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Complex Responsive Processes of Relating

Michael Hanke, Nico Adelhöfer, Daniel Kottke, Vittorio Iacovella, Ayan Sengupta, Falko R Kaule, Roland Nigbur, Alexander Q Waite, Florian Baumgartner, Jörg Stadler
Here we present an update of the studyforrest ( dataset that complements the previously released functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for natural language processing with a new two-hour 3 Tesla fMRI acquisition while 15 of the original participants were shown an audio-visual version of the stimulus motion picture. We demonstrate with two validation analyses that these new data support modeling specific properties of the complex natural stimulus, as well as a substantial within-subject BOLD response congruency in brain areas related to the processing of auditory inputs, speech, and narrative when compared to the existing fMRI data for audio-only stimulation...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Data
Heledd M Davies, Konstantinos Thalassinos, Andrew R Osborne
Repetitive low-complexity sequences, mostly assumed to have no function, are common in proteins that are exported by the malaria parasite into its host erythrocyte. We identify a group of exported proteins containing short lysine-rich tandemly repeated sequences that are sufficient to localise to the erythrocyte periphery where key virulence-related modifications to the plasma membrane and the underlying cytoskeleton are known to occur. Efficiency of targeting is dependent on repeat number, indicating that novel targeting modules could evolve by expansion of short lysine-rich sequences...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yu Zhang, Yifei Lu, Feng Wang, Sai An, Yujie Zhang, Tao Sun, Jianhua Zhu, Chen Jiang
Inflammation has been reported as one significant hallmark of breast cancer in relation to tumor development, metastasis, and invasion. The bradykinin receptor 1 (B1R) is highly expressed on inflammatory breast tumor cells thus providing a promising targeting site for tumor recognition and sufficient receptor mediated endocytosis. In this study, the authors evaluate the targeting efficiency of l-form and d-form [des-Arg(10) ]kallidin both in vitro and in vivo. To further improve the drug delivery efficiency, the authors establish a dandelion like nanoparticle by combining the polymeric drug conjugates and aptamer complex together...
October 24, 2016: Small
Hohyun Cho, Min-Koo Kang, Sangtae Ahn, Moonyoung Kwon, Kuk-Jin Yoon, Kiwoong Kim, Sung Chan Jun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In exploring human factors, stereoscopic 3D images have been used to investigate the neural responses associated with excessive depth, texture complexity, and other factors. However, the cortical oscillation associated with the complexity of stereoscopic images has been studied rarely. Here, we demonstrated that the oscillatory responses to three differently shaped 3D images (circle, star, and bat) increase as the complexity of the image increases. METHODS: We recorded simultaneous EEG/MEG for three different stimuli...
October 24, 2016: Neuro-Signals
Anthony L Cunningham, Nathalie Garçon, Oberdan Leo, Leonard R Friedland, Richard Strugnell, Béatrice Laupèze, Mark Doherty, Peter Stern
In the 21st century, an array of microbiological and molecular allow antigens for new vaccines to be specifically identified, designed, produced and delivered with the aim of optimising the induction of a protective immune response against a well-defined immunogen. New knowledge about the functioning of the immune system and host pathogen interactions has stimulated the rational design of vaccines. The design toolbox includes vaccines made from whole pathogens, protein subunits, polysaccharides, pathogen-like particles, use of viral/bacterial vectors, plus adjuvants and conjugation technology to increase and broaden the immune response...
October 18, 2016: Vaccine
Veysel Burulday, Mehmet Hüseyin Akgül, Nuray Bayar Muluk, Mehmet Faik Ozveren, Ahmet Kaya
In the present study, we investigated the types and ratio of posterior clinoid process (PCP) pneumatization in paranasal sinus multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Paranasal MDCT images of 541 subjects (227 males, 314 females), between 15 and 65 years old, were included into the study. Pneumatization of anterior clinoid process and pneumatization types (I, II, or III) were evaluated in the males and females. PCP pneumatization was detected in 20.7 % of the males and 11.5 % of the females. Right, left, and bilateral PCP pneumatizations were detected in 7...
October 21, 2016: Neurosurgical Review
Yajie Hu, Jie Song, Longding Liu, Jing Li, Beibei Tang, Jingjing Wang, Xiaolong Zhang, Ying Zhang, Lichun Wang, Yun Liao, Zhanlong He, Qihan Li
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the predominant pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Although these viruses exhibit genetic homology, the clinical manifestations caused by the two viruses have some discrepancies. In addition, the underlying mechanisms leading to these differences remain unclear. microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in numerous biological or pathological processes, including host responses to viral infections. Here, we focused on differences in miRNA expression patterns in rhesus monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected with EV71 and CA16 at various time points using high-throughput sequencing...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Sang-Jin Lee, Jeongmi Hwang, Hyeon-Ju Jeong, Miran Yoo, Ga-Yeon Go, Jae-Rin Lee, Young-Eun Leem, Jong Woo Park, Dong-Wan Seo, Yong Kee Kim, Myong-Joon Hahn, Jeung-Whan Han, Jong-Sun Kang, Gyu-Un Bae
Skeletal myogenesis is coordinated by multiple signaling pathways that control cell adhesion/migration, survival and differentiation accompanied by muscle-specific gene expression. A cell surface protein Cdo is involved in cell contact-mediated promyogenic signals through activation of p38MAPK and AKT. Protein kinase C-related kinase 2 (PKN2/PRK2) is implicated in regulation of various biological processes, including cell migration, adhesion and death. It has been shown to interact with and inhibit AKT thereby inducing cell death...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Jonatan Enk, Assi Levi, Yiska Weisblum, Rachel Yamin, Yoav Charpak-Amikam, Dana G Wolf, Ofer Mandelboim
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) is a ubiquitous human pathogen that utilizes variable mechanisms to evade immune surveillance. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring pathway is a multistep process in which a myriad of different proteins are covalently attached to a GPI moiety to be presented on the cell surface. Among the different GPI-anchored proteins there are many with immunological importance. We present evidence that the HSV1-encoded miR H8 directly targets PIGT, a member of the protein complex that covalently attaches proteins to GPI in the final step of GPI anchoring...
October 18, 2016: Cell Reports
Rosemary Fama, Edith V Sullivan, Stephanie A Sassoon, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Natalie M Zahr
BACKGROUND: Executive functioning and episodic memory impairment occur in HIV infection (HIV) and chronic alcoholism (ALC). Comorbidity of these conditions (HIV + ALC) is prevalent and heightens risk of vulnerability to separate and compounded deficits. Age and disease-related variables can also serve as mediators of cognitive impairment and should be considered, given the extended longevity of HIV-infected individuals in this era of improved pharmacological therapy. METHODS: HIV, ALC, HIV + ALC, and normal controls (NC) were administered traditional and computerized tests of executive function and episodic memory...
October 19, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Suzanne Vigneron, Perle Robert, Khaled Hached, Lena Sundermann, Sophie Charrasse, Jean-Claude Labbé, Anna Castro, Thierry Lorca
Entry into mitosis requires the coordinated activation of various protein kinases and phosphatases that together activate sequential signaling pathways allowing entry, progression and exit of mitosis. The limiting step is thought to be the activation of the mitotic Cdk1-cyclin B kinase. However, this model has recently evolved with new data showing that in addition to the Cdk1-cyclin B complex, Greatwall (Gwl) kinase is also required to enter into and maintain mitosis. This new concept proposes that entry into mitosis is now based on the combined activation of both kinases Cdk1-cyclin B and Gwl, the former promoting massive phosphorylation of mitotic substrates and the latter inhibiting PP2A-B55 phosphatase responsible for dephosphorylation of these substrates...
2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Carlo Luca Romanò, Delia Romanò, Ilaria Morelli, Lorenzo Drago
Biofilms have a tremendous impact on industrial machines working in moist environments, while in biological systems their effect is further complicated by the host's response.Implant-related infections are a complex process, starting with bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, followed by the variable interaction between host, implant, microorganisms and their by-products. Depending on the balance of these factors, different clinical presentations are observed, which may eventually, at times, shift from one into the other...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Michel Debacker, Filip Van Utterbeeck, Christophe Ullrich, Erwin Dhondt, Ives Hubloue
It is recognized that the study of the disaster medical response (DMR) is a relatively new field. To date, there is no evidence-based literature that clearly defines the best medical response principles, concepts, structures and processes in a disaster setting. Much of what is known about the DMR results from descriptive studies and expert opinion. No experimental studies regarding the effects of DMR interventions on the health outcomes of disaster survivors have been carried out. Traditional analytic methods cannot fully capture the flow of disaster victims through a complex disaster medical response system (DMRS)...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
Laura Casas, Fran Saborido-Rey, Taewoo Ryu, Craig Michell, Timothy Ravasi, Xabier Irigoien
Sequential hermaphroditism is a unique reproductive strategy among teleosts that is displayed mainly in fish species living in the coral reef environment. The reproductive biology of hermaphrodites has long been intriguing; however, very little is known about the molecular pathways underlying their sex change. Here, we provide the first de novo transcriptome analyses of a hermaphrodite teleost´s undergoing sex change in its natural environment. Our study has examined relative gene expression across multiple groups-rather than just two contrasting conditions- and has allowed us to explore the differential expression patterns throughout the whole process...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Susmita K Singh, Anna-Maria Andersson, Rada Ellegård, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Alessandro Sette, Marie Larsson, Olle Stendahl, Robert Blomgran
HIV coinfection is the most prominent risk factor for progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection into active tuberculosis (TB) disease. The mechanisms behind the increased transition from latent to active TB in coinfected individuals have not been well elucidated at the cellular level. We hypothesized that HIV infection contributes to Mtb pathogenesis by interfering with the dendritic cell (DC)-mediated immune control. Mtb-antigen processing and presentation are key events in the immune response against TB...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Geir Bjørklund, Salvatore Chirumbolo
Diet may be defined as a complex process that should involve a deeper comprehension of metabolism, energy balance, and the molecular pathways involved in cellular stress response and survival, gut microflora genetics, enzymatic polymorphism within the human population, and the role of plant-derived polyphenols in this context. Metabolic syndrome, encompassing pathologies with a relatively high morbidity, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, is a bullet point of the big concern about how daily dietary habits should promote health and prevent metabolic impairments to prevent hospitalization and the need for health care...
August 8, 2016: Nutrition
Anne C Grunseit, Samantha Rowbotham, Melanie Pescud, Devon Indig, Sonia Wutzke
Issue addressed: The Australian National Partnership Agreement on Preventive Health (NPAPH) charged states and territories with the development and implementation of the Healthy Workers Initiative (HWI) to improve workplace health promotion. Most evaluation efforts focus on the setting (micro) level. In the present study the HWI at the meso-level (state program development) was examined to understand how jurisdictions navigated theoretical, practical, and political priorities to develop their programs, and the programmatic choices that support or hinder perceived success...
October 13, 2016: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Astrid Kibleur, Mircea Polosan, Pauline Favre, David Rudrauf, Thierry Bougerol, Stéphan Chabardès, Olivier David
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subgenual cingulate gyrus (area CG25) is beneficial in treatment resistant depression. Though the mechanisms of action of Cg25 DBS remain largely unknown, it is commonly believed that Cg25 DBS modulates limbic activity of large networks to achieve thymic regulation of patients. To investigate how emotional attention is influenced by Cg25 DBS, we assessed behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to an emotional Stroop task in 5 patients during ON and OFF stimulation conditions...
October 12, 2016: NeuroImage
Ilgin Acar, Steven E Butt
Balancing workload among nurses on a hospital unit is important for the satisfaction and safety of nurses and patients. To balance nurse workloads, direct patient care activities, indirect patient care activities, and non-patient care activities that occur throughout a shift must be considered. The layout of a hospital unit and the location of a nurse's assigned patients relative to other resources on the unit are also important factors in achieving workload balance. In most hospitals, a unit charge nurse is responsible for the shift assignment of patients to nurses based on experience and past practices...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Johanna Metsomaa, Jukka Sarvas, Risto J Ilmoniemi
OBJECTIVE: Blind source separation (BSS) can be used to decompose complex electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography data into simpler components based on statistical assumptions without using a physical model. Applications include brain-computer interfaces, artifact removal and identifying parallel neural processes. We wish to address the issue of applying BSS to event-related responses which is challenging because of non-stationary data. METHODS: We introduce a new BSS approach called momentary-uncorrelated component analysis (MUCA) which is tailored for event-related multi-trial data...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
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