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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925102/continued-alcohol-misuse-in-human-cirrhosis-is-associated-with-an-impaired-gut-liver-axis
#1
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Genta Kakiyama, Derrick Zhao, Hajime Takei, Andrew Fagan, Phillip Hylemon, Huiping Zhou, William M Pandak, Hiroshi Nittono, Oliver Fiehn, Nita Salzman, Mary Holtz, Pippa Simpson, Edith A Gavis, Douglas M Heuman, Runping Liu, Dae Joong Kang, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Patrick M Gillevet
BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis and alcohol can independently affect the gut-liver axis with systemic inflammation. However their concurrent impact in humans is unclear. AIM: Determine the effect of continued alcohol misuse on the gut-liver axis in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Age and MELD-balanced cirrhotic patients who were currently drinking (Alc) or abstinent (NAlc), and healthy controls underwent serum and stool collection. A subset underwent upper endoscopy and colonoscopy for biopsies and duodenal fluid collection...
September 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812825/evaluating-global-health-partnerships-a-case-study-of-a-gavi-hpv-vaccine-application-process-in-uganda
#2
Carol Kamya, Jessica Shearer, Gilbert Asiimwe, Emily Carnahan, Nicole Salisbury, Peter Waiswa, Jennifer Brinkerhoff, Dai Hozumi
BACKGROUND: Global health partnerships have grown rapidly in number and scope, yet there has been less emphasis on their evaluation. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, is one such public-private partnership; in Gavi-eligible countries partnerships are dynamic networks of immunization actors who work together to support all stages and aspects of Gavi support. This paper describes a conceptual framework - the partnership framework - and analytic approach for evaluating the perceptions of partnerships' added value as well as the results from an application to one case in Uganda...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802757/the-typhoid-vaccine-acceleration-consortium-tyvac-vaccine-effectiveness-study-designs-accelerating-the-introduction-of-typhoid-conjugate-vaccines-and-reducing-the-global-burden-of-enteric-fever-report-from-a-meeting-held-on-26-27-october-2016-oxford-uk
#3
James E Meiring, Malick Gibani
Typhoid fever is estimated to cause between 11.9-26.9 million infections globally each year with 129,000-216,510 deaths. Access to improved water sources have reduced disease incidence in parts of the world but the use of efficacious vaccines is seen as an important public health tool for countries with a high disease burden. A new generation of Vi typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs), licensed for use in young children and expected to provide longer lasting protection than previous vaccines, are now available...
September 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749453/mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-therapy-improves-patient-and-caregiver-reported-outcomes-in-cirrhosis
#4
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Michael Ellwood, Timothy Ainger, Thomas Burroughs, Andrew Fagan, Edith A Gavis, Douglas M Heuman, Michael Fuchs, Binu John, James B Wade
OBJECTIVES: Patient-reported outcomes such as health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are impaired in cirrhosis due to under-treated mood and sleep disorders, which can adversely impact their caregivers. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) can improve patient-reported outcomes (PRO) in non-cirrhotic patients but their impact in cirrhosis is unclear. To evaluate the effect of MBSR and supportive group therapy on mood, sleep and HRQOL in cirrhotic patients and their caregivers. METHODS: Cirrhotic outpatients with mild depression (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)>14) on screening with an adult caregiver were enrolled...
July 27, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604164/a-forecast-of-typhoid-conjugate-vaccine-introduction-and-demand-in-typhoid-endemic-low-and-middle-income-countries-to-support-vaccine-introduction-policy-and-decisions
#5
Vittal Mogasale, Enusa Ramani, Il Yeon Park, Jung Seok Lee
A Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine (TCV) is expected to acquire WHO prequalification soon, which will pave the way for its use in many low- and middle-income countries where typhoid fever is endemic. Thus it is critical to forecast future vaccine demand to ensure supply meets demand, and to facilitate vaccine policy and introduction planning. We forecasted introduction dates for countries based on specific criteria and estimated vaccine demand by year for defined vaccination strategies in 2 scenarios: rapid vaccine introduction and slow vaccine introduction...
September 2, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601421/impact-of-the-introduction-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-on-pneumonia-in-the-gambia-population-based-surveillance-and-case-control-studies
#6
Grant A Mackenzie, Philip C Hill, Shah M Sahito, David J Jeffries, Ilias Hossain, Christian Bottomley, Uchendu Uchendu, David Ameh, Malick Ndiaye, Chidebereh D Osuorah, Oyedeji Adeyemi, Jayani Pathirana, Yekini Olatunji, Bade Abatan, Ebirim Ahameefula, Bilquees S Muhammad, Augustin E Fombah, Debasish Saha, Roslyn Mackenzie, Ian Plumb, Aliu Akano, Bernard Ebruke, Readon C Ideh, Bankole Kuti, Peter Githua, Emmanuel Olutunde, Ogochukwu Ofordile, Edward Green, Effua Usuf, Henry Badji, Usman N A Ikumapayi, Ahmad Manjang, Rasheed Salaudeen, E David Nsekpong, Sheikh Jarju, Martin Antonio, Sana Sambou, Lamin Ceesay, Yamundow Lowe-Jallow, Dawda Sowe, Momodou Jasseh, Kim Mulholland, Maria Knoll, Orin S Levine, Stephen R Howie, Richard A Adegbola, Brian M Greenwood, Tumani Corrah
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are used in many low-income countries but their impact on the incidence of pneumonia is unclear. The Gambia introduced PCV7 in August, 2009, and PCV13 in May, 2011. We aimed to measure the impact of the introduction of these vaccines on pneumonia incidence. METHODS: We did population-based surveillance and case-control studies. The primary endpoint was WHO-defined radiological pneumonia with pulmonary consolidation...
September 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594790/japanese-encephalitis-surveillance-and-immunization-asia-and-western-pacific-regions-2016
#7
James D Heffelfinger, Xi Li, Nyambat Batmunkh, Varja Grabovac, Sergey Diorditsa, Jayantha B Liyanage, Sirima Pattamadilok, Sunil Bahl, Kirsten S Vannice, Terri B Hyde, Susan Y Chu, Kimberley K Fox, Susan L Hills, Anthony A Marfin
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the most important vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in the Asia-Pacific region. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integration of JE vaccination into national immunization schedules in all areas where the disease is a public health priority (1). This report updates a previous summary of JE surveillance and immunization programs in Asia and the Western Pacific in 2012 (2). Since 2012, funding for JE immunization has become available through the GAVI Alliance, three JE vaccines have been WHO-prequalified,* and an updated WHO JE vaccine position paper providing guidance on JE vaccines and vaccination strategies has been published (1)...
June 9, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506297/cervical-cancer-treatment-costs-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-in-vietnam-a-prime-modeling-study
#8
Hoang Van Minh, Nguyen Thi Tuyet My, Mark Jit
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in South Vietnam and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in North Vietnam. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has the potential to substantially decrease this burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that a cost-effectiveness analysis of HPV vaccination is conducted before nationwide introduction. METHODS: The Papillomavirus Rapid Interface for Modeling and Economics (PRIME) model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccine introduction...
May 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364939/innovations-in-cold-chain-equipment-for-immunization-supply-chains
#9
REVIEW
Joanie Robertson, Lauren Franzel, Denis Maire
BACKGROUND: Since 2010, numerous new technologies have entered the immunization cold chain equipment market. The World Health Organization (WHO) Immunization Devices Programme-Performance, Quality and Safety (PQS)-has played a key role in bringing these to market. In this article, the authors explore the emergence of new cold chain equipment technologies from 2004 to 2016 and the role of PQS in this evolution. METHODS: This review focuses on three major vaccine cold chain technology innovations-solar direct-drive refrigerators, long-term passive cold boxes, and equipment with user-independent freeze prevention...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364935/when-are-solar-refrigerators-less-costly-than-on-grid-refrigerators-a-simulation-modeling-study
#10
Leila A Haidari, Shawn T Brown, Patrick Wedlock, Diana L Connor, Marie Spiker, Bruce Y Lee
BACKGROUND: Gavi recommends solar refrigerators for vaccine storage in areas with less than eight hours of electricity per day, and WHO guidelines are more conservative. The question remains: Can solar refrigerators provide value where electrical outages are less frequent? METHODS: Using a HERMES-generated computational model of the Mozambique routine immunization supply chain, we simulated the use of solar versus electric mains-powered refrigerators (hereafter referred to as "electric refrigerators") at different locations in the supply chain under various circumstances...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364926/transforming-vaccines-supply-chains-in-nigeria
#11
David Sarley, Mustafa Mahmud, Jide Idris, Modele Osunkiyesi, Onome Dibosa-Osadolor, Peter Okebukola, Owens Wiwa
Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and in 2012 was suffering some of the lowest vaccination rates in the World. A combination of factors had resulted in a dysfunctional immunization cold chain and supply chain. Recognizing that the number of unimmunized children contributed to high levels of under-5-mortality, and that health MDGs would not be attained, Minister of State for Health Mohammed Pate launched a vaccines transformation project in 2013. In partnership with BMGF, GAVI, UNICEF, WHO, other donors and implementing partners the transformation journey has so far taken three years and achieved impressive results...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364924/vaccine-vial-monitor-availability-and-use-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#12
Pär Eriksson, Bradford D Gessner, Philippe Jaillard, Christopher Morgan, Jean Bernard Le Gargasson
INTRODUCTION: The vaccine vial monitor (VVM) registers cumulative heat exposure on vaccines over time. As low- and lower-middle-income countries transition beyond support from the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (Gavi), they will assume full responsibility for vaccine financing and procurement. It is unclear to what extent countries transitioning out of Gavi support will continue to include VVMs on their vaccines. This paper aims to systematically review evidence on VVM availability and use in low- and middle-income countries to document factors behind global access to and country demand for VVMs...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364922/understanding-the-policy-environment-for-immunization-supply-chains-lessons-learned-from-landscape-analyses-in-uganda-and-senegal
#13
Henry Luzze, Ousseynou Badiane, El Hadji Mamadou Ndiaye, Annette Seck Ndiaye, Brian Atuhaire, Phionah Atuhebwe, Phillippe Guinot, Erin Fry Sosne, Abdoulaye Gueye
As immunization programs around the world undergo rapid change and expansion, supply chain and logistics systems have become strained, making it increasingly challenging for national public health systems to provide reliable, safe, and efficient access to vaccines. Governments and immunization partners have been aware of this problem for several years, and in 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Effective Vaccine Management (EVM) process to help countries identify shortcomings in their immunization supply chains and develop plans for systematic improvement...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364921/the-people-factor-an-analysis-of-the-human-resources-landscape-for-immunization-supply-chain-management
#14
Musonda Kasonde, Pamela Steele
Human resources is the backbone of any system and the key enabler for all other functions to effectively perform. This is no different with the Immunization Supply Chain, more so in todays' complex operating environment with the increasing strain caused by new vaccines and expanding immunization programmes (Source: WHO, UNICEF). In order to drive the change that is required for sustainability and continuous improvement, every immunization supply chain needs an effective leader. A dedicated and competent immunization supply chain leader with adequate numbers of skilled, accountable, motivated and empowered personnel at all levels of the health system to overcome existing and emerging immunization supply chain (ISC) challenges...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244176/can-infant-vaccination-prevent-pneumococcal-meningitis-outbreaks-in-sub-saharan-africa
#15
EDITORIAL
James M Stuart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139443/effectiveness-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-against-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-south-african-children-a-case-control-study
#16
Cheryl Cohen, Claire von Mollendorf, Linda de Gouveia, Sarona Lengana, Susan Meiring, Vanessa Quan, Arthermon Nguweneza, David P Moore, Gary Reubenson, Mamokgethi Moshe, Shabir A Madhi, Brian Eley, Ute Hallbauer, Heather Finlayson, Sheeba Varughese, Katherine L O'Brien, Elizabeth R Zell, Keith P Klugman, Cynthia G Whitney, Anne von Gottberg
BACKGROUND: The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was designed to include disease-causing serotypes that are important in low-income and middle-income countries. Vaccine effectiveness estimates are scarce in these settings. South Africa replaced PCV7 with PCV13 in 2011 using a 2 + 1 schedule. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of two or more doses of PCV13 against invasive pneumococcal disease in children with HIV infection and in those not infected with HIV. METHODS: Cases of invasive pneumococcal disease in children aged 5 years or younger were identified through national laboratory-based surveillance...
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139255/who-pays-for-cooperation-in-global-health-a-comparative-analysis-of-who-the-world-bank-the-global-fund-to-fight-hiv-aids-tuberculosis-and-malaria-and-gavi-the-vaccine-alliance
#17
Chelsea Clinton, Devi Sridhar
In this report we assess who pays for cooperation in global health through an analysis of the financial flows of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. The past few decades have seen the consolidation of influence in the disproportionate roles the USA, UK, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have had in financing three of these four institutions. Current financing flows in all four case study institutions allow donors to finance and deliver assistance in ways that they can more closely control and monitor at every stage...
January 27, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039670/hepatic-encephalopathy-is-associated-with-persistent-learning-impairments-despite-adequate-medical-treatment-a-multicenter-international-study
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Silvia Nardelli, Sanath Allampati, Oliviero Riggio, Kevin D Mullen, Ravi Prakash, Stefania Gioia, Ariel Unser, Melanie B White, Andrew C Fagan, James B Wade, Alessio Farcomeni, Edith A Gavis, Jasmohan S Bajaj
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is considered reversible regarding mental status but may not be cognitively in single-center studies. AIM: To evaluate persistence of learning impairment in prior HE compared to those who never experienced HE (no-HE) in a multicenter study. METHODS: A total of 174 outpatient cirrhotics from three centers (94 Virginia, 30 Ohio, and 50 Rome; 36 prior HE) underwent psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) and inhibitory control (ICT) testing at baseline and then at least 7 days apart...
March 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813703/achievements-and-challenges-for-the-use-of-killed-oral-cholera-vaccines-in-the-global-stockpile-era
#19
Sachin N Desai, Lorenzo Pezzoli, Kathryn P Alberti, Stephen Martin, Alejandro Costa, William Perea, Dominique Legros
Cholera remains an important but neglected public health threat, affecting the health of the poorest populations and imposing substantial costs on public health systems. Cholera can be eliminated where access to clean water, sanitation, and satisfactory hygiene practices are sustained, but major improvements in infrastructure continue to be a distant goal. New developments and trends of cholera disease burden, the creation of affordable oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) for use in developing countries, as well as recent evidence of vaccination impact has created an increased demand for cholera vaccines...
March 4, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764083/status-of-new-vaccine-introduction-worldwide-september-2016
#20
Anagha Loharikar, Laure Dumolard, Susan Chu, Terri Hyde, Tracey Goodman, Carsten Mantel
Since the global Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) was launched in 1974, vaccination against six diseases (tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and measles) has prevented millions of deaths and disabilities (1). Significant advances have been made in the development and introduction of vaccines, and licensed vaccines are now available to prevent 25 diseases (2,3). Historically, new vaccines only became available in low-income and middle-income countries decades after being introduced in high-income countries...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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