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Vincenzo Calderone, Alma Martelli, Eugenia Piragine, Valentina Citi, Lara Testai, Maria Cristina Breschi
In the last four decades, the several classes of diuretics, currently available for clinical use, have been the first line option for the therapy of widespread cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases. Diuretic drugs generally exhibit an overall favourable risk/benefit balance. However, they are not devoid of side effects. In particular, all the classes of diuretics cause alteration of potassium homeostasis. In recent years, understanding of the physiological role of the renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK) channels, has shown an intriguing pharmacological target for developing an innovative class of diuretic agents: the ROMK inhibitors...
October 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Aaron D Simmons, Vassilios I Sikavitsas
Ever-increasing demand for bone grafts necessitates the realization of clinical implementation of bone tissue engineered constructs. The predominant hurdle to implementation remains to be securing FDA approval, based on the lack of viable methods for the rigorous monitoring of said constructs. The study presented herein details a method for such monitoring based on the shifting metabolism of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as they differentiate into osteoblasts. To that end, rat MSCs seeded on 85% porous spunbonded poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds were cultured in flow perfusion bioreactors with baseline or osteoinductive media, and levels of key physio-metabolic markers (oxygen, glucose, osteoprotegerin, and osteocalcin) were monitored throughout culture...
October 11, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Christian R Mejia, Araseli Verastegui-Díaz, Dante M Quiñones-Laveriano, Germán Aranzabal-Alegría, Virgilio E Failoc-Rojas
Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de actividad física y su asociación con enfermedades crónicas en ancianos de 11 ciudades del Perú. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal analítico de datos secundarios. La variable dependiente fue la no realización de actividad física, y las independientes fueron las enfermedades crónicas y otras variables fisioantropométricas. Para el análisis bivariado y multivariado se usaron los modelos lineales generalizados...
2017: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
Ioana Agache, Daniel S Strasser, Gabin M Pierlot, Hervé Farine, Kenji Izuhara, Cezmi A Akdis
The complexity of type 2 and non-type 2 asthma requires monitoring with multiple biomarkers. We evaluated the potential of multidimensional endotyping to characterise physio-pathological clusters based on asthma severity and intensity of the blood eosinophilia.
October 5, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
J Garcia Naranjo, S Barroso Rosa, J F Loro, J M Limiana, E Suarez Hernndez
INTRODUCTION: Whiplash associated disorders are currently a ommon musculoskeletal problem. Besides the high incidence in western countries, the costs derived from prolonged treatment and medico-legal compensation, make this entity a challenging problem for clinicians and insurance companies. To date, no conservative treatment has shown clear superiority in the management of acute cases. HYPOTHESIS: Percutaneous needle electrolysis (PNE) is an effective approach for the treatment of Quebec type II acute whiplash syndrome (AWS)...
October 4, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Gang Li, Jiaxing Liu, Zenghui Diao, Xin Jiang, Jiajun Li, Zhixin Ke, Pingping Shen, Lijuan Ren, Liangmin Huang, Yehui Tan
Estuarine oxygen depletion is one of the worldwide problems, which is caused by the freshwater-input-derived severe stratification and high nutrients loading. In this study we presented the horizontal and vertical distributions of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the Pearl River estuary, together with temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a concentration and heterotrophic bacteria abundance obtained from two cruises during the summer (wet) and winter (dry) periods of 2015. In surface water, the DO level in the summer period was lower and varied greater, as compared to the winter period...
October 3, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Alessandro Frigo, Mario Costantini, Chiara Giulia Fontanella, Stefano Merigliano, Emanuele Luigi Carniel
OBJECTIVE: Degenerative phenomena may affect esophageal motility as a relevant social-health problem. The diagnosis of such disorders is usually performed by the analysis of data from high resolution manometry (HRM). Inter- and intra-observer variability frequently affects the diagnosis, with potential interpretative and thus therapeutic errors, with unnecessary or worse treatments. This may be avoided with automatic procedures that minimize human intervention in data processing. METHODS: In order to support the traditional diagnostic process, an automatic procedure was defined considering a specific physio-mechanical model that is able to objectively interpret data from HRM...
October 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Zhiming He, Nagarajan Selvamurugan, Johanna Warshaw, Nicola C Partridge
Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) can be effective in promoting the healing of delayed union or nonunion fractures. We previously reported that PEMF (Spinal-Stim® by Orthofix, Inc., Lewisville, TX) stimulated proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of rat calvarial osteoblastic cells in culture. In the present work we investigated the effects of PEMF (Physio-Stim® by Orthofix, Inc., Lewisville, TX) on human bone marrow macrophages (hBMMs) differentiated to osteoclasts. PEMF had striking inhibitory effects on formation of osteoclasts from hBMMs from both younger and older women...
September 28, 2017: Bone
Vareessh Maney, Moganavelli Singh
AIM: To synthesize and functionalize platinum (core)-gold (shell) bimetallic nanoparticles (PtAuBNps) with chitosan and doxorubicin to display favorable pharmacokinetics, biodegradability, biological activity and safety in vitro. MATERIALS & METHODS: PtAuBNps and their drug nanocomposites were morphologically and physico-chemically characterized. Binding studies determined the efficiency and stability of the platform. In vitro release kinetics were evaluated under simulated environments, cytotoxicity profiles through MTT and Sulforodhamine B assays and apoptosis induction using the dual EtBr/AO staining...
October 2, 2017: Nanomedicine
Ana D Martin-Ryals, Lance C Schideman, Kathryn Guy
The addition of ion-exchange resin in a two-phase continuous AnMBR system treating primary sludge at ambient temperature (20 °C) was investigated as a means to improve reactor recovery after organic shock-loading. Four commercially available anion-exchange resins were evaluated for their ability to sorb soluble organics, specifically volatile fatty acids (VFA), from AnMBR effluent. The strong-base resin, Purolite TANEX, was determined the best resin for deployment in the continuous AnMBR having achieved the greatest removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) (up to 36%) and acetic acid (up to 48%) in preliminary batch testing...
September 21, 2017: Water Research
Ali Bashiri Rezaie, Majid Montazer, Mahnaz Mahmoudi Rad
In this research, a facile, rapid and eco-friendly method is introduced for synthesis and loading of cupric oxide on cellulosic chains of cotton fabric with functional properties. Seidlitzia rosmarinus ashes and copper acetate were employed as a natural source of alkaline and metal salt without further chemical materials. The treated samples indicated very good antibacterial activities toward both pathogen Staphylococcus aureus as Gram-positive and Escherichia coli as Gram-negative bacteria. Significant self-cleaning properties against degradation of methylene blue stain under UV irradiation were found...
December 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Niloufar Marsousi, Jules A Desmeules, Serge Rudaz, Youssef Daali
In recent years, Physiologically-Based PharmacoKinetic (PBPK) modeling has received growing interest as a useful tool for assessment of drug PK. It has demonstrated to be informative and helpful to quantify the modification in drug exposure due to specific physio-pathological conditions, age, genetic polymorphisms, ethnicity and particularly drug-drug interactions (DDIs). In this paper, the prediction success of DDIs involving various cytochrome P450 isoenzyme (CYP) modulators namely ketoconazole (a competitive inhibitor of CYP3A), itraconazole (a competitive inhibitor of CYP3A), clarithromycin (a mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP3A), quinidine (a competitive inhibitor of CYP2D6), paroxetine (a mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP2D6), ciprofloxacin (a competitive inhibitor of CYP1A2), fluconazole (a competitive inhibitor of CYP2C9/2C19) and rifampicin (an inducer of CYP3A) were assessed using Simcyp® software...
September 28, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Akash Tariq, Kaiwen Pan, Olusanya A Olatunji, Corina Graciano, Zilong Li, Feng Sun, Xiaoming Sun, Dagang Song, Wenkai Chen, Aiping Zhang, Xiaogang Wu, Lin Zhang, Deng Mingrui, Qinli Xiong, Chenggang Liu
Phoebe zhennan (Gold Phoebe) is a threatened tree species in China and a valuable and important source of wood and bioactive compounds used in medicine. Apart from anthropogenic disturbances, several biotic constraints currently restrict its growth and development. However, little attention has been given to building adaptive strategies for its conservation by examining its morphological and physio-biochemical responses to drought stress, and the role of fertilizers on these responses. A randomized experimental design was used to investigate the effects of two levels of irrigation (well-watered and drought-stressed) and phosphorous (P) fertilization treatment (with and without P) to assess the morphological and physio-biochemical responses of P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yun Ma, Zhiwei Li, Mei Yuan, Linhua Chen, Shanshan Zhou
In this study, a bacterial strain, CH-1, capable of degrading 3-bromocarbazole (3-BCZ) was isolated from a polluted soil. Based on its physio-biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA genes, strain CH-1 was identified as a Stenotrophomonas sp. Strain CH-1 was able to degrade 70% of 50 mg/L 3-BCZ within 8 d at pH 7.0 and 30°C in mineral salt medium (MSM). During the process, the main intermediate metabolite was identified as (2E, 4Z)-6-(2-amino-5-bromophenyl)-2-hydroxy-6-oxhexa-2, 4-dienoic by gas (2E, 4Z)-6-(2-amino-5-bromophenyl)-2-hydroxy-6-oxhexa-2,4-dienoic via gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Fabienne Schasfoort, Annet Dallmeijer, Robert Pangalila, Coriene Catsman, Henk Stam, Jules Becher, Ewout Steyerberg, Suzanne Polinder, Johannes Bussmann
OBJECTIVE: Despite the widespread use of botulinum toxin in ambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy, its value prior to intensive physiotherapy with adjunctive casting/orthoses remains unclear. DESIGN: A pragmatically designed, multi-centre trial, comparing the effectiveness of botulinum toxin + intensive physiotherapy with intensive physiotherapy alone, including economic evaluation. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS: Children with spastic cerebral palsy, age range 4-12 years, cerebral palsy-severity Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-III, received either botulinum toxin type A + intensive physiotherapy or intensive physiotherapy alone and, if necessary, ankle-foot orthoses and/or casting...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Richard W Olsen, Jing Liang
GABAergic inhibitory transmission is involved in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on the brain and behavior. One-dose ethanol exposure induces transient plastic changes in GABAA receptor subunit levels, composition, and regional and subcellular localization. Rapid down-regulation of early responder δ subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-sensitive tonic inhibitory currents in critical neuronal circuits corresponds to rapid tolerance to ethanol's behavioral responses. Slightly slower, α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-insensitive synaptic inhibition are down-regulated, corresponding to tolerance to additional ethanol behaviors plus cross-tolerance to other GABAergic drugs including benzodiazepines, anesthetics, and neurosteroids, especially sedative-hypnotic effects...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
Marilina Garcia-Aranda, Alfonso Serrano, Maximino Redondo
Clusterin is a multifunctional glycoprotein whose role in cells has generated a great controversy in recent years. Since its discovery, numerous studies have linked clusterin expression deregulation with various physio-pathological processes such as cancer or Alzheimer's disease. Although the results of such investigations have sometimes been contradictory, mainly due to the dichotomous role of clusterin isoforms, it has been demonstrated that this protein is involved in diverse cellular processes, including apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair or the acquisition of cell resistance against multiple conventional therapies...
September 18, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Hariram Venkatesan, John J Godwin, Seralathan Sivamani
The article presents the experimental data on the extraction and transesterification of bio-oil derived from Stoechospermum marginatum, a brown macro marine algae. The samples were collected from Mandapam region, Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India. The bio-oil was extracted using Soxhlet technique with a lipid extraction efficiency of 24.4%. Single stage transesterification was adopted due to lower free fatty acid content. The yield of biodiesel was optimized by varying the process parameters. The obtained data showed the optimum process parameters as reaction time 90 min, reaction temperature 65 °C, catalyst concentration 0...
October 2017: Data in Brief
Ahmad B Albadarin, Samuel Solomon, Tonni Agustiono Kurniawan, Chirangano Mangwandi, Gavin Walker
Novel and low cost chemically modified masau stone (CMMS) was investigated for its biosorption of an anionic azo dye, Orange II (OII), and toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from aqueous systems: individually, simultaneously and consecutively. XPS and FTIR analyses indicated the introduction of quaternary-Nitrogen to the CMMS surface after activation with epichlorohydrin (etherifying agent) and diethylenetriamine (crosslinking agent). The effects of pH, contact time and initial concentration (Co), and loading order on mechanisms of biosorption/reduction of OII and Cr(VI) onto CMMS were examined in detail...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
C Almici, C Skert, B Bruno, A Bianchetti, R Verardi, A Di Palma, A Neva, S Braga, G Piccinelli, G Piovani, M Malagola, S Bernardi, L Giaccone, L Brunello, M Festuccia, K Baeten, D Russo, M Marini
The physio-pathologic interrelationships between endothelium and GvHD have been better elucidated and have led to definition of the entity 'endothelial GvHD' as an essential early phase prior to the clinical presentation of acute GvHD. Using the CellSearch system, we analyzed circulating endothelial cells (CEC) in 90 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) patients at the following time-points: T1 (pre-conditioning), T2 (pre-transplant), T3 (engraftment), T4 (onset of GvHD) and T5 (1 week after steroid treatment)...
September 11, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
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