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Karla Batista-García-Ramó, Caridad Ivette Fernández-Verdecia
How the human brain works is still a question, as is its implication with brain architecture: the non-trivial structure–function relationship. The main hypothesis is that the anatomic architecture conditions, but does not determine, the neural network dynamic. The functional connectivity cannot be explained only considering the anatomical substrate. This involves complex and controversial aspects of the neuroscience field and that the methods and methodologies to obtain structural and functional connectivity are not always rigorously applied...
April 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Giovanni Smaldone, Luciano Pirone, Angela Capolupo, Luigi Vitagliano, Maria Chiara Monti, Sonia Di Gaetano, Emilia Pedone
KCTD15 is a member of the K+ Channel Tetramerization Domain family, implicated in crucial physio-pathological processes. Recent evidences suggest that KCTD15 is an obesity-linked protein in humans and its Drosophila homologue is involved in food uptake. KCTD15 molecular mechanism in these processes is still unknown. To fill this gap, KCTD15 was biophysically characterized showing a folded, pentameric region endowed with a remarkable thermal stability. Notably, the C-terminal domain significantly contributes to the stabilization of the BTB N-terminal domain...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Gayatri Singh, Babita Kumari, Geetgovind Sinam, Kriti, Navin Kumar, Shekhar Mallick
Fluorine is an essential element required in trace amounts but gets toxic for human beings at levels more than 1.5 mg F- L-1 primarily through drinking contaminated water. It is the 13th most abundant element and constitutes about 0.06-0.09% in the earth crust. It is electronegative in aqueous medium forming fluoride ion (F- ). Fluoride contamination in the environment occurs mostly due to anthropogenic and geogenic sources. Fluoride is widely distributed in all components of environment, air (0.1-0.6 μg L-1 ) soils (150-400 mg Kg-1 ) rocks (100-2000 mg Kg-1 ), plant (0...
April 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Areej T Almalkawi, Talal Salem, Sameer Hamadna, A G N D Darsanasiri, Parviz Soroushian, Anagi Balchandra, Ghassan Al-Chaar
Cementitious composites, including ferrocement and continuous fiber reinforced cement, are increasingly considered for building construction and repair. One alternative in processing of these composites is to infiltrate the reinforcement (continuous fibers or chicken mesh) with a flowable cementitious slurry. The relatively high density of cementitious binders, when compared with polymeric binders, are a setback in efforts to introduce cementitious composites as lower-cost, fire-resistant, and durable alternatives to polymer composites...
April 12, 2018: Materials
Roberta Baetta, Marta Pontremoli, Alma Martinez Fernandez, Corinne M Spickett, Cristina Banfi
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) represent the most important cause of mortality in women and in men. Contrary to the long-standing notion that the effects of the major risk factors on CVD outcomes are the same in both sexes, recent evidence recognizes new, potentially independent, sex/gender-related risk factors for CVDs, and sex/gender-differences in the clinical presentation of CVDs have been demonstrated. Furthermore, some therapeutic options may not be equally effective and safe in men and women. In this context, proteomics offers an extremely useful and versatile analytical platform for biomedical researches that expand from the screening of early diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to the investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying CDVs...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Sharali Malik, Felicite M Ruddock, Adam H Dowling, Kevin Byrne, Wolfgang Schmitt, Ivan Khalakhan, Yoshihiro Nemoto, Hongxuan Guo, Lok Kumar Shrestha, Katsuhiko Ariga, Jonathan P Hill
Pure graphene in the form of few-layer graphene (FLG) - 1 to 6 layers - is biocompatible and non-cytotoxic. This makes FLG an ideal material to incorporate into dental polymers to increase their strength and durability. It is well known that graphene has high mechanical strength and has been shown to enhance the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of biomaterials. However, for commercial applicability, methods to produce larger than lab-scale quantities of graphene are required. Here, we present a simple method to make large quantities of FLG starting with commercially available multi-layer graphene (MLG)...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Norma Cruz-Fierro, Margarita Martínez-Fierro, Ricardo M Cerda-Flores, Mayra A Gómez-Govea, Iván Delgado-Enciso, Laura E Martínez-De-Villarreal, Mónica T González-Ramírez, Irám Pablo Rodríguez-Sánchez
Bruxism is a jaw muscle activity that involves physio-pathological, psycho-social, hereditary and genetic factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between self-reported bruxism, anxiety, and neuroticism personality trait with the rs6313 polymorphism in the gene HTR2A . A sample of 171 subjects of both sexes (14-53 years of age) was included. The control group (group 1, n=60) exhibited no signs or symptoms of bruxism. The case group had signs and symptoms of bruxism (n=112) and was subdivided into group 2, bruxism during sleep (n=22); group 3, awake bruxism (n=44); and group 4 combined bruxism (n=46)...
March 2018: Biomedical Reports
Katarzyna Zabielska-Koczywąs, Anna Wojtalewicz, Ewelina Użarowska, Agata Klejman, Agata Wojtkowska, Izabella Dolka, Marek Wojnicki, Katarzyna Sobczak, Michał Wójcik, Haifa Shen, Mauro Ferrari, Roman Lechowski
Feline injection site sarcomas (FISS) are malignant skin tumors with high recurrence rates despite the primary treatment of radical surgical resections. Adjunctive radiotherapy or chemotherapy with doxorubicin is mostly ineffective. Cellular and molecular causes of multidrug resistance, specific physio-chemical properties of solid tumors impairing drug transport, and the tumor microenvironment have been indicated for causing standard chemotherapy failure. Gold nanoparticles are promising imaging tools, nanotherapeutics, and drug delivery systems (DDS) for chemotherapeutics, improving drug transport within solid tumors...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rachel Clarke, Mark G Healy, Owen Fenton, Enda Cummins
The use of biosolids as a fertiliser may be an indirect route for contaminants into the food chain. One of the main concerns regarding the spreading of biosolids on agricultural land is the potential uptake of contaminants into plants which may bio-transfer into grazing animals that supply the food chain directly (e.g. meat and milk) and hence are subsequently consumed. The aim of this project was to create a quantitative risk assessment model to estimate the fate and translocation of triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) into the feed (grass) and food chain with subsequent human exposure...
April 2018: Food Research International
Monica Juneja, Rahul Jain, Ankita Gautam, Ritu Khanna, Kamia Narang
Background & objectives: Botulinum toxin is considered as an effective treatment for spasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, there are only a few long-term studies, and the effects on motor function have been inconclusive. Moreover, due to its high cost and need for intensive post-injection therapy, utility in context of developing nations has not been established. This retrospective study was undertaken to assess the long term effects of botulinum toxin-A with physical therapy in children with CP...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Roberta De Tullio, Alice Franchi, Antonino Martines, Monica Averna, Marco Pedrazzi, Edon Melloni, Bianca Sparatore
Autoproteolysis of human erythrocyte calpain-1 proceeds in vitro at high [Ca2+ ], through the conversion of the 80kDa catalytic subunit to a 75kDa activated enzyme that requires lower [Ca2+ ] for catalysis. Importantly, here we detect a similar 75kDa calpain-1 form also in vivo, in human meningiomas. Although calpastatin is so far considered the specific inhibitor of calpains, we have previously identified in rat brain a calpastatin transcript truncated at the end of the L-domain (cast110, L-DOM), coding for a protein lacking the inhibitory units...
March 23, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Florian Leidner, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Janet Paulsen, Yves A Muller, Celia A Schiffer
Water is an essential in many biological processes, and the hydration structure plays a critical role in facilitating protein folding, dynamics and ligand binding. A variety of biophysical spectroscopic techniques have been used to probe the water solvating proteins, often complemented with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to resolve the spatial and dynamic features of the hydration shell, but comparing relative water structure is challenging. In this study 1 microsecond MD simulations were performed to identify and characterize hydration sites around HIV-1 protease bound to an inhibitor, darunavir (DRV)...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Jung-Yoon Heo, Ji-Eun Kim, Yongwook Dan, Yong-Woon Kim, Jong-Yeon Kim, Kyu Hyang Cho, Young Kyung Bae, Seung-Soon Im, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, In-Hwan Song, Jae-Ryong Kim, In-Kyu Lee, So-Young Park
Clusterin is a secretory glycoprotein that is involved in multiple physio-pathological processes, including lipid metabolism. Previous studies have shown that clusterin prevents hepatic lipid accumulation via suppression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1. In this study, we examined the role of clusterin in renal lipid accumulation in clusterin knockout mice and NRK52e tubular epithelial cells. Clusterin deficiency increased the expression of SREBP1 and its target genes, and decreased malonyl CoA decarboxylase protein levels in the kidney...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Ye Sol Shin, Hong Il Choi, Jin Won Choi, Jeong Seop Lee, Young Joon Sung, Sang Jun Sim
Microalgae have been rising as a feedstock for biofuel in response to the energy crisis. Due to a high lipid content, composed of fatty acids favorable for the biodiesel production, microalgae are still being investigated as an alternative to biodiesel. Environmental factors and process conditions can alternate the quality and the quantity of lipid produced by microalgae, which can be critical for the overall production of biodiesel. To maximize both the lipid content and the biomass productivity, it is necessary to start with robust algal strains and optimal physio-chemical properties of the culture environment in combination with a novel culture system...
March 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Hafeez Ur Rehman, Hesham F Alharby, Yahya Alzahrani, Mostafa M Rady
Magnesium (Mg) often leaches down in sandy soils due to high mobility and its foliar application proves to be beneficial. Organic biostimulants also prove to be helpful to affect plant physio-biochemistry and antioxidative defense system. The present study evaluated the beneficial effects of seed soaking in maize grain extract (MGE; 3%) in integration with or without foliar Mg (1 mM) in comparison to control (no treatment) on growth, yield performance, seed oil and fatty acid profile including physiological and biochemical basis of Hysun-336 sunflower hybrid grown on a sandy soil under greenhouse conditions...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Luca Parisi, Elisabetta Gini, Denisa Baci, Marco Tremolati, Matteo Fanuli, Barbara Bassani, Giampietro Farronato, Antonino Bruno, Lorenzo Mortara
Macrophages are key cellular components of the innate immunity, acting as the main player in the first-line defence against the pathogens and modulating homeostatic and inflammatory responses. Plasticity is a major feature of macrophages resulting in extreme heterogeneity both in normal and in pathological conditions. Macrophages are not homogenous, and they are generally categorized into two broad but distinct subsets as either classically activated (M1) or alternatively activated (M2). However, macrophages represent a continuum of highly plastic effector cells, resembling a spectrum of diverse phenotype states...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Thomas Hilberg
Sports and exercise therapy becomes more and more integrated in the treatment plan of different diseases. Although the benefits of this therapy are of high quality evidence, e.g. in cardiovascular diseases, no concepts of sports therapy are available as a treatment option for rare diseases.During the last eighteen years, we analyzed the situation as well as necessity, and developed a model, contents and the concept of the "Programmed Sports Therapy (PST)" for the treatment of PwH (people with haemophilia) as our model of rare disease...
March 5, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Hsiang-Hsin Chen, Tsung-Tse Lee, Ann Chen, Yeukuang Hwu, Cyril Petibois
Determining the filtration function and biochemical status of kidney at the single glomerulus level remains hardly accessible, even from biopsies. Here, we provide evidence that IR spectro-microscopy is a suitable method to account for the filtration capacity of individual glomeruli along with related physio-pathological condition. A ~4-µm voxel resolution 3D IR image reconstruction is built from consecutive tissue sections, thus providing a 3D IR spectrum matrix of an individual glomerulus. The filtration capacity of glomeruli was quantitatively determined after BaSO4 perfusion, and additional chemical data could be used to determined oxidative stress effects and fibrosis, thus combining functional and biochemical information from the same 3D IR spectrum matrix...
March 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Hina Rashid, Azmina Hussain, Abdul Hafeez Sheikh, Kehkishan Azam, Sofia Malik, Muhammad Amin
BACKGROUND: Dento-alveolar surgical procedures involving third molar teeth are the most common surgical procedure in the field of surgery. The objective of this research was to analyse the impact of surgery on the incidence of alveolar osteitis after surgical removal of mandibular third molar and to compare two different bone cutting methods following impacted mandibular third molar surgery.. METHODS: This double blinded randomized clinical trial was executed at the OPD of Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi...
January 2018: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Christian Sögaard, Johan Funehag, Zareen Abbas
At present there is a pressing need to find an environmentally friendly grouting material for the construction of tunnels. Silica nanoparticles hold great potential of replacing the organic molecule based grouting materials currently used for this purpose. Chemically, silica nanoparticles are similar to natural silicates which are essential components of rocks and soil. Moreover, suspensions of silica nanoparticles of different sizes and desired reactivity are commercially available. However, the use of silica nanoparticles as grouting material is at an early stage of its technological development...
2018: Nano Convergence
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