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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778626/factors-underlying-risk-taking-in-heroin-dependent-individuals-feedback-processing-and-environmental-contingencies
#1
Daniella M Saleme, Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon, Abdrabo Soliman, Błażej Misiak, Dorota Frydecka, Ahmed A Moustafa
Evidence suggests that factors influencing risk-taking include whether decisions are made based on emotions (affective systems) or cognitions (deliberative systems), the processing of feedback (e.g., deciding to attend a rehabilitation facility for opioid addiction treatment after an intervention held by a family member), and attention to environmental contingencies (e.g., considering the probability of an outcome such as the likelihood of contracting tetanus from a shared needle; or the gains and losses associated with a decision, such as the benefits and costs of taking drugs)...
May 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778595/the-history-of-antivenoms-development-beyond-calmette-and-vital-brazil
#2
Carla Cristina Squaiella-Baptistão, Osvaldo Augusto Sant'Anna, José Roberto Marcelino, Denise V Tambourgi
This review presents the main contributions to our knowledge regarding the development of antivenoms for therapeutic use in victims of venomous animal bites. We cover the progress of serum therapy since tetanus and diphtheria antitoxins in Germany and France until the current scenario of antivenom production worldwide. During these more than 120 years of antivenom development, many researchers contributed to establish what are nowadays the antivenoms used for therapeutic purpose. The history of antivenoms development is fascinating! This review aims to recognize all those who contributed to the establishment of new sera, new methodologies and saving lives: much more than Calmette and Vital Brazil...
May 17, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778515/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-fractional-dose-intradermal-injection-of-two-quadrivalent-conjugated-meningococcal-vaccines
#3
Emile F F Jonker, Mariëtte B van Ravenhorst, Guy A M Berbers, Leo G Visser
BACKGROUND: Vaccination with conjugated meningococcal vaccines is the best way to prevent invasive meningococcal disease. Changes in serogroup epidemiology have led to the inclusion of quadrivalent vaccines in the national immunization programs of several countries, but vaccines are frequently in short supply. Intradermal administration has the potential to increase vaccine availability through dose reduction, without sacrificing efficacy. It has never before been investigated for glycoconjugate meningococcal vaccines...
May 16, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773321/evaluating-scenarios-of-locations-and-capacities-for-vaccine-storage-in-nigeria
#4
Dor Hirsh Bar Gai, Zachary Graybill, Paule Voevodsky, Ekundayo Shittu
Many developing countries still face the prevalence of preventable childhood diseases because their vaccine supply chain systems are inadequate by design or structure to meet the needs of their populations. Currently, Nigeria is evaluating options in the redesign of the country's vaccine supply chain. Using Nigeria as a case study, the objective is to evaluate different regional supply chain scenarios to identify the cost minimizing optimal hub locations and storage capacities for doses of different vaccines to achieve a 100% fill rate...
May 14, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773320/cooperative-binding-of-anti-tetanus-toxin-monoclonal-antibodies-implications-for-designing-an-efficient-biclonal-preparation-to-prevent-tetanus-toxin-intoxication
#5
Ivana Lukic, Ana Filipovic, Aleksandra Inic-Kanada, Emilija Marinkovic, Radmila Miljkovic, Marijana Stojanovic
Oligoclonal combinations of several monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are being considered for the treatment of various infectious pathologies. These combinations are less sensitive to antigen structural changes than individual MAbs; at the same time, their characteristics can be more efficiently controlled than those of polyclonal antibodies. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the binding characteristics of six biclonal equimolar preparations (BEP) of tetanus toxin (TeNT)-specific MAbs and to investigate how the MAb combination influences the BEPs' protective capacity...
May 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772848/increased-vaccination-coverage-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-in-the-district-of-palermo-as-a-result-of-a-public-health-strategy-to-counteract-an-epidemic-panic
#6
Claudio Costantino, Vincenzo Restivo, Gianmarco Ventura, Claudio D'Angelo, Maria Angela Randazzo, Nicolò Casuccio, Mario Palermo, Alessandra Casuccio, Francesco Vitale
During the summer of 2016 four cases of invasive meningococcal disease in rapid succession among young adults in the district of Palermo, Italy, resulting in one death, were widely reported by local and national mass media. The resultant 'epidemic panic' among the general population overloaded the vaccination units of the Palermo district over the following months. Strategies implemented by the Sicilian and local public health authorities to counteract 'meningitis fear' included the following: (a) extension of active and free-of-charge anti-meningococcal tetravalent vaccination from age class 12⁻18 to 12⁻30 years old; (b) implementation of vaccination units during normal clinic hours in rooms tailored for vaccine administration; (c) development of informative institutional tools and timely communication throughout local mass media to reassure the general population...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771574/is-adding-maternal-vaccination-to-prevent-whooping-cough-cost-effective-in-australia
#7
Laure-Anne Van Bellinghen, Alex Dimitroff, Michael Haberl, Xiao Li, Andrew Manton, Karen Moeremans, Nadia Demarteau
Pertussis or whooping cough, a highly infectious respiratory infection, causes significant morbidity and mortality in infants. In adolescents and adults, pertussis presents with atypical symptoms often resulting in under-diagnosis and under-reporting, increasing the risk of transmission to more vulnerable groups. Maternal vaccination against pertussis protects mothers and newborns. This evaluation assessed the cost-effectiveness of adding maternal dTpa (reduced antigen diphtheria, Tetanus, acellular pertussis) vaccination to the 2016 nationally-funded pertussis program (DTPa [Diphtheria, Tetanus, acellular Pertussis] at 2, 4, 6, 18 months, 4 years and dTpa at 12-13 years) in Australia...
May 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765775/potential-impact-of-introducing-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-into-national-immunisation-programmes-an-economic-epidemiological-analysis-using-data-from-india
#8
Itamar Megiddo, Eili Klein, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Pneumococcal pneumonia causes an estimated 105 000 child deaths in India annually. The planned introduction of the serotype-based pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is expected to avert child deaths, but the high cost of PCV relative to current vaccines provided under the Universal Immunization Programme has been a concern. Cost-effectiveness studies from high-income countries are not readily comparable because of differences in the distribution of prevalent serotypes, population and health systems. We extended IndiaSim, our agent-based simulation model representative of the Indian population and health system, to model the dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae ...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764539/effect-of-chronic-social-stress-on-prenatal-transfer-of-antitetanus-immunity-in-captive-breeding-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#9
Rachelle L Stammen, Joyce K Cohen, Tracy L Meeker, Maria M Crane, Rama R Amara, Sakeenah L Hicks, Jerrold S Meyer, Kelly F Ethun
Because tetanus can cause significant morbidity and mortality in NHP, colonywide vaccination with tetanus toxoid is recommendedfor outdoor breeding colonies of rhesus macaques, with primary immunizations commonly given to infants at 6 mo of age followed by booster vaccines every 10 y. Maternal antibodies are thought to offer protective immunity to infants younger than 6 mo. However, historical colony data from the Yerkes National Primate Research Center show a higher incidence of tetanus among infants (≤ 6 mo old) born to subordinate dams...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762363/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-primary-and-booster-vaccinations-of-a-fully-liquid-dtap-ipv-hb-prp-t-hexavalent-vaccine-in-healthy-infants-and-toddlers-in-germany-and-the-czech-republic
#10
Roman Prymula, Dorothee Kieninger, Emmanuel Feroldi, Emilia Jordanov, Siham B'Chir, Xavier DaCosta
BACKGROUND: To support a fully liquid, diphtheria (D)-tetanus (T)-acellular pertussis (aP)-inactivated poliovirus (IPV)-hepatitis B (HB)-Haemophilus influenzae b (PRP-T) vaccine in Europe using a 2, 3, 4 month primary series and a booster at 11 to 15 months of age. METHODS: Phase III, randomized, observer-blind studies in Germany and the Czech Republic. Participants who had not received HB vaccine were randomized to a 2, 3, 4 month primary series of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (Group 1; N=266) or a reconstituted DTaPHB-IPV//PRP-T comparator (Group 2; N=263) and a booster of the same vaccine...
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757589/the-effect-of-differentially-designed-fusion-proteins-to-elicit-efficient-anti-human-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-immune-responses
#11
Maysam Mard-Soltani, Mohamad Javad Rasaee, Saeed Khalili, Abdol-Karim Sheikhi, Mehdi Hedayati, Hossein Ghaderi-Zefrehi, Milad Alasvand
The production of human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) immunoassays requires specific antibodies against hTSH which is a cumbersome process. Therefore, producing specific polyclonal antibodies against engineered recombinant fusion hTSH antigens would be of great significance. The best immunogenic region of the hTSH was selected based on in silico analyses and equipped with two different fusions. Standard methods were used for protein expression, purification, verification, structural evaluation, and immunizations of the white New Zealand rabbits...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757414/vaccination-coverage-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-german-long-term-study-lula-cohort
#12
Gamal Chehab, Jutta G Richter, Ralph Brinks, Rebecca Fischer-Betz, Borgi Winkler-Rohlfing, Matthias Schneider
Objectives: Vaccinations are an important measure to prevent infections in immunocompromised patients. The knowledge of vaccination coverage and reasons for non-vaccination in patients with SLE is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess coverage rates of selected vaccinations in a representative sample of SLE patients and to identify predictors for non-vaccination. Methods: In 2013, information on selected vaccinations (coverage, application and reservations) and on demographics, clinical parameters and health beliefs was assessed by means of a self-reported questionnaire among a representative sample of SLE patients in Germany (LuLa cohort)...
May 10, 2018: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757209/immunization-offer-targeting-migrants-policies-and-practices-in-italy
#13
Teresa Dalla Zuanna, Martina Del Manso, Cristina Giambi, Flavia Riccardo, Antonino Bella, Maria Grazia Caporali, Maria Grazia Dente, Silvia Declich
The unprecedented flow of migrants over the last three years places Italy in front of new issues regarding medical care from the rescue phase up to the integration into the national health services, including preventive actions. We used online questionnaires to investigate the Italian national and regional policies for immunization offer targeting asylum seekers, refugees, irregular migrants and unaccompanied minors. Another questionnaire was used to assess how these policies are translated into practice in migrant reception centres and community health services...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755949/tetanus-a-rare-but-real-threat
#14
David Moynan, Ruth O'Riordan, Roisin O'Connor, Concepta Merry
Tetanus is a potentially fatal disease of the nervous system arising from toxins produced by Clostridium tetani , an anaerobic bacterium found in soil [1]. Characterized by muscular rigidity, spasms and autonomic dysregulation its identification and, importantly, its prevention remain critical to the welfare of at risk patients. We present the case of a twenty two year old woman who presented to hospital with trismus and generalized muscle spasms three days following a dog bite to the right hand. Here, we discuss the presentation of generalized tetanus and the use of neurophysiology to facilitate its diagnosis...
2018: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752315/formation-of-immune-complexes-with-a-tetanus-derived-b-cell-epitope-boosts-human-t-cell-responses-to-covalently-linked-peptides-in-an-ex-vivo-blood-loop-system
#15
Erika A K Fletcher, Wendy van Maren, Robert Cordfunke, Jasper Dinkelaar, Jeroen D C Codee, Gijs van der Marel, Cornelis J M Melief, Ferry Ossendorp, Jan Wouter Drijfhout, Sara M Mangsbo
Enhancing T cell responses against both viral and tumor Ags requires efficient costimulation and directed delivery of peptide Ags into APCs. Long peptide vaccines are considered favorable vaccine moieties from a clinical perspective, as they can harbor more than one immunogenic epitope enabling treatment of a broader target population. In addition, longer peptides are not extracellularly loaded on MHC class I; rather, they require intracellular processing and will thereby be presented to T cells mainly by professional APCs, thereby avoiding the risk of tolerance induction...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752131/effectiveness-of-the-dtpa-hbv-ipv-hib-vaccine-against-invasive-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-disease-in-the-netherlands-2003-16-a-case-control-study
#16
Susana Monge, Susan Jm Hahné, Hester E de Melker, Elisabeth Am Sanders, Arie van der Ende, Mirjam J Knol
BACKGROUND: In 2016, an increase in invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) disease was reported in the Netherlands in children younger than 5 years, which coincided with the introduction of the hexavalent diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis-hepatitis B virus-inactivated polio virus/Hib vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) from 2011 onwards. We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of the hexavalent vaccine to assess whether this increase could be explained by decreasing effectiveness...
May 8, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747736/infections-in-pregnancy-and-the-role-of-vaccines
#17
REVIEW
Kimberly B Fortner, Claudia Nieuwoudt, Callie F Reeder, Geeta K Swamy
Pregnant women are at risk for infection and may have significant morbidity or mortality. Influenza, pertussis, zika, and cytomegalovirus produce mild or asymptomatic illness in the mother, but have profound implications for her fetus. Maternal immunization can prevent or mitigate infections in pregnant women and their infants. The Advisory Committee of Immunization Practices recommends 2 vaccines during pregnancy: inactivated influenza, and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis during pregnancy...
June 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744067/generalized-tetanus-in-adults-without-antitetanus-booster-vaccination-in-southern-mauritania
#18
Boushab Mohamed Boushab, Fatim-Zahra Fall-Malick, Mamoudou Savadogo, Leonardo K Basco
Tetanus has become rare in countries with high levels of vaccination coverage and hygiene but may still occur in adults without booster vaccination. In addition to the expanded program on immunization for children and maternal immunization against neonatal tetanus, a systematic vaccination of the population, including boosters, is recommended.
May 2018: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743369/intrastructural-help-harnessing-t-helper-cells-induced-by-licensed-vaccines-for-improvement-of-hiv-env-antibody-responses-to-virus-like-particle-vaccines
#19
Hassan Elsayed, Ghulam Nabi, William J McKinstry, Keith K Khoo, Johnson Mak, Andres M Salazar, Matthias Tenbusch, Vladimir Temchura, Klaus Überla
Induction of persistent antibody responses by vaccination is generally thought to depend on efficient help by T follicular helper cells. Since the T helper cell response to HIV Env may not be optimal, we explored the possibility to improve the HIV Env antibody response to virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines by recruiting T helper cells induced by a commonly-used licensed vaccines to provide help for Env-specific B cells. B cells specific for the surface protein of a VLP can internalize the entire VLP and thus present peptides derived from the surface and core proteins on their MHC-II molecules...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739482/serum-anti-tetanus-and-measles-antibody-titres-in-ugandan-children-aged-4-months-to-6-years-implications-for-vaccine-programme
#20
Lenesha Warrener, Josephine Bwogi, Nick Andrews, Dhanraj Samuel, Theopista Kabaliisa, Henry Bukenya, Kevin Brown, Martha H Roper, David A Featherstone, David Brown
To study the antibody response to tetanus toxoid and measles by age following vaccination in children aged 4 months to 6 years in Entebbe, Uganda. Serum samples were obtained from 113 children aged 4-15 months, at the Mother-Child Health Clinic (MCHC), Entebbe Hospital and from 203 of the 206 children aged between 12 and 75 months recruited through the Outpatients Department (OPD). Antibodies to measles were quantified by plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT) and with Siemens IgG EIA. VaccZyme IgG EIA was used to quantify anti-tetanus antibodies...
May 9, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
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