Read by QxMD icon Read

Polio, Poliomyelitis, IPV, OPV

Michael Famulare, Christian Selinger, Kevin A McCarthy, Philip A Eckhoff, Guillaume Chabot-Couture
The oral polio vaccine (OPV) contains live-attenuated polioviruses that induce immunity by causing low virulence infections in vaccine recipients and their close contacts. Widespread immunization with OPV has reduced the annual global burden of paralytic poliomyelitis by a factor of 10,000 or more and has driven wild poliovirus (WPV) to the brink of eradication. However, in instances that have so far been rare, OPV can paralyze vaccine recipients and generate vaccine-derived polio outbreaks. To complete polio eradication, OPV use should eventually cease, but doing so will leave a growing population fully susceptible to infection...
April 27, 2018: PLoS Biology
Dan Zhao, Rui Ma, Tao Zhou, Fan Yang, Jin Wu, Hao Sun, Fang Liu, Li Lu, Xiaomei Li, Shuyan Zuo, Wei Yao, Jian Yin
When included in a sequential polio vaccination schedule, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) reduces the risk for vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP), a rare adverse event associated with receipt of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). During January 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended introduction of at least 1 IPV dose into routine immunization schedules in OPV-using countries (1). The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 recommended completion of IPV introduction in 2015 and globally synchronized withdrawal of OPV type 2 in 2016 (2)...
December 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Lisa Menning, Gaurav Garg, Deepa Pokharel, Elizabeth Thrush, Margaret Farrell, Frederic Kunjbe Kodio, Chantal Laroche Veira, Sarah Wanyoike, Suleman Malik, Manish Patel, Oliver Rosenbauer
The requirements under objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018-to introduce at least 1 dose of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV); withdraw oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV), starting with the type 2 component; and strengthen routine immunization programs-set an ambitious series of targets for countries. Effective implementation of IPV introduction and the switch from trivalent OPV (containing types 1, 2, and 3 poliovirus) to bivalent OPV (containing types 1 and 3 poliovirus) called for intense global communications and coordination on an unprecedented scale from 2014 to 2016, involving global public health technical agencies and donors, vaccine manufacturers, World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund regional offices, and national governments...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Mona Marin, Manisha Patel, Steve Oberste, Mark A Pallansch
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis (polio). Since then, wild poliovirus (WPV) cases have declined by >99.9%, from an estimated 350,000 cases of polio each year to 74 cases in two countries in 2015 (1). This decrease was achieved primarily through the use of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV), which contains types 1, 2, and 3 live, attenuated polioviruses. Since 2000, the United States has exclusively used inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), which contains all three poliovirus types (2,3)...
January 13, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
M M Khan, S Sharma, B Tripathi, F P Alvarez
OBJECTIVES: To conduct a budget impact analysis (BIA) of introducing the immunization recommendations of India Expert Advisory Group (IEAG) for the years 2015-2017. The recommendations include introduction of one inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV) dose in the regular child immunization programme along with reductions in oral polio vaccine (OPV) doses in supplemental programmes. STUDY DESIGN: This is a national level analysis of budget impact of new polio immunization recommendations...
January 2017: Public Health
J D Vidor, Shu Jean-Denis
The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is a very old tool in the fight against poliomyelitis. Though supplanted by oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in the 1960s and 1970s, the IPV has now become an inevitable choice because of the increasingly recognized risks associated with continuous use of OPVs. Following the pioneering work of Jonas Salk, who established key principles for the IPV, considerable experience has accumulated over the years. This work has led to modern Salk IPV-containing vaccines, based on the use of inactivated wildtype polioviruses, which have been deployed for routine use in many countries...
December 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Oluwapelumi O Adeyemi, Clare Nicol, Nicola J Stonehouse, David J Rowlands
Poliomyelitis is a highly infectious disease caused by poliovirus (PV). It can result in paralysis and may be fatal. Integrated global immunization programs using live-attenuated oral (OPV) and/or inactivated (IPV) PV vaccines have systematically reduced its spread and paved the way for eradication. Immunization will continue posteradication to ensure against reintroduction of the disease, but there are biosafety concerns for both OPV and IPV. They could be addressed by the production and use of virus-free virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines that mimic the "empty" capsids (ECs) normally produced in viral infection...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
Naveen Thacker, Vijay N Yewale, Ashish Pathak
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPE I), since its launch in 1988 has achieved more than 99% reduction in polio cases globally, using oral polio vaccine (OPV). Currently only two countries (Pakistan and Afghanistan) have not been able to stop transmission of wild poliovirus (wPV). In this article, we discuss some of the challenges faced by these two countries. The lessons learnt from the tremendous public health success stories of India and Nigeria are also highlighted. Reintroduction of wPV in the polio-free areas remains a valid risk globally and some recent examples are discussed...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Vipin M Vashishtha, Sachidanand Kamath
Poliomyelitis, a dreaded disease of the last century that had already crippled millions of people across the globe, is now on the verge of eradication thanks mainly to two polio vaccines, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and oral polio vaccine (OPV). Ever since their development in late 1950s and early 1960s, the journey of their early development process, clinical trials, licensure and ultimately widespread clinical use in different countries provide a fascinating tale of events. Oral polio vaccine has been the mainstay of global polio eradication initiative (GPEI) in most of the countries...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Lee M Hampton, Margaret Farrell, Alejandro Ramirez-Gonzalez, Lisa Menning, Stephanie Shendale, Ian Lewis, Jennifer Rubin, Julie Garon, Jennifer Harris, Terri Hyde, Steven Wassilak, Manish Patel, Robin Nandy, Diana Chang-Blanc
Since the 1988 World Health Assembly resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis, transmission of the three types of wild poliovirus (WPV) has been sharply reduced (1). WPV type 2 (WPV2) has not been detected since 1999 and was declared eradicated in September 2015. Because WPV type 3 has not been detected since November 2012, WPV type 1 (WPV1) is likely the only WPV that remains in circulation (1). This marked progress has been achieved through widespread use of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs), most commonly trivalent OPV (tOPV), which contains types 1, 2, and 3 live, attenuated polioviruses and has been a mainstay of efforts to prevent polio since the early 1960s...
September 9, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
O E Ivanova, T P Eremeeva, N S Morozova, A K Shakaryan, A P Gmyl, M L Yakovenko, E A Korotkova, O P Chernjavskaja, O Yu Baykova, O V Silenova, A Yu Krasota, L I Krasnoproshina, A N Mustafina, L I Kozlovskaja
The results of virologic testing of clinical materials and epidemiological analysis of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases obtained in 2006-2013 during AFP surveillance are presented. Among the 2976 cases of AFP 30 cases were VAPP. 15 cases were observed in OPV recipients, whereas 15 cases were observed in non-vaccinated contacts. The age of the patients varied from 4 months to 5.5 years (13.6 ± 12.4 months old). Children younger than 1 year constituted 63.3% of the group; boys were dominant (73...
2016: Voprosy Virusologii
Philip D Minor
Poliomyelitis is caused by poliovirus, which is a positive strand non-enveloped virus that occurs in three distinct serotypes (1, 2, and 3). Infection is mainly by the fecal-oral route and can be confined to the gut by antibodies induced either by vaccine, previous infection or maternally acquired. Vaccines include the live attenuated strains developed by Sabin and the inactivated vaccines developed by Salk; the live attenuated vaccine (Oral Polio Vaccine or OPV) has been the main tool in the Global Program of Polio eradication of the World Health Organisation...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rongcheng Li, Chang Gui Li, Yanping Li, Youping Liu, Hong Zhao, Xiaoling Chen, Sherine Kuriyakose, Olivier Van Der Meeren, Karin Hardt, Marjan Hezareh, Sumita Roy-Ghanta
INTRODUCTION: Replacing live-attenuated oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) with inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPV) is part of the global strategy to eradicate poliomyelitis. China was declared polio-free in 2000 but continues to record cases of vaccine-associated-poliomyelitis and vaccine-derived-poliovirus outbreaks. Two pilot safety studies and two larger immunogenicity trials evaluated the non-inferiority of IPV (Poliorix™, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) versus OPV in infants and booster vaccination in toddlers primed with either IPV or OPV in China...
March 14, 2016: Vaccine
Roland W Sutter, Sunil Bahl, Jagadish M Deshpande, Harish Verma, Mohammad Ahmad, P Venugopal, J Venkateswara Rao, Sharad Agarkhedkar, Sanjay K Lalwani, Abhishek Kunwar, Raman Sethi, Marina Takane, Lalitendu Mohanty, Arani Chatterjee, T Jacob John, Hamid Jafari, R Bruce Aylward
BACKGROUND: Polio eradication needs a new routine immunisation schedule--three or four doses of bivalent type 1 and type 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) and one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), but no immunogenicity data are available for this schedule. We aimed to assess immunogenicity of this vaccine schedule. METHODS: We did an open-label, randomised controlled trial in four centres in India. After informed consent was obtained from a parent or legally acceptable representative, healthy newborn babies were randomly allocated to one of five groups: trivalent OPV (tOPV); tOPV plus IPV; bOPV; bOPV plus IPV; or bOPV plus two doses of IPV (2IPV)...
December 12, 2015: Lancet
Kimberly M Thompson, Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens
BACKGROUND: World leaders remain committed to globally-coordinated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation following successful eradication of wild polioviruses, but the best timing and strategy for implementation depend on existing and emerging conditions. METHODS: Using an existing integrated global poliovirus risk management model, we explore alternatives to the current timing plan of coordinated cessation of each OPV serotype (i.e., OPV1, OPV2, and OPV3 cessation for serotypes 1, 2, and 3, respectively)...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Miguel O'Ryan, Ananda S Bandyopadhyay, Rodolfo Villena, Mónica Espinoza, José Novoa, William C Weldon, M Steven Oberste, Steve Self, Bhavesh R Borate, Edwin J Asturias, Ralf Clemens, Walter Orenstein, José Jimeno, Ricardo Rüttimann, Sue Ann Costa Clemens
BACKGROUND: Bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV; types 1 and 3) is expected to replace trivalent OPV (tOPV) globally by April, 2016, preceded by the introduction of at least one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in routine immunisation programmes to eliminate vaccine-associated or vaccine-derived poliomyelitis from serotype 2 poliovirus. Because data are needed on sequential IPV-bOPV schedules, we assessed the immunogenicity of two different IPV-bOPV schedules compared with an all-IPV schedule in infants...
November 2015: Lancet Infectious Diseases
(no author information available yet)
Since the 1988 World Health Assembly resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis (polio), transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has been interrupted in all countries except Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. No polio cases caused by WPV type 2 (WPV2) have been identified since 1999, and WPV type 3 has not been detected since November 11, 2012. This progress has been achieved through widespread use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), most commonly trivalent OPV (tOPV), which contains types 1, 2, and 3 live, attenuated polioviruses...
July 3, 2015: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Ousmane M Diop, Cara C Burns, Roland W Sutter, Steven G Wassilak, Olen M Kew
Since the World Health Assembly's 1988 resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis, one of the main tools of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has been the live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). OPV might require several doses to induce immunity but provides long-term protection against paralytic disease. Through effective use of OPV, GPEI has brought polio to the threshold of eradication. Wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2) was eliminated in 1999, WPV3 has not been detected since November 2012, and WPV1 circulation appears to be restricted to parts of Pakistan and Afghanistan...
June 19, 2015: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Mary B Nanteza, Annet Kisakye, Martin O Ota, Nicksy Gumede, Josephine Bwogi
A retrospective study to identify VAPP cases from the entire Uganda was conducted between January 2003 and December 2011. Eleven of the 106 AFP cases were VAPPs. The VAPP rate ranged from 0 to 3.39 cases per 1,000,000 birth cohorts and the peak was in 2009 when there was scaling up of OPV immunization activities following an importation of wild poliovirus in the country. All the subsequent polio suspect cases since then have been vaccine-associated polio cases. Our data support the strategy to withdraw OPV and introduce IPV progressively in order to mitigate against the paralysis arising from Sabin polioviruses...
December 2015: Journal of Medical Virology
Hye-Jin Kim, Seoyeon Hwang, Somin Lee, Yunhyung Kwon, Kwangsook Park, Young Joon Park, Geun-Ryang Bae, Sang Won Lee, Yong-Seok Jeong, Ji-Yeon Hyeon
BACKGROUND: A worldwide poliomyelitis eradication program was initiated in 1988; however, strains of wild poliovirus (WPV) are still endemic in some countries. Until WPV transmission is eradicated globally, importation and outbreaks of WPV are alarming possibilities. This study is the first report to document the polio immunity after 2004, when an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) was introduced in the Republic of Korea. METHODS: A total of 745 serum samples from randomly selected patients ranging from 6 to 84 years of age were used for neutralization tests, performed in the World Health Organization polio national reference laboratory...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"