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Anagha Loharikar, Laure Dumolard, Susan Chu, Terri Hyde, Tracey Goodman, Carsten Mantel
Since the global Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) was launched in 1974, vaccination against six diseases (tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and measles) has prevented millions of deaths and disabilities (1). Significant advances have been made in the development and introduction of vaccines, and licensed vaccines are now available to prevent 25 diseases (2,3). Historically, new vaccines only became available in low-income and middle-income countries decades after being introduced in high-income countries...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Kiemanh Pham, Emily Chambers Sharpe, William M Weiss, Alexander Vu
BACKGROUND: Organizations working in conflict-affected areas have a need to monitor and evaluate their programs, however this is often difficult due to the logistical challenges of conflict areas. Lot quality assurance sampling may be a suitable method of assessing programs in these situations. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis of information collected during Medair's routine program management functions. Medair's service area in West Darfur, Sudan was divided into seven supervisory areas...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Konstantin Evdokimov, Kong Sayasinh, Phonethipsavanh Nouanthong, Keooudomphone Vilivong, Bounthome Samountry, Darouny Phonekeo, Michel Strobel, Frank Haegeman, Peter Heimann, Claude P Muller, Antony P Black
OBJECTIVES: In Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) the high burden of vaccine preventable diseases is thought to be mainly due to low vaccine coverage. Here, we investigated the seroprotective response against diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPw-HepB-Hib) vaccine in children. METHODS: Serum was collected from 1131 children aged 9 to 50 months and their mothers in a cross-sectional study between December 2013 and July 2014...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Peter Aaby, Henrik Ravn, Christine S Benn
BACKGROUND: World Health Organization recently reviewed the possible nonspecific effects of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine. The results were considered inconsistent though most studies suggested deleterious effects. We examined whether inconsistencies in results reflected differences in effect of DTP or differences in the methodology used in different studies. METHODS: If children remain unvaccinated because they are frail or if children (including dead ones) with no information on vaccination status are classified as "unvaccinated," the mortality rate becomes unnaturally high among "unvaccinated" controls...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Julie A Bettinger, Otto G Vanderkooi, David W Scheifele, Scott A Halperin, James D Kellner, Anthony Schryvers, Gaston De Serres, Joenel Alcantara
BACKGROUND: The diversity of Canadian infant meningococcal C conjugate (MenC) vaccine programs is unique among countries providing MenC vaccines and offers a valuable opportunity to determine the optimal vaccine program. This longitudinal study assessed differences in seroprotection by 3 different vaccine schedules in children two years after receiving either 1 toddler MenC vaccine dose (1 dose), 1 infant and 1 toddler dose (2 doses), or 2 infant and 1 toddler MenC vaccine dose (3 doses)...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Sijia Yan, Sheng-An Chen, Wen Zhang, Fanping Yang, Ying Yang, Qinyuan Zhu, Huizhong Zhu, Xinfen Sun, Menglin Jiang, Yu Su, Lirong Zhang, Qinghe Xing, Xiaoqun Luo
OBJECTIVE: Tetanus antitoxin (TAT) is an effective antitetanus medicine, but may sometimes cause adverse drug reactions such as rapid-onset anaphylactic shock and late-onset cutaneous adverse drug reactions, including exanthematous drug eruptions (EDE). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles are strongly associated with different types of cutaneous adverse drug reactions. This study aimed to assess whether there is an association between TAT-induced EDE and HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C alleles in the Chinese Han population...
October 5, 2016: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
Azza M Hassan, Ahmed E Shoman, Nahla F Abo-Elezz, Marwa M Amer
BACKGROUND: Maintaining maternal and neonatal tetanus (MNT) elimination status in Egypt requires continued strengthening of routine tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization services for pregnant women. OBJECTIVES: To measure the frequency rate of TT vaccination among women attending the well-baby clinic at the El-Darb El-Ahmar primary healthcare center in Cairo governorate and to identify different associated factors. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: This was a cross sectional study that targeted 277 mothers who attended the well-baby clinic at the El-Darb El-Ahmar primary healthcare center...
September 2016: Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association
Sayyed Alireza Talaei, Abolfazl Azami, Mahmoud Salami
OBJECTIVES: There are few reports have demonstrated the effect of a change-in-light experience on the structure and function of hippocampus. A change-in-light experience also affects the circadian pattern of melatonin secretion. This study aimed to investigate developmental effect of exogenous melatonin on synaptic plasticity of hippocampus of light deprived rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 2μg/5μl melatonin was evaluated on the basic and tetanized field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSPs) recorded in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway of normal light-reared (LR) and dark-reared (DR) rats at 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Tufa Kolola, Meseret Ekubay, Endalamaw Tesfa, Wogene Morka
In Ethiopia, neonatal mortality has been declined since the declaration of Millennium Developmental Goals, but the rate was slower since 2006. Thus, this study was designed to assess the determinants of neonatal mortality (NM) in North Shoa Zone. A community based case-control study was conducted on 84 cases and 252 controls. Cases were deceased new-borns within 28 days of birth while controls were infants survived beyond the first 28 days. Data were collected from mothers of the cases and controls using interviewer administered questionnaires...
2016: PloS One
Maria Vittoria De Angelis, Roberta Di Giacomo, Antonio Di Muzio, Marco Onofrj, Laura Bonanni
BACKGROUND: Movement disorder emergencies include any movement disorder which develops over hours to days, in which failure to appropriately diagnose and manage can result in patient morbidity or mortality.Movement disorder emergencies include acute dystonia: sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements. Acute dystonia is a serious challenge for emergency room doctors and neurologists, because of the high probability of misdiagnosis, due to the presence of several mimickers including partial seizures, meningitis, localized tetanus, serum electrolyte level abnormalities, strychnine poisoning, angioedema, malingering, catatonia, and conversion...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
F Vallone, E Vannini, A Cintio, M Caleo, A Di Garbo
Epilepsy is characterized by substantial network rearrangements leading to spontaneous seizures and little is known on how an epileptogenic focus impacts on neural activity in the contralateral hemisphere. Here, we used a model of unilateral epilepsy induced by injection of the synaptic blocker tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) in the mouse primary visual cortex (V1). Local field potential (LFP) signals were simultaneously recorded from both hemispheres of each mouse in acute phase (peak of toxin action) and chronic condition (completion of TeNT effects)...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Peter Aaby, Jens Nielsen, Christine S Benn, Jean-François Trape
BACKGROUND: Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) may be associated with increased female mortality; the effect of co-administration with BCG is not known. METHODS: Between 1989 and 1997, we examined female and male mortality rates in rural Senegal where 7824 infants received the first dose of DTP and inactivated polio vaccine (DTP-IPV) with BCG. Subsequent doses of DTP-IPV were administered alone. We analysed mortality according to sex and number of doses of DTP-IPV vaccine...
October 13, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Julian P T Higgins, Karla Soares-Weiser, José A López-López, Artemisia Kakourou, Katherine Chaplin, Hannah Christensen, Natasha K Martin, Jonathan A C Sterne, Arthur L Reingold
OBJECTIVES:  To evaluate the effects on non-specific and all cause mortality, in children under 5, of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), and standard titre measles containing vaccines (MCV); to examine internal validity of the studies; and to examine any modifying effects of sex, age, vaccine sequence, and co-administration of vitamin A. DESIGN:  Systematic review, including assessment of risk of bias, and meta-analyses of similar studies...
October 13, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Rama Kandasamy, Merryn Voysey, Fiona McQuaid, Karlijn de Nie, Rebecca Ryan, Olivia Orr, Ulrike Uhlig, Charles Sande, Daniel O'Connor, Andrew J Pollard
OBJECTIVE:  To identify and characterise non-specific immunological effects after routine childhood vaccines against BCG, measles, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. DESIGN:  Systematic review of randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies. DATA SOURCES:  Embase, PubMed, Cochrane library, and Trip searched between 1947 and January 2014. Publications submitted by a panel of experts in the specialty were also included...
October 13, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Bahaa Abu-Raya, Tobias R Kollmann, Arnaud Marchant, Duncan M MacGillivray
Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women are HIV-exposed but the majority remains uninfected [i.e., HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)]. HEU infants suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infections compared to HIV-unexposed (HU) peers. The reason(s) for these worse outcomes are uncertain, but could be related to an altered immune system state. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature investigating the adaptive and innate immune system of HEU infants. HEU infants have altered cell-mediated immunity, including impaired T-cell maturation with documented hypo- as well as hyper-responsiveness to T-cell activation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Asisha Janeela M, Anand Zachariah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
M Narang, G S Bhandari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Ousseny Zerbo, Berwick Chan, Kristin Goddard, Ned Lewis, Karin Bok, Nicola P Klein, Roger Baxter
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: We describe the establishment of a dynamic database linking mothers to newborns with the goal of studying vaccine safety in both pregnant women and their children and provide results of a study utilizing this database as a proof of concept. METHODS: All Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) live births and their mothers were eligible for inclusion in the pregnancy database. We used the medical record number (MRN), a unique identifier, to retrieve information about events that occurred during the pregnancy and at delivery and linked this same MRN to newborns for post-partum follow up...
October 7, 2016: Vaccine
Luc Martinez, Fatoumata Fofana, François Raineri, Pascale Arnould, Khadra Benmedjahed, Guillaume Coindard, François Denis, Didier Duhot, Jean-Luc Gallais, Didier Seyler, Béatrice Tugaut, Benoit Arnould
BACKGROUND: Primary care physicians (PCPs) play a key role regarding vaccination in France. The aims of the present study were to define the scoring rules and to assess the measurement properties of the 'Determinants of Intentions to Vaccinate' (DIVA(©)) questionnaire that aims to assess PCPs' attitudes and beliefs toward vaccination. METHODS: The DIVA questionnaire was derived from a literature review and PCPs focus groups. Scoring and early validation of the DIVA questionnaire were determined during a cross-sectional study conducted in France...
October 10, 2016: BMC Family Practice
Andreia Albuquerque
Rubber band ligation is one of the most important, cost-effective and commonly used treatments for internal hemorrhoids. Different technical approaches were developed mainly to improve efficacy and safety. The technique can be employed using an endoscope with forward-view or retroflexion or without an endoscope, using a suction elastic band ligator or a forceps ligator. Single or multiple ligations can be performed in a single session. Local anaesthetic after ligation can also be used to reduce the post-procedure pain...
September 27, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
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