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Polio, Poliomyelitis, IPV, OPV

Naveen Thacker, Vijay N Yewale, Ashish Pathak
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPE I), since its launch in 1988 has achieved more than 99% reduction in polio cases globally, using oral polio vaccine (OPV). Currently only two countries (Pakistan and Afghanistan) have not been able to stop transmission of wild poliovirus (wPV). In this article, we discuss some of the challenges faced by these two countries. The lessons learnt from the tremendous public health success stories of India and Nigeria are also highlighted. Reintroduction of wPV in the polio-free areas remains a valid risk globally and some recent examples are discussed...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Vipin M Vashishtha, Sachidanand Kamath
Poliomyelitis, a dreaded disease of the last century that had already crippled millions of people across the globe, is now on the verge of eradication thanks mainly to two polio vaccines, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and oral polio vaccine (OPV). Ever since their development in late 1950s and early 1960s, the journey of their early development process, clinical trials, licensure and ultimately widespread clinical use in different countries provide a fascinating tale of events. Oral polio vaccine has been the mainstay of global polio eradication initiative (GPEI) in most of the countries...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Lee M Hampton, Margaret Farrell, Alejandro Ramirez-Gonzalez, Lisa Menning, Stephanie Shendale, Ian Lewis, Jennifer Rubin, Julie Garon, Jennifer Harris, Terri Hyde, Steven Wassilak, Manish Patel, Robin Nandy, Diana Chang-Blanc
Since the 1988 World Health Assembly resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis, transmission of the three types of wild poliovirus (WPV) has been sharply reduced (1). WPV type 2 (WPV2) has not been detected since 1999 and was declared eradicated in September 2015. Because WPV type 3 has not been detected since November 2012, WPV type 1 (WPV1) is likely the only WPV that remains in circulation (1). This marked progress has been achieved through widespread use of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs), most commonly trivalent OPV (tOPV), which contains types 1, 2, and 3 live, attenuated polioviruses and has been a mainstay of efforts to prevent polio since the early 1960s...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
O E Ivanova, T P Eremeeva, N S Morozova, A K Shakaryan, A P Gmyl, M L Yakovenko, E A Korotkova, O P Chernjavskaja, O Yu Baykova, O V Silenova, A Yu Krasota, L I Krasnoproshina, A N Mustafina, L I Kozlovskaja
The results of virologic testing of clinical materials and epidemiological analysis of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases obtained in 2006-2013 during AFP surveillance are presented. Among the 2976 cases of AFP 30 cases were VAPP. 15 cases were observed in OPV recipients, whereas 15 cases were observed in non-vaccinated contacts. The age of the patients varied from 4 months to 5.5 years (13.6 ± 12.4 months old). Children younger than 1 year constituted 63.3% of the group; boys were dominant (73...
2016: Voprosy Virusologii
Philip D Minor
Poliomyelitis is caused by poliovirus, which is a positive strand non-enveloped virus that occurs in three distinct serotypes (1, 2, and 3). Infection is mainly by the fecal-oral route and can be confined to the gut by antibodies induced either by vaccine, previous infection or maternally acquired. Vaccines include the live attenuated strains developed by Sabin and the inactivated vaccines developed by Salk; the live attenuated vaccine (Oral Polio Vaccine or OPV) has been the main tool in the Global Program of Polio eradication of the World Health Organisation...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rongcheng Li, Chang Gui Li, Yanping Li, Youping Liu, Hong Zhao, Xiaoling Chen, Sherine Kuriyakose, Olivier Van Der Meeren, Karin Hardt, Marjan Hezareh, Sumita Roy-Ghanta
INTRODUCTION: Replacing live-attenuated oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) with inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPV) is part of the global strategy to eradicate poliomyelitis. China was declared polio-free in 2000 but continues to record cases of vaccine-associated-poliomyelitis and vaccine-derived-poliovirus outbreaks. Two pilot safety studies and two larger immunogenicity trials evaluated the non-inferiority of IPV (Poliorix™, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) versus OPV in infants and booster vaccination in toddlers primed with either IPV or OPV in China...
March 14, 2016: Vaccine
Roland W Sutter, Sunil Bahl, Jagadish M Deshpande, Harish Verma, Mohammad Ahmad, P Venugopal, J Venkateswara Rao, Sharad Agarkhedkar, Sanjay K Lalwani, Abhishek Kunwar, Raman Sethi, Marina Takane, Lalitendu Mohanty, Arani Chatterjee, T Jacob John, Hamid Jafari, R Bruce Aylward
BACKGROUND: Polio eradication needs a new routine immunisation schedule--three or four doses of bivalent type 1 and type 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) and one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), but no immunogenicity data are available for this schedule. We aimed to assess immunogenicity of this vaccine schedule. METHODS: We did an open-label, randomised controlled trial in four centres in India. After informed consent was obtained from a parent or legally acceptable representative, healthy newborn babies were randomly allocated to one of five groups: trivalent OPV (tOPV); tOPV plus IPV; bOPV; bOPV plus IPV; or bOPV plus two doses of IPV (2IPV)...
December 12, 2015: Lancet
Kimberly M Thompson, Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens
BACKGROUND: World leaders remain committed to globally-coordinated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation following successful eradication of wild polioviruses, but the best timing and strategy for implementation depend on existing and emerging conditions. METHODS: Using an existing integrated global poliovirus risk management model, we explore alternatives to the current timing plan of coordinated cessation of each OPV serotype (i.e., OPV1, OPV2, and OPV3 cessation for serotypes 1, 2, and 3, respectively)...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Miguel O'Ryan, Ananda S Bandyopadhyay, Rodolfo Villena, Mónica Espinoza, José Novoa, William C Weldon, M Steven Oberste, Steve Self, Bhavesh R Borate, Edwin J Asturias, Ralf Clemens, Walter Orenstein, José Jimeno, Ricardo Rüttimann, Sue Ann Costa Clemens
BACKGROUND: Bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV; types 1 and 3) is expected to replace trivalent OPV (tOPV) globally by April, 2016, preceded by the introduction of at least one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in routine immunisation programmes to eliminate vaccine-associated or vaccine-derived poliomyelitis from serotype 2 poliovirus. Because data are needed on sequential IPV-bOPV schedules, we assessed the immunogenicity of two different IPV-bOPV schedules compared with an all-IPV schedule in infants...
November 2015: Lancet Infectious Diseases
(no author information available yet)
Since the 1988 World Health Assembly resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis (polio), transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has been interrupted in all countries except Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. No polio cases caused by WPV type 2 (WPV2) have been identified since 1999, and WPV type 3 has not been detected since November 11, 2012. This progress has been achieved through widespread use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), most commonly trivalent OPV (tOPV), which contains types 1, 2, and 3 live, attenuated polioviruses...
July 3, 2015: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Ousmane M Diop, Cara C Burns, Roland W Sutter, Steven G Wassilak, Olen M Kew
Since the World Health Assembly's 1988 resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis, one of the main tools of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has been the live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). OPV might require several doses to induce immunity but provides long-term protection against paralytic disease. Through effective use of OPV, GPEI has brought polio to the threshold of eradication. Wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2) was eliminated in 1999, WPV3 has not been detected since November 2012, and WPV1 circulation appears to be restricted to parts of Pakistan and Afghanistan...
June 19, 2015: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Mary B Nanteza, Annet Kisakye, Martin O Ota, Nicksy Gumede, Josephine Bwogi
A retrospective study to identify VAPP cases from the entire Uganda was conducted between January 2003 and December 2011. Eleven of the 106 AFP cases were VAPPs. The VAPP rate ranged from 0 to 3.39 cases per 1,000,000 birth cohorts and the peak was in 2009 when there was scaling up of OPV immunization activities following an importation of wild poliovirus in the country. All the subsequent polio suspect cases since then have been vaccine-associated polio cases. Our data support the strategy to withdraw OPV and introduce IPV progressively in order to mitigate against the paralysis arising from Sabin polioviruses...
December 2015: Journal of Medical Virology
Hye-Jin Kim, Seoyeon Hwang, Somin Lee, Yunhyung Kwon, Kwangsook Park, Young Joon Park, Geun-Ryang Bae, Sang Won Lee, Yong-Seok Jeong, Ji-Yeon Hyeon
BACKGROUND: A worldwide poliomyelitis eradication program was initiated in 1988; however, strains of wild poliovirus (WPV) are still endemic in some countries. Until WPV transmission is eradicated globally, importation and outbreaks of WPV are alarming possibilities. This study is the first report to document the polio immunity after 2004, when an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) was introduced in the Republic of Korea. METHODS: A total of 745 serum samples from randomly selected patients ranging from 6 to 84 years of age were used for neutralization tests, performed in the World Health Organization polio national reference laboratory...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Luiza Helena Falleiros-Arlant, María Luisa Avila-Agüero, José Brea del Castillo, Cristina Mariño
Even though we have already covered 99% of the path to eradicate poliomyelitis from the world, this disease is still causing paralysis in children. Its eradication means not only the end of wild poliovirus circulation, but vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation as well. Taking into account different factors such as: current epidemiological data, adverse events of the attenuated oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV), the availability of an injectable inactivated vaccine (IPV) without the potential of causing the severe adverse events of the oral vaccine (OPV), the efficacy and effectiveness of the IPV in several countries of the world where it has been used for several years, the rationale of changing the vaccination schedule in different Latin American countries; the Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE) announces its recommendation of switching to IPV in Latin America, by this Declaration, with an Action Plan for 2014-2015 period as regards vaccination against polio policies in Latin America...
October 2014: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Fernanda de Costa, Anna Carolina A Yendo, Samuel P Cibulski, Juliane D Fleck, Paulo M Roehe, Fernando R Spilki, Grace Gosmann, Arthur G Fett-Neto
Inactivated polio vaccines (IPV) have an important role at the final stages of poliomyelitis eradication programs, reducing the risks associated with the use of attenuated polio vaccine (OPV). An affordable option to enhance vaccine immunogenicity and reduce costs of IPV may be the use of an effective and renewable adjuvant. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of aqueous extract (AE) and saponin fraction QB-90 from Quillaja brasiliensis using poliovirus antigen as model were analyzed and compared to a preparation adjuvanted with Quil-A, a well-known saponin-based commercial adjuvant...
2014: PloS One
Robert Trimble, Jane Atkins, Troy C Quigg, Cara C Burns, Gregory S Wallace, Mary Thomas, Anil T Mangla, Anthony J Infante
Poliovirus transmission has been eliminated in most of the world through the use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). In the United States, use of OPV was discontinued by the year 2000 because of the potential for vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP); an average of eight cases were reported each year in the United States during 1980-2000. Polio eradication efforts in other parts of the world continue to rely on OPV to take advantage of transmission of poliovirus vaccine strains to unvaccinated persons in the population, lower cost, and ease of administration...
August 22, 2014: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Gregory S Wallace, Jane F Seward, Mark A Pallansch
In the prevaccine era, infection with wild poliovirus (WPV) was common worldwide, with seasonal peaks and epidemics in the summer and fall in temperate areas. The incidence of poliomyelitis in the United States declined rapidly after the licensure of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) in 1955 and live oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the 1960s. The last cases of indigenously acquired WPV in the United States occurred in 1979, the last WPV case in a U.S. resident traveling abroad occurred in 1986, and the last WPV imported case was in 1993...
July 11, 2014: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Rama Devudu Puligedda, Diana Kouiavskaia, Sharad P Adekar, Rashmi Sharma, Chandana Devi Kattala, Gennady Rezapkin, Bella Bidzhieva, Scott K Dessain, Konstantin Chumakov
An essential requirement for eradication of poliomyelitis is the elimination of circulating vaccine derived polioviruses (cVDPV) and polioviruses excreted by chronically infected individuals with immunodeficiencies (iVDPV). As part of a post-eradication risk management strategy, a human monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutic could play a role in halting excretion in asymptomatic carriers and could be used, in combination with vaccines and antiviral drugs, to protect polio-exposed individuals. Cross-neutralizing mAbs may be particularly useful, as they would reduce the number of mAbs needed to create a comprehensive PV therapeutic...
August 2014: Antiviral Research
Ousmane M Diop, Cara C Burns, Steven G Wassilak, Olen M Kew
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis worldwide. One of the main tools used in polio eradication efforts has been live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), an inexpensive vaccine easily administered by trained volunteers. OPV might require several doses to induce immunity, but then it provides long-term protection against paralytic disease through durable humoral immunity. Rare cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis can occur among immunologically normal OPV recipients, their contacts, and persons who are immunodeficient...
March 21, 2014: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Francisco Salmerón García, Agustín Portela Moreira, Marta Soler Soneira, Susana López Hernández, María Chamorro Somoza Díaz-Sarmiento, Isabel Pérez González, María Isabel Rubio Gómez, Alicia Pérez González, Ana Sagredo Rodríguez, Sol Ruiz Antúnez, Marcos Timón Jiménez, Gloria Frutos Cabanillas
Vaccination against polio generates herd immunity (both with the attenuated (OPV) and inactivated (IPV) vaccines) and this will allow the eradication of the disease. The OPV vaccine produces 2-4 polio cases per cohort of one million children and therefore IPV is used in countries that can afford its cost (about 15 times more expensive than OPV). In 1988 the World Health Assembly established the polio eradication goal as "interruption of wild poliovirus transmission". If the elimination of wild poliovirus were achieved, the use of OPV will produce annually between 250 and 500 cases of polio in the world...
September 2013: Revista Española de Salud Pública
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