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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346793/early-immune-responses-to-marek-s-disease-vaccines
#1
Mohammad Heidari, Dan Wang, Shuhong Sun
Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated lymphotropic α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD) in domestic chickens. MDV replicates in chicken cells and establishes a latent infection within CD4(+) T cells. Although MD vaccines have been in use for several decades, the exact mechanism of vaccine-induced protection is unclear. It is believed that the innate immune system plays a role in vaccine-induced immunity against pathogenic strains of MDV. To shed light on the possible function of the innate immunity in vaccine-mediated protection, we investigated the effect of vaccination, Rispens/CVI988, on the activation of cellular components of the innate immune system by analyzing the expression pattern of select immune-related genes in the cecal tonsils (CT) and duodenum of two MD-susceptible and MD-resistant chicken lines at 3, 5, and 10 days postvaccination (dpv)...
March 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346714/discrepant-serological-assays-for-pneumococcus-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#2
Jay A Fishman, David N Iklé, Robert A Wilkinson
Vaccine immunoprotection for Streptococcus pneumoniae is mediated by opsonizing antibodies targeting serotype-specific capsular polysaccharides. Quantitative antibody levels (ELISA) and antibody-mediated opsonophagcytic assays (OPA) measure vaccine-induced protection; correlation of these assays in transplantation requires investigation. This study examines the laboratory assessment of antibody titers in vaccinated renal recipients. Streptococcus pneumoniae 19A is common in immunocompromised hosts and is represented in protein-conjugate vaccines (PCV) and polysaccharide vaccines (PSV)...
March 27, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346516/protective-immune-responses-against-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-by-immunization-with-functionally-active-gut-derived-cysteine-peptidases-alone-and-in-combination-with-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase
#3
Hatem Tallima, Jan Dvořák, Sahira Kareem, Marwa Abou El Dahab, Nada Abdel Aziz, John Pius Dalton, Rashika El Ridi
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis, a severe disease caused by parasites of the genus Schistosoma, is prevalent in 74 countries, affecting more than 250 million people, particularly children. We have previously shown that the Schistosoma mansoni gut-derived cysteine peptidase, cathepsin B1 (SmCB1), administered without adjuvant, elicits protection (>60%) against challenge infection of S. mansoni or S. haematobium in outbred, CD-1 mice. Here we compare the immunogenicity and protective potential of another gut-derived cysteine peptidase, S...
March 27, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346400/t-lymphocyte-homing-an-underappreciated-yet-critical-hurdle-for-successful-cancer-immunotherapy
#4
Robert Sackstein, Tobias Schatton, Steven R Barthel
Advances in cancer immunotherapy have offered new hope for patients with metastatic disease. This unfolding success story has been exemplified by a growing arsenal of novel immunotherapeutics, including blocking antibodies targeting immune checkpoint pathways, cancer vaccines, and adoptive cell therapy (ACT). Nonetheless, clinical benefit remains highly variable and patient-specific, in part, because all immunotherapeutic regimens vitally hinge on the capacity of endogenous and/or adoptively transferred T-effector (Teff) cells, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, to home efficiently into tumor target tissue...
March 27, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346275/committee-opinion-no-704-human-papillomavirus-vaccination
#5
(no author information available yet)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with anogenital cancer (including cervical, vaginal, vulvar, penile, and anal), oropharyngeal cancer, and genital warts. The HPV vaccination significantly reduces the incidence of anogenital cancer and genital warts. Despite the benefits of HPV vaccines, only 41.9% of girls in the recommended age group, and only 28.1% of males in the recommended age group have received all recommended doses. Compared with many other countries, HPV vaccination rates in the United States are unacceptably low...
March 24, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346272/influenza-in-children
#6
Janienne Kondrich, Michele Rosenthal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the current information and evidence available on the global burden of disease in the pediatric population, clinical presentation and complications, testing, treatment, and immunization. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to multiple other risk factors for influenza complications, children with neurologic and neuromuscular disorders are significantly higher risk for serious complications. In practice, there is no lower age limit for children with influenza who can be treated with oseltamivir...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346102/phage-display-derived-ligand-for-mucosal-transcytotic-receptor-gp-2-promotes-antigen-delivery-to-m-cells-and-induces-antigen-specific-immune-response
#7
Inam Ullah Khan, Jiansheng Huang, Rui Liu, Jingbo Wang, Jun Xie, Naishuo Zhu
Successful oral immunization depends on efficient delivery of antigens (Ags) to the mucosal immune induction site. Glycoprotein-2 (GP-2) is an integral membrane protein that is expressed specifically on M cells within follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) and serves as transcytotic receptor for luminal Ags. In this study, we selected peptide ligands against recombinant human GP-2 by screening a phage display library and evaluated their interaction with GP-2 in vitro and ex vivo. Selected peptides were conjugated to the C-terminal of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) and evaluated for their ability to induce an immune response in mice...
February 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345962/immune-responses-to-vaccination-and-infection-with-mycoplasma-gallisepticum-in-turkeys
#8
Dinidu S Wijesurendra, Anna Kanci, Kelly A Tivendale, Joanne M Devlin, Nadeeka K Wawegama, Barbara Bacci, Amir H Noormohammadi, Philip F Markham, Glenn F Browning
Infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum induces severe lymphoproliferative lesions in multiple sites along the respiratory tract in chickens and turkeys. These immunopathological responses have been well-characterised in chickens, but have not been studied closely in turkeys. The aim of the studies described here was to examine the immune responses of turkeys after live vaccination and infection with M. gallisepticum. In a strain comparison study, the mean log10 antibody titre of birds exposed to an aerosol culture of M...
March 27, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344872/intravenously-usable-fully-serotype-3-oncolytic-adenovirus-coding-for-cd40l-as-an-enabler-of-dendritic-cell-therapy
#9
Sadia Zafar, Suvi Parviainen, Mikko Siurala, Otto Hemminki, Riikka Havunen, Siri Tähtinen, Simona Bramante, Lotta Vassilev, Hongjie Wang, Andre Lieber, Silvio Hemmi, Tanja de Gruijl, Anna Kanerva, Akseli Hemminki
Vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells in the body, is a promising approach in cancer immunotherapy. However, tumors induce immunosuppression in their microenvironment that suppresses and impairs the function of DCs. Therefore, human clinical trials with DC therapy have often been disappointing. To improve the therapeutic efficacy and to overcome the major obstacles of DC therapy, we generated a novel adenovirus, Ad3-hTERT-CMV-hCD40L, which is fully serotype 3 and expresses hCD40L for induction of antitumor immune response...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344805/utilization-of-cholera-toxin-b-as-a-mucosal-adjuvant-elicits-antibody-mediated-protection-against-s-pneumoniae-infection-in-mice
#10
Kari Wiedinger, Daniel Pinho, Constantine Bitsaktsis
BACKGOUND: The introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines have been valuable tools for combating invasive pneumococcal infection in children and healthy adults. Despite the available vaccination strategies, pneumococcal pneumonia and associated diseases continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly in individuals with chronic disease and ageing populations. Next-generation pneumococcal vaccines will need to be highly immunogenic across patient populations providing both mucosal and systemic protective immunity...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344660/predictive-biomarkers-and-effectiveness-of-muc1-targeted-dendritic-cell-based-vaccine-in-patients-with-refractory-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
Koji Teramoto, Yoshitomo Ozaki, Jun Hanaoka, Satoru Sawai, Noriaki Tezuka, Shozo Fujino, Yataro Daigo, Keiichi Kontani
BACKGROUND: The dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine targeting the highly immunogenic tumor antigen, MUC1, has been promising for a cancer immunotherapy; however, predictive biomarkers for beneficial clinical responses of the vaccine remain to be determined. METHODS: DCs loaded with MUC1-derived peptide were subcutaneously administered to patients with MUC1-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that was refractory to standard anticancer therapies, every 2 weeks...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344577/linear-epitopes-of-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-and-other-fungal-agents-of-human-systemic-mycoses-as-vaccine-candidates
#12
REVIEW
Luiz R Travassos, Carlos P Taborda
Dimorphic fungi are agents of systemic mycoses associated with significant morbidity and frequent lethality in the Americas. Among the pathogenic species are Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii, which predominate in South America; Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides posadasii, and Coccidioides immitis, and the Sporothrix spp. complex are other important pathogens. Associated with dimorphic fungi other important infections are caused by yeast such as Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. or mold such as Aspergillus spp...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344402/preparation-of-mucosal-nanoparticles-and-polymer-based-inactivated-vaccine-for-newcastle-disease-and-h9n2-ai-viruses
#13
Heba M El Naggar, Mohamed Sayed Madkour, Hussein Ali Hussein
AIM: To develop a mucosal inactivated vaccines for Newcastle disease (ND) and H9N2 viruses to protect against these viruses at sites of infections through mucosal immunity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we prepared two new formulations for mucosal bivalent inactivated vaccine formulations for Newcastle and Avian Influenza (H9N2) based on the use of nanoparticles and polymer adjuvants. The prepared vaccines were delivered via intranasal and spray routes of administration in specific pathogen-free chickens...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344338/monitoring-of-dynamic-changes-in-keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin-klh-specific-b-cells-in-klh-vaccinated-cancer-patients
#14
Florian Wimmers, Nienke de Haas, Anja Scholzen, Gerty Schreibelt, Elles Simonetti, Marc J Eleveld, Huberdina M L M Brouwers, Marjo Beldhuis-Valkis, Irma Joosten, Marien I de Jonge, Winald R Gerritsen, I Jolanda M de Vries, Dimitri A Diavatopoulos, Joannes F M Jacobs
Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is used as an immunogenic neo-antigen for various clinical applications and during vaccine development. For advanced monitoring of KLH-based interventions, we developed a flow cytometry-based assay for the ex vivo detection, phenotyping and isolation of KLH-specific B cells. As proof-of-principle, we analyzed 10 melanoma patients exposed to KLH during anti-cancer dendritic cell vaccination. Our assay demonstrated sensitive and specific detection of KLH-specific B cells in peripheral blood and KLH-specific B cell frequencies strongly correlated with anti-KLH serum antibody titers...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344167/protection-and-antibody-reactivity-following-vaccination-of-lumpfish-cyclopterus-lumpus-l-against-atypical-aeromonas-salmonicida
#15
Anita Rønneseth, Gyri T Haugland, Duncan J Colquhoun, Espen Brudal, Heidrun I Wergeland
Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida is frequently associated with disease and mortality in farmed lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L). Challenge experiments using different modes of exposure identified both high and low pathogenic isolates. Intraperitoneal vaccination induced production of high levels of specific antibodies particularly in fish given multiple injections. The immune sera contained antibodies cross reactive with both high and low pathogenic isolates. SDS-PAGE and LC/MSMS analyses showed that the highly virulent isolate expressed the virulence array protein (A-layer) while the less virulent isolate did not...
March 23, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343781/sublingual-targeting-of-sting-with-3-3-cgamp-promotes-systemic-and-mucosal-immunity-against-anthrax-toxins
#16
Tara L Martin, Junbae Jee, Eunsoo Kim, Haley E Steiner, Estelle Cormet-Boyaka, Prosper N Boyaka
Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a zoonotic bacterial pathogen affecting humans and livestock worldwide. The current human anthrax vaccine, anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA), is an injected vaccine with a cumbersome administration schedule and fails to promote mucosal immunity. Bacterial enterotoxins, which stimulate production of the cyclic nucleotide cAMP are effective experimental mucosal vaccine adjuvants, but their inherent toxicity has precluded their use in humans. We investigated whether cyclic dinucleotides that target Stimulator of Interferon Gamma Genes (STING) in mammalian cells could represent an alternative to bacterial enterotoxins as adjuvant for sublingual immunization and promotion of mucosal immunity and secretory IgA responses in addition to systemic immunity...
March 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343774/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-high-dose-hepatitis-b-vaccine-among-patients-receiving-methadone-maintenance-treatment-a-randomized-double-blinded-parallel-controlled-trial
#17
Jing Shi, Yongliang Feng, Linying Gao, Dan Feng, Tian Yao, Shan Shi, Yawei Zhang, Xiaofeng Liang, Suping Wang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To explore whether the immunization with high-dose (60μg) hepatitis B vaccines in patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) could yield a superior protection against hepatitis B infection than did the standard dose (20μg). METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, parallel-controlled trial in MMT patients. Patients with serologically negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) were randomized in a ratio of 1:1 to receive three intramuscular injections of 20μg or 60μg recombinant hepatitis B vaccine at months 0, 1, and 6...
March 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343772/report-of-the-who-technical-consultation-on-the-effect-of-maternal-influenza-and-influenza-vaccination-on-the-developing-fetus-montreal-canada-september-30-october-1-2015
#18
Deshayne B Fell, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Jennifer A Hutcheon, Ruth A Karron, Marian Knight, Michael S Kramer, Arnold S Monto, Geeta K Swamy, Justin R Ortiz, David A Savitz
In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) released a position paper on influenza vaccination recommending that pregnant women have the highest priority for seasonal vaccination in countries where the initiation or expansion of influenza immunization programs is under consideration. Although the primary goal of the WHO recommendation is to prevent influenza illness in pregnant women, the potential benefits of maternal immunization in protecting young infants are also recognized. The extent to which maternal influenza vaccination may prevent adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth or small-for-gestational-age birth, however, is unclear as available studies are in disagreement...
March 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343701/toll-like-receptor-8-agonist-nanoparticles-mimic-immunomodulating-effects-of-the-live-bcg-vaccine-and-enhance-neonatal-innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses
#19
David J Dowling, Evan A Scott, Annette Scheid, Ilana Bergelson, Sweta Joshi, Carlo Pietrasanta, Spencer Brightman, Guzman Sanchez-Schmitz, Simon D Van Haren, Jana Ninković, Dina Kats, Cristiana Guiducci, Alexandre de Titta, Daniel K Bonner, Sachiko Hirosue, Melody A Swartz, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Ofer Levy
BACKGROUND: Newborns display distinct immune responses, leaving them vulnerable to infections and impairing immunization. Targeting newborn dendritic cells (DCs), which integrate vaccine signals into adaptive immune responses, might enable development of age-specific vaccine formulations to overcome suboptimal immunization. OBJECTIVE: Small-molecule imidazoquinoline Toll-like receptor (TLR) 8 agonists robustly activate newborn DCs but can result in reactogenicity when delivered in soluble form...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342972/remodeling-the-th1-polarized-systemic-environment-contributes-to-neurogenesis-and-cognitive-function-via-the-wnt7a-pathway-in-neonatal-mice
#20
YunLong Xu, Fen He, FangFang Qi, Guangqi Yang, FuXiang Zheng, JunHua Yang, Xiao Wang, JunXiu Liu, JunTao Zou
Neonatal Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination results in a positive effect on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition. Serum cytokines are considered to be the chief culprit. In this study, serum from BCG-treated mice was identified as Th1 polarized serum. The serum showed an increased ratio of IFN-γ to IL-4 and decreased levels of TNF-α and IL-6. After Th1 polarized serum was injected intraperitoneally into postnatal mice, the levels of cytokines and ratio of IFN-γ to IL-4 in the serum and hippocampus of postnatal mice showed a similar alteration as those in Th1 polarized serum...
March 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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