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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748565/evaluating-mechanisms-of-diversification-in-a-guineo-congolian-tropical-forest-frog-using-demographic-model-selection
#1
Daniel M Portik, Adam D Leaché, Danielle Rivera, Michael F Barej, Marius Burger, Mareike Hirschfeld, Mark-Oliver Rödel, David C Blackburn, Matthew K Fujita
The accumulation of biodiversity in tropical forests can occur through multiple allopatric and parapatric models of diversification, including forest refugia, riverine barriers, and ecological gradients. Considerable debate surrounds the major diversification process, particularly in the West African Lower Guinea forests, which contain a complex geographic arrangement of topographic features and historical refugia. We used genomic data to investigate alternative mechanisms of diversification in the Gaboon forest frog, Scotobleps gabonicus, by first identifying population structure and then performing demographic model selection and spatially explicit analyses...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745240/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-a-friend-a-foe-or-a-bystander-in-the-neurodegenerative-cascade-and-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Othman Ghribi
Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that was discovered nearly three decades ago. Since its discovery, this protein complex has been implicated in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes such as inflammation, insulin resistance, synaptic plasticity and memory as well as pathological conditions including cancer, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This review literature is focused on the potential role NF-κB may play in the etipathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease...
July 25, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739535/importance-and-feasibility-of-transitional-care-for-children-with-medical-complexity-results-of-a-multi-stakeholder-delphi-process
#3
JoAnna K Leyenaar, Paul A Rizzo, Dmitry Khodyakov, Laurel K Leslie, Peter K Lindenauer, Rita Mangione-Smith
BACKGROUND: Children with medical complexity (CMC) account for disproportionate hospital utilization and adverse outcomes following discharge, and several gaps exist regarding the quality of hospital-to-home transitional care for this population. We conducted an expert elicitation process to identify important and feasible hospital-to-home transitional care interventions for CMC from the perspectives of parents and healthcare professionals. METHODS: We conducted a two-round electronic Delphi process to identify important and feasible transitional care interventions...
July 21, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739512/modulation-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-related-oxidative-stress-in-fibroblasts-of-patients-with-leigh-syndrome-by-inhibition-of-prooxidative-p66shc-pathway
#4
Aleksandra Wojtala, Agnieszka Karkucinska-Wieckowska, Vilma A Sardao, Joanna Szczepanowska, Pawel Kowalski, Maciej Pronicki, Jerzy Duszynski, Mariusz R Wieckowski
The mitochondrial respiratory chain, and in particular, complex I, is a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. Elevated levels of ROS are associated with an imbalance between the rate of ROS formation and the capacity of the antioxidant defense system. Increased ROS production may lead to oxidation of DNA, lipids and proteins and thus can affect fundamental cellular processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitude of intracellular oxidative stress in fibroblasts of patients with Leigh syndrome with defined mutations in complex I...
July 21, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739292/a-polar-sxxs-motif-drives-assembly-of-the-transmembrane-domains-of-toll-like-receptor-4
#5
Vasileios Kargas, Jan K Marzinek, Daniel A Holdbrook, Hang Yin, Robert C Ford, Peter J Bond
Like all members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, TLR4 comprises of a large ectodomain (ECD) involved in ligand recognition at the cell-surface, and a cytosolic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) signalling domain, linked by a lipid membrane-anchored transmembrane (TM) domain (TMD). Binding of immunostimulatory pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2) coreceptor-complexed TLR4 leads to its dimerization, resulting in productive juxtaposition of TIR domains and the initiation of pro-inflammatory innate immune responses...
July 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739274/extended-effective-carbon-number-concept-in-the-quantitative-analysis-of-multi-ethers-using-predicted-response-factors
#6
Gangli Zhu, Feng Zhao, Dan Wang, Chungu Xia
Flame ionized detector has been such widely applied in chemical analysis since its great invention and the discovery of chem-ionization. Thanks to the excellent contribution of Sternberg and the successors in this field, effective carbon number concept (ECN) can make the analysis calibration greatly simplified especially when authentic standard substances are unavailable or in the complicated case such as petrochemical industry and biomass processing. To supplement the ECN rule in multi-ethers, this work determined relative response factors of poly(oxymethylene) dimethyl ethers experimentally, and developed a probabilistic P1-P2 effective carbon number model (P-ECN) for multi-ethers compounds...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738330/the-brain-gut-axis-contributes-to-neuroprogression-in-stress-related-disorders
#7
Kieran Rea, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing emphasis on the relationship between the complexity and diversity of the microorganisms that inhabit our gut (human gastrointestinal microbiota) and brain health. The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a dynamic matrix of tissues and organs including the brain, glands, gut, immune cells, and gastrointestinal microbiota that communicate in a complex multidirectional manner to maintain homeostasis. Changes in this environment may contribute to the neuroprogression of stress-related disorders by altering physiological processes including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, neurotransmitter systems, immune function, and inflammatory responses...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737807/npy-binds-with-heme-to-form-a-npy-heme-complex-enhancing-peroxidase-activity-in-free-heme-and-promoting-npy-nitration-and-inactivation
#8
Huixian Ye, Zhen Yang, Hailing Li, Zhonghong Gao
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a member of the pancreatic peptide family of neuropeptides that play a crucial role in numerous central and peripheral nervous system responses. Recently, it has been shown that NPY protects cells against neurotoxic damage from β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Heme is a common factor linking several metabolic perturbations in AD and altered heme metabolism has been shown to be related to the pathologies of AD. Thus, heme may have a chance to act on NPY and potentially counteract its function...
July 24, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737438/prenatal-exposure-to-angiotensin-ii-increases-blood-pressure-and-decreases-salt-sensitivity-in-rats
#9
Pavel Svitok, Tomas Senko, Zuzana Panakova, Lucia Olexova, Lucia Krskova, Monika Okuliarova, Michal Zeman
Renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an essential role in the homeostatic control of arterial blood pressure, perfusion of tissues, and control of extracellular fluid. Its components are highly expressed in the developing kidney, general vasculature, brain, and heart. A modified intrauterine environment alters mechanisms controlling blood pressure (BP) and can lead to hypertension in the adult offspring and developmentally programmed RAAS can be involved in this process. There are very little data about the effects of increased angiotensin II (Ang II) concentrations during pregnancy on in utero development of the fetus...
July 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736519/isolating-discriminant-neural-activity-in-the-presence-of-eye-movements-and-concurrent-task-demands
#10
Jon Touryan, Vernon J Lawhern, Patrick M Connolly, Nima Bigdely-Shamlo, Anthony J Ries
A growing number of studies use the combination of eye-tracking and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures to explore the neural processes that underlie visual perception. In these studies, fixation-related potentials (FRPs) are commonly used to quantify early and late stages of visual processing that follow the onset of each fixation. However, FRPs reflect a mixture of bottom-up (sensory-driven) and top-down (goal-directed) processes, in addition to eye movement artifacts and unrelated neural activity. At present there is little consensus on how to separate this evoked response into its constituent elements...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736430/a-case-of-type-1-autoimmune-pancreatitis-aip-a-form-of-igg4-related-disease-igg4-rd
#11
Mounira El Euch, Souha Hddad, Madiha Mahfoudhi, Hela Maktouf, Fethi Ben Hamida, Fatima Jaziri, Khaoula Ben Abdelghani, Sami Turki, Taïeb Ben Abdallah
BACKGROUND Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), also known as lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP), is a rare cause of chronic pancreatitis, characterized by a fibro-inflammatory process. However, patients with AIP may have a good response to corticosteroid therapy. We describe a Tunisian patient with AIP that was confirmed to be an IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). CASE REPORT We describe a case of a 70-year-old man who was admitted to hospital for obstructive jaundice and abdominal pain. Serum liver function tests were abnormal and upper abdominal computed tomography (CT) imaging showed diffuse pancreatic swelling and strictures of the main pancreatic duct without any focal lesion...
July 24, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736290/regulated-proteolysis-as-an-element-of-er-stress-and-autophagy-implications-for-intestinal-inflammation
#12
REVIEW
Stephanie Stengel, Berith Messner, Maren Falk-Paulsen, Nina Sommer, Philip Rosenstiel
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy are tightly controlled cellular processes, which are responsible for maintaining protein homeostasis in a cell. Impairment of the interlinking pathways have been implicated in a number of human diseases, prominently in inflammatory bowel disease, where genetic variants in several independent autophagy and ER stress related loci have been associated to increased disease risk. Autophagy is a selective quality control process, which governs the integrity of the cell by removal of aged organelles and proteins via the lysosome, but recently has been shown to actively license the outcome of other signaling pathways by guiding the proteolytic removal of signaling protein complexes (adaptophagy)...
July 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735414/bone-mechanobiology-in-mice-toward-single-cell-in-vivo-mechanomics
#13
Ariane Scheuren, Esther Wehrle, Felicitas Flohr, Ralph Müller
Mechanically driven bone (re)modeling is a multiscale process mediated through complex interactions between multiple cell types and their microenvironments. However, the underlying mechanisms of how cells respond to mechanical signals are still unclear and are at the focus of the field of bone mechanobiology. Traditionally, this complex process has been addressed by reducing the system to single scales and cell types. It is only recently that more integrative approaches have been established to study bone mechanobiology across multiple scales in which mechanical load at the organ level is related to molecular responses at the cellular level...
July 22, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735094/dedicated-tool-to-assess-the-impact-of-a-rhetorical-task-on-human-body-temperature
#14
Robert Koprowski, Sławomir Wilczyński, Katarzyna Martowska, Dominik Gołuch, Emilia Wrocławska-Warchala
Functional infrared thermal imaging is a method widely used in medicine, including analysis of the mechanisms related to the effect of emotions on physiological processes. The article shows how the body temperature may change during stress associated with performing a rhetorical task and proposes new parameters useful for dynamic thermal imaging measurements MATERIALS AND METHODS: 29 healthy male subjects were examined. They were given a rhetorical task that induced stress. Analysis and processing of collected body temperature data in a spatial resolution of 256×512pixels and a temperature resolution of 0...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734548/ubiquitin-like-modifications-in-the-dna-damage-response
#15
REVIEW
Zhifeng Wang, Wei-Guo Zhu, Xingzhi Xu
Genomic DNA is damaged at an extremely high frequency by both endogenous and environmental factors. An improper response to DNA damage can lead to genome instability, accelerate the aging process and ultimately cause various human diseases, including cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms that underlie the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) are complex and are regulated at many levels, including at the level of post-translational modification (PTM). Since the discovery of ubiquitin in 1975 and ubiquitylation as a form of PTM in the early 1980s, a number of ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs) have been identified, including small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs), neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8), interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-F adjacent transcript 10 (FAT10), ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 (UFRM1), URM1 ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (URM1), autophagy-related protein 12 (ATG12), autophagy-related protein 8 (ATG8), fan ubiquitin-like protein 1 (FUB1) and histone mono-ubiquitylation 1 (HUB1)...
July 11, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734189/two-dimensional-modeling-of-elastic-wave-propagation-in-solids-containing-cracks-with-rough-surfaces-and-friction-part-i-theoretical-background
#16
Vladislav Aleshin, Steven Delrue, Andrey Trifonov, Olivier Bou Matar, Koen Van Den Abeele
Our study aims at the creation of a numerical toolbox that describes wave propagation in samples containing internal contacts (e.g. cracks, delaminations, debondings, imperfect intergranular joints) of known geometry with postulated contact interaction laws including friction. The code consists of two entities: the contact model and the solid mechanics module. Part I of the paper concerns the modeling of internal contacts (called cracks for brevity), while part II is related to the integration of the developed contact model into a solid mechanics module that allows the description of wave propagation processes...
July 13, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733678/physiological-and-transcriptome-analysis-of-he-ne-laser-pretreated-wheat-seedlings-in-response-to-drought-stress
#17
Zongbo Qiu, Mengmeng Yuan, Yanyan He, Yongfang Li, Liang Zhang
Drought stress is a serious problem worldwide that reduces crop productivity. The laser has been shown to play a positive physiological role in enhancing plant seedlings tolerance to various abiotic stresses. However, little information is available about the molecular mechanism of He-Ne laser irradiation induced physiological changes for wheat adapting to drought conditions. Here, we performed a large-scale transcriptome sequencing to determine the molecular roles of He-Ne laser pretreated wheat seedlings under drought stress...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733345/genes-of-cellular-components-of-morphogenesis-in-porcine-oocytes-before-and-after-ivm
#18
Joanna Budna, Artur Bryja, Piotr Celichowski, Rotem Kahan, Wiesława Kranc, Sylwia Ciesiółka, Marta Rybska, Sylwia Borys, Michal Jeseta, Dorota Bukowska, Paweł Antosik, Klaus Peter Brüssow, Małgorzata Bruska, Michał Nowicki, Maciej Zabel, Bartosz Kempisty
Proper oocyte maturation in mammals produces an oocyte capable of monospermic fertilization and embryo preimplantation. The cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), surrounding an oocyte, play a significant role in oocyte maturation. During this process, when the COCs undergo cumulus expansion wherein tightly compact cumulus cells (CCs) form a dispersed structure, permanent biochemical and molecular modifications occur in the maturing oocytes, indicating the gene expression between immature and mature oocytes differs significantly...
July 21, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729036/molecular-mechanisms-of-renal-aging
#19
REVIEW
Roland Schmitt, Anette Melk
Epidemiologic, clinical, and molecular evidence suggest that aging is a major contributor to the increasing incidence of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. The aging kidney undergoes complex changes that predispose to renal pathology. The underlying molecular mechanisms could be the target of therapeutic strategies in the future. Here, we summarize recent insight into cellular and molecular processes that have been shown to contribute to the renal aging phenotype.The main clinical finding of renal aging is the decrease in glomerular filtration rate, and its structural correlate is the loss of functioning nephrons...
July 17, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727003/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-intramuscular-fat-deposition-in-ruminants-and-pigs-a-transcriptomics-perspective
#20
B P Dalrymple, B Guo
The genomics era has led to an explosion in the study of gene expression in production animals. Intramuscular fat (IMF) content (both high and low) and composition are major quality attributes of meat, and more than 90 transcriptomic studies of IMF deposition have been undertaken in the ruminants and pigs since 2001, with the majority since 2008. The studies have implicated many genes involved in the control of adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and deposition of IMF, but there is relatively little consistency between the different studies...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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