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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549041/value-of-osteoblast-derived-exosomes-in-bone-diseases
#1
Min Ge, Yingzhi Wu, Ronghu Ke, Tianyi Cai, Junyi Yang, Xiongzheng Mu
PURPOSE: The authors' purpose is to reveal the value of osteoblast-derived exosomes in bone diseases. METHODS: Microvesicles from supernatants of mouse Mc3t3 were isolated by ultracentrifugation and then the authors presented the protein profile by proteomics analysis. RESULTS: The authors detected a total number of 1536 proteins by mass spectrometry and found 172 proteins overlap with bone database. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis shows network of "Skeletal and Muscular System Development and Function, Developmental Disorder, Hereditary Disorder" and pathway about osteogenesis...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548579/genetic-variation-of-the-mu-opioid-receptor-oprm1-and-dopamine-d2-receptor-drd2-is-related-to-smoking-differences-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-but-not-bipolar-disorder
#2
Mika Hirasawa-Fujita, Michael J Bly, Vicki L Ellingrod, Gregory W Dalack, Edward F Domino
It is not known why mentally ill persons smoke excessively. Inasmuch as endogenous opioid and dopaminergic systems are involved in smoking reinforcement, it is important to study mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G (rs1799971), dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) Taq1A (rs1800497) genotypes, and sex differences among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Smokers and nonsmokers with schizophrenia (n=177) and bipolar disorder (n=113) were recruited and genotyped. They were classified into three groups: current smoker, former smoker, and never smoker by tobacco smoking status self-report...
2017: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546566/a-diastereoselective-synthesis-of-cebranopadol-a-novel-analgesic-showing-nop-mu-mixed-agonism
#3
Anna Fantinati, Sara Bianco, Remo Guerrini, Severo Salvadori, Salvatore Pacifico, Maria Camilla Cerlesi, Girolamo Calo, Claudio Trapella
A diastereoselective synthesis of the title compound as a single E diastereomer has been efficiently accomplished by assembling the featured pyrano-indole scaffold of the spiro[cyclohexane-dihydropyrano[3,4-b]-indole]-amine framework through an oxa-Pictet-Spengler reaction, promoted by a cheap and green Zeolite catalyst. Basic pharmacological experiments demonstrate that Cebranopadol acts as a mixed nociception/orphanin FQ (NOP) and mu (MOP) opioid receptor agonist useful for treatment of chronic pain.
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534504/crystal-structure-of-the-receptor-binding-domain-of-the-spike-glycoprotein-of-human-betacoronavirus-hku1
#4
Xiuyuan Ou, Hongxin Guan, Bo Qin, Zhixia Mu, Justyna A Wojdyla, Meitian Wang, Samuel R Dominguez, Zhaohui Qian, Sheng Cui
Human coronavirus (CoV) HKU1 is a pathogen causing acute respiratory illnesses and so far little is known about its biology. HKU1 virus uses its S1 subunit C-terminal domain (CTD) and not the N-terminal domain like other lineage A β-CoVs to bind to its yet unknown human receptor. Here we present the crystal structure of HKU1 CTD at 1.9 Å resolution. The structure consists of three subdomains: core, insertion and subdomain-1 (SD-1). While the structure of the core and SD-1 subdomains of HKU1 are highly similar to those of other β-CoVs, the insertion subdomain adopts a novel fold, which is largely invisible in the cryo-EM structure of the HKU1 S trimer...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533693/dna-methylation-at-the-mu-1-opioid-receptor-gene-oprm1-promoter-predicts-preoperative-acute-and-chronic-postsurgical-pain-after-spine-fusion
#5
Vidya Chidambaran, Xue Zhang, Lisa J Martin, Lili Ding, Matthew T Weirauch, Kristie Geisler, Bobbie L Stubbeman, Senthilkumar Sadhasivam, Hong Ji
INTRODUCTION: The perioperative pain experience shows great interindividual variability and is difficult to predict. The mu-1 opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) is known to play an important role in opioid-pain pathways. Since deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation is a potent repressor of gene expression, DNA methylation was evaluated at the OPRM1 promoter, as a predictor of preoperative, acute, and chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP). METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted in 133 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing spine fusion under standard protocols...
2017: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532680/decreased-spinal-endomorphin-2-contributes-to-mechanical-allodynia-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#6
Le Niu, Guang-Hai Dai, Gao-Le He, Ming Yang, Hui-Min Hu, Zhong-Kai Liu, Nian-Song Qian, Yong-Liang Chen
Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) plays a major role in decreased life quality of diabetes patients, however, the neural mechanisms underlying DNP remain unclear. Endomorphins are the endogenous ligands for mu-opioid receptor. There is increasing evidence implicating the involvement of spinal endomorphin-2 (EM2) in neuropathic pain. In this study, using a streptozotocin induced diabetic rat model that displayed obvious mechanical allodynia, it was found that the expression of spinal EM2 was significantly decreased in DNP rats...
May 19, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529734/differential-regulation-of-mouse-and-human-mu-opioid-receptor-gene-depends-on-the-single-stranded-dna-structure-of-its-promoter-and-%C3%AE-complex-protein-1
#7
Dong-Sun Lee, Ping-Yee Law, Wei Ln, Horace H Loh, Kyu Young Song, Hack Sun Choi
The Mu opioid receptor (MOR) mediates various functions of opioid-induced analgesia, euphoria and respiratory depression, and is a major target of opioid analgesics. Understanding of MOR gene expression among species is important for understanding its analgesic function in humans. In the current study, the polypyrimidine/polypurine (PPy/u) region, a key element of MOR gene expression, was compared in humans and mice. The mouse PPy/u element is highly homologous to its human element (84%), and the mouse MOR (mMOR) reporter drives luciferase activity 35-fold more effectively than the human MOR (hMOR) reporter...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529452/estradiol-suppresses-tlr4-triggered-apoptosis-of-decidual-stromal-cells-and-drives-an-anti-inflammatory-th2-shift-by-activating-sgk1
#8
Yiyun Lou, Minhao Hu, Qijing Wang, Mu Yuan, Ning Wang, Fang Le, Lejun Li, Shisi Huang, Liya Wang, Xiangrong Xu, Fan Jin
A pro-inflammatory cytokine profile at the feto-maternal interface may predispose immune maladaptation notably in early miscarriages. We investigated the involvement of estradiol (E2)-activated serum-glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) in preserving the tolerogenic and pro-survival intrauterine microenvironment beneficial to gestation maintenance. Decidual SGK1 was down-regulated in early miscarriage, consistent with the lower serum E2 concentration seen in pregnancy loss. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) signaling induced apoptosis and the pro-inflammatory T helper type (TH) 1 response of decidual stromal cells (DSCs) were associated with miscarriage...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506204/antibiotic-effects-of-loperamide-homology-of-human-targets-of-loperamide-with-targets-in-acanthamoeba-spp
#9
Abdul Mannan Baig, Zohaib Rana, M Mohsin Mannan, S Sumayya Tariq, H R Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Loperamide is an anti-diarrheal drug prescribed for non-infectious diarrhea. The drug is an opioid receptor agonist, a blocker of voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav) and a calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor on human cells. Loperamide has been reported to exert anti-amoebic effects against pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba castellanii. OBJECTIVES: The precise mode of antibiotic action, cellular target homology with human counterparts and the pattern of cell death induced by loperamide in Acanthamoeba castellanii remain to be established...
April 25, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501425/the-effects-of-kratom-on-restraint-stress-induced-analgesia-and-its-mechanisms-of-action
#10
José Luis Vázquez López, Lorenz Schild, Thomas Günther, Stefan Schulz, Hartmud Neurath, Axel Becker
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa and its extracts are called kratom (dried leaves, extract). They contain several alkaloids with an affinity for different opioid receptors. They are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases, as a substitute by opiate addicts, and to mitigate opioid withdrawal symptoms. Apart from their medical properties, they are used to enhance physical endurance and as a means of overcoming stress. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the effects of kratom on restraint-stress-induced analgesia which occurs during or following exposure to a stressful or fearful stimulus...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488261/use-of-tramadol-in-psychiatric-care-a-comprehensive-review-and-report-of-two-cases
#11
Ansgar Rougemont-Bücking, Franziska Gamma, Jaak Panksepp
Tramadol is widely prescribed for treating acute and chronic forms of pain. It is a weak mu-receptor opioid agonist and also increases concentrations of serotonin and noradrenaline within the limbic system of the brain. The therapeutic range of tramadol is relatively wide. Compared with other opioid agonists, there is little risk for developing tolerance and for abuse. Recent models of depression emphasise the subjective experience of a depressive mood as being, in part, a psychologically painful state. It is well established that psychological stress due to social separation/loss, disruption or be-trayal of pre-existent significant interpersonal bonds is mediated by the activation of the mammalian PANIC (separation-distress) system...
May 10, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484480/single-event-resolution-of-plant-plasma-membrane-protein-endocytosis-by-tirf-microscopy
#12
Alexander Johnson, Grégory Vert
Endocytosis is a key process in the internalization of extracellular materials and plasma membrane proteins, such as receptors and transporters, thereby controlling many aspects of cell signaling and cellular homeostasis. Endocytosis in plants has an essential role not only for basic cellular functions but also for growth and development, nutrient delivery, toxin avoidance, and pathogen defense. The precise mechanisms of endocytosis in plants remain quite elusive. The lack of direct visualization and examination of single events of endocytosis has greatly hampered our ability to precisely monitor the cell surface lifetime and the recruitment profile of proteins driving endocytosis or endocytosed cargos in plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483563/losartan-a-selective-antagonist-of-at1-receptor-attenuates-seawater-inhalation-induced-lung-injury-via-modulating-jak2-stats-and-apoptosis-in-rat
#13
Congcong Li, Liyan Bo, Pengcheng Li, Xi Lu, Wangping Li, Lei Pan, Yani Sun, Deguang Mu, Wei Liu, Faguang Jin
Losartan is a selective antagonist of AngⅠ type (AT1) receptor of Angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ), which is widely used as a clinical medicine for the hypertension. Recent studies have shown that losartan was shown to protect from acute lung injury (ALI). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this research was to clarify whether Ang Ⅱ participated in the inflammatory response of ALI induced by seawater inhalation, and whether losartan had the protective effects on ALI by blocking the combination of Ang Ⅱ and AT1 receptor...
May 5, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473894/role-of-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-in-parafascicular-nucleus-of-thalamus-on-morphine-induced-antinociception-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-trigeminal-pain
#14
Esmaeal Tamaddonfard, Amir Erfanparast
The parafascicular nucleus (PFN) of thalamus, as a supraspinal structure, has an important role in processing of nociceptive information. In addition, μ-opioid receptor contributes to supraspinal modulation of nociception. In the present study, the effects of microinjection of naloxone (a non-specific opioid-receptor antagonist) and naloxonazine (a specific μ-opioid receptor antagonist) were investigated on morphine-induced antinociception in a rat model of acute trigeminal pain. Right and left sides of PFN of thalamus were implanted with two guide cannulas...
2017: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467815/epigenetic-silencing-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer-hallmarks-by-withaferin-a
#15
Katarzyna Szarc Vel Szic, Ken Declerck, René A J Crans, Jolien Diddens, David B Scherf, Clarissa Gerhäuser, Wim Vanden Berghe
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by poor prognosis and a DNA hypomethylation profile. Withaferin A (WA) is a plant derived steroidal lactone which holds promise as a therapeutic agent for treatment of breast cancer (BC). We determined genome-wide DNA methylation changes in weakly-metastatic and aggressive, metastatic BC cell lines, following 72h treatment to a sub-cytotoxic concentration of WA. In contrast to the DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC), WA treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells rather tackles an epigenetic cancer network through gene-specific DNA hypermethylation of tumor promoting genes including ADAM metallopeptidase domain 8 (ADAM8), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (PLAU), tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 12 (TNFSF12), and genes related to detoxification (glutathione S-transferase mu 1, GSTM1), or mitochondrial metabolism (malic enzyme 3, ME3)...
April 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466423/chronic-pruritus-current-and-emerging-treatment-options
#16
REVIEW
Manuel P Pereira, Sonja Ständer
Chronic pruritus remains a central societal issue because of its high occurrence and the substantial decrease in quality of life it may cause to affected individuals. Not only dermatological conditions, but also systemic, neurological, or psychiatric diseases may lead to chronic pruritus. Additionally, various underlying conditions may coexist or the cause may be unknown. Due to its heterogeneity, the therapeutic approach is complex and remains a challenge for the clinician. Basic measures such as emollients to avoid xerosis and treatment of the underlying disease should be initiated regardless of the duration of the symptom...
June 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465483/crispr-cas9-mediated-apoe-and-ldlr-double-gene-knockout-in-pigs-elevates-serum-ldl-c-and-tc-levels
#17
Lei Huang, Zaidong Hua, Hongwei Xiao, Ying Cheng, Kui Xu, Qian Gao, Ying Xia, Yang Liu, Xue Zhang, Xinming Zheng, Yulian Mu, Kui Li
The traditional method to establish a cardiovascular disease model induced by high fat and high cholesterol diets is time consuming and laborious and may not be appropriate in all circumstances. A suitable pig model to study metabolic disorders and subsequent atherosclerosis is not currently available. For this purpose, we applied the CRISPR/Cas9 system to Bama minipigs, targeting apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene simultaneously. Six biallelic knockout pigs of these two genes were obtained successfully in a single step...
April 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459460/magea1-interacts-with-fbxw7-and-regulates-ubiquitin-ligase-mediated-turnover-of-nicd1-in-breast-and-ovarian-cancer-cells
#18
J Zhao, Y Wang, C Mu, Y Xu, J Sang
Melanoma-associated antigen A1 (MAGEA1) is member of the MAGE gene family that is expressed in male germ line cells and placenta under normal physiological conditions. Although MAGEA1's expression levels have been evaluated as one of the cancer testis (CT) antigens for immunotherapy in melanoma and several other cancers, its functional role and signaling mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we examined the functional involvement and signaling mechanisms of MAGEA1 in breast and ovarian cancer cells...
May 1, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457972/the-rewarding-effects-of-ethanol-are-modulated-by-binge-eating-of-a-high-fat-diet-during-adolescence
#19
M Carmen Blanco-Gandía, Juan Carlos Ledesma, Auxiliadora Aracil-Fernández, Francisco Navarrete, Sandra Montagud-Romero, Maria A Aguilar, Jorge Manzanares, José Miñarro, Marta Rodríguez-Arias
Binge-eating is considered a specific form of overeating characterized by intermittent and high caloric food intake in a short period of time. Epidemiologic studies support a positive relation between the ingestion of fat and ethanol (EtOH), specifically among adolescent subjects. The aim of this work was to clarify the role of the compulsive, limited and intermittent intake of a high-fat food during adolescence on the rewarding effects of EtOH. After binge-eating for 2 h, three days a week from postnatal day (PND) 29, the reinforcing effects of EtOH were tested with EtOH self-administration (SA), conditioned place preference (CPP) and ethanol locomotor sensitization procedures in young adult mice...
April 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456841/changes-in-gene-expression-and-sensitivity-of-cocaine-reward-produced-by-a-continuous-fat-diet
#20
M Carmen Blanco-Gandía, Auxiliadora Aracil-Fernández, Sandra Montagud-Romero, Maria A Aguilar, Jorge Manzanares, José Miñarro, Marta Rodríguez-Arias
RATIONALE: Preclinical studies report that free access to a high-fat diet (HFD) alters the response to psychostimulants. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine how HFD exposure during adolescence modifies cocaine effects. Gene expression of CB1 and mu-opioid receptors (MOr) in the nucleus accumbens (N Acc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were assessed. METHODS: Mice were allowed continuous access to fat from PND 29, and the locomotor (10 mg/kg) and reinforcing effects of cocaine (1 and 6 mg/kg) on conditioned place preference (CPP) were evaluated on PND 69...
April 29, 2017: Psychopharmacology
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