and very likely about 18% of oropharyngeal cancers. Furthermore, infection with "low risk" HPV types is responsible for some benign conditions such as genital warts and Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis...
July 17, 2015: Minerva Medica
Mohammad Nasir Uddin, Samir A Kouzi, Muhammad Delwar Hussain
Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) are a diverse group of small non-enveloped DNA viruses. Some HPVs are classified as low-risk as they are very rarely associated with neoplasia or cancer in the general population, and cause lenient warts. Other HPVs are considered as high-risk types because they are responsible for several important human cancers, including cervical cancer, a large proportion of other anogenital cancers, and a growing number of head and neck cancers. Transmission of HPV occurs primarily by skin-to-skin contact...
2015: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Michelle Vichnin, Paolo Bonanni, Nicola P Klein, Suzanne M Garland, Stan L Block, Susanne K Kjaer, Heather L Sings, Gonzalo Perez, Richard M Haupt, Alfred J Saah, Fabio Lievano, Christine Velicer, Rosybel Drury, Barbara J Kuter
BACKGROUND: A quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) type 6/11/16/18 vaccine (GARDASIL/SILGARD®) has been licensed in many countries around the world for the prevention of cervical, vulvar, vaginal, and anal cancers and precancers, as well as external genital warts causally related to HPV types 6/11/16/18. Across 7 phase 3 clinical trials involving more than 29,000 males and females ages 9-45 years, vaccination was generally well tolerated. Because of its expected public health benefit in reducing cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases, the vaccine has been implemented in the national vaccination programs of several countries, with over 178 million doses distributed worldwide...
September 2015: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Timo Vesikari, Nicholas Brodszki, Pierre van Damme, Javier Diez-Domingo, Giancarlo Icardi, Lone Kjeld Petersen, Clément Tran, Stéphane Thomas, Alain Luxembourg, Martine Baudin
BACKGROUND: A 9-valent human papillomavirus (9vHPV) vaccine has been developed to prevent infections and diseases related to HPV 6/11/16/18 [as per the licensed quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine], as well as 5 additional oncogenic HPV types (HPV 31/33/45/52/58). Compared with the qHPV vaccine, the 9vHPV vaccine potentially increases the coverage of protection from 70% to 90% of cervical cancers. We compared the immunogenicity and safety of the 9vHPV vaccine versus the qHPV vaccine in 9-15-year-old girls...
September 2015: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Hee-Jung Lee, Jong Kwang Yoon, Yoonki Heo, Hansam Cho, Yeondong Cho, Yongdae Gwon, Kang Chang Kim, Jiwon Choi, Jae Sung Lee, Yu-Kyoung Oh, Young Bong Kim
Cervical cancer is strongly associated with chronic human papillomavirus infections, among which HPV16 is the most common. Two commercial HPV vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix are effective for preventing HPV infection, but cannot be used to treat existing HPV infections. Previously, we developed a human endogenous retrovirus (HERV)-enveloped recombinant baculovirus capable of delivering the L1 genes of HPV types 16, 18, and 58 (AcHERV-HP16/18/58L1, AcHERV-HPV). Intramuscular administration of AcHERVHPV vaccines induced a strong cellular immune response as well as a humoral immune response...
June 2015: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Amy E McKeever, Joan Rosen Bloch, Maldelena Marrell
BACKGROUND: National coverage for the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine falls short of the targeted goals for Healthy People 2020 with disparities in completion rates noted in minority adolescent female populations. The purpose of this study was to provide a review of the literature on HPV vaccination uptake and completion rates among female minority adolescents as well as a discussion of the financial and policy dimensions of HPV vaccination with implications that impact uptake and completion rates...
May 2015: Nursing Outlook
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