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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102353/cofilin-regulates-nuclear-architecture-through-a-myosin-ii-dependent-mechanotransduction-module
#1
O'Neil Wiggan, Bryce Schroder, Diego Krapf, James R Bamburg, Jennifer G DeLuca
Structural features of the nucleus including shape, size and deformability impact its function affecting normal cellular processes such as cell differentiation and pathological conditions such as tumor cell migration. Despite the fact that abnormal nuclear morphology has long been a defining characteristic for diseases such as cancer relatively little is known about the mechanisms that control normal nuclear architecture. Mounting evidence suggests close coupling between F-actin cytoskeletal organization and nuclear morphology however, mechanisms regulating this coupling are lacking...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101144/histopathological-findings-in-systemic-sclerosis-related-myopathy-fibrosis-and-microangiopathy-with-lack-of-cellular-inflammation
#2
Claudio Corallo, Maurizio Cutolo, Nila Volpi, Daniela Franci, Margherita Aglianò, Antonio Montella, Chiara Chirico, Stefano Gonnelli, Ranuccio Nuti, Nicola Giordano
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify specific histopathological features of skeletal muscle involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. METHODS: A total of 35 out of 112 SSc-patients (32%, including 81% female and 68% diffuse scleroderma) presenting clinical, biological and electromyographic (EMG) features of muscle weakness, were included. Patients underwent vastus lateralis biopsy, assessed for individual pathologic features including fibrosis [type I collagen (Coll-I), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)], microangiopathy [cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31), pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), anti-angiogenic VEGF-A165b], immune/ inflammatory response [CD4, CD8, CD20, human leucocyte antigens ABC (HLA-ABC)], and membranolytic attack complex (MAC)...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100637/a-zip3-like-protein-plays-a-role-in-crossover-formation-in-the-sc-less-meiosis-of-the-protist-tetrahymena
#3
Anura Shodhan, Kensuke Kataoka, Kazufumi Mochizuki, Maria Novatchkova, Josef Loidl
When programmed meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) undergo recombinational repair, genetic crossovers (COs) may be formed. A certain level of these are required for the faithful segregation of chromosomes, but the majority of DSBs are processed toward a safer alternative, namely non-crossovers (NCOs), via non-reciprocal DNA exchange. At the crossroads between these two DSB fates are the Msh4-Msh5 (MutSγ) complex, which stabilizes CO-destined recombination intermediates, and members of the Zip3/RNF212 family of RING finger proteins, which in turn stabilize MutSγ...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100173/whole-genome-wide-transcript-profiling-to-identify-differentially-expressed-genes-associated-with-seed-field-emergence-in-two-soybean-low-phytate-mutants
#4
Fengjie Yuan, Xiaomin Yu, Dekun Dong, Qinghua Yang, Xujun Fu, Shenlong Zhu, Danhua Zhu
BACKGROUND: Seed germination is important to soybean (Glycine max) growth and development, ultimately affecting soybean yield. A lower seed field emergence has been the main hindrance for breeding soybeans low in phytate. Although this reduction could be overcome by additional breeding and selection, the mechanisms of seed germination in different low phytate mutants remain unknown. In this study, we performed a comparative transcript analysis of two low phytate soybean mutants (TW-1 and TW-1-M), which have the same mutation, a 2 bp deletion in GmMIPS1, but show a significant difference in seed field emergence, TW-1-M was higher than that of TW-1 ...
January 18, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097803/regulation-of-mrna-following-brain-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#5
REVIEW
Donald J DeGracia
There is growing appreciation that mRNA regulation plays important roles in disease and injury. mRNA regulation and ribonomics occur in brain ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) following stroke and cardiac arrest and resuscitation. It was recognized over 40 years ago that translation arrest (TA) accompanies brain I/R and is now recognized as part of the intrinsic stress responses triggered in neurons. However, neuron death correlates to a prolonged TA in cells fated to undergo delayed neuronal death (DND). Dysfunction of mRNA regulatory processes in cells fated to DND prevents them from translating stress-induced mRNAs such as heat shock proteins...
January 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096192/integrated-physiological-proteomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-of-uv-stress-responses-and-adaptation-mechanisms-in-pinus-radiata
#6
Jesus Pascual, Maria Jesus Canal, Monica Escandon, Monica Meijon, Wolfram Weckwerth, Luis Valledor
Globally expected changes in environmental conditions, especially the increase of UV irradiation, necessitate extending our knowledge of the mechanisms mediating tree species adaptation to this stress. This is crucial for designing new strategies to maintain future forest productivity. Studies focused on environmentally realistic dosages of UV irradiation in forest species are scarce. Pinus sp. are commercially relevant trees and not much is known about their adaptation to UV. In this work, UV treatment and recovery of Pinus radiata plants with dosages mimicking future scenarios, based on current models of UV radiation, were performed in a time-dependent manner...
January 17, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095655/production-of-il-1%C3%AE-and-inflammasome-with-up-regulated-expressions-of-nod-like-receptor-related-genes-in-toxoplasma-gondii-infected-thp-1-macrophages
#7
Jia-Qi Chu, Ge Shi, Yi-Ming Fan, In-Wook Choi, Guang-Ho Cha, Yu Zhou, Young-Ha Lee, Juan-Hua Quan
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that stimulates production of high levels of proinflammatory cytokines, which are important for innate immunity. NLRs, i.e., nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors, play a crucial role as innate immune sensors and form multiprotein complexes called inflammasomes, which mediate caspase-1-dependent processing of pro-IL-1β. To elucidate the role of inflammasome components in T. gondii-infected THP-1 macrophages, we examined inflammasome-related gene expression and mechanisms of inflammasome-regulated cytokine IL-1β secretion...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093474/behavioral-status-influences-the-dependence-of-odorant-induced-change-in-firing-on-pre-stimulus-firing-rate
#8
Anan Li, Ethan M Guthman, Wilder T Doucette, Diego Restrepo
: The firing rate of the mitral/tufted cells in the olfactory bulb is known to undergo significant trial-to-trial variability and is affected by anesthesia. Here we ask whether odorant-elicited changes in firing rate depend on the rate before application of the stimulus in the awake and anesthetized mouse. We find that pre-stimulus firing rate varies widely on a trial-to-trial basis and that the stimulus-induced change in firing rate decreases with increasing pre-stimulus firing rate...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092213/cellular-and-molecular-factors-influencing-tendon-repair
#9
Sushmitha Durgam, Matthew Stewart
Tendons are complex, hierarchically organized connective tissues that transmit tensile forces between muscles and tendons. Tendon injuries are among the most common orthopedic problems with long-term disability as a frequent consequence due to prolonged healing time. Further, the repair tissue is of inferior quality, predisposing patients to high rates of recurrence following initial injury. Co-ordinated cellular processes and biological factors under the influence of mechanical loading are involved in tendon healing and our understanding of these events lags behind other musculoskeletal tissues...
January 16, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088485/semantic-attributes-are-encoded-in-human-electrocorticographic-signals-during-visual-object-recognition
#10
Kyle Rupp, Matthew Roos, Griffin Milsap, Carlos Caceres, Christopher Ratto, Mark Chevillet, Nathan E Crone, Michael Wolmetz
Non-invasive neuroimaging studies have shown that semantic category and attribute information are encoded in neural population activity. Electrocorticography (ECoG) offers several advantages over non-invasive approaches, but the degree to which semantic attribute information is encoded in ECoG responses is not known. We recorded ECoG while patients named objects from 12 semantic categories and then trained high-dimensional encoding models to map semantic attributes to spectral-temporal features of the task-related neural responses...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088364/antibodies-from-novel-repertoires-to-defining-and-refining-the-structure-of-biologically-important-targets
#11
REVIEW
Paul J Conroy, Ruby H P Law, Tom Caradoc-Davies, James C Whisstock
Antibodies represent a highly successful class of molecules that bind a wide-range of targets in therapeutic-, diagnostic- and research-based applications. The antibody repertoire is composed of the building blocks required to develop an effective adaptive immune response against foreign insults. A number of species have developed novel genetic and structural mechanisms from which they derive these antibody repertoires, however, traditionally antibodies are derived from human, and rodent sources. Due to their high-value therapeutic, diagnostic, biotechnological and research applications, much innovation has resulted in techniques and approaches to isolate novel antibodies...
January 11, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081268/the-rice-dynamin-related-protein-osdrp1e-negatively-regulates-programmed-cell-death-by-controlling-the-release-of-cytochrome-c-from-mitochondria
#12
Zhiqiang Li, Bo Ding, Xueping Zhou, Guo-Liang Wang
Programmed cell death (PCD) mediated by mitochondrial processes has emerged as an important mechanism for plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. However, the role of translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol during PCD remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the rice dynamin-related protein 1E (OsDRP1E) negatively regulates PCD by controlling mitochondrial structure and cytochrome c release. We used a map-based cloning strategy to isolate OsDRP1E from the lesion mimic mutant dj-lm and confirmed that the E409V mutation in OsDRP1E causes spontaneous cell death in rice...
January 12, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077345/tips-and-traps-lessons-from-codesigning-a-clinician-e-monitoring-tool-for-computerized-cognitive-behavioral-therapy
#13
Frederick Sundram, Susan J Hawken, Karolina Stasiak, Mathijs Fg Lucassen, Theresa Fleming, Matthew Shepherd, Andrea Greenwood, Raechel Osborne, Sally N Merry
BACKGROUND: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) is an acceptable and promising treatment modality for adolescents with mild-to-moderate depression. Many cCBT programs are standalone packages with no way for clinicians to monitor progress or outcomes. We sought to develop an electronic monitoring (e-monitoring) tool in consultation with clinicians and adolescents to allow clinicians to monitor mood, risk, and treatment adherence of adolescents completing a cCBT program called SPARX (Smart, Positive, Active, Realistic, X-factor thoughts)...
January 11, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076957/collapse-precedes-folding-in-denaturant-dependent-assembly-of-ubiquitin
#14
Govardhan Reddy, Dave Thirumalai
The folding of small protein Ubiquitin (Ub), which plays an indispensable role in targeting proteins for degradation and DNA damage response is complex. A number of experiments on Ub folding have reached differing conclusions regarding the relation between collapse and folding, and whether intermediates are populated. In order to resolve these vexing issues, we elucidate the denaturant-dependent thermodynamics and kinetics of Ub folding at low and neutral pH as a function of Guanidinium chloride and Urea using coarse-grained molecular simulations...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072912/temperature-mapping-in-hydrogel-matrices-using-unmodified-digital-camera
#15
Ghinwa H Darwish, Hassan H Fakih, Pierre Karam
We report a simple, generally applicable and noninvasive fluorescent method for mapping thermal fluctuations in hydrogel matrices using an unmodified commercially available digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLR). The nanothermometer is based on the complexation of short conjugated polyelectrolytes, poly-(phenylene ethynylene) carboxylate, with an amphiphilic polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone, which is in turn trapped within the porous network of a gel matrix. Changes in the temperature lead to a fluorescent ratiometric response with a maximum relative sensitivity of 2...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071697/diel-scale-temporal-dynamics-recorded-for-bacterial-groups-in-namib-desert-soil
#16
Eoin Gunnigle, Aline Frossard, Jean-Baptiste Ramond, Leandro Guerrero, Mary Seely, Don A Cowan
Microbes in hot desert soil partake in core ecosystem processes e.g., biogeochemical cycling of carbon. Nevertheless, there is still a fundamental lack of insights regarding short-term (i.e., over a 24-hour [diel] cycle) microbial responses to highly fluctuating microenvironmental parameters like temperature and humidity. To address this, we employed T-RFLP fingerprinting and 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA-derived cDNA to characterize potentially active bacteria in Namib Desert soil over multiple diel cycles...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067471/traditional-and-novel-tools-to-probe-the-mitochondrial-metabolism-in-health-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Yanfei Zhang, José L Avalos
Mitochondrial metabolism links energy production to other essential cellular processes such as signaling, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition to producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as an energy source, mitochondria are responsible for the synthesis of a myriad of important metabolites and cofactors such as tetrahydrofolate, α-ketoacids, steroids, aminolevulinic acid, biotin, lipoic acid, acetyl-CoA, iron-sulfur clusters, heme, and ubiquinone. Furthermore, mitochondria and their metabolism have been implicated in aging and several human diseases, including inherited mitochondrial disorders, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and cancer...
January 9, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064117/differential-proteomic-and-oxidative-profiles-unveil-dysfunctional-protein-import-to-adipocyte-mitochondria-in-obesity-associated-aging-and-diabetes
#18
María Gómez-Serrano, Emilio Camafeita, Juan A López, Miguel A Rubio, Irene Bretón, Inés García-Consuegra, Eva García-Santos, Jesús Lago, Andrés Sánchez-Pernaute, Antonio Torres, Jesús Vázquez, Belén Peral
Human age-related diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), have long been associated to mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the role for adipose tissue mitochondria in these conditions remains unknown. We have tackled the impact of aging and T2DM on adipocyte mitochondria from obese patients by quantitating not only the corresponding abundance changes of proteins, but also the redox alterations undergone by Cys residues thereof. For that, we have resorted to a high-throughput proteomic approach based on isobaric labeling, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry...
December 18, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063885/identification-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-related-genes-in-channel-catfish-and-their-expression-profiles-in-mucosal-tissues-after-columnaris-bacterial-infection
#19
Xiaozhu Wang, Shikai Liu, Yujia Yang, Qiang Fu, Ash Abebe, Zhanjiang Liu
Interactions of NF-κB family, IκB family and IKK complex are the key components of NF-κB pathway that is essential for many biological processes including innate and adaptive immunity, inflammation and stress responses. In spite of their importance, systematic analysis of these genes in fish has been lacking. Here we report a systematic study of the NF-κB related genes in channel catfish. Five NF-κB family genes, five IκB family genes and three IKK complex genes were identified in the channel catfish genome...
January 4, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063828/genome-wide-computational-analysis-of-the-secretome-of-brown-algae-phaeophyceae
#20
Makoto Terauchi, Takahiro Yamagishi, Takeaki Hanyuda, Hiroshi Kawai
Brown algae have evolved complex multicellularity in the heterokont lineage. They are phylogenetically distant to land plants, fungi and animals. Especially, the members of Laminariales (so-called kelps) have developed highly differentiated tissues. Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays pivotal roles in a number of essential processes in multicellular organisms, such as cell adhesion, cell and tissue differentiations, cell-to-cell communication, and responses to environmental stimuli. In these processes, a set of extracellular secreted proteins called the secretome operates remodeling of the physicochemical nature of ECM and signal transduction by interacting with cell surface proteins and signaling molecules...
January 4, 2017: Marine Genomics
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