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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506297/cervical-cancer-treatment-costs-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-in-vietnam-a-prime-modeling-study
#1
Hoang Van Minh, Nguyen Thi Tuyet My, Mark Jit
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in South Vietnam and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in North Vietnam. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has the potential to substantially decrease this burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that a cost-effectiveness analysis of HPV vaccination is conducted before nationwide introduction. METHODS: The Papillomavirus Rapid Interface for Modeling and Economics (PRIME) model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccine introduction...
May 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364939/innovations-in-cold-chain-equipment-for-immunization-supply-chains
#2
REVIEW
Joanie Robertson, Lauren Franzel, Denis Maire
BACKGROUND: Since 2010, numerous new technologies have entered the immunization cold chain equipment market. The World Health Organization (WHO) Immunization Devices Programme-Performance, Quality and Safety (PQS)-has played a key role in bringing these to market. In this article, the authors explore the emergence of new cold chain equipment technologies from 2004 to 2016 and the role of PQS in this evolution. METHODS: This review focuses on three major vaccine cold chain technology innovations-solar direct-drive refrigerators, long-term passive cold boxes, and equipment with user-independent freeze prevention...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364935/when-are-solar-refrigerators-less-costly-than-on-grid-refrigerators-a-simulation-modeling-study
#3
Leila A Haidari, Shawn T Brown, Patrick Wedlock, Diana L Connor, Marie Spiker, Bruce Y Lee
BACKGROUND: Gavi recommends solar refrigerators for vaccine storage in areas with less than eight hours of electricity per day, and WHO guidelines are more conservative. The question remains: Can solar refrigerators provide value where electrical outages are less frequent? METHODS: Using a HERMES-generated computational model of the Mozambique routine immunization supply chain, we simulated the use of solar versus electric mains-powered refrigerators (hereafter referred to as "electric refrigerators") at different locations in the supply chain under various circumstances...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364926/transforming-vaccines-supply-chains-in-nigeria
#4
David Sarley, Mustafa Mahmud, Jide Idris, Modele Osunkiyesi, Onome Dibosa-Osadolor, Peter Okebukola, Owens Wiwa
Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and in 2012 was suffering some of the lowest vaccination rates in the World. A combination of factors had resulted in a dysfunctional immunization cold chain and supply chain. Recognizing that the number of unimmunized children contributed to high levels of under-5-mortality, and that health MDGs would not be attained, Minister of State for Health Mohammed Pate launched a vaccines transformation project in 2013. In partnership with BMGF, GAVI, UNICEF, WHO, other donors and implementing partners the transformation journey has so far taken three years and achieved impressive results...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364924/vaccine-vial-monitor-availability-and-use-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#5
Pär Eriksson, Bradford D Gessner, Philippe Jaillard, Christopher Morgan, Jean Bernard Le Gargasson
INTRODUCTION: The vaccine vial monitor (VVM) registers cumulative heat exposure on vaccines over time. As low- and lower-middle-income countries transition beyond support from the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (Gavi), they will assume full responsibility for vaccine financing and procurement. It is unclear to what extent countries transitioning out of Gavi support will continue to include VVMs on their vaccines. This paper aims to systematically review evidence on VVM availability and use in low- and middle-income countries to document factors behind global access to and country demand for VVMs...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364922/understanding-the-policy-environment-for-immunization-supply-chains-lessons-learned-from-landscape-analyses-in-uganda-and-senegal
#6
Henry Luzze, Ousseynou Badiane, El Hadji Mamadou Ndiaye, Annette Seck Ndiaye, Brian Atuhaire, Phionah Atuhebwe, Phillippe Guinot, Erin Fry Sosne, Abdoulaye Gueye
As immunization programs around the world undergo rapid change and expansion, supply chain and logistics systems have become strained, making it increasingly challenging for national public health systems to provide reliable, safe, and efficient access to vaccines. Governments and immunization partners have been aware of this problem for several years, and in 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Effective Vaccine Management (EVM) process to help countries identify shortcomings in their immunization supply chains and develop plans for systematic improvement...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364921/the-people-factor-an-analysis-of-the-human-resources-landscape-for-immunization-supply-chain-management
#7
Musonda Kasonde, Pamela Steele
Human resources is the backbone of any system and the key enabler for all other functions to effectively perform. This is no different with the Immunization Supply Chain, more so in todays' complex operating environment with the increasing strain caused by new vaccines and expanding immunization programmes (Source: WHO, UNICEF). In order to drive the change that is required for sustainability and continuous improvement, every immunization supply chain needs an effective leader. A dedicated and competent immunization supply chain leader with adequate numbers of skilled, accountable, motivated and empowered personnel at all levels of the health system to overcome existing and emerging immunization supply chain (ISC) challenges...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244176/can-infant-vaccination-prevent-pneumococcal-meningitis-outbreaks-in-sub-saharan-africa
#8
EDITORIAL
James M Stuart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139443/effectiveness-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-against-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-south-african-children-a-case-control-study
#9
Cheryl Cohen, Claire von Mollendorf, Linda de Gouveia, Sarona Lengana, Susan Meiring, Vanessa Quan, Arthermon Nguweneza, David P Moore, Gary Reubenson, Mamokgethi Moshe, Shabir A Madhi, Brian Eley, Ute Hallbauer, Heather Finlayson, Sheeba Varughese, Katherine L O'Brien, Elizabeth R Zell, Keith P Klugman, Cynthia G Whitney, Anne von Gottberg
BACKGROUND: The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was designed to include disease-causing serotypes that are important in low-income and middle-income countries. Vaccine effectiveness estimates are scarce in these settings. South Africa replaced PCV7 with PCV13 in 2011 using a 2 + 1 schedule. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of two or more doses of PCV13 against invasive pneumococcal disease in children with HIV infection and in those not infected with HIV. METHODS: Cases of invasive pneumococcal disease in children aged 5 years or younger were identified through national laboratory-based surveillance...
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139255/who-pays-for-cooperation-in-global-health-a-comparative-analysis-of-who-the-world-bank-the-global-fund-to-fight-hiv-aids-tuberculosis-and-malaria-and-gavi-the-vaccine-alliance
#10
Chelsea Clinton, Devi Sridhar
In this report we assess who pays for cooperation in global health through an analysis of the financial flows of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. The past few decades have seen the consolidation of influence in the disproportionate roles the USA, UK, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have had in financing three of these four institutions. Current financing flows in all four case study institutions allow donors to finance and deliver assistance in ways that they can more closely control and monitor at every stage...
January 27, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039670/hepatic-encephalopathy-is-associated-with-persistent-learning-impairments-despite-adequate-medical-treatment-a-multicenter-international-study
#11
Silvia Nardelli, Sanath Allampati, Oliviero Riggio, Kevin D Mullen, Ravi Prakash, Stefania Gioia, Ariel Unser, Melanie B White, Andrew C Fagan, James B Wade, Alessio Farcomeni, Edith A Gavis, Jasmohan S Bajaj
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is considered reversible regarding mental status but may not be cognitively in single-center studies. AIM: To evaluate persistence of learning impairment in prior HE compared to those who never experienced HE (no-HE) in a multicenter study. METHODS: A total of 174 outpatient cirrhotics from three centers (94 Virginia, 30 Ohio, and 50 Rome; 36 prior HE) underwent psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) and inhibitory control (ICT) testing at baseline and then at least 7 days apart...
December 30, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813703/achievements-and-challenges-for-the-use-of-killed-oral-cholera-vaccines-in-the-global-stockpile-era
#12
Sachin N Desai, Lorenzo Pezzoli, Kathryn P Alberti, Stephen Martin, Alejandro Costa, William Perea, Dominique Legros
Cholera remains an important but neglected public health threat, affecting the health of the poorest populations and imposing substantial costs on public health systems. Cholera can be eliminated where access to clean water, sanitation, and satisfactory hygiene practices are sustained, but major improvements in infrastructure continue to be a distant goal. New developments and trends of cholera disease burden, the creation of affordable oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) for use in developing countries, as well as recent evidence of vaccination impact has created an increased demand for cholera vaccines...
March 4, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764083/status-of-new-vaccine-introduction-worldwide-september-2016
#13
Anagha Loharikar, Laure Dumolard, Susan Chu, Terri Hyde, Tracey Goodman, Carsten Mantel
Since the global Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) was launched in 1974, vaccination against six diseases (tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and measles) has prevented millions of deaths and disabilities (1). Significant advances have been made in the development and introduction of vaccines, and licensed vaccines are now available to prevent 25 diseases (2,3). Historically, new vaccines only became available in low-income and middle-income countries decades after being introduced in high-income countries...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159122/multi-stakeholder-partnerships-with-the-democratic-peoples-republic-of-korea-to-improve-childhood-immunization
#14
Hani Kim, Florian Marks, Uros Novakovic, Peter J Hotez, Robert E Black
OBJECTIVE: To examine the current partnerships to improve the childhood immunization programme in the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (DPRK) in the context of the political determinants of health equity. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify public health collaborations with the DPRK government. Based on the amount of publicly accessible data and a shared approach in health-system strengthening among the partners in immunization programmes, the search focused on these partnerships...
May 9, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26962867/using-seroprevalence-and-immunisation-coverage-data-to-estimate-the-global-burden-of-congenital-rubella-syndrome-1996-2010-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Emilia Vynnycky, Elisabeth J Adams, Felicity T Cutts, Susan E Reef, Ann Marie Navar, Emily Simons, Lay-Myint Yoshida, David W J Brown, Charlotte Jackson, Peter M Strebel, Alya J Dabbagh
BACKGROUND: The burden of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) is typically underestimated in routine surveillance. Updated estimates are needed following the recent WHO position paper on rubella and recent GAVI initiatives, funding rubella vaccination in eligible countries. Previous estimates considered the year 1996 and only 78 (developing) countries. METHODS: We reviewed the literature to identify rubella seroprevalence studies conducted before countries introduced rubella-containing vaccination (RCV)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26897105/effect-of-the-introduction-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-on-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-the-gambia-a-population-based-surveillance-study
#16
Grant A Mackenzie, Philip C Hill, David J Jeffries, Ilias Hossain, Uchendu Uchendu, David Ameh, Malick Ndiaye, Oyedeji Adeyemi, Jayani Pathirana, Yekini Olatunji, Bade Abatan, Bilquees S Muhammad, Augustin E Fombah, Debasish Saha, Ian Plumb, Aliu Akano, Bernard Ebruke, Readon C Ideh, Bankole Kuti, Peter Githua, Emmanuel Olutunde, Ogochukwu Ofordile, Edward Green, Effua Usuf, Henry Badji, Usman N A Ikumapayi, Ahmad Manjang, Rasheed Salaudeen, E David Nsekpong, Sheikh Jarju, Martin Antonio, Sana Sambou, Lamin Ceesay, Yamundow Lowe-Jallow, Momodou Jasseh, Kim Mulholland, Maria Knoll, Orin S Levine, Stephen R Howie, Richard A Adegbola, Brian M Greenwood, Tumani Corrah
BACKGROUND: Little information is available about the effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in low-income countries. We measured the effect of these vaccines on invasive pneumococcal disease in The Gambia where the 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in August, 2009, followed by the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) in May, 2011. METHODS: We conducted population-based surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease in individuals aged 2 months and older who were residents of the Basse Health and Demographic Surveillance System (BHDSS) in the Upper River Region, The Gambia, using standardised criteria to identify and investigate patients...
June 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26692421/gut-microbiota-alterations-can-predict-hospitalizations-in-cirrhosis-independent-of-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Naga S Betrapally, Phillip B Hylemon, Leroy R Thacker, Kalyani Daita, Dae Joong Kang, Melanie B White, Ariel B Unser, Andrew Fagan, Edith A Gavis, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Swati Dalmet, Douglas M Heuman, Patrick M Gillevet
Diabetes (DM) is prevalent in cirrhosis and may modulate the risk of hospitalization through gut dysbiosis. We aimed to define the role of gut microbiota on 90-day hospitalizations and of concomitant DM on microbiota. Cirrhotic outpatients with/without DM underwent stool and sigmoid mucosal microbial analysis and were followed for 90 days. Microbial composition was compared between those with/without DM, and those who were hospitalized/not. Regression/ROC analyses for hospitalizations were performed using clinical and microbial features...
December 22, 2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26612851/perspective-and-investments-in-health-system-strengthening-of-gavi-the-vaccine-alliance-a-content-analysis-of-health-system-strengthening-specific-funding
#18
Feng-Jen Tsai, Howard Lee, Victoria Y Fan
BACKGROUND: This paper aimed to compare the health systems strengthening (HSS) framework of Gavi and WHO and to analyze resource allocation in HSS by Gavi. METHODS: Among 76 countries which received HSS funding from Gavi from 2006 to 2013, summary reports of 44 countries and approved proposals of 10 countries were collected. After comparing the HSS framework of WHO and Gavi, each activity described in documents was categorized according to Gavi's framework and funding allocation was analyzed...
July 2016: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26601613/in-patients-with-cirrhosis-driving-simulator-performance-is-associated-with-real-life-driving
#19
Mette M Lauridsen, Leroy R Thacker, Melanie B White, Ariel Unser, Richard K Sterling, Richard T Stravitz, Scott Matherly, Puneet Puri, Arun J Sanyal, Edith A Gavis, Velimir Luketic, Muhammad S Siddiqui, Douglas M Heuman, Michael Fuchs, Jasmohan S Bajaj
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) has been linked to higher real-life rates of automobile crashes and poor performance in driving simulation studies, but the link between driving simulator performance and real-life automobile crashes has not been clearly established. Furthermore, not all patients with MHE are unsafe drivers, but it is unclear how to distinguish them from unsafe drivers. We investigated the link between performance on driving simulators and real-life automobile accidents and traffic violations...
May 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26549466/public-health-impact-and-cost-effectiveness-of-the-rts-s-as01-malaria-vaccine-a-systematic-comparison-of-predictions-from-four-mathematical-models
#20
Melissa A Penny, Robert Verity, Caitlin A Bever, Christophe Sauboin, Katya Galactionova, Stefan Flasche, Michael T White, Edward A Wenger, Nicolas Van de Velde, Peter Pemberton-Ross, Jamie T Griffin, Thomas A Smith, Philip A Eckhoff, Farzana Muhib, Mark Jit, Azra C Ghani
BACKGROUND: The phase 3 trial of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine candidate showed modest efficacy of the vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but was not powered to assess mortality endpoints. Impact projections and cost-effectiveness estimates for longer timeframes than the trial follow-up and across a range of settings are needed to inform policy recommendations. We aimed to assess the public health impact and cost-effectiveness of routine use of the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine in African settings...
January 23, 2016: Lancet
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