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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785476/vaccinia-virus-protein-c6-a-multifunctional-interferon-antagonist
#1
Geoffrey L Smith
Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the prototypic member of the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae. It is also the live vaccine that was used to eradicate smallpox. Like other poxviruses, VACV replicates in the cytoplasm and has a large double-stranded (ds)DNA genome and a complex virion. Approximately, half of the VACV genes are nonessential for virus replication in cell culture but encode a remarkable array of immunomodulators that antagonise the innate immune response to virus infection. This short review concerns one such protein, C6, that is a multifunctional inhibitor of interferon...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785403/immunotherapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-current-advances-and-future-expectations
#2
REVIEW
Yingjun Xie, Yien Xiang, Jiyao Sheng, Dan Zhang, Xiaoxiao Yao, Yongsheng Yang, Xuewen Zhang
Primary liver cancer is a common kind of digestive cancers with high malignancy, causing 745,500 deaths each year. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the major pathological type of primary liver cancer. Traditional treatment methods for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have shown poor efficacy in killing residual cancer cells for a long time. In recent years, tumor immunotherapy has emerged as a promising method owing to its safety and efficacy with respect to delaying the progression of advanced tumors and protecting postoperative patients against tumor relapse and metastasis...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785280/long-duration-of-immunity-against-a-type-1-heterologous-prrs-virus-challenge-in-pigs-immunised-with-a-novel-prrs-mlv-vaccine-a-randomised-controlled-study
#3
Jeremy Kroll, Mike Piontkowski, Poul H Rathkjen, Francois-Xavier Orveillon, Christian Kraft, Oliver G Duran
Background: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is widespread in commercial pig farms worldwide, and has a significant cost to the swine industry. Herd owners need a vaccine that will confer long-lasting immunity to prevent PRRSV infection and transmission. The studies described here evaluated duration of immunity conferred by a European-derived PRRS (isolate 94,881) modified live virus (MLV) vaccine, Ingelvac PRRSFLEX® EU, at 20, 24, and 26 weeks post-vaccination...
2018: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785023/hiv-vaccine-candidate-activation-of-hypoxia-and-the-inflammasome-in-cd14-monocytes-is-associated-with-a-decreased-risk-of-siv-mac251-acquisition
#4
Monica Vaccari, Slim Fourati, Shari N Gordon, Dallas R Brown, Massimilano Bissa, Luca Schifanella, Isabela Silva de Castro, Melvin N Doster, Veronica Galli, Maria Omsland, Dai Fujikawa, Giacomo Gorini, Namal P M Liyanage, Hung V Trinh, Katherine M McKinnon, Kathryn E Foulds, Brandon F Keele, Mario Roederer, Richard A Koup, Xiaoying Shen, Georgia D Tomaras, Marcus P Wong, Karissa J Munoz, Johannes S Gach, Donald N Forthal, David C Montefiori, David J Venzon, Barbara K Felber, Margherita Rosati, George N Pavlakis, Mangala Rao, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Genoveffa Franchini
Qualitative differences in the innate and adaptive responses elicited by different HIV vaccine candidates have not been thoroughly investigated. We tested the ability of the Aventis Pasteur live recombinant canarypox vector (ALVAC)-SIV, DNA-SIV and Ad26-SIV vaccine prime modalities together with two ALVAC-SIV + gp120 protein boosts to reduce the risk of SIVmac251 acquisition in rhesus macaques. We found that the DNA and ALVAC prime regimens were effective, but the Ad26 prime was not. The activation of hypoxia and the inflammasome in CD14+ CD16- monocytes, gut-homing CCR5-negative CD4+ T helper 2 (TH 2) cells and antibodies to variable region 2 correlated with a decreased risk of SIVmac251 acquisition...
May 21, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784994/designing-natural-and-synthetic-immune-tissues
#5
REVIEW
Emily A Gosselin, Haleigh B Eppler, Jonathan S Bromberg, Christopher M Jewell
Vaccines and immunotherapies have provided enormous improvements for public health, but there are fundamental disconnects between where most studies are performed-in cell culture and animal models-and the ultimate application in humans. Engineering immune tissues and organs, such as bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes and spleen, could be instrumental in overcoming these hurdles. Fundamentally, designed immune tissues could serve as in vitro tools to more accurately study human immune function and disease, while immune tissues engineered for implantation as next-generation vaccines or immunotherapies could enable direct, on-demand control over generation and regulation of immune function...
May 21, 2018: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784862/antibodies-to-icam1-binding-pfemp1-dbl%C3%AE-are-biomarkers-of-protective-immunity-to-malaria-in-a-cohort-of-young-children-from-papua-new-guinea
#6
Sofonias K Tessema, Digjaya Utama, Olga Chesnokov, Anthony N Hodder, Clara S Lin, G L Abby Harrison, Jakob S Jespersen, Bent Petersen, Livingstone Tavul, Peter Siba, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Thomas Lavstsen, Diana S Hansen, Andrew V Oleinikov, Ivo Mueller, Alyssa E Barry
Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) mediates parasite sequestration to the cerebral microvasculature via binding of DBLβ domains to Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM1) and is associated with severe cerebral malaria. In a cohort of 187 young children from Papua New Guinea (PNG), we examined baseline antibody levels to the ICAM1-binding PfEMP1 domain, DBLβ3PF11_0521 , in comparison to four control antigens including NTS-DBLα and CIDR1 domains from another group A variant and a group B/C variant...
May 21, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784798/stabilized-single-injection-inactivated-polio-vaccine-elicits-a-strong-neutralizing-immune-response
#7
Stephany Y Tzeng, Kevin J McHugh, Adam M Behrens, Sviatlana Rose, James L Sugarman, Shiran Ferber, Robert Langer, Ana Jaklenec
Vaccination in the developing world is hampered by limited patient access, which prevents individuals from receiving the multiple injections necessary for protective immunity. Here, we developed an injectable microparticle formulation of the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) that releases multiple pulses of stable antigen over time. To accomplish this, we established an IPV stabilization strategy using cationic polymers for pH modulation to enhance traditional small-molecule-based stabilization methods. We investigated the mechanism of this strategy and showed that it was broadly applicable to all three antigens in IPV...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784470/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-menacwy-tt-a-meningococcal-conjugate-vaccine-co-administered-with-routine-childhood-vaccine-in-healthy-infants-a-phase-iii-randomized-study
#8
Ghassan Dbaibo, Juan Carlos Tinoco Favila, Magali Traskine, Archana Jastorff, Marie Van der Wielen
BACKGROUND: Invasive meningococcal disease has a high burden in young children, particularly during infancy. We investigated the immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugated vaccine (MenACWY-TT) co-administered with routine vaccines in healthy infants. METHODS: In this phase IIIb study (NCT01340898) conducted in 2 centers in Lebanon and Mexico, 750 infants were randomized (2:1:1) to receive MenACWY-TT according to 3 schedules: 3+1 (at ages 2, 4, 6 and 15-18 months; group ACWY3+1); 1+1 (at 6 and 15-18 months; group ACWY1+1) or single-dose at 15-18 months (group ACWY1)...
May 18, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784469/duration-of-post-vaccination-immunity-to-yellow-fever-in-volunteers-eight-years-after-a-dose-response-study
#9
Reinaldo de Menezes Martins, Maria de Lourdes S Maia, Sheila Maria Barbosa de Lima, Tatiana Guimarães de Noronha, Janaina Reis Xavier, Luiz Antonio Bastos Camacho, Elizabeth Maciel de Albuquerque, Roberto Henrique Guedes Farias, Thalita da Matta de Castro, Akira Homma
In 2009, Bio-Manguinhos conducted a dose-response study with the yellow fever vaccine, administering the vaccine in the usual mean dose of 27,476 IU (full dose, reference) and in tapered doses (10,447 IU, 3013 IU, 587 IU, 158 IU, and 31 IU) by the usual subcutaneous route and usual volume (0.5 mL). Tapered doses were obtained by dilution in the manufacturer's laboratory, and the test batches presented industrial quality. Doses down to 587 IU showed similar immunogenicity to the full dose (27,476, reference), while the 158 IU and 31 IU doses displayed lower immunogenicity...
May 18, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784466/knowledge-gaps-persist-and-hinder-progress-in-eliminating-mumps
#10
REVIEW
R Ramanathan, E A Voigt, R B Kennedy, G A Poland
Mumps, a common childhood disease in the pre-vaccine era that causes swelling of the parotid salivary glands, can lead to orchitis, viral meningitis, and sensorineural deafness. While the incidence of disease decreased dramatically after the vaccine was added to standard vaccination schedules, the disease has made a substantial resurgence in recent years. As a result, it becomes critical to examine the factors involved in recurring outbreaks. Although low and incomplete vaccination coverage may be a key reason, it does not fully explain the issue due to the high rate of occurrence in populations with high vaccination coverage rates...
May 18, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784457/the-dynamic-role-of-dengue-cross-reactive-immunity-changing-the-approach-to-defining-vaccine-safety-and-efficacy
#11
REVIEW
Kathryn B Anderson, Timothy P Endy, Stephen J Thomas
Dengue virus infections cause a substantial public health burden in tropical and subtropical regions. A single dengue vaccine has been approved by regulatory authorities in 19 countries, but concerns regarding vaccine safety in people who are dengue naive at the time of immunisation has introduced uncertainty into the vaccine's future. As other dengue vaccines complete or enter large-scale efficacy trials, we argue that foundational work by Sabin, historic epidemiological observations of dengue outbreaks, and prospective cohort studies in Asia and the Americas indicate that modifications must be made to the methods of assessing dengue vaccines...
May 18, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783722/the-occurrence-of-a-commercial-n-pro-and-e-rns-double-mutant-bvdv-1-live-vaccine-strain-in-newborn-calves
#12
Kerstin Wernike, Anna Michelitsch, Andrea Aebischer, Uwe Schaarschmidt, Andrea Konrath, Hermann Nieper, Julia Sehl, Jens P Teifke, Martin Beer
The major source for the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are in-utero infected, immunotolerant, persistently infected (PI) animals since they shed enormous amounts of viruses throughout their lives. During the sequence-based virus typing of diagnostic ear notch samples performed in the context of the obligatory German BVDV eradication program, the commercial Npro and Erns double mutant BVDV-1 live-vaccine strain KE-9 was detected in seven newborn calves; their mothers were immunized in the first trimester of gestation...
May 19, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783157/vaccines-and-the-association-with-relapses-in-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#13
Maureen A Mealy, Lawrence J Cook, Florence Pache, Diego L Velez, Nadja Borisow, Daniel Becker, Jorge A Jimenez Arango, Friedemann Paul, Michael Levy
BACKGROUND: It is unknown if vaccines cause non-specific immune activation in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and no consensus on the use of vaccines exists for this population. We investigated the temporal association of vaccinations with relapses in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. METHODS: This is a multi-center retrospective analysis of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder for whom immunization history and clinical records from disease onset were available...
May 7, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782967/deficient-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-il-2-activated-nk-cells-correlates-with-impaired-pgc1-%C3%AE-upregulation-in-elderly-humans
#14
Dante Miranda, Claudia Jara, Sophia Mejias, Viviana Ahumada, Marcelo Cortez-San Martin, Jorge Ibañez, Sandra Hirsch, Margarita Montoya
Immunosenescence has been described as age-associated changes in the immune function which are thought to be responsible for the increased morbidity with age. Human Natural Killer (NK) cells are a specialized heterogeneous subpopulation of lymphocytes involved in immune defense against tumor and microbial diseases. Interestingly, aging-related NK cell dysfunction is associated with features of aging such as tumor incidence, reduced vaccination efficacy, and short survival due to infection. It is known that NK cell effector functions are critically dependent on cytokines and metabolic activity...
May 18, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782535/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-cd4-and-cd8-t-cells-differ-in-their-capacity-to-recognize-infected-macrophages
#15
Jason D Yang, Daniel Mott, Rujapak Sutiwisesak, Yu-Jung Lu, Fiona Raso, Britni Stowell, Greg Hunter Babunovic, Jinhee Lee, Steve M Carpenter, Sing Sing Way, Sarah M Fortune, Samuel M Behar
Containment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection requires T cell recognition of infected macrophages. Mtb has evolved to tolerate, evade, and subvert host immunity. Despite a vigorous and sustained CD8+ T cell response during Mtb infection, CD8+ T cells make limited contribution to protection. Here, we ask whether the ability of Mtb-specific T cells to restrict Mtb growth is related to their capacity to recognize Mtb-infected macrophages. We derived CD8+ T cell lines that recognized the Mtb immunodominant epitope TB10...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782508/parent-and-caregiver-perceptions-about-the-safety-and-effectiveness-of-foreign-and-domestic-vaccines-in-shanghai-china
#16
Zhuoying Huang, Xiaodong Sun, Abram L Wagner, Jia Ren, Matthew L Boulton, Lisa A Prosser, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher
BACKGROUND: Chinese parents have access to domestic and foreign vaccines for their children. Their vaccine preferences are unclear, especially given recent pharmaceutical quality scandals and widely held beliefs deriving from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). This study characterized parental beliefs about the safety and effectiveness of Chinese and foreign vaccines. METHODS: In May 2014, caregivers of young children at public immunization clinics in Shanghai, China, responded to a survey on vaccine perceptions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782143/anti-tumor-humoral-and-t-cell-responses-by-mucin-1-conjugates-of-bacteriophage-qb-in-wildtype-mice
#17
Zhaojun Yin, Xuanjun Wu, Katarzyna Kaczanowska, Suttipun Sungsuwan, Marta Comellas-Aragones, Christian Pett, Jin Yu, Claire Baniel, Ulrika Westerlind, M G Finn, Xuefei Huang
Mucin-1 (MUC1) is one of the top ranked tumor associated antigens. In order to generate effective anti-MUC1 immune responses as potential anti-cancer vaccines, MUC1 peptides and glycopeptides have been covalently conjugated to bacteriophage Qb. Immunization of mice with these constructs led to highly potent antibody responses with IgG titers over one million, which are among the highest anti-MUC1 IgG titers reported to date. Furthermore, the high IgG antibody levels persisted for more than six months. The constructs also elicited MUC1 specific cytotoxic T cells, which can selectively kill MUC1 positive tumor cells...
May 21, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781815/lymph-node-fibrosis-a-structural-barrier-to-unleashing-effective-vaccine-immunity
#18
Boris Julg, Galit Alter
There is marked variability in vaccine efficacy among global populations. In particular, individuals in low- to middle-income countries have been shown to be less responsive to vaccines than those from developed nations. Several factors, including endemic infections, nutrition, genetics, and gut microbiome composition, have been proposed to underlie discrepancies in vaccine response. In this issue of the JCI, Kityo et al. evaluated response to yellow fever virus vaccine, inflammation, and lymphatic tissue architecture and fibrosis in three cohorts: two from the U...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781755/more-robust-gut-immune-responses-induced-by-combining-intranasal-and-sublingual-routes-for-prime-boost-immunization
#19
Hye Suk Hwang, Sao Puth, Wenzhi Tan, Vivek Verma, Kwangjoon Jeong, Shee Eun Lee, Joon Haeng Rhee
Norovirus causes acute and debilitating gastroenteritis, characterized by vomiting and diarrhea. We recently reported a recombinant GII. 4 P domain particle (Pd) vaccine adjuvanted with a flagellin, Vibrio vulnificus FlaB, effectively promoting both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. In the previous study, we found that sublingual (SL) immunization induced higher fecal secretory IgA (SIgA) responses while intranasal (IN) route provided higher amplitude of humoral and cellular immune responses in the systemic compartment...
May 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781672/immunological-response-to-brucella-abortus-strain-19-vaccination-of-cattle-in-a-communal-area-in-south-africa
#20
Gregory J G Simpson, Tanguy Marcotty, Elodie Rouille, Abel Chilundo, Jean-Jacques Letteson, Jacques Godfroid
Brucellosis is of worldwide economic and public health importance. Heifer vaccination with live attenuated Brucella abortus strain 19 (S19) is the cornerstone of control in low- and middle-income countries. Antibody persistence induced by S19 is directly correlated with the number of colony-forming units (CFU) per dose. There are two vaccination methods: a 'high' dose (5-8 × 1010 CFU) subcutaneously injected or one or two 'low' doses (5 × 109 CFU) through the conjunctival route. This study aimed to evaluate serological reactions to the 'high' dose and possible implications of the serological findings on disease control...
March 29, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
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