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Timm Oberwahrenbrock, Ghislaine L Traber, Sebastian Lukas, Iñigo Gabilondo, Rachel Nolan, Christopher Songster, Lisanne Balk, Axel Petzold, Friedemann Paul, Pablo Villoslada, Alexander U Brandt, Ari J Green, Sven Schippling
Objective: To evaluate the inter-rater reliability of semiautomated segmentation of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) macular volume scans. Methods: Macular OCT volume scans of left eyes from 17 subjects (8 patients with MS and 9 healthy controls) were automatically segmented by Heidelberg Eye Explorer (v1.9.3.0) beta-software (Spectralis Viewing Module v6.0.0.7), followed by manual correction by 5 experienced operators from 5 different academic centers...
May 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Diana Schoeppler, Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler, Annette Denzinger
Bats of the Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae families, and Pteronotus parnellii, compensate for Doppler shifts generated by their own flight movement. They adjust their call frequency such that the frequency of echoes coming from ahead fall in a specialized frequency range of the hearing system, the auditory fovea, to evaluate amplitude and frequency modulations in echoes from fluttering prey. Some studies in hipposiderids have suggested a less sophisticated or incomplete Doppler shift compensation. To investigate the precision of Doppler shift compensation in Hipposideros armiger, we recorded the echolocation and flight behaviour of bats flying to a grid, reconstructed the flight path, measured the flight speed, calculated the echo frequency, and compared it with the resting frequency prior to each flight...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Taiji Hasegawa, Sakura Murakawa, Ichiro Maruko, Akiko Kogure-Katakura, Tomohiro Iida
AIM: To determine whether there is a significant correlation between the reduction in macular vessel density and the recurrence of macular oedema in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 27 eyes with macular oedema associated with BRVO. All eyes had received pro re nata intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injection. A reinjection of ranibizumab was performed when the central foveal thickness was ≥300 µm. At 12 months, patients without additional IVR for the last 4 months were placed in the resolved group, otherwise they were placed in the recurrence group...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Tanya Moutray, Jennifer R Evans, Noemi Lois, David J Armstrong, Tunde Peto, Augusto Azuara-Blanco
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic progressive disease of the retinal microvasculature associated with prolonged hyperglycaemia. Proliferative DR (PDR) is a sight-threatening complication of DR and is characterised by the development of abnormal new vessels in the retina, optic nerve head or anterior segment of the eye. Argon laser photocoagulation has been the gold standard for the treatment of PDR for many years, using regimens evaluated by the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS)...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Achim Fieß, Ruth Kölb-Keerl, Alexander K Schuster, Markus Knuf, Bernd Kirchhof, Philipp S Muether, Jacqueline Bauer
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between visual acuity, peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL), retinal thickness at the fovea and other factors with the neurologic status of former preterm children. METHODS: In this cross-sectional hospital based study in a maximum care tertiary centre, detailed anthropometric and ophthalmological data of former preterm children ranging from 4 to 10 years of age with a gestational age (GA) ≤32 weeks were assessed...
March 9, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Yuki Bessho, Toshiyasu Nakamura, Masao Nishiwaki, Takeo Nagura, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura, Kazuki Sato
We investigated the relationship between the radial inclination of the distal radius and distal radioulnar joint stability. Six fresh-frozen upper extremities were used. Radial inclination was decreased by 10° and 20° and increased by 10° from the original radial inclination. Distal radioulnar joint stiffness was assessed with an intact radioulnar ligament and after partial and then complete sectioning of the radioulnar ligament. Radial angulation deformities significantly increased distal radioulnar joint stiffness when the radioulnar ligament is totally or partially attached to the ulnar fovea...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
Elaine M Wells-Gray, Stacey S Choi, Robert J Zawadzki, Susanna C Finn, Cherry Greiner, John S Werner, Nathan Doble
We have designed and implemented a dual-mode adaptive optics (AO) imaging system that combines spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) for in vivo imaging of the human retina. The system simultaneously acquires SLO frames and OCT B-scans at 60 Hz with an OCT volume acquisition time of 4.2 s. Transverse eye motion measured from the SLO is used to register the OCT B-scans to generate three-dimensional (3-D) volumes. Key optical design considerations include: minimizing system aberrations through the use of off-axis relay telescopes, conjugate pupil plane requirements, and the use of dichroic beam splitters to separate and recombine the OCT and SLO beams around the nonshared horizontal scanning mirrors...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Tomohiko Akahori, Takeshi Iwase, Kentaro Yamamoto, Eimei Ra, Kenichi Kawano, Yasuki Ito, Hiroko Terasaki
PURPOSE: To determine whether the macula is displaced after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in eyes with an idiopathic macular hole. DESIGN: A retrospective, observational case series METHODS: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) was used to obtain 3 mm × 3 mm en face images before and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the vitrectomy with ILM peeling for 20 eyes of 20 patients with an idiopathic macular hole. The displacements of easily identifiable retinal vessel bifurcations were measured relative to the fovea and the optic disc...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Saleema Kherani, Adrienne W Scott, Adam S Wenick, Ingrid Zimmer-Galler, Christopher J Brady, Akrit Sodhi, Catherine Meyerle, Sharon D Solomon, Rimsha Shaukat, Roomasa Channa, Olukemi Adeyemo, James T Handa, Jiangxia Wang, Peter A Campochiaro
PURPOSE: To identify factors influencing visual outcome in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD) and subfoveal hemorrhage (SFH) treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents DESIGN: Retrospective case series METHODS: Anti-VEGF-treated eyes with SFH >1 disc area (DA) were identified (n=16) and changes in visual acuity (VA) and central subfield thickness (CST) from baseline to last follow up along with SFH area, thickness, minimum distance from fovea to SFH border, and time to resolution were determined...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Seiji Takagi, Yasuhiko Hirami, Masayo Takahashi, Masashi Fujihara, Michiko Mandai, Chisato Miyakoshi, Goji Tomita, Yasuo Kurimoto
PURPOSE: To investigate flow area changes measured using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA; RTVue XR Avanti® ) in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) with preserved visual acuity (VA). METHODS: This was an age- and refraction-matched case-control study. Consecutive patients with a best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of ≥20/20 and normal subjects were recruited. Fifty eyes (32 patients) and 22 eyes (12 controls) were included. The flow area and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) were measured in both superficial and deep layers within a 3 × 3 mm central area of the fovea...
March 1, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Sonja G Karst, Gabor G Deak, Bianca S Gerendas, Sebastian M Waldstein, Jan Lammer, Christian Simader, Tadhg Guerin, Ursula M Schmidt-Erfurth
Importance: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment is the first-line therapy in the treatment of center-involving diabetic macular edema. Data on capillary perfusion changes under repeated treatment in a possibly compromised vascular network are limited. Objective: To evaluate the association of repeated ranibizumab injections on macular perfusion in patients with diabetic macular edema. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study analyzed prospectively collected data from the 12-month RESTORE core study and the 24-month open label RESTORE extension study, which assessed the efficacy and safety of ranibizumab in patients with visual impairment due to diabetic macular edema...
March 1, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Yusuke Murakami, Jun Funatsu, Shunji Nakatake, Kohta Fujiwara, Takashi Tachibana, Yoshito Koyanagi, Toshio Hisatomi, Shigeo Yoshida, Shozo Sonoda, Taiji Sakamoto, Koh-Hei Sonoda, Yasuhiro Ikeda
Purpose: To investigate the relationships between foveal blood flow as measured by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), the retinal-choroidal structure in enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), and central visual function in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods: We studied 52 consecutive typical RP patients ≤50 years old and 21 age- and sex-matched controls. The mean blur rate (MBR), which represents the blood flow volume, was calculated in a 2...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Kunliang Qiu, Binyao Chen, Haoyu Chen, Enting Gao, Jianling Yang, Xinjian Chen, Mingzhi Zhang
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of optic disk-fovea distance (DFD) on measurements of macular intraretinal layers using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in normal subjects. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-two eyes from 182 normal subjects were imaged using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The average thicknesses of eight macular intraretinal layers were measured using an automatic segmentation algorithm. Partial correlation test and multiple regression analysis were used to determine the effect of DFD on thicknesses of intraretinal layers...
February 27, 2018: Retina
Yuki Matsui, Tadanao Funakoshi, Daisuke Momma, Azusa Miyamoto, Kaori Endo, Kozo Furushima, Kazuhiro Fujisaki, Norimasa Iwasaki
BACKGROUND: Predictive factors for the development of osteoarthritis in adolescent osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the humeral capitellum remain unclear. The objectives of this study were to assess subchondral bone density in the radial head fovea of patients with OCD and to evaluate stress distribution in the radiocapitellar joint. The relationship between radiologic classification and stress distribution, according to multivariate ordinal regression analysis, was also investigated...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Margaret Woon Man Fok, Christian Xinshuo Fang, Tak Wing Lau, Yin Keung Eric Fung, Boris Kwok Keung Fung, Frankie Ka Li Leung
PURPOSE: Distal radius fractures are associated with a high incidence of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tears. This study aims to evaluate the status of TFCC after the healing of distal radius fractures, and its clinical significance. METHODS: Wrist arthroscopies were performed on 43 distal radius fractures, with an average age of 54 years old. RESULTS: Twenty-six complete tears and 15 partial healed tears were noted. Five out of eight patients with intact TFCC tears had neither signs nor symptoms, while eight patients with TFCC tears had no complaint...
February 23, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Rupak Roy, Kumar Saurabh, Nicey R Thomas
PURPOSE: To describe multicolor imaging findings in a case of acute retinal pigment epitheliitis. SETTING: Vitreoretinal department of a tertiary care center in Eastern India. METHODS: A 28-year-old lady presented with acute vision loss in the right eye since 3 days. Left eye examination was unremarkable. Best-corrected visual acuity in the right eye was 20/40. Anterior segment examination revealed clear lens with no evidence of inflammation...
February 22, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Akira Hirata, Ken Hayashi, Kazuhisa Murata, Kei-Ichiro Nakamura
Purpose: The formation of macular hole after receiving anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy is rare. We report a case of macular hole that occurred after intravitreal injection of an anti-VEGF agent for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a patient, who underwent vitrectomy combined with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) removal. Observations: A 64-year-old female with AMD affecting her right eye received an intravitreal injection of an anti-VEGF agent...
March 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Kaweh Mansouri, Harsha L Rao, Kirsten Hoskens, Elisa D'Alessandro, Elsa M Flores-Reyes, André Mermoud, Robert N Weinreb
PURPOSE: To investigate the diurnal variation in peripapillary and macular vessel density (VD) measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) and its correlation to intraocular pressure (IOP) changes in glaucoma patients. METHODS: Prospective, observational cross-sectional study including 37 patients (74 eyes; age, 63.8±12.9▒y) with open angle glaucoma. OCT-A imaging and IOP measurements were performed at 08:00, 11:00, 14:00, and 16:00 on a single day...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Bret A Moore, David J Maggs, Soohyun Kim, Monica J Motta, Ruta Bandivadekar, Lisa A Tell, Christopher J Murphy
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of ocular disease and obtain normative ocular data for free-living hummingbirds. ANIMALS STUDIED: Two hundred and sixty-three free-living, adult Hummingbirds from coastal and inland central California were studied, including Anna's (Calypte anna, n = 186) and Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri; n = 77) hummingbirds. PROCEDURES: Slit lamp biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy were performed on all individuals...
February 20, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
William J Harrison, Paul M Bays
The sensory recruitment hypothesis states that visual short term memory is maintained in the same visual cortical areas that initially encode a stimulus' features. Although it is well established that the distance between features in visual cortex determines their visibility, a limitation known as crowding, it is unknown whether short term memory is similarly constrained by the cortical spacing of memory items. Here we investigated whether the cortical spacing between sequentially presented memoranda affects the fidelity of memory in humans (of both sexes)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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