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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443503/kratom-and-future-treatment-for-the-opioids-addiction-and-chronic-pain-periculo-beneficium
#1
Ismaliza Ismail, Suzaily Wahab, Hatta Sidi, Srijit Das, Loo Jiann Lin, Rosdinom Razali
Kratom (Mitragynaspeciosa), a natural existing plant found in South-East Asia, is tradi-tionally used as an herb to help to elevate a person's energy and also to treat numerous medical ailments. Other than the analgesic property, kratom has been used as an agent to overcome opioid withdrawal as it contains natural alkaloids, i.e. mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and MGM-9, which has agonist affinity on the opioid receptors, including mu (μ) and kappa (κ). The role of neural reward pathway linked to μ-opioid receptors and both dopaminergic and GABA-ergic interneurons that express μ-opioid receptors were deliberated...
April 25, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304319/a-case-of-infant-delirium-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#2
L E Edwards, L B Hutchison, C D Hornik, P B Smith, C M Cotten, M Bidegain
Infant delirium is an under-recognized clinical entity in neonatal intensive care, and earlier identification and treatment could minimize morbidities associated with this condition. We describe a case of a 6-month-old former 32 weeks gestation infant undergoing a prolonged mechanical ventilation course diagnosed with delirium related to the combination of his underlying illness and the use of multiple sedative and analgesic medications. Initiation of the atypical antipsychotic risperidone allowed for weaning from continuous infusions of benzodiazepines and opiods, and lower dosages of bolus-dosed sedation and analgesics...
2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110513/effect-of-methylnaltrexone-and-naloxone-on-esophageal-motor-function-in-man
#3
E Scarpellini, A Pauwels, R Vos, N Rommel, J Tack
BACKGROUND: Endogenous opioids (EO) acting on μ-opiod receptors in central and enteric nervous system (ENS) control gastrointestinal motility but it is still unclear whether EO in ENS may control esophageal function in man, thus we will study the effects of methylnaltrexone (MNTX), a peripherally selective, and naloxone (NA), a non-selective μ-opiod receptor antagonist, on esophageal motility in healthy subjects. METHODS: Fifteen HV (6 M; 34.1 ± 0.6 years; BMI: 22...
March 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905910/is-standardized-care-feasible-in-the-emergency-setting-a-case-matched-analysis-of-patients-undergoing-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#4
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Fabian Grass, Matthieu Cachemaille, Catherine Blanc, Nicolas Fournier, Nermin Halkic, Nicolas Demartines, Martin Hübner
BACKGROUND: Immediate laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the accepted standard for the treatment of acute cholecystitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of a standardized approach with tailored care maps for pre- and postoperative care by comparing pain, nausea and patient satisfaction after elective and emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: From January 2014 until April 2015, data on pain and nausea management were prospectively recorded for all elective and emergency procedures in the department of visceral surgery...
December 1, 2016: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775210/g-protein-coupled-receptors-sustained-signaling-via-intracellular-megaplexes-and-pathway-specific-drugs
#5
Andreas Link, Christa E Müller
Together forever? Functional selection was applied to finally achieve separation of the analgesic properties of opiods from serious side effects such as potentially lethal respiratory depression. A Gi-biased μ-opioid-receptor agonist (PZM21) was identified that stabilizes previously unexplored receptor conformations. This compound relieves pain in mice without causing hypoventilation or addiction.
December 23, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600945/the-%C3%AE-1-opioid-receptor-and-5-ht2a-and-5ht2c-serotonergic-receptors-of-the-locus-coeruleus-are-critical-in-elaborating-hypoalgesia-induced-by-tonic-and-tonic-clonic-seizures
#6
Renato Leonardo de Freitas, Priscila Medeiros, Juliana Almeida da Silva, Rithiele Cristina de Oliveira, Ricardo de Oliveira, Farhad Ullah, Asmat Ullah Khan, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
It has been proposed that the post-ictal state is associated with the expression of hypoalgesia. It is clear that the projections among the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and locus coeruleus (LC) play a role in pain management. These mesencephalic structures have direct reciprocal opioid and monoaminergic projections to the LC that can possibly modulate post-ictal hypoalgesia. The goal of this study was to examine if LC-opioid and serotonergic/noradrenergic mechanisms signal the post-ictal hypoalgesic responses to tonic-clonic seizures produced by intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ at 64mg/kg), causing an ionophore γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated Cl(-) influx antagonism...
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590071/repeated-activation-of-delta-opiod-receptors-counteracts-nerve-injury-induced-tnf-%C3%AE-up-regulation-in-the-sciatic-nerve-of-rats-with-neuropathic-pain-a-possible-correlation-with-delta-opiod-receptors-mediated-antiallodinic-effect
#7
Nunzio Vicario, Rosalba Parenti, Giuseppina Arico', Rita Turnaturi, Giovanna Maria Scoto, Santina Chiechio, Carmela Parenti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530218/hormonal-systems-human-social-bonding-and-affiliation
#8
REVIEW
Steven W Gangestad, Nicholas M Grebe
Which hormones are implicated in human social bonding and affiliation? And how does field research speak to this issue? We begin by laying out a broad view of how endocrine hormones in general modulate life history allocations of energy and other resources, and the ways in which their neuromodulatory functions must be understood within a broader conceptualization of how they have been shaped to affect allocations. We then turn to four specific hormones or hormone families that have received much attention: oxytocin, opioids, prolactin, and progesterone...
August 13, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26922659/antagonist-models-for-relapse-prevention-and-reducing-hiv-risk
#9
George E Woody, Evgeny Krupitsky, Edwin Zvartau
Naltrexone is an antagonist that binds tightly to μ-opioid receptors and blocks the subjective and analgesic effects of opioids. It does not produce physiologic dependence and precipitates withdrawal if administered to an opioid dependent person, thus starting it must begin with detoxification. It was first available in the mid-1970s as a 50 mg tablet that blocked opioids for 24-36 h if taken daily, or every 2-3 days at higher doses - for example: 100 mg Monday and Wednesday, 150 mg on Friday. From a pharmacological perspective it worked very well and was hoped to be an effective treatment but results were disappointing due to low patient interest and high dropout followed by relapse...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26921085/drug-interactions-with-aprepitant-or-fosaprepitant-review-of-literature-and-implications-for-clinical-practice
#10
Anna Dushenkov, Julie Kalabalik, Antonia Carbone, Paiboon Jungsuwadee
Purpose Aprepitant and its parenteral formulation fosaprepitant are widely used for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Aprepitant exerts modest inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 and modest inductive effect on CYP2C9 substrates such as some antineoplastics and multiple other medications. This article is aimed to provide pharmacists and other healthcare professionals with an updated summary of drug-drug interactions of aprepitant/fosaprepitant and implications for clinical practice. Method We reviewed publications reporting drug-drug interactions between aprepitant/fosaprepitant and other medications...
June 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26839023/efficacy-of-methylnaltrexone-for-the-treatment-of-opiod-induced-constipation-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Neel Mehta, Kelli O'Connell, Gregory P Giambrone, Aisha Baqai, Sudhir Diwan
OBJECTIVE: Constipation is a common adverse effect in patients requiring long-term opioid therapy for pain control. Methylnaltrexone, a quaternary peripheral mu-opioid receptor antagonist, is an effective treatment of opioid induced constipation (OIC) without affecting centrally mediated analgesia. Our objective was to conduct a review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of methylnaltrexone for treatment of OIC, as well as to provide a clinical discussion regarding newly developed alternatives and provide the current treatment algorithm utilized at our institution...
2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26802307/spinal-cord-stimulation-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-concomitant-phantom-limb-pain-and-critical-limb-ischemia
#12
Giovanni De Caridi, Mafalda Massara, Raffaele Serra, Claudia Risitano, Massimiliano Giardina, Ignazio Eduardo Acri, Pietro Volpe, Antonio David
Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a chronic condition experienced by about 80% of patients who have undergone amputation. In most patients, both the frequency and the intensity of pain attacks diminish with time, but severe pain persists in about 5-10%. Probably, factors in both the peripheral and central nervous system play a role in the occurrence and persistence of pain in the amputated lower limb. The classical treatment of PLP can be divided into pharmacologic, surgical, anesthetic, and psychological modalities...
April 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26742384/anesthetic-techniques-and-perioperative-complications-of-cleft-lip-and-cleft-palate-surgery-at-srinagarind-hospital
#13
Piyaporn Bunsangjaroen, Cattleya Thongrong, Patt Pannengpetch, Supakorn Somsaad, Nonthida Rojanapithayakorn, Lumpai Polsena, Duangnate Litu, Wimonrat Sriraj, Pornthep Kasemsiri
BACKGROUND: Cleft lip (CL) and cleft palate (CP) are common craniofacial abnormalities with an incidence of around 1:800. Surgical are corrections often performed during the first year of life. These patients have risks for difficult intubation and various perioperative complications due to their young age and craniofacial abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the retrospective descriptive study is to report the data of anesthetic techniques and complications of repairing CLCP in Srinagarind Hospital...
August 2015: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26662794/neuralgic-amyotrophy-an-update-on-diagnosis-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Jeroen J J Van Eijk, Jan T Groothuis, Nens Van Alfen
In this review we provide a current overview of the clinical features, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in neuralgic amyotrophy (NA). The disorder has several phenotypic variations, with a classic form in 70% of the patients. It is not rare, with an incidence of 1 per 1,000 individuals, but it is still often missed. Recurrences are common, yet the proposed multifactorial etiology, which includes genetic, biomechanical, and immunologic factors, limits our capacity to predict or prevent them...
March 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26586391/opioid-use-in-cancer-pain-management-in-indonesia-a-call-for-attention
#15
REVIEW
Rianto Setiabudy, Cosphiadi Irawan, Aru W Sudoyo
Severe pain is a major problem for cancer patients, and pain management often requires the use of opioids. Indonesia is one of the countries where the use of opioids for cancer patients is extremely low, and this calls for attention, as many cancer patients in the country undergo unnecessary suffering as the consequence of this opioid underuse. The inability to assess pain correctly, failure to determine the correct dose, fear of addiction, overly tight regulation, all contribute to the failure to implement rational use of opioids for cancer patients...
July 2015: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26360963/opioid-use-and-risk-of-nonvertebral-fractures-in-adults-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-nested-case-control-study-using-administrative-databases
#16
Francisco A Acurcio, Cristiano S Moura, Sasha Bernatsky, Louis Bessette, Elham Rahme
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of nonvertebral fractures in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who were exposed to opioids. METHODS: A population-based, nested case-control study was conducted using health services administrative databases (Quebec, Canada) from 1997 to 2012. Among RA patients, cases of nonvertebral fractures from 2007 to 2012 were identified using a validated algorithm. The date of the first fracture was the index date for the case and his/her matched control...
January 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26349406/decreased-expression-of-nociceptin-orphanin-fq-in-the-dorsal-anterior-cingulate-cortex-of-suicides
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Pierre-Eric Lutz, Yi Zhou, Aurélie Labbe, Naguib Mechawar, Gustavo Turecki
The nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ)-Nociceptin Opiod-like Peptide (NOP) receptor system is a critical mediator of physiological and pathological processes involved in emotional regulation and drug addiction. As such, this system may be an important biological substrate underlying psychiatric conditions that contribute to the risk of suicide. Thus, the goal of the present study was to characterize changes in human N/OFQ and NOP signaling as a function of depression, addiction and suicide. We quantified the expression of N/OFQ and NOP by RT-PCR in the anterior insula, the mediodorsal thalamus, and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) from a large sample of individuals who died by suicide and matched psychiatrically-healthy controls...
November 2015: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25974312/the-epigenetic-regulation-of-the-opioid-system-new-individualized-prompt-prevention-and-treatment-strategies
#18
REVIEW
Iraia Muñoa, Itziar Urizar, Luis Casis, Jon Irazusta, Nerea Subirán
The most well-known physiological effect associated with opiod system is their efficacy in pain reduction or analgesia, although their effect on a variety of other physiological and physiophological functions has become apparent in recent years. This review is an attempt to clarify in more detail the epigenetic regulation of opioid system to understand with more precision their transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation in multiple pyisiological and pharmacological contexts. The opioid receptors show an epigenetic regulation and opioid peptide precursors by methylation, chromatin remodeling and microRNA...
November 2015: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25942373/antinociceptive-activity-and-toxicity-evaluation-of-the-fatty-oil-from-plukenetia-polyadenia-mull-arg-euphorbiaceae
#19
Amanda S Mota, Anderson B de Lima, Thayana Lucy F Albuquerque, Tiago S Silveira, José Luiz M do Nascimento, Joyce Kelly R da Silva, Alcy F Ribeiro, José Guilherme S Maia, Gilmara N T Bastos
Seed oil (Pp-oil) of Plukenetia polyadenia is used by native people of the Brazilian Amazon against arthritis and rheumatism, spreading it on the arms and legs to reduce the pain and inflammation. Pp-oil was obtained by pressing dried seeds at room temperature to give a 47.0% yield of oil. It was then subjected to fatty acid composition analysis. The principal fatty acids were linoleic acid (46.5%), α-linolenic acid (34.4%) and oleic acid (13.9%). Then, it was evaluated for its antinociceptive activity in mice, using the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot plate and formalin test models...
2015: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25821010/oral-analgesia-for-relieving-post-caesarean-pain
#20
REVIEW
Nondumiso Mkontwana, Natalia Novikova
BACKGROUND: Oral analgesia is a convenient and widely used form of pain relief following caesarean section. It includes various medications used at different doses alone or in adjunction to other form of analgesia. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of oral analgesia for post-caesarean pain relief. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2014) and reference lists of retrieved studies...
March 29, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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