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Ego psychology

David Sagar, Marcus West
This paper explores the process of psychological and spiritual development through a series of active imaginations arising from the author's 'psycho-spiritual quest', a process of transformation in which the individual progressively frees themselves from the ego's identifications and may be afforded a vision of the 'self as consciousness', as described by Vedanta. The author describes how this quest was facilitated by the disciplines of Transcendental Meditation, Jungian analysis and Vedanta, and how these three disciplines can work together to foster psycho-spiritual development...
November 2016: Journal of Analytical Psychology
Juan Fernando Sellés Dauder
In this paper we review the V. E. Frankl' conception of the 'person', which he understands as the superior part in man. This study consists of three parts: a) In the first we study 10 thesis that the father of logotherapy offers on the person, namely: 1st) the person is an individual; 2nd) whitaut possibility of sum; 3rd) is a new being; 4th) is spiritual; 5th) is existential; 6th) is the 'I' or the 'ego'; 7th) provides unity and wholeness; 8th) is dynamic; 9th) is able to transcend and to face herself; 10th) He is not understood by itself but from the point of view of transcendence...
May 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
Peter Railton
What is distinctive about a bringing a learning perspective to moral psychology? Part of the answer lies in the remarkable transformations that have taken place in learning theory over the past two decades, which have revealed how powerful experience-based learning can be in the acquisition of abstract causal and evaluative representations, including generative models capable of attuning perception, cognition, affect, and action to the physical and social environment. When conjoined with developments in neuroscience, these advances in learning theory permit a rethinking of fundamental questions about the acquisition of moral understanding and its role in the guidance of behavior...
September 3, 2016: Cognition
A M Iannaccone, G Verrusio, S Iurassich
INTRODUCTION: Female genitalis lichen sclerosus (FGLS) occurs on skin and mucous membranes and shows inflammatory lesions, chronic atrophic, itching and pain. These physical damages produce a decline in sex and a resulting relational couple discomfort. AIM: We describe the discomfort and the relationship between physical and psychological damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A random sample, between 35-55 years (average 44.55, SD 6.00) includes 2 groups of 55 subjects: - the first with LSAG diagnosis since 24 months - the latter with controls...
July 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
Chia-Der Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju Lin
BACKGROUND: In the education field, learning experiences are considered learners' properties and are viewed as a key determinant in explaining learners' learning processes, especially for training novices such as clerks with varying levels of commitment to the medical profession. This study explored whether clerks' achievement goal motivation orientations might buffer the negative well-being to a certain extent, considering their training demands during clinical training. METHODS: Ninety-four clerks at a tertiary medical center were longitudinally traced during their 2-year clerkship spanning from September 2013 to April 2015...
2016: BMC Medical Education
Georg Northoff, Niall W Duncan
Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with a variety of symptoms that include sensorimotor, affective, cognitive, and social changes. The exact neuronal mechanisms underlying these symptoms remain unclear though. Neuroimaging has focused mainly on the brain's extrinsic activity, specifically task-evoked or stimulus-induced activity, as related to the sensorimotor, affective, cognitive, and social functions. Recently, the focus has shifted to the brain's spontaneous activity, otherwise known as its resting state activity...
August 12, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
Nathan C Hall, Anna Sverdlik
College students in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) disciplines are increasingly faced with highly competitive and demanding degree programs and are at risk of academic overconfidence. Following from theory and research highlighting the psychological and developmental risks of unrealistic expectations, the present exploratory study evaluated the longitudinal effects of a motivational intervention encouraging college students in STEM degree programs (N = 52) to consider the importance of downgrading one's expectations in response to academic setbacks...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Joshua B Grubbs, Julie J Exline
Psychological entitlement is a personality trait characterized by pervasive feelings of deservingness, specialness, and exaggerated expectations. The present review expands upon this understanding by conceptualizing entitlement as a cognitive-personality vulnerability to psychological distress. A review of research is conducted, and a novel, multipart model is described by which entitlement may be seen as such a vulnerability. First, exaggerated expectations, notions of the self as special, and inflated deservingness associated with trait entitlement present the individual with a continual vulnerability to unmet expectations...
August 8, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
G Maupome, W R McConnell, B L Perry, R Marino, E R Wright
OBJECTIVES: We used data from the TalaSurvey study to examine associations between dental health experiences, social network characteristics, and levels of behavioral and psychological acculturation in one location in the American Midwest. METHODS: Starting in parishes and community organizations, we identified adults of Mexican origin living in Indianapolis, who were 1st- or 2nd-generation immigrants from Tala, Mexico. Using a social networks methodology and following extensive formative research, we created an egocentric social network survey and administered it via face-to-face interviews...
August 1, 2016: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Aleksandar Aksentijevic, John Melvin Gudnyson Treider
A recent study reported an asymmetry between subjective estimates of future and past distances with passive estimation and virtual movement. The temporal Doppler effect refers to the contraction of future distance judgments relative to past ones. We aimed to replicate the effect using real and imagined motion in both directions as well as different temporal perspectives. To avoid the problem of subjective anchoring, we compared real- and imagined-, ego- and time-moving conditions to a control group. Generally, Doppler-like distortion was only observed in conditions in which the distance between the participant and a frontal target increased...
October 2016: Cognition
Haotian Zhou, Ayelet Fishbach
The authors find that experimental studies using online samples (e.g., MTurk) often violate the assumption of random assignment, because participant attrition-quitting a study before completing it and getting paid-is not only prevalent, but also varies systemically across experimental conditions. Using standard social psychology paradigms (e.g., ego-depletion, construal level), they observed attrition rates ranging from 30% to 50% (Study 1). The authors show that failing to attend to attrition rates in online panels has grave consequences...
October 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Wolfgang Milch
First the discussion of Kohut's new ideas in the United States is sketched as a background. The response to these ideas was divided: on the one hand they were hailed as important innovations of psychoanalytic theory, and a circle of colleagues formed around their author; on the other hand they were violently rejected, and old friends distanced themselves from him. In Germany Kuhut's ideas were initially well received. His visits, lectures and supervisions resulted in a lively exchange and a number of friendships...
2016: Luzifer-Amor: Zeitschrift Zur Geschichte der Psychoanalyse
María del Mar Ferradás, Carlos Freire, Antonio Valle, José Carlos Núñez
In highly competitive settings like university, the fear of failure leads some students to protect their self-worth using self-handicapping strategies. The present investigation examines to what extent academic goals are related to those tactics in university students. Specifically, MANCOVA was applied to estimate statistical differences linked to behavioral and claimed self-handicapping strategies according to the level (high/medium/low) of four types of academic goal (achievement approach, achievement avoidance, mastery approach, and work avoidance)...
2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
E Thomas Dowd
This article describes the phenomenon of therapeutic resistance and reactance from the perspective of the wounded self. The concept of the wounded self is first presented as it is applied to anxiety and depression and then extended to anger applications. The wounded self can be seen as deeply embedded in human cognitive structures (or core beliefs) of tacit knowledge. The operation of tacit knowledge is then described in everyday life as well as in the therapeutic process. Then there is a discussion of the role of resistance and psychological reactance in psychotherapy with implications for the therapeutic alliance...
July 2016: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
Gitta Kleijn, Lenneke Post, Birgit I Witte, Ernst T Bohlmeijer, Gerben J Westerhof, Pim Cuijpers, Irma M Verdonck-de Leeuw
PURPOSE: To evaluate psychometric characteristics of a questionnaire (the Northwestern Ego-integrity Scale (NEIS)) on ego-integrity (the experience of wholeness and meaning in life, even in spite of negative experiences) and despair (the experience of regret about the life one has led, and feelings of sadness, failure and hopelessness) among cancer patients. METHODS: Cancer patients (n = 164) completed patient reported outcome measures on ego-integrity and despair (NEIS), psychological distress, anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), and quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30 (cancer survivors, n = 57) or EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL (advanced cancer patients, n = 107))...
2016: PloS One
Juliane Brüdern, Thomas Berger, Franz Caspar, Anja Gysin Maillart, Konrad Michel
This article describes the application of a dual-regulation model to a case example of a female suicide attempter. The model complements the traditional goal-and-feedback view with self-organizing processes, which may help to better understand the suicidal process. From this view, impulsive suicidal behavior can be interpreted as a dysfunctional pattern by which high-internal tension is reduced through self-organized processes. High tension might result from intrapersonal factors and adverse life conditions, by which self-regulation is depleted...
April 2016: Psychological Reports
Wanja Wolff, Sebastian Schindler, Christoph Englert, Ralf Brand, Johanna Kissler
BACKGROUND: Deception can distort psychological tests on socially sensitive topics. Understanding the cerebral processes that are involved in such faking can be useful in detection and prevention of deception. Previous research shows that faking a brief implicit association test (BIAT) evokes a characteristic ERP response. It is not yet known whether temporarily available self-control resources moderate this response. We randomly assigned 22 participants (15 females, 24.23 ± 2.91 years old) to a counterbalanced repeated-measurements design...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Wladislaw Rivkin, Stefan Diestel, Klaus-Helmut Schmidt
Previous research has provided strong evidence for affective commitment as a direct predictor of employees' psychological well-being and as a resource that buffers the adverse effects of self-control demands as a stressor. However, the mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effects of affective commitment have not been examined yet. Drawing on the self-determination theory, we propose day-specific flow experiences as the mechanism that underlies the beneficial effects of affective commitment, because flow experiences as peaks of intrinsic motivation constitute manifestations of autonomous regulation...
April 21, 2016: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
Enzo Tagliazucchi, Leor Roseman, Mendel Kaelen, Csaba Orban, Suresh D Muthukumaraswamy, Kevin Murphy, Helmut Laufs, Robert Leech, John McGonigle, Nicolas Crossley, Edward Bullmore, Tim Williams, Mark Bolstridge, Amanda Feilding, David J Nutt, Robin Carhart-Harris
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a non-selective serotonin-receptor agonist that was first synthesized in 1938 and identified as (potently) psychoactive in 1943. Psychedelics have been used by indigenous cultures for millennia [1]; however, because of LSD's unique potency and the timing of its discovery (coinciding with a period of major discovery in psychopharmacology), it is generally regarded as the quintessential contemporary psychedelic [2]. LSD has profound modulatory effects on consciousness and was used extensively in psychological research and psychiatric practice in the 1950s and 1960s [3]...
April 25, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Robin L Carhart-Harris, Suresh Muthukumaraswamy, Leor Roseman, Mendel Kaelen, Wouter Droog, Kevin Murphy, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Eduardo E Schenberg, Timothy Nest, Csaba Orban, Robert Leech, Luke T Williams, Tim M Williams, Mark Bolstridge, Ben Sessa, John McGonigle, Martin I Sereno, David Nichols, Peter J Hellyer, Peter Hobden, John Evans, Krish D Singh, Richard G Wise, H Valerie Curran, Amanda Feilding, David J Nutt
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality...
April 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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