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Ha Kyun Kim, Hyun Jung Kim, Jae Hyung Kim, Tae Hoon Kim, Sang Hag Lee
Numerous peripheral tissues possess self-sustaining daily biologic rhythms that are regulated at the molecular level by clock genes such as PER1, PER2, CLOCK, and BMAL1. Physiological function of nasal mucosa exhibits rhythmic variability to a day-night environmental cycle. Nevertheless, little is known of the expression and distribution pattern of clock genes in nasal mucosa. The present study investigates the expression level and distribution pattern of PER1, PER2, CLOCK, and BMAL1 genes in nasal mucosa of healthy controls, allergic rhinitis patients, and normal rats...
2018: PloS One
Jiusheng Wang
Asthma is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases of childhood, characterized by airway inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins. Casticin is an active compound that possesses broad biological activities including anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effect of casticin on asthma remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect and mechanism of casticin on inflammatory responses and expression of mucus and extracellular matrix in human airway epithelial cells...
March 6, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Tetsuo Miyake, Takashi Miyake, Makoto Sakaguchi, Hirokazu Nankai, Takahiro Nakazawa, Ryuichi Morishita
Transactivation of inflammatory and immune mediators in asthma is tightly regulated by nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6). Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of simultaneous inhibition of NF-κB and STAT6 using a chimeric decoy strategy to prevent asthma exacerbation. The effects of decoy oligodeoxynucleotides were evaluated using an ovalbumin-induced mouse asthma model. Ovalbumin-sensitized mice received intratracheal administration of decoy oligodeoxynucleotides 3 days before ovalbumin challenge...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Su Ui Lee, Seoghyun Lee, Hyunju Ro, Ji-Hee Choi, Hyung Won Ryu, Mun-Ock Kim, Heung Joo Yuk, Jinhyuk Lee, Sung-Tae Hong, Sei-Ryang Oh
BACKGROUND: Piscroside C, isolated from Pseudolysimachion rotundum var. subintegrum, is a novel iridoid glycoside with therapeutic efficacy in a mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Piscroside C has been reported as a constituent of YPL-001 (under Phase 2a study, identifier NCT02272634). PURPOSE: To investigate the mechanisms behind piscroside C therapeutic effects on COPD in human airway epithelial NCI-H292 cells. METHODS: We tested if piscroside C effectively suppresses MUC5AC gene expression and TNF-RSC/IKK/NF-κB cascades in TNF-α-stimulated NCI-H292 cells by employing, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, luciferase reporter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and immunoprecipitation...
February 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Ririno Honma, Naoya Sakamoto, Akira Ishikawa, Daiki Taniyama, Kaho Fukada, Takuya Hattori, Kazuhiro Sentani, Naohide Oue, Kazuaki Tanabe, Hideki Ohdan, Wataru Yasui
BACKGROUND/AIM: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Gremlin1 is an antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins that plays a critical role in several biological processes including cancer biology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We immunohistochemically examined the expression and distribution of Gremlin1 in non-neoplastic gastric mucosa in a series of 159 GC cases. RESULTS: Among 159 GC primary tumors, 59 (37%) were positive for Gremlin1...
March 2018: Anticancer Research
Helen T Groves, Leah Cuthbertson, Phillip James, Miriam F Moffatt, Michael J Cox, John S Tregoning
Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota have profound effects on human health. Consequently, there is great interest in identifying, characterizing, and understanding factors that initiate these changes. Despite their high prevalence, studies have only recently begun to investigate how viral lung infections have an impact on the gut microbiota. There is also considerable interest in whether the gut microbiota could be manipulated during vaccination to improve efficacy. In this highly controlled study, we aimed to establish the effect of viral lung infection on gut microbiota composition and the gut environment using mouse models of common respiratory pathogens respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Arunava Ghosh, Raymond C Coakley, Teresa Mascenik, Temperance R Rowell, Eric S Davis, Keith Rogers, Megan J Webster, Hong Dang, Laura E Herring, M Flori Sassano, Alessandra Livraghi-Butrico, Scott K Van Buren, Lee M Graves, Melissa A Herman, Scott H Randell, Neil E Alexis, Robert Tarran
RATIONAL: E-cigarettes vaporize propylene glycol/vegetable glycerin (PG/VG), nicotine and flavorings. However, the long-term health effects of exposing lungs to vaped e-liquids are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of chronic vaping on pulmonary epithelia. METHODS: We performed research bronchoscopies on healthy non-smokers, cigarette smokers and e-cigarettes users (vapers) and obtained bronchial brush biopsies and lavage samples from these subjects for proteomic investigation...
February 26, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Naoki Nakajima, Akihiko Yoshizawa, Tomoyuki Nakajima, Masahiro Hirata, Ayako Furuhata, Shinji Sumiyoshi, Mariyo Rokutan-Kurata, Makoto Sonobe, Toshi Menju, Ei Miyamoto, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Date, Hironori Haga
AIMS: GATA6 is known to play a role in lung development. However, its role in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer is not well studied. The aim of this study was to analyze GATA6 expression in lung adenocarcinomas (LA) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to define its association with clinicopathological characteristics. METHODS AND RESULTS: IHC analysis of GATA6 was performed using tissue microarray slides containing 348 LAs. The association between GATA6 expression and clinicopathological parameters was evaluated...
February 22, 2018: Histopathology
Francesco Boccellato, Sarah Woelffling, Aki Imai-Matsushima, Gabriela Sanchez, Christian Goosmann, Monika Schmid, Hilmar Berger, Pau Morey, Christian Denecke, Juergen Ordemann, Thomas F Meyer
OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori causes life-long colonisation of the gastric mucosa, leading to chronic inflammation with increased risk of gastric cancer. Research on the pathogenesis of this infection would strongly benefit from an authentic human in vitro model. DESIGN: Antrum-derived gastric glands from surgery specimens served to establish polarised epithelial monolayers via a transient air-liquid interface culture stage to study cross-talk with H. pylori and the adjacent stroma...
February 21, 2018: Gut
Ricardo N Alves, Kristina S Sundell, Liliana Anjos, Henrik Sundh, Torstein Harboe, Birgitta Norberg, Deborah M Power
To establish if the developmental changes in the primary barrier and osmoregulatory capacity of Atlantic halibut skin are modified during metamorphosis, histological, histochemical, gene expression and electrophysiological measurements were made. The morphology of the ocular and abocular skin started to diverge during the metamorphic climax and ocular skin appeared thicker and more stratified. Neutral mucins were the main glycoproteins produced by the goblet cells in skin during metamorphosis. Moreover, the number of goblet cells producing neutral mucins increased during metamorphosis and asymmetry in their abundance was observed between ocular and abocular skin...
February 20, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Takaaki Inaba, Yasuhisa Tanaka, Shusaku Tamaki, Tomotaka Ito, James M Ntambi, Kazuo Tsubota
The stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) family of enzymes catalyzes monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis by inserting a cis double bond at the Δ9 position of saturated fatty acids. Disruption of these enzymes has been reported to induce a severe dry skin phenotype. Since lipid abnormalities in the meibomian glands have been associated with dry eye, we analyzed selected eye tissues contributing to tear volume and composition in genetically SCD-1-deficient mice (SCD-1 KO), including the lacrimal glands and conjunctiva...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Haixia Li, Dandan Guo, Liangran Zhang, Xiao Feng
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic respiratory inflammatory disease. Glycyrrhizin is a main bioactive component of the licorice root extract and exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. However, the role of glycyrrhizin in AR has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of glycyrrhizin on histamine-induced human nasal epithelial cells (HNEpCs). Here, we found that glycyrrhizin (20 or 40 μM) inhibited histamine-induced the mRNA expression and secretion of mucin 5 subtype AC (MUC5AC), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in HNEpCs...
February 13, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Yong Wang, Jie-Sen Zhou, Xu-Chen Xu, Zhou-Yang Li, Hai-Pin Chen, Song-Min Ying, Wen Li, Hua-Hao Shen, Zhi-Hua Chen
Introduction: Bronchial epithelial cell death and airway inflammation induced by cigarette smoke (CS) have been involved in the pathogenesis of COPD. GRP78, belonging to heat shock protein 70 family, has been implicated in cell death and inflammation, while little is known about its roles in COPD. Here, we demonstrate that GRP78 regulates CS-induced necroptosis and injury in bronchial epithelial cells. Materials and methods: GRP78 and necroptosis markers were examined in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell line, primary mouse tracheal epithelial cells, and mouse lungs...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Gunes Guner, Aynur Isik, Erdem Karabulut, Gokhan Gedikoglu, Cenk Sokmensuer, Aytekin Akyol
Gastric carcinoma management requires adjustments answering their genetic and morphologic heterogeneity. We aim to assess the expression and significance of a myriad of biomarkers (p53, MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, MSH6, Epstein-Barr encoding region-RNA, c-erbB2, E-cadherin, CEA, chromogranin, Ki-67, CDX2, presenilin-1, cathepsin E, MUC5AC, cyclin-dependent kinase 1) in 117 gastric carcinomas, which we have morphologically subclassified with a simple algorithm. Immunohistochemical stains were applied to 3 tissue microarrays of primary gastric carcinomas (n=117) obtained from resection specimens of untreated patients...
February 12, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Somin Ahn, Youngsub Eom, Boram Kang, Jungboung Park, Hyung Keun Lee, Hyo Myung Kim, Jong Suk Song
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of menthol-containing artificial tears on tear stimulation and ocular surface integrity in normal and dry eye rat models. METHODS: A total of 54 male Lewis rats were used. The levels of tear secretion and tear MUC5AC concentrations were compared between the menthol-containing artificial tear-treated group (menthol group) and the vehicle-treated group (vehicle group). The groups were compared after a single instillation to evaluate the immediate effects, and after repeated instillation (five times a day for 5 days) to evaluate the longer-term effects...
February 8, 2018: Current Eye Research
Shiv Ram Krishn, Koelina Ganguly, Sukhwinder Kaur, Surinder K Batra
Heavily glycosylated secreted mucin MUC5AC, by the virtue of its cysteine rich repeats can form inter- and intramolecular disulphide linkages resulting in complex polymers, which in turn craft the framework of the polymeric mucus gel on epithelial cell surfaces. MUC5AC is a molecule with versatile functional implications including barrier functions to epithelial cells, host-pathogen interaction, immune cell attraction to sites of pre-malignant or malignant lesions and tumor progression in a context-dependent manner...
February 5, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Fabrizio Tabbò, Alessia Nottegar, Francesco Guerrera, Enrica Migliore, Claudio Luchini, Francesca Maletta, Nicola Veronese, Licia Montagna, Marcello Gaudiano, Filomena Di Giacomo, Pier Luigi Filosso, Luisa Delsedime, Giovannino Ciccone, Aldo Scarpa, Anna Sapino, Alberto Oliaro, Enrico Ruffini, Giorgio Inghirami, Marco Chilosi
Strong prognostic markers able to stratify lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients are lacking. We evaluated whether a six-immunohistochemical markers panel (TTF1, SP-A, Napsin A, MUC5AC, CDX2 and CK5), defining the putative neoplastic "cell of origin", allows to identify prognostic subgroups among lung ADC. We screened a large cohort of ADC specimens (2003-2013) from Torino Institutional Repository identifying: i) marker positivity by immunohistochemistry ii) main morphological appearance by light microscopy, iii) presence of "hot spot" mutations of candidate genes by Sequenom technology...
January 30, 2018: Human Pathology
Meritxell Balmaña, Adrià Duran, Catarina Gomes, Esther Llop, Raquel López-Martos, M Rosa Ortiz, Sílvia Barrabés, Celso A Reis, Rosa Peracaula
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) lacks efficient biomarkers. Mucins are glycoproteins that can carry aberrant glycosylation in cancer. Our objective was to identify cancer-related glycan epitopes on MUC1 and MUC5AC mucins in PDAC as potential biomarkers. We have analysed the tumour-associated carbohydrate antigens sialyl-Lewis x (SLex) and sialyl-Tn (STn) on MUC1 and MUC5AC in PDAC tissues. The selected cohort for this study consisted of twenty-one PDAC tissues positive for SLex antigen and three normal pancreas specimens as controls...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jing Liu, YingYing Li, Anand Kumar Andiappan, Yan Yan, Tan Kai Sen, Hsiao Hui Ong, Kim Thye Thong, Yew Kwang Ong, Feng Gang Yu, Heng Boon Low, Yong Liang Zhang, Li Shi, De Yun Wang
BACKGROUND: The IL-13 receptor α2 (IL-13Rα2) is a receptor for IL-13 which has conflicting roles in mediating IL-13 responses in the lower airway; with little known about its impact on upper airway diseases. We sought to investigate the expression of IL-13 receptors, IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2, in chronically inflamed nasal epithelium, and explore IL-13 induced signaling pathways in an in vitro model of human nasal epithelial cells (hNECs). METHODS: The protein and mRNA expression levels of IL-13 and its receptors in nasal biopsies of patients with nasal polyps (NP) and healthy controls were evaluated...
February 6, 2018: Allergy
Yan Guan, Jian-Ping Zhu, Jian Shen, Yong-Liang Jia, Ya-Chao Jin, Xin-Wei Dong, Qiang-Min Xie
Salvianolic acid B (SalB) is one of the main water-soluble composites from Chinese medicine Dansen (Radix miltiorrhiza). It is used for clinical treatment of various diseases including cardiovascular, lung, Liver, renal and cancers. However, the effects of SalB to allergy induced airway mucin hypersecretion, inflammation and hyperresponsiveness (AHR) remains not clear. Overproduction of airway MUC5AC is a central effector of inflammation that is strongly associated with AHR in asthmatic attack. In this study, we investigated the anti-asthmatic activity and mechanism of SalB in a murine model and human epithelial cells by monitoring changes in mucin expression and secretion, airway inflammation, AHR, and signaling pathways...
January 27, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
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