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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334583/effects-of-carnosine-beta-alanyl-l-histidine-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-acute-kidney-injury-due-to-septic-shock
#1
Sabiha Sahin, Dilek Burukoglu Donmez
BACKGROUND Acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the human intensive care unit (ICU). Kidney function and the histological findings of AKI were investigated in an experimental rat model with sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and compared with and without treatment with carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine). MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups consisting eight rats in each: Group 1 - control; Group 2 - septic shock; and Group 3 - septic shock treated with carnosine...
January 15, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334569/assessment-of-prehospital-hemorrhage-and-airway-care-using-a-simulation-model
#2
Mariya E Skube, Seth Witthuhn, Kristine Mulier, Bonnie Boucher, Elizabeth Lusczek, Greg J Beilman
BACKGROUND: The quality of prehospital care impacts patient outcomes. Military efforts have focused on training revision and the creation of high fidelity simulation models to address potentially survivable injuries. We sought to investigate the applicability of models emphasizing hemorrhage control and airway management to a civilian population. METHODS: Prehospital healthcare providers (PHPs) undergoing their annual training were enrolled. A trauma scenario was simulated with two modules: hemorrhage control and airway management...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334559/sex-differences-in-faculty-rank-among-academic-surgeons-in-the-united-states-in-2014
#3
Daniel M Blumenthal, Regan W Bergmark, Nikhila Raol, Jordan D Bohnen, Jean Anderson Eloy, Stacey T Gray
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate sex differences in full professorship among a comprehensive, contemporary cohort of US academic surgeons. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous work demonstrates that women are less likely than men to be full professors in academic medicine, and in certain surgical subspecialties. Whether sex differences in academic rank exist across all surgical fields, and after adjustment for confounders, is not known. METHODS: A comprehensive list of surgeons with faculty appointments at US medical schools in 2014 was obtained from Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) faculty roster and linked to a comprehensive physician database from Doximity, an online physician networking website, which contained the following data for all physicians: sex, age, years since residency, publication number (total and first/last author), clinical trials participation, National Institutes of Health grants, and surgical subspecialty...
January 12, 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334550/chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-subsequent-hiv-viral-load-among-women-with-hiv-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy
#4
Sarah J Willis, Stephen R Cole, Daniel Westreich, Andrew Edmonds, Christopher B Hurt, Svenja Albrecht, Kathryn Anastos, Michael Augenbraun, Margaret Fischl, Audrey L French, Aley G Kalapila, Roksana Karim, Marion G Peters, Michael Plankey, Eric C Seaberg, Phyllis C Tien, Adaora A Adimora
OBJECTIVE(S): One in four persons living with HIV is coinfected with HCV. Biological and behavioral mechanisms may increase HIV viral load among coinfected persons. Therefore, we estimated the longitudinal effect of chronic HCV on HIV suppression after ART initiation among women with HIV (WWH). DESIGN: HIV RNA was measured every six months among 441 WWH in the Women's Interagency HIV Study who initiated ART from 2000-2015. METHODS: Log-binomial regression models were used to compare the proportion of study visits with detectable HIV RNA between women with and without chronic HCV...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334546/impact-of-early-antiretroviral-therapy-eligibility-on-hiv-acquisition-household-level-evidence-from-rural-south-africa
#5
Catherine E Oldenburg, Jacob Bor, Guy Harling, Frank Tanser, Tinofa Mutevedzi, Maryam Shahmanesh, George R Seage, Victor De Gruttola, Matthew J Mimiaga, Kenneth H Mayer, Deenan Pillay, Till Bärnighausen
OBJECTIVES: We investigate the effect of immediate ART eligibility on HIV incidence among HIV-uninfected household members. DESIGN: Regression discontinuity study arising from a population-based cohort. METHODS: Household members of patients seeking care at the Hlabisa HIV Treatment and Care Programme in rural KwaZulu-Natal South Africa between January 2007 and August 2011 with CD4 counts up to 350 cells/μl were eligible for inclusion if they had at least two HIV tests and were HIV-uninfected at the time the index patient linked to care (N = 4,115)...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334536/nationwide-trend-analysis-of-pediatric-inpatients-with-immune-thrombocytopenia-in-the-united-states
#6
Yusuke Okubo, Atsuhiko Handa
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported the epidemiology of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) among children in the United States and other countries. However, recent trends in ITP among hospitalized children and hospital course remain unknown at a national level in the United States. METHOD: Hospital discharge records of patients with ITP aged 19 years and younger were obtained for the years 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012 using the Kids' Inpatient Database. Data were weighted to estimate the annual hospitalization rates in the United States with trend analyses...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334521/new-educational-model-to-promote-breast-cancer-preventive-behaviors-assists-development-and-first-evaluation
#7
Maryam Khazaee-Pool, Tahereh Pashaei, Rashin Alizadeh, Koen Ponnet
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of breast cancer in Iran has increased. An effective approach to decrease the burden of breast cancer is prevention. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an educational model, called the ASSISTS, for promoting breast cancer-preventive behaviors in women. METHODS: A multiphase method was used to develop the model designed to promote breast cancer prevention behaviors. A conceptual model was generated based on a secondary analysis of qualitative data...
January 12, 2018: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334515/facilitating-adoption-of-an-electronic-documentation-system
#8
Nazarine T Jones, Charlotte Seckman
Best practice recommends the integration of clinical documentation into the hospital electronic health record to support safe, efficient, and timely patient care. A major barrier to successful adoption and optimization of computerized documentation systems is user satisfaction. The purpose of this descriptive, performance improvement initiative was to implement and evaluate user satisfaction with an electronic documentation system to facilitate successful adoption. The Clinical Procedure Flowsheets application was implemented in a geriatric extended care unit of a large healthcare system...
January 12, 2018: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334495/the-ethics-of-interventional-procedures-for-patients-too-ill-for-surgery
#9
Caroline G Kan, Michael Nurok
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Minimally invasive interventional procedures are increasingly popular options for patients who are high-risk candidates for open surgical procedures. It is unclear how to proceed in the rare circumstance of a complication during an interventional procedure, where addressing the complication would require exposing the patient to the full risk that was being avoided with the minimally invasive technique. This review provides recommendations on how to approach this paradoxical scenario...
January 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334362/investigation-of-resistance-switching-in-siox-rram-cells-using-a-3d-multi-scale-kinetic-monte-carlo-simulator
#10
Toufik Sadi, Adnan Mehonic, Luca Montesi, Mark Buckwell, Anthony Kenyon, Asen Asenov
We employ an advanced three-dimensional (3D) electro-thermal simulator to explore the physics and potential of oxide-based resistive random-access memory (RRAM) cells. The physical simulation model has been developed recently, and couples a kinetic Monte Carlo study of electron and ionic transport to the self-heating phenomenon while accounting carefully for the physics of vacancy generation and recombination, and trapping mechanisms. The simulation framework successfully captures resistance switching, including the electroforming, set and reset processes, by modeling the dynamics of conductive filaments in the 3D space...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334351/integrating-third-party-telehealth-records-with-the-general-practice-electronic-medical-record-system-a-solution
#11
Mary Paterson, Alison McAulay, Brian McKinstry
BACKGROUND: The implementation of telemonitoring at scale has been less successful than anticipated, often hindered by clinicians' perceived increase in workload. One important factor has been the lack of integration of patient generated data (PGD) with the electronic medical record (EMR). Clinicians have had problems accessing PGD on telehealth systems especially in patient consultations in primary care. OBJECTIVE: To design a method to produce a report of PGD that is available to clinicians through their routine EMR system...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334347/methods-to-describe-referral-patterns-in-a-canadian-primary-care-electronic-medical-record-database-modelling-multilevel-count-data
#12
Bridget L Ryan, Joshua Shadd, Heather Maddocks, Moira Stewart, Amardeep Thind, Amanda L Terry
  A referral from a family physician (FP) to a specialist is an inflection point in the patient journey, with potential implications for clinical outcomes and health policy. Primary care electronic medical record (EMR) databases offer opportunities to examine referral patterns. Until recently, software techniques were not available to model these kinds of multi-level count data. OBJECTIVE:  To establish methodology for determining referral rates from FPs to medical specialists using the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN) EMR database...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334287/efficacy-and-safety-of-alpha-blockers-in-medical-expulsive-therapy-for-ureteral-stones-a-mixed-treatment-network-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-clinical-trials
#13
Kannan Sridharan, Gowri Sivaramakrishnan
Alpha blockers (AB) are the main group of drugs used for medical expulsive therapy (MET) in patients with ureteral stones. However, there is no consensus on the relative efficacy and safety of individual AB in MET. Areas covered: The present work is a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing AB with either placebo or standard of care in patients with ureteral stones. Electronic databases of Medline, Cochrane CENTRAL and Google Scholar were searched for eligible clinical studies. Inverse variance heterogeneity model was used for mixed treatment comparisons...
January 15, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334235/impact-of-an-assertive-community-treatment-model-of-care-on-the-treatment-of-prisoners-with-a-serious-mental-illness
#14
Brian McKenna, Jeremy Skipworth, Rees Tapsell, Krishna Pillai, Dominic Madell, Alexander Simpson, James Cavney, Paul Rouse
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to describe the impact of a mental health assertive community treatment prison model of care (PMOC) on improving the ability to identify prisoner needs, provide interventions and monitor their efficacy. METHODS: We carried out a file review across five prisons of referrals in the year before the implementation of the PMOC in 2010 ( n = 423) compared with referrals in the year after ( n = 477). RESULTS: Some improvements in the identification of needs and providing interventions were detected...
January 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334233/perceived-discrimination-and-mental-health-among-older-african-americans-the-role-of-psychological-well-being
#15
Eunkyung Yoon, Corvell Coburn, Susie A Spence
OBJECTIVES: Examine the effect of perceived discrimination (both racial and non-racial) on the mental health of older African Americans and explore the buffering role of psychological well-being (purpose in life and self-acceptance). METHODS: Using an older African American subsample from the National Health Measurement Study (n = 397), multiple regression model by gender was used to estimate the effects of two types of discrimination (every day and lifetime) on SF-36 mental component and mediating role of two concepts of psychological well-being...
January 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333867/what-is-the-meaning-of-filial-piety-for-people-with-dementia-and-their-family-caregivers-in-china-under-the-current-social-transitions-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis
#16
Xiubin Zhang, Charlotte L Clarke, Sarah J Rhynas
The filial piety model of family centred care has dominated Chinese society for thousands of years. The ways in which filial piety is presented are being modified and modernised as China undergoes social transitions. The study aims to understand the meaning of filial piety for people with dementia and family caregivers. Semi-structured interviews with people with dementia ( n = 10) and family caregivers ( n = 14) were conducted. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three themes emerged: (a) 'Being filial is a cultural continuity and my future investment'...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333681/myotropic-activity-and-immuno-localization-of-selected-neuropeptides-of-the-burying-beetle-nicrophorus-vespilloides-coleoptera-silphidae
#17
Arkadiusz Urbański, Jan Lubawy, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński
Burying beetles (Nicrophorus sp.) are necrophagous insects with developed parental care. Genome of Nicrophorus vespilloides has been recently sequenced, which makes them interesting model organism in behavioural ecology. However, we know very little about their physiology, including the functioning of their neuro-endocrine system. In this study, one of the physiological activities of proctolin, myosuppressin (Nicve-MS), myoinhibitory peptide (Trica-MIP-5) and the short neuropeptide F (Nicve-sNPF) in N. vespilloides have been investigated...
January 15, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333496/improving-the-wait-time-to-consultation-at-the-emergency-department
#18
Yuzeng Shen, Lin Hui Lee
Prolonged wait times at the emergency department (ED) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and decreased patient satisfaction. Reducing wait times at the ED is challenging. The objective of this study is to determine if the implementation of a series of interventions would help decrease the wait time to consultation (WTC) for patients at the ED within 6 months. Interventions include creation of a common board detailing work output, matching manpower to patient arrivals and adopting a team-based model of care...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333493/a-quality-improvement-project-aimed-at-adapting-primary-care-to-ensure-the-delivery-of-evidence-based-psychotherapy-for-adult-anxiety
#19
Mark D Williams, Craig N Sawchuk, Nathan D Shippee, Kristin J Somers, Summer L Berg, Jay D Mitchell, Angela B Mattson, David J Katzelnick
Primary care patients frequently present with anxiety with prevalence ratios up to 30%. Brief cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) has been shown in meta-analytic studies to have a strong effect size in the treatment of anxiety. However, in surveys of anxious primary care patients, nearly 80% indicated that they had not received CBT. In 2010, a model of CBT (Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM)) adapted to primary care for adult anxiety was published based on results of a randomised controlled trial...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333486/ethical-considerations-when-delivering-behavior-analytic-services-for-problem-behavior-via-telehealth
#20
Patrick W Romani, Kelly M Schieltz
Delivery of healthcare services via telehealth has been growing in popularity, and work completed by behavior analytic researchers and practitioners have supported this trend. Behavior analysts at the University of Iowa Children's Hospital (UICH) developed a telehealth model of service delivery to build upon their already established in-clinic and in-home services. Results from their telehealth studies showed positive effects. Social functions were identified for most children, and problem behavior decreased by an average of 94...
November 2017: Behavior Analysis (Washington, D.C.)
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