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Mirror neuron system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322858/a-neuroendocrine-account-of-facial-mimicry-and-its-dynamic-modulation
#1
REVIEW
Eline J Kraaijenvanger, Dennis Hofman, Peter A Bos
Facial expressions are considered central in conveying information about one's emotional state. During social encounters, facial expressions of another individual is often automatically imitated by the observer, a process referred to as 'facial mimicry'. This process is assumed to facilitate prosocial behaviour and is thought to rely on the mirror neuron system, known for its involvement in both observation and execution of motor actions. However, recent studies have revealed mimicry to be a more dynamic process than previously conceptualized, leaving mere perception-action coupling insufficient to explain its behavioural flexibility...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315038/the-mirror-neuron-system-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients-with-low-disability
#2
Julio Plata-Bello, Yaiza Pérez-Martín, Abril Castañón-Pérez, Cristián Modroño, Helga Fariña, Estefanía Hernández-Martín, Montserrat González-Platas, Francisco Marcano, José Luis González-Mora
To study the visuospatial/visuoperceptive function using a mirror neuron system (MNS) based approach in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and a healthy control group. Two task-based fMRIs (an execution task and an observation task) and one resting-fMRI were performed in a group of MS patients (n = 24) and a group of healthy controls (n = 15). The execution and observation tasks consisted of the performance or observation of the index-thumb opposition task. Statistical parametric mapping approaches were used to identify differences in the brain activity and functional connectivity (FC) of the MNS between MS patients and healthy controls...
March 17, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285946/development-of-rostral-inferior-parietal-lobule-area-functional-connectivity-from-late-childhood-to-early-adulthood
#3
Mengxing Wang, Jilei Zhang, Guangheng Dong, Hui Zhang, Haifeng Lu, Xiaoxia Du
Although the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been extensively studied in monkeys and adult humans, very little is known about its development. Previous studies suggest that the MNS is present by infancy and that the brain and MNS-related cognitive abilities (such as language, empathy, and imitation learning) continue to develop after childhood. In humans, the PFt area of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) seems to particularly correlate with the functional properties of the PF area in primates, which contains mirror neurons...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269584/virtual-reality-for-pediatric-neuro-rehabilitation-adaptive-visual-feedback-of-movement-to-engage-the-mirror-neuron-system
#4
Roopeswar Kommalapati, Konstantinos P Michmizos
Sensorimotor therapy gives optimal results when patients are cognitively engaged into highly repetitive tasks, a goal that most children find hard to pursue. This paper presents the key developments of our ongoing effort to design an interactive rehabilitation environment that motivates physically impaired children throughout their therapy. The continuous motivation is achieved by the system adapting fundamental therapeutic components to the performance of each child. The relevant movement is mirrored to an animated character projected in front of the child...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250456/biallelic-mutations-in-human-dcc-cause-developmental-split-brain-syndrome
#5
Saumya S Jamuar, Klaus Schmitz-Abe, Alissa M D'Gama, Marie Drottar, Wai-Man Chan, Maya Peeva, Sarah Servattalab, Anh-Thu N Lam, Mauricio R Delgado, Nancy J Clegg, Zayed Al Zayed, Mohammad Asif Dogar, Ibrahim A Alorainy, Abdullah Abu Jamea, Khaled Abu-Amero, May Griebel, Wendy Ward, Ed S Lein, Kyriacos Markianos, A James Barkovich, Caroline D Robson, P Ellen Grant, Thomas M Bosley, Elizabeth C Engle, Christopher A Walsh, Timothy W Yu
Motor, sensory, and integrative activities of the brain are coordinated by a series of midline-bridging neuronal commissures whose development is tightly regulated. Here we report a new human syndrome in which these commissures are widely disrupted, thus causing clinical manifestations of horizontal gaze palsy, scoliosis, and intellectual disability. Affected individuals were found to possess biallelic loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the axon-guidance receptor 'deleted in colorectal carcinoma' (DCC), which has been implicated in congenital mirror movements when it is mutated in the heterozygous state but whose biallelic loss-of-function human phenotype has not been reported...
February 27, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245068/positive-effects-of-neurofeedback-on-autism-symptoms-correlate-with-brain-activation-during-imitation-and-observation
#6
Michael Datko, Jaime Pineda, Ralph-Axel Müller
Autism has been characterized by atypical task-related brain activation and functional connections, coinciding with deficits in sociocommunicative abilities. However, evidence of the brain's experience-dependent plasticity suggests that abnormal activity patterns may be reversed with treatment. In particular, neurofeedback training, an intervention based on operant conditioning resulting in self-regulation of brain electrical oscillations, has shown increasing promise in addressing abnormalities in brain function and behavior...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227840/virtual-reality-for-pediatric-neuro-rehabilitation-adaptive-visual-feedback-of-movement-to-engage-the-mirror-neuron-system
#7
Roopeswar Kommalapati, Konstantinos P Michmizos, Roopeswar Kommalapati, Konstantinos P Michmizos, Roopeswar Kommalapati, Konstantinos P Michmizos
Sensorimotor therapy gives optimal results when patients are cognitively engaged into highly repetitive tasks, a goal that most children find hard to pursue. This paper presents the key developments of our ongoing effort to design an interactive rehabilitation environment that motivates physically impaired children throughout their therapy. The continuous motivation is achieved by the system adapting fundamental therapeutic components to the performance of each child. The relevant movement is mirrored to an animated character projected in front of the child...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225838/-mental-simulation-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#8
Daniel G Politis, Wanda Y Rubinstein, María E Tabernero
There is a common network for perception and execution of actions necessary for the acquisition of Theory of Mind, and the mirror neuron system could be the neural substrate. OBJECTIVE: To study the presence of apraxia and their relationship to Theory of Mind in patients with behavioral variant of Frontotemporal Dementia. METHODS: 24 patients were assessed, and the cognitive praxis assessment battery and theory of mind were administered. RESULTS: All the tasks of the cognitive praxis assessment battery showed a significant correlation with the first order False Believe task, while Faces Test showed correlations with all the battery tasks except Auditory verbal income...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222356/extinction-of-avoidance-behavior-by-safety-learning-depends-on-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-the-hippocampus
#9
Vincenzo Micale, Jens Stepan, Angela Jurik, Fabricio A Pamplona, Rudolph Marsch, Filippo Drago, Matthias Eder, Carsten T Wotjak
The development of exaggerated avoidance behavior is largely responsible for the decreased quality of life in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Studies using animal models have contributed to the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the acquisition of avoidance responses. However, much less is known about its extinction. Here we provide evidence in mice that learning about the safety of an environment (i.e., safety learning) rather than repeated execution of the avoided response in absence of negative consequences (i...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165861/-i-feel-your-disgust-and-relief-can-the-action-understanding-system-mirror-neuron-system-be-recruited-to-induce-disgust-and-relief-from-contamination-vicariously-in-individuals-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-symptoms
#10
Baland Jalal, Vilayanur S Ramachandran
Research has shown that brain regions mediating disgust (e.g., the insula) become activated when viewing others' disgust, a response mediated, perhaps by the mirror neuron system or the Theory of Mind module. In a novel behavioral experiment, we explore vicarious disgust and relief, in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Participants (N = 10) provided disgust ratings to self-contamination or watching the contamination of an experimenter; and to the experimenter washing his own hands after the subjects had been contaminated...
February 6, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164461/flexible-polygon-mirror-based-laser-scanning-microscope-platform-for-multiphoton-in-vivo-imaging
#11
Y X Li, V Gautam, A Brüstle, I A Cockburn, V R Daria, C Gillespie, K Gaus, C Alt, W M Lee
Commercial microscopy systems make use of tandem scanning i.e. either slow or fast scanning. We constructed, for the first time, an advanced control system capable of delivering a dynamic line scanning speed ranging from 2.7 kHz to 27 kHz and achieve variable frame rates from 5 Hz to 50 Hz (512 × 512). The dynamic scanning ability is digitally controlled by a new customized open-source software named PScan1.0. This permits manipulation of scanning rates either to gain higher fluorescence signal at slow frame rate without increasing laser power or increase frame rates to capture high speed events...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153686/more-than-an-imitation-game-top-down-modulation-of-the-human-mirror-system
#12
REVIEW
Megan E J Campbell, Ross Cunnington
All interpersonal interactions are underpinned by action: perceiving and understanding the actions of others, and responding by planning and performing self-made actions. Perception of action, both self-made and observed, informs ongoing motor responses by iterative feedback within a perception-action loop. This fundamental phenomenon occurs within single-cells of the macaque brain which demonstrate sensory and motor response properties. These 'mirror' neurons have led to a swathe of research leading to the broadly accepted idea of a human mirror system...
January 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137724/mirroring-in-the-human-brain-deciphering-the-spatial-temporal-patterns-of-the-human-mirror-neuron-system
#13
Anat Perry, Jennifer Stiso, Edward F Chang, Jack J Lin, Josef Parvizi, Robert T Knight
Embodied theories of cognition emphasize the central role of sensorimotor transformations in the representation of others' actions. Support for these theories is derived from the discovery of the mirror neuron system (MNS) in primates, from noninvasive techniques in humans, and from a limited number of intracranial studies. To understand the neural dynamics of the human MNS, more studies with precise spatial and temporal resolutions are essential. We used electrocorticography to define activation patterns in sensorimotor, parietal and/or frontal neuronal populations, during a viewing and grasping task...
January 30, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126430/sensitivity-of-the-human-mirror-neuron-system-for-abstract-traces-of-actions-an-eeg-study
#14
Matthias Hoenen, Katrin T Lübke, Bettina M Pause
Theories of neuroaesthetics assume, that looking at traces of actions used in creating artwork (e.g. brush marks) is associated with a simulation of these actions in the observer's sensorimotor-cortex. The aim of the current study is to dissociate the activation of the sensorimotor-cortex by the observation of action traces from associated visual processes. Twenty-eight participants observed handmade graphics (acrylic paint on paper) of different complexity (line, triangle, shape of a house) and computer-generated counterparts...
March 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123079/zika-virus-targeting-in-the-developing-brain
#15
Anthony N van den Pol, Guochao Mao, Yang Yang, Sara Ornaghi, John N Davis
Zika virus (ZIKV), a positive-sense RNA flavivirus, has attracted considerable attention recently for its potential to cause serious neurological problems, including microcephaly, cortical thinning, and blindness during early development. Recent findings suggest that ZIKV infection of the brain can occur not only during very early stages of development, but also in later fetal/early neonatal stages of maturation. Surprisingly, after peripheral inoculation of immunocompetent mice on the day of birth, the first cells targeted throughout the brain were isolated astrocytes...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119055/altered-mu-rhythm-suppression-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#16
Franziska Martin, Vera Flasbeck, Elliot C Brown, Martin Brüne
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized, among other symptoms, by interpersonal dysfunction and difficulties in empathizing. According to Simulation Theory empathy is linked to the activity of the mirror neuron system (MNS). Mu-rhythm desynchronization, as reflected in a suppression of electroencephalographic alpha-frequency bands (8-13Hz) provides a non-invasive electrophysiological window into MNS function. Here, we analyzed mu-desynchronization in twenty-two patients with BPD and twenty-three matched healthy controls in a reward and punishment-sensitive action observation task...
January 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099068/same-story-different-story
#17
Yaara Yeshurun, Stephen Swanson, Erez Simony, Janice Chen, Christina Lazaridi, Christopher J Honey, Uri Hasson
Differences in people's beliefs can substantially impact their interpretation of a series of events. In this functional MRI study, we manipulated subjects' beliefs, leading two groups of subjects to interpret the same narrative in different ways. We found that responses in higher-order brain areas-including the default-mode network, language areas, and subsets of the mirror neuron system-tended to be similar among people who shared the same interpretation, but different from those of people with an opposing interpretation...
March 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091394/simplified-bionic-solutions-a-simple-bio-inspired-vehicle-collision-detection-system
#18
Manfred Hartbauer
Modern cars are equipped with both active and passive sensor systems that can detect potential collisions. In contrast, locusts avoid collisions solely by responding to certain visual cues that are associated with object looming. In neurophysiological experiments, I investigated the possibility that the 'collision-detector neurons' of locusts respond to impending collisions in films recorded with dashboard cameras of fast driving cars. In a complementary modelling approach, I developed a simple algorithm to reproduce the neuronal response that was recorded during object approach...
February 15, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071834/molecular-profiling-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-hypothalamic-neurones-provides-developmental-insights-into-genetic-loci-for-body-weight-regulation
#19
L Yao, Y Liu, Z Qiu, S Kumar, J E Curran, J Blangero, Y Chen, D M Lehman
Recent data suggest that common genetic risks for metabolic disorders such as obesity may be human-specific and exert effects via the central nervous system. To overcome the limitation of human tissue access for study, we have generated induced human pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neuronal cultures that recapture many features of hypothalamic neurones within the arcuate nucleus. In the present study, we have comprehensively characterised this model across development, benchmarked these neurones to in vivo events, and demonstrate a link between obesity risk variants and hypothalamic development...
February 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057929/a-novel-role-for-the-dna-repair-gene-rad51-in-netrin-1-signalling
#20
K A Glendining, D Markie, R J M Gardner, E A Franz, S P Robertson, C L Jasoni
Mutations in RAD51 have recently been linked to human Congenital Mirror Movements (CMM), a developmental disorder of the motor system. The only gene previously linked to CMM encodes the Netrin-1 receptor DCC, which is important for formation of corticospinal and callosal axon tracts. Thus, we hypothesised that Rad51 has a novel role in Netrin-1-mediated axon development. In mouse primary motor cortex neurons, Rad51 protein was redistributed distally down the axon in response to Netrin-1, further suggesting a functional link between the two...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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