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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780828/effect-of-formaldehyde-on-human-middle-ear-epithelial-cells
#1
Shin Hye Kim, Ji-Woong Choi, Myung-Whan Suh, Jun Ho Lee, Seung-Ha Oh, Jae-Jun Song, Moo Kyun Park
Formaldehyde (FA) is a familiar indoor air pollutant found in everything from cosmetics to clothing, but its impact on the middle ear is unknown. This study investigated whether FA causes cytotoxicity, inflammation, or induction of apoptosis in human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs). Cell viability was investigated using the trypan blue assay and a cell counting kit (CCK-8) in HMEECs treated with FA for 4 or 24 h. The expression of genes encoding the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α ) and mucin (MUC5AC) was analyzed using RT-PCR...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774633/a-simple-and-cost-efficient-adherent-culture-platform-for-human-gastric-primary-cells-as-an-in-vitro-model-for-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#2
Samaneh Saberi, Behshad Pournasr, Zahra Farzaneh, Maryam Esmaeili, Mahmoud Eshagh Hosseini, Hossein Baharvand, Marjan Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Most two- dimensional in vitro models for studying host- H. pylori interactions rely on tumor-derived cell lines, which harbor malignant alterations. The recent development of human gastric organoids has overcome this limitation and provides a highly sophisticated, yet costly, short-term model for H. pylori infection, with restricted use in low-budget centers. METHOD: Tissue specimens from upper, middle, and lower stomachs of H. pylori-negative volunteers were collectively dispersed and cultured on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) or collagen-coated plates...
May 17, 2018: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767240/munc13%C3%A2-4-mediates-human-neutrophil-elastase%C3%A2-induced-airway-mucin5ac-hypersecretion-by-interacting-with-syntaxin2
#3
Rui Xu, Jia Zhou, Xiang-Dong Zhou, Qi Li, Juliy M Perelman, Victor P Kolosov
The overexpression and hypersecretion of mucus is a hallmark of chronic pulmonary inflammatory disease. Mucin5AC (MUC5AC) is a major component of airway gel‑forming mucin. Members of the Unc13 (Munc13) protein family act as important activators of granule exocytosis from various types of mammalian cells. The present study aimed to determine the role of Munc13 family proteins in MUC5AC secretion via an in vitro study with BEAS‑2B and Calu‑3 cell lines. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting indicated that stimulation of the cells with 100 nM human neutrophil elastase (hNE) for 1 h did not affect the expression of either unc13 homolog B (Munc13‑2) or unc13 homolog D (Munc13‑4), but immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that hNE treatment was associated with the recruitment of Munc13‑4 to the plasma membrane...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751628/the-double-face-of-mucin-type-o-glycans-in-lectin-mediated-infection-and-immunity
#4
REVIEW
Vasily Morozov, Julia Borkowski, Franz-Georg Hanisch
Epithelial human blood group antigens (HBGAs) on O-glycans play roles in pathogen binding and the initiation of infection, while similar structures on secretory mucins exert protective functions. These double-faced features of O-glycans in infection and innate immunity are reviewed based on two instructive examples of bacterial and viral pathogens. Helicobacter pylori represents a class 1 carcinogen in the human stomach. By expressing blood group antigen-binding adhesin ( BabA ) and LabA adhesins that bind to Lewis-b and LacdiNAc, respectively, H...
May 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736668/immunohistochemical-predictors-for-intestinal-and-pancreatobiliary-types-of-adenocarcinoma-of-the-ampulla-of-vater
#5
João Paulo Lemos da Silveira Santos, Carla Jorge Machado, Eduardo Paulino Junior, João Bernardo Sancio Rocha Rodrigues, Paula Teixeira Vidigal, Vivian Resende
OBJECTIVES: To investigate immunohistochemical predictors for intestinal and pancreatobiliary types of adenocarcinoma of ampulla of Vater and identify clinicopathological characteristics associated with the histological types and patient survival. METHODS: Immunohistochemical markers included MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, CDX2, CK7, and CK20. The data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. The two-step cluster method was used to determine the best immunohistochemical markers to discriminate the intestinal from the pancreatobiliary type...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729496/progressive-increase-in-allergen-concentration-abrogates-immune-tolerance-in-ovalbumin-induced-murine-model-of-chronic-asthma
#6
Gurupreet S Sethi, Amarjit S Naura
Persistent inflammation and remodeling of airways are the major hallmarks of asthma. Though airway inflammation diminishes in ovalbumin (OVA)-based mouse model of chronic asthma owing to immune-tolerance linked with repeated allergen exposure, which limits the application of the disease model. Accordingly, the present study was designed to develop a murine model of chronic asthma which presents persistent airway inflammation coupled with remodeling traits. Herein, OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice were challenged with increasing (modified protocol) or constant concentration (conventional protocol) of the allergen for 6 weeks; 3 times/week...
May 2, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729192/immunohistochemical-and-genetic-characteristics-of-a-colorectal-mucin-rich-variant-of-traditional-serrated-adenoma
#7
Takafumi Hiromoto, Takashi Murakami, Yoichi Akazawa, Noriko Sasahara, Tsuyoshi Saito, Naoto Sakamoto, Hiroyuki Mitomi, Akihito Nagahara, Takashi Yao
AIMS: Recently, several morphological variants of traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) of the colorectum have been recognized, and mucin-rich TSA (MR-TSA) and serrated tubulovillous adenoma (S-TVA) were introduced as distinct morphological variants separate from conventional TSA (C-TSA). This study aimed to elucidate the immunohistochemical and genetic characteristics of MR-TSAs. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed immunostaining for cytokeratins (e.g. CK7 and CK20), mucins (e...
May 5, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719284/characterization-of-helicobacter-pylori-na%C3%A3-ve-early-gastric-cancers
#8
Akihiro Yamada, Mitsuru Kaise, Naoko Inoshita, Takahito Toba, Kosuke Nomura, Yasutaka Kuribayashi, Satoshi Yamashita, Tsukasa Furuhata, Daisuke Kikuchi, Akira Matsui, Toshifumi Mitani, Osamu Ogawa, Toshiro Iizuka, Shu Hoteya
AIM: Helicobacter pylori-naïve gastric cancers(GCs) have not been well documented. We aimed to characterize early H. pylori-naïve GCs. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Of 666 patients with GC resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection, H. pylori-naïve patients were extracted according to the definition: no H. pylori eradication history, negative for serum H. pylori-antibody and current H. pylori-infection tests, and no gastric atrophy by pepsinogen (PG) test, endoscopy, and histology...
May 2, 2018: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710409/papillary-architecture-and-functional-characterization-of-mucosubstances-in-the-sheep-tongue
#9
Serkan Erdoğan, Hakan Sağsöz
This research aimed to reveal the general morphology and topographic distribution of lingual papillae, epithelial characteristics, mucosal structure, and glands with their mucin content in the sheep tongue, with consideration of species-specific characteristics. The tongues of ten sheep were analyzed for this purpose. Filiform and fungiform papillae existed within the borders of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. The majority of the filiform papillae had multiple secondary projections. Fungiform papillae were also seen on the lingual torus among lenticular papillae, as well as 6 to 10 circumvallate papillae arranged on its caudal border...
April 30, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707118/identification-of-a-serum-biomarker-panel-for-the-differential-diagnosis-of-cholangiocarcinoma-and-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#10
Joy Cuenco, Natascha Wehnert, Oleg Blyuss, Anna Kazarian, Harry J Whitwell, Usha Menon, Anne Dawnay, Michael P Manns, Stephen P Pereira, John F Timms
The non-invasive differentiation of malignant and benign biliary disease is a clinical challenge. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), leucine-rich α2-glycoprotein (LRG1), interleukin 6 (IL6), pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21.1) and mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) have reported utility for differentiating cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) from benign biliary disease. Herein, serum levels of these markers were tested in 66 cases of CCA and 62 cases of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and compared with markers of liver function and inflammation...
April 3, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705272/hsa-mir-93-regulates-mucin-family-gene-expression-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-intrahepatic-stone-disease
#11
Hua Ma, Wenyi Li, Pinduan Bi, Qiang Wang, Jian Li, Bin Yang
BACKGROUND: Mucin plays an essential role in the intrahepatic stone formation, but the mechanism of mucin regulation is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential implication of miR-93 and WNT pathway in the regulation of intrahepatic bile duct mucin expression. METHODS: Thirty patients with or without intrahepatic bile duct stones are involved; Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate the expression of MUC3, MUC4, MUC5B, MUC5AC mRNA and miR-93 levels...
April 25, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698781/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-investigation-of-anti-inflammatory-and-mucus-regulatory-activities-of-a-fixed-combination-of-thyme-and-primula-extracts
#12
Jan Seibel, Kirill Kryshen, Judit E Pongrácz, Martin D Lehner
Hypersecretion of viscous mucus is one of the hallmark symptoms of acute and chronic bronchitis and typically develops secondary to an inflammation of the airway epithelium. Bronchipret® TP film-coated tablets (BRO), an herbal medicinal product containing a fixed combination of thyme herb and primula root extracts, has been successfully used clinically for the treatment of acute bronchitis for more than two decades. However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of action have not been fully understood so far...
April 23, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698701/mucinous-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-a-distinct-variant
#13
Zhikai Chi, Amarpreet Bhalla, Omer Saeed, Liang Cheng, Kendra Curless, Hanlin L Wang, Deepa T Patil, Jingmei Lin
Mucinous variant of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCC) is rare, and its clinicopathological features and prognosis are far less clear. Six patients who had iCCs with more than 50% of mucinous component and 79 conventional iCCs were included in the study. The mean size of mucinous and conventional iCCs was 6.2cm and 6.0cm, respectively. The majority of patients (83%) with mucinous iCC presented at T3 stage or above, compared to 28% of the conventional group (p<0.01). Three patients with mucinous iCC (50%) died within 1year...
April 23, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688024/reduced-nasal-viral-load-and-ifn-responses-in-infants-with-rsv-bronchiolitis-and-respiratory-failure
#14
Ryan S Thwaites, Matthew Coates, Kazuhiro Ito, Marwa Ghazaly, Calandra Feather, Farhana Abdulla, Tanushree Tunstall, Pooja Jain, Lindsey Cass, Garth Rapeport, Trevor T Hansel, Simon Nadel, Peter J Openshaw
RATIONALE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infancy. Severe disease is thought to result from uncontrolled viral replication, an excessive immune response, or both. OBJECTIVES: To determine RSV load and immune mediator levels in nasal mucosal lining fluid by serial sampling of nasal fluids from cases of moderate and severe bronchiolitis over the course of infection. METHODS: Infants with viral bronchiolitis necessitating admission (n=55) were recruited from a paediatric centre during 2016/17...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681865/quercetin-increases-muc2-and-muc5ac-gene-expression-and-secretion-in-intestinal-goblet-cell-like-ls174t-via-plc-pkc%C3%AE-erk1-2-pathway
#15
Simona Damiano, Anna Sasso, Bruna De Felice, Ilaria Di Gregorio, Giuliana La Rosa, Gelsi A Lupoli, Anna Belfiore, Paolo Mondola, Mariarosaria Santillo
The main dietary flavonoid quercetin, is known to preserve the integrity of gastrointestinal barrier and to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-fibrotic, and other beneficial properties. Many of the biological effects of quercetin appear to be associated to the modulation of cell signaling pathways, rather than to its antioxidant activity. In spite of the large number of data available on the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which quercetin exerts its biological effects, including protection of intestinal barrier function, there is a lack of data about the role of this substance on the expression and/or the secretion of mucins released by intestinal goblet cells...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680833/lps-exposure-in-early-life-protects-against-mucus-hypersecretion-in-ovalbumin-induced-asthma-by-down-regulation-of-the-il-13-and-jak-stat6-pathways
#16
Fengxia Ding, Bo Liu, Wenjing Zou, Daiyin Tian, Qubei Li, Jihong Dai, Zhengxiu Luo, Zhou Fu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous studies have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure may have a protective effect on asthma by reducing airway hyper-responsiveness, airway inflammation and serum IgE levels. However, there are few studies investigating the effect of LPS on mucous secretion in asthma. In this study, we evaluate the relationship between LPS pre-treatment in infant mice and airway mucus hypersecretion in an OVA (ovalbumin)-induced asthma model, and further explore the mechanisms behind this effect...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676620/interleukin-13-stimulation-reveals-the-cellular-and-functional-plasticity-of-the-airway-epithelium
#17
Max A Seibold
About 50% of patients with asthma exhibit chronic airway inflammation driven by the type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13. These patients with type 2-high asthma experience more allergic symptoms, greater airway hyperresponsiveness, and more severe mucus obstruction than patients with type 2-low asthma. Mouse models of asthma have shown that much of the airway dysfunction in these models can be generated by IL-13 stimulation of the airway epithelium alone. Both in vivo mouse model studies and in vitro studies of human mucociliary airway epithelial cultures have shown that IL-13 induces cellular remodeling of the airway epithelium through proliferation-independent transdifferentiation processes...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676354/diagnostic-and-prognostic-impact-of-mucin-1-6-expression-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
William Sterlacci, Michael Fiegl, Lothar Veits, Alexandar Tzankov
Background: The prognostic significance and clinico-pathological characterization of mucin (MUC) expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is controversial and little studied. Aims: This study aims at elucidating this issue on the largest and most detailed cohort so far. Settings and Design: We examined the expression of MUC 1, 2, 4, 5AC and 6 on 371, well documented, surgically resected NSCLC cases. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical results were correlated with several of our previously studied, relevant parameters on this cohort including a follow-up period of up to 20 years...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650940/-a-case-of-intraductal-pancreatic-mallignant-tumor-with-difficulty-in-differentiating-between-ipmn-and-itpn
#19
Tomoyuki Fukami, Akinori Noguchi, Hiromichi Ishii, Akira Watanabe, Riho Sugimoto, Hiroyuki Tada, Hiroki Takeshita, Seiji Umehara, Hiroyuki Izumi, Naoki Tani, Masahide Yamaguchi, Kenji Kawabata, Tetsuro Yamane
The patient was a male in his early 60s. Diabetes had aggravated 6 months earlier, and the patient was referred to our hospital for close examination. On contrast CT, enhanced mass shadows filling the lumen of the main pancreatic duct, which was dilated throughout the pancreas, were observed, and the mass was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma on EUS-FNA. Based on these findings, main-duct IPMN was suspected and total pancreatectomy was performed. On macroscopic observation of the resected specimen, outgrowth of a solid tumor was observed in the main pancreatic duct, whereas only low-level mucus retention was noted in the pancreatic duct...
March 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644902/interleukin-il-36-gamma-induces-mucin-5ac-oligomeric-mucus-gel-forming-expression-via-il-36-receptor-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-and-2-and-p38-nuclear-factor-kappa-light-chain-enhancer-of-activated-b-cells-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#20
Chang Hoon Bae, Yoon Seok Choi, Hyung Gyun Na, Si-Youn Song, Yong-Dae Kim
BACKGROUND: Mucin 5AC, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming (MUC5AC) expression is significantly increased in allergic and inflammatory airway diseases. Interleukin (IL) 36 gamma is predominantly expressed in airway epithelial cells and plays an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses. IL-36 gamma is induced by many inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and bacterial and viral infections. However, the association between IL-36 gamma and mucin secretion in human airway epithelial cells has not yet been fully investigated...
March 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
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