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Complex Responsive Processes of Relating

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647496/a-comprehensive-complex-systems-approach-to-the-study-and-analysis-of-mammalian-cell-cycle-control-system-in-the-presence-of-dna-damage-stress
#1
Ali Abroudi, Sandhya Samarasinghe, Don Kulasiri
Not many models of mammalian cell cycle system exist due to its complexity. Some models are too complex and hard to understand, while some others are too simple and not comprehensive enough. Moreover, some essential aspects, such as the response of G1-S and G2-M checkpoints to DNA damage as well as the growth factor signalling, have not been investigated from a systems point of view in current mammalian cell cycle models. To address these issues, we bring a holistic perspective to cell cycle by mathematically modelling it as a complex system consisting of important sub-systems that interact with each other...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647368/identification-and-characterization-of-the-leaf-specific-networks-of-inner-and-rosette-leaves-in-brassica-rapa
#2
Man-Sun Kim, Seongmin Hong, Devaraj Sangeeth Prasath, Subin Im, Jeong-Rae Kim, Yong Pyo Lim
Inner and rosette leaves of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) have different characteristics in terms of nutritional value, appearance, taste, color and texture. Many researchers have utilized differentially expressed genes for exploring the difference between inner and rosette leaves of Brassica rapa. The functional characteristics of a gene, however, is determined by complex interactions between genes. Hence, a noble network approach is required for elucidating such functional difference that is not captured by gene expression profiles alone...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646681/proteomic-analysis-of-developing-wheat-grains-infected-by-powdery-mildew-blumeria-graminis-f-sp-tritici
#3
Jie Li, Xi-Wen Yang, Yong-Chun Li, Ji-Shan Niu, De-Xian He
Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) infection greatly interferes with the normal source-sink relationships and always causes tremendous loss of yield and quality in wheat. To better understand the impact of this pathogen on grain development, proteome characterization during grain development in susceptible wheat cultivar Xinong 979 infected by powdery mildew was investigated by 2-DE and tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Identification of 111 differentially expressed protein spots representing 85 unique proteins and six expression patterns showed a chronological description of wheat grain formation...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646349/modeling-pain-using-fmri-from-regions-to-biomarkers
#4
REVIEW
Marianne C Reddan, Tor D Wager
Pain is a subjective and complex phenomenon. Its complexity is related to its heterogeneity: multiple component processes, including sensation, affect, and cognition, contribute to pain experience and reporting. These components are likely to be encoded in distributed brain networks that interact to create pain experience and pain-related decision-making. Therefore, to understand pain, we must identify these networks and build models of these interactions that yield testable predictions about pain-related outcomes...
June 23, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645657/gross-pathology-physiological-and-toxicological-responses-in-relation-to-metals-and-persistent-organic-pollutants-pops-burden-in-tilapia-species-from-ogun-river-nigeria
#5
Oju R Ibor, Aina O Adeogun, Azubuike V Chukwuka, Augustine Arukwe
We have investigated gross pathology, physiological (steroid precursors) and toxicological responses (oxidative stress and phase II biotransformation) in relation to tissue contaminant burden in Tilapia species along the entire length (320 km) of Ogun River, Nigeria. The Ogun River is the longest and largest river in Southwestern Nigeria located along heavily industrialized cities and receives complex mixtures of effluents. A total of 1074 tilapias were collected from three sampling points (Abeokuta, Isheri and Ikorodu) and from an upstream control point (Igboho) and evaluated for gross pathological changes, hepatic transcript levels for oxidative stress and phase II biotransformation responses...
June 8, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641940/dormant-origins-as-a-built-in-safeguard-in-eukaryotic-dna-replication-against-genome-instability-and-disease-development
#6
REVIEW
Naoko Shima, Kayla D Pederson
DNA replication is a prerequisite for cell proliferation, yet it can be increasingly challenging for a eukaryotic cell to faithfully duplicate its genome as its size and complexity expands. Dormant origins now emerge as a key component for cells to successfully accomplish such a demanding but essential task. In this perspective, we will first provide an overview of the fundamental processes eukaryotic cells have developed to regulate origin licensing and firing. With a special focus on mammalian systems, we will then highlight the role of dormant origins in preventing replication-associated genome instability and their functional interplay with proteins involved in the DNA damage repair response for tumor suppression...
June 9, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640534/dynamics-of-transcriptomic-response-to-infection-by-the-nematode-heterorhabditis-bacteriophora-and-its-bacterial-symbiont-photorhabdus-temperata-in-heliothis-virescens-larvae
#7
R An, K S Suri, J L Jurat-Fuentes, P S Grewal
Entomopathogenic nematodes in the Heterorhabditis genus and their symbiotic Photorhabdus bacteria are important biocontrol agents of insect pests and models for the study of microbe-host interactions. In this work, we used larvae of the tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens) as a model to study its defensive mechanisms against Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematodes carrying symbiotic Photorhabdus temperata. We first determined time points of initial nematode entry and release of bacteria into the haemolymph to perform transcriptional analysis of insect gene expression during these steps in the infective process...
June 22, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637102/-the-progression-of-liver-fibrosis-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
REVIEW
Moon Young Kim
Understanding the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and its fibrosis progression is still evolving. Nonetheless, current evidence suggests that mechanisms involved are very complex parallel processes with multiple metabolic factors. Lipotoxicity related with excess saturated free fatty acids, obesity, and insulin resistance acts as the central driver of cellular injury via oxidative stress. Hepatocyte apoptosis and/or senescence are also contribute to the activation of inflammasome via various intra- and inter-cellular signaling mechanisms that lead to fibrosis...
June 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636874/next-generation-matrix-metalloproteinase-inhibitors-novel-strategies-bring-new-prospects
#9
REVIEW
Maxim Levin, Yael Udi, Inna Solomonov, Irit Sagi
Enzymatic proteolysis of cell surface proteins and extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical for tissue homeostasis and cell signaling. These proteolytic activities are mediated predominantly by a family of proteases termed matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The growing evidence in recent years that ECM and non-ECM bioactive molecules (e.g., growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, on top of matrikines and matricryptins) have versatile functions redefines our view on the roles matrix remodeling enzymes play in many physiological and pathological processes, and underscores the notion that ECM proteolytic reaction mechanisms represent master switches in the regulation of critical biological processes and govern cell behavior...
June 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636768/driving-aggression-and-anxiety-intersections-assessment-and-interventions
#10
Heidi M Zinzow, Stephanie M Jeffirs
OBJECTIVE: Driving aggression and anxiety are significant contributors to risky driving and motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), which are leading causes of U.S. morbidity and mortality. Even though aggression and anxiety can be conceptualized as related features of the fight-or-flight response, literature on these topics has not been integrated. Driving aggression and anxiety are also transdiagnostic constructs that span multiple psychiatric disorders. Assessment and treatment of these complex problems must be understood to reduce the public health burden of MVCs...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634517/introduction-of-a-quality-improvement-curriculum-in-the-department-of-internal-medicine-lincoln-medical-center
#11
Usha Venugopal, Moiz Kasubhai, Vikram Paruchuri
Community hospitals with limited resources struggle to engage physicians in Quality improvement initiatives. We introduced Quality Improvement (QI) curriculum for residents in response to ACGME requirements and surveyed the residents understanding of QI and their involvement in QI projects before and after the introduction of the curriculum. The current article describes our experiences with the process, the challenges and possible solutions to have a successful resident led QI initiative in a community hospital...
January 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634266/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-the-brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-a-saga-in-three-episodes
#12
REVIEW
Marian Joëls, E Ronald de Kloet
In 1968, Bruce McEwen discovered that (3)H-corticosterone administered to adrenalectomised rats is retained in neurons of hippocampus rather than those of hypothalamus. This discovery signalled the expansion of endocrinology into the science of higher brain regions. With this in mind, our contribution highlights the saga of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in three episodes. First, the precloning era dominated by the conundrum of two types of corticosterone-binding receptors in the brain, which led to the identification of the high-affinity corticosterone receptor as the 'promiscuous' MR cloned in 1987 by Jeff Arriza and Ron Evans in addition to the classical glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634086/towards-building-a-more-complex-view-of-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-recent-advances-in-understanding-its-role
#13
REVIEW
Masoud Ghodrati, Seyed-Mahdi Khaligh-Razavi, Sidney R Lehky
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) has often been treated in the past as a linear filter that adds little to retinal processing of visual inputs. Here we review anatomical, neurophysiological, brain imaging, and modeling studies that have in recent years built up a much more complex view of LGN. These include effects related to nonlinear dendritic processing, cortical feedback, synchrony and oscillations across LGN populations, as well as involvement of LGN in higher level cognitive processing Although recent studies have provided valuable insights into early visual processing including the role of LGN, a unified model of LGN responses to real-world objects has not yet been developed...
June 17, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633321/places-in-the-brain-bridging-layout-and-object-geometry-in-scene-selective-cortex
#14
Moira R Dillon, Andrew S Persichetti, Elizabeth S Spelke, Daniel D Dilks
Diverse animal species primarily rely on sense (left-right) and egocentric distance (proximal-distal) when navigating the environment. Recent neuroimaging studies with human adults show that this information is represented in 2 scene-selective cortical regions-the occipital place area (OPA) and retrosplenial complex (RSC)-but not in a third scene-selective region-the parahippocampal place area (PPA). What geometric properties, then, does the PPA represent, and what is its role in scene processing? Here we hypothesize that the PPA represents relative length and angle, the geometric properties classically associated with object recognition, but only in the context of large extended surfaces that compose the layout of a scene...
June 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630252/alpha-band-brain-oscillations-shape-the-processing-of-perceptible-as-well-as-imperceptible-somatosensory-stimuli-during-selective-attention
#15
Norman Forschack, Till Nierhaus, Matthias M Müller, Arno Villringer
Attention filters and weights sensory information according to behavioral demands. Stimulus-related neural responses are increased for the attended stimulus. Does alpha-band activity mediate this effect and is it restricted to conscious sensory events (suprathreshold), or does it also extend to unconscious stimuli (subthreshold)? To address these questions, we recorded EEG in healthy male and female volunteers undergoing subthreshold and suprathreshold somatosensory electrical stimulation to the left or right index finger...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627265/atm-radiation-and-the-risk-of-second-primary-breast-cancer
#16
Jonine L Bernstein, Patrick Concannon
PURPOSE: It was first suggested more than 40 years ago that heterozygous carriers for the human autosomal recessive disorder Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T) might also be at increased risk for cancer. Subsequent studies have identified the responsible gene, Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM), characterized genetic variation at this locus in A-T and a variety of different cancers, and described the functions of the ATM protein with respect to cellular DNA damage responses. However, an overall model of how ATM contributes to cancer risk, and in particular, the role of DNA damage in this process, remains lacking...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627018/the-nucleotide-free-state-of-heterotrimeric-g-proteins-%C3%AE-subunit-adopts-a-highly-stable-conformation
#17
Sai Krishna Andhirka, Ravichandran Vignesh, Gopala Krishna Aradhyam
Deciphering the mechanism of activation of heterotrimeric G proteins by their cognate receptors continues to be an intriguing area of research. The recently solved crystal structure of the ternary complex captured the receptor-bound α-subunit in an open conformation, without bound nucleotide has improved our understanding of the activation process. Despite these advancements, the mechanism by which the receptor causes GDP release from the α-subunit remains elusive. To elucidate the mechanism of activation, we studied guanine nucleotide-induced structural stability of the α-subunit (in response to thermal/chaotrope-mediated stress)...
June 19, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626467/mutation-in-hvcbp20-cap-binding-protein-20-adapts-barley-to-drought-stress-at-phenotypic-and-transcriptomic-levels
#18
Agata Daszkowska-Golec, Anna Skubacz, Marek Marzec, Michal Slota, Marzena Kurowska, Monika Gajecka, Patrycja Gajewska, Tomasz Płociniczak, Krzysztof Sitko, Andrzej Pacak, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska, Iwona Szarejko
CBP20 (Cap-Binding Protein 20) encodes a small subunit of the cap-binding complex (CBC), which is involved in the conserved cell processes related to RNA metabolism in plants and, simultaneously, engaged in the signaling network of drought response, which is dependent on ABA. Here, we report the enhanced tolerance to drought stress of barley mutant in the HvCBP20 gene manifested at the morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic levels. Physiological analyses revealed differences between the hvcbp20.ab mutant and its WT in response to a water deficiency...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626443/eye-movements-reveal-optimal-strategies-for-analogical-reasoning
#19
Michael S Vendetti, Ariel Starr, Elizabeth L Johnson, Kiana Modavi, Silvia A Bunge
Analogical reasoning refers to the process of drawing inferences on the basis of the relational similarity between two domains. Although this complex cognitive ability has been the focus of inquiry for many years, most models rely on measures that cannot capture individuals' thought processes moment by moment. In the present study, we used participants' eye movements to investigate reasoning strategies in real time while solving visual propositional analogy problems (A:B::C:D). We included both a semantic and a perceptual lure on every trial to determine how these types of distracting information influence reasoning strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626013/sleep-disrupts-high-level-speech-parsing-despite-significant-basic-auditory-processing
#20
Shiri Makov, Omer Sharon, Nai Ding, Michal Ben-Shachar, Yuval Nir, Elana Zion Golumbic
The extent to which the sleeping brain processes sensory information remains unclear. This is particularly true for continuous and complex stimuli, such as speech, in which information is organized into hierarchically embedded structures. Recently, novel metrics for assessing the neural representation of continuous speech have been developed, using non-invasive brain recordings. Those were so far tested during wakefulness. Here we investigated, for the first time, the sleeping brain's capacity to process continuous speech at different hierarchical levels, using a newly developed Concurrent Hierarchical Tracking (CHT) approach that can online monitor the neural representation and processing-depth of continuous speech...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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