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Complex Responsive Processes of Relating

Jaime Agudo-Canalejo, Pierre Illien, Ramin Golestanian
Chemotaxis of enzymes in response to gradients in the concentration of their substrate has been widely reported in recent experiments, but a basic understanding of the process is still lacking. Here, we develop a microscopic theory for chemotaxis, valid for enzymes and other small molecules. Our theory includes both non-specific interactions between enzyme and substrate, as well as complex formation through specific binding between the enzyme and the substrate. We find that two distinct mechanisms contribute to enzyme chemotaxis: a diffusiophoretic mechanism due to the non-specific interactions, and a new type of mechanism due to binding-induced changes in the diffusion coefficient of the enzyme...
March 19, 2018: Nano Letters
Yaron Caspi, Cees Dekker
Cell division in most prokaryotes is mediated by the well-studied fts genes, with FtsZ as the principal player. In many archaeal species, however, division is orchestrated differently. The Crenarchaeota phylum of archaea features the action of the three proteins, CdvABC. This Cdv system is a unique and less-well-studied division mechanism that merits closer inspection. In vivo , the three Cdv proteins form a composite band that contracts concomitantly with the septum formation. Of the three Cdv proteins, CdvA is the first to be recruited to the division site, while CdvB and CdvC are thought to participate in the active part of the Cdv division machinery...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
María Del Mar Sáez Freire, Adrián Blanco Gómez, Sonia Castillo Lluva, Aurora Gómez Vecino, Julie Milena Galvis Jiménez, Carmen Martín Seisdedos, María Isidoro García, Lourdes Hontecillas Prieto, María Begoña García-Cenador, Francisco Javier García Criado, María Carmen Patino Alonso, Purificación Galindo Villardón, Jian-Hua Mao, Carlos Prieto, Andrés Castellanos Martín, Lars Kaderali, Jesús Pérez Losada
The incidence of breast cancer increases with age until menopause, and breast cancer is more aggressive in younger women. The existence of epidemiological links between breast cancer and aging indicates that both processes share some common mechanisms of development. Oxidative stress is associated with both cancer susceptibility and aging. Here we observed that ERBB2-positive breast cancer, which developed in genetically heterogeneous ERBB2-positive transgenic mice generated by a backcross, is more aggressive in chronologically younger than in older mice (differentiated by the median survival of the cohort that was 79 weeks), similar to what occurs in humans...
March 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
B Fang, M Zhang, K S Ge, H Z Xing, F Z Ren
Previous studies have demonstrated that the anti-tumor α-lactalbumin-oleic acid complex (α-LA-OA) may target the glycolysis of tumor cells. However, few data are available regarding the effects of α-LA-OA on energy metabolism. In this study, we measured glycolysis and mitochondrial functions in HeLa cells in response to α-LA-OA using the XF flux analyzer (Seahorse Bioscience, North Billerica, MA). The gene expression of enzymes involved in glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transfer chain, and ATP synthesis were also evaluated...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Megan Zirnstein, Janet G van Hell, Judith F Kroll
In this study, we examined the role that cognitive control and language regulation ability play in mediating readers' susceptibility to prediction error costs when reading in the native language (L1) or a second language (L2). Twenty-four English monolinguals (Experiment 1) and 28 Chinese-English bilinguals (Experiment 2) read sentences in English while their EEG was recorded. The sentences varied in the predictability of an upcoming expected word and in whether that prediction was confirmed. Monolinguals showed sensitivity to sentence contexts in which expectations were not met (i...
March 14, 2018: Cognition
Binyong Liang, Lukas K Tamm
SNARE-mediated membrane fusion is a ubiquitous process responsible for intracellular vesicle trafficking, including membrane fusion in exocytosis that leads to hormone and neurotransmitter release. The proteins that facilitate this process are highly dynamic and adopt multiple conformations when they interact with other proteins and lipids as they form highly regulated molecular machines that operate on membranes. Solution NMR is an ideal method to capture high-resolution glimpses of the molecular transformations that take place when these proteins come together and work on membranes...
April 2018: Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Catalina Burbano, Juan Villar-Vesga, Janine Orejuela, Carlos Muñoz, Adriana Vanegas, Gloria Vásquez, Mauricio Rojas, Diana Castaño
Microparticles (MPs) are vesicles derived from the plasma membrane of different cells, are considered a source of circulating autoantigens, and can form immune complexes (MPs-ICs). The number of MPs and MPs-ICs increases in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). MPs activate myeloid cells by inducing IL-6 and TNF-α in both SLE and other diseases. Therefore, we propose that the recognition of MPs-ICs by monocytes rather that MPs may define their phenotype and contribute to the inflammatory process in patients with SLE...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sajal Kole, Ranjeeta Kumari, Deepika Anand, Saurav Kumar, Rupam Sharma, Gayatri Tripathi, M Makesh, K V Rajendran, Megha Kadam Bedekar
DNA-based immunization has proven to be an effective prophylactic measure to control aquatic animal diseases. In order to improve the efficiency of vaccine against fish pathogen, novel delivery mechanism needs to be adopted. In the present study we nanoconjugated the previously constructed DNA vaccine (pGPD + IFN) with chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) by complex coacervation process. After construction of the vaccine, an in vivo vaccination trial was conducted in which 2 groups of rohu (L. rohita) fingerlings were vaccinated with CNPs-pGPD + IFN, one group by oral route (incorporated in feed for 14 days) and the other by immersion route (primary and booster immunised), whereas, a third group was intramuscularly (I/M) injected (initial and booster immunised) with naked pGPD + IFN and subsequently challenged with E...
March 12, 2018: Vaccine
Katja Bertsch, Karen Hillmann, Sabine C Herpertz
One of the core symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is emotion dysregulation, which comprises emotion sensitivity, heightened and labile negative affect, deficient appropriate regulation strategies, and a surplus of maladaptive regulation strategies. Although earlier studies provided some evidence for threat hypersensitivity in terms of a negatively biased perception of other people ("negativity bias") and deficits in the recognition of full-blown anger, i.e., higher error rates and slower reaction times, researchers have only recently started studying effects of interindividual differences (e...
March 14, 2018: Psychopathology
Matthew P Smeltzer, Fedoria E Rugless, Bianca M Jackson, Courtney L Berryman, Nicholas R Faris, Meredith A Ray, Meghan Meadows, Anita A Patel, Kristina S Roark, Satish K Kedia, Margaret M DeBon, Fayre J Crossley, Georgia Oliver, Laura M McHugh, Willeen Hastings, Orion Osborne, Jackie Osborne, Toni Ill, Mark Ill, Wynett Jones, Hyo K Lee, Raymond S Signore, Roy C Fox, Jingshan Li, Edward T Robbins, Kenneth D Ward, Lisa M Klesges, Raymond U Osarogiagbon
Background: Responsible for 25% of all US cancer deaths, lung cancer presents complex care-delivery challenges. Adoption of the highly recommended multidisciplinary care model suffers from a dearth of good quality evidence. Leading up to a prospective comparative-effectiveness study of multidisciplinary vs. serial care, we studied the implementation of a rigorously benchmarked multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic. Methods: We used a mixed-methods approach to conduct a patient-centered, combined implementation and effectiveness study of a multidisciplinary model of lung cancer care...
February 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
Boldizsár Czéh, Szilvia A Nagy
Depressive disorders are complex, multifactorial mental disorders with unknown neurobiology. Numerous theories aim to explain the pathophysiology. According to the "gliocentric theory", glial abnormalities are responsible for the development of the disease. The aim of this review article is to summarize the rapidly growing number of cellular and molecular evidences indicating disturbed glial functioning in depressive disorders. We focus here exclusively on the clinical studies and present the in vivo neuroimaging findings together with the postmortem molecular and histopathological data...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Yi-Tzu Chang, Hsiang-Yu Chen, Yuan-Chieh Huang, Wan-Yu Shih, Hsiao-Lung Chan, Ping-Yi Wu, Ling-Fu Meng, Chen-Chi Chen, Ching-I Wang
BACKGROUND: Action semantics have been investigated in relation to context violation but remain less examined in relation to the meaning of gestures. In the present study, we examined tool-gesture incongruity by event-related potentials (ERPs) and hypothesized that the component N400, a neural index which has been widely used in both linguistic and action semantic congruence, is significant for conditions of incongruence. METHODS: Twenty participants performed a tool-gesture judgment task, in which they were asked to judge whether the tool-gesture pairs were correct or incorrect, for the purpose of conveying functional expression of the tools...
March 13, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Hind Hamzeh-Cognasse, Philippe Berthelot, Bernard Tardy, Bruno Pozzetto, Thomas Bourlet, Sandrine Laradi, Olivier Garraud, Fabrice Cognasse
In addition to their haemostatic role and function in the repair of damaged vascular epithelium, platelets play a defensive role in innate immunity, having the capacity to produce and secrete various anti-infectious factors, as well as cytokines, chemokines and related products, to interact with other immune cells to modulate immune responses to pathogens. Thus, it is now widely acknowledged that platelets participate in inflammatory processes and infection resolution, most notably by expressing and using receptors to bind infectious pathogen moieties and contributing to pathogen clearance...
March 13, 2018: Platelets
Sébastien Santurette, Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard, Lisbeth Tranebjærg, Ture Andersen, Torben Poulsen, Torsten Dau
Our auditory environment is constantly changing and evolving over time, requiring us to rapidly adapt to a complex dynamic sensory input. This adaptive ability of our auditory system can be observed at different levels, from individual cell responses to complex neural mechanisms and behavior, and is essential to achieve successful speech communication, correct orientation in our full environment, and eventually survival. These adaptive processes may differ in individuals with hearing loss, whose auditory system may cope via "readapting" itself over a longer time scale to the changes in sensory input induced by hearing impairment and the compensation provided by hearing devices...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
D Crivelli, M D Sabogal Rueda, M Balconi
The present work aimed at exploring functional correlates of motor and linguistic representations of everyday actions, with a specific interest in potential sensorimotor activation effects induced by the use of related action sentences. While it is indeed known that observing simple motor acts (e.g., precision grasping) and listening to the sound of specific actions (e.g., walking) activate sensorimotor structures, less is known when we move to more complex behaviors and more abstract linguistic representations (e...
March 12, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Caroline M Coope, Neville Q Verlander, Annegret Schneider, Susan Hopkins, William Welfare, Alan P Johnson, Bharat Patel, Isabel Oliver
BACKGROUND: Following hospital outbreaks of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), Public Health England published a toolkit in December 2013 to promote the early detection, management and control of CPE colonisation and infection in acute hospital settings. AIM: This evaluation aimed to examine awareness, uptake, implementation and usefulness of the CPE toolkit and identify potential barriers and facilitators to its adoption in order to inform future guidance...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Weixiang Jin, M Fethullah Simsek, Arnd Pralle
It has been long recognized that the cell membrane is heterogeneous on scales ranging from a couple of molecules to micrometers in size and hence diffusiong of receptors is length scale dependent. This heterogeneity modulates many cell-membrane-associated processes requiring transient spatiotemporal separation of components. The transient increase in local concentration of interacting signal components enables robust signaling in an otherwise thermally noisy system. Understanding how lipids and proteins self-organize and interact with the cell cortex requires quantifying the motion of the components...
March 9, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Damla Tas, Luca Stickley, Federico Miozzo, Rafael Koch, Nicolas Loncle, Virginie Sabado, Bettina Gnägi, Emi Nagoshi
Forkhead box (FOXO) proteins are evolutionarily conserved, stress-responsive transcription factors (TFs) that can promote or counteract cell death. Mutations in FOXO genes are implicated in numerous pathologies, including age-dependent neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the complex regulation and downstream mechanisms of FOXOs present a challenge in understanding their roles in the pathogenesis of PD. Here, we investigate the involvement of FOXO in the death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons, the key pathological feature of PD, in Drosophila...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Ali Maisam Afzali, Thomas Müntefering, Heinz Wiendl, Sven G Meuth, Tobias Ruck
Histopathological analyses of muscle specimens from myositis patients indicate that skeletal muscle cells play an active role in the interaction with immune cells. Research over the last few decades has shown that skeletal muscle cells exhibit immunobiological properties that perfectly define them as non-professional antigen presenting cells. They are able to present antigens via major histocompatibility complex molecules, exhibit costimulatory molecules and secrete soluble molecules that actively shape the immune response in an either pro- or anti-inflammatory manner...
March 8, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Isamara Julia Camuri, Adriano Batista Costa, Amando Siuiti Ito, Wallance Moreira Pazin
The bioactivity of propolis against several pathogens is well established, leading to the extensive consumption of that bee product to prevent diseases. Brazilian green propolis, collected by the species Apis mellifera, is one of the most consumed in the world. The chemical composition of green propolis is complex and it has been shown that it displays antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities, especially due to the high content of Artepillin C. The molecule is a derivative of cinnamic acid with two prenylated groups, responsible for the improvement of the affinity of the compound for lipophilic environment...
February 23, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
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