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Mirror neuron system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165861/-i-feel-your-disgust-and-relief-can-the-action-understanding-system-mirror-neuron-system-be-recruited-to-induce-disgust-and-relief-from-contamination-vicariously-in-individuals-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-symptoms
#1
Baland Jalal, Vilayanur S Ramachandran
Research has shown that brain regions mediating disgust (e.g., the insula) become activated when viewing others' disgust, a response mediated, perhaps by the mirror neuron system or the Theory of Mind module. In a novel behavioral experiment, we explore vicarious disgust and relief, in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Participants (N = 10) provided disgust ratings to self-contamination or watching the contamination of an experimenter; and to the experimenter washing his own hands after the subjects had been contaminated...
February 6, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164461/flexible-polygon-mirror-based-laser-scanning-microscope-platform-for-multiphoton-in-vivo-imaging
#2
Y X Li, V Gautam, A Brüstle, I A Cockburn, V R Daria, C Gillespie, K Gaus, C Alt, W M Lee
Commercial microscopy systems make use of tandem scanning i.e. either slow or fast scanning. We constructed, for the first time, an advanced control system capable of delivering a dynamic line scanning speed ranging from 2.7 kHz to 27 kHz and achieve variable frame rates from 5 Hz to 50 Hz (512 × 512). The dynamic scanning ability is digitally controlled by a new customized open-source software named PScan1.0. This permits manipulation of scanning rates either to gain higher fluorescence signal at slow frame rate without increasing laser power or increase frame rates to capture high speed events...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153686/more-than-an-imitation-game-top-down-modulation-of-the-human-mirror-system
#3
REVIEW
Megan E J Campbell, Ross Cunnington
All interpersonal interactions are underpinned by action: perceiving and understanding the actions of others, and responding by planning and performing self-made actions. Perception of action, both self-made and observed, informs ongoing motor responses by iterative feedback within a perception-action loop. This fundamental phenomenon occurs within single-cells of the macaque brain which demonstrate sensory and motor response properties. These 'mirror' neurons have led to a swathe of research leading to the broadly accepted idea of a human mirror system...
January 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137724/mirroring-in-the-human-brain-deciphering-the-spatial-temporal-patterns-of-the-human-mirror-neuron-system
#4
Anat Perry, Jennifer Stiso, Edward F Chang, Jack J Lin, Josef Parvizi, Robert T Knight
Embodied theories of cognition emphasize the central role of sensorimotor transformations in the representation of others' actions. Support for these theories is derived from the discovery of the mirror neuron system (MNS) in primates, from noninvasive techniques in humans, and from a limited number of intracranial studies. To understand the neural dynamics of the human MNS, more studies with precise spatial and temporal resolutions are essential. We used electrocorticography to define activation patterns in sensorimotor, parietal and/or frontal neuronal populations, during a viewing and grasping task...
January 30, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126430/sensitivity-of-the-human-mirror-neuron-system-for-abstract-traces-of-actions-an-eeg-study
#5
Matthias Hoenen, Katrin T Lübke, Bettina M Pause
Theories of neuroaesthetics assume, that looking at traces of actions used in creating artwork (e.g. brush marks) is associated with a simulation of these actions in the observer's sensorimotor-cortex. The aim of the current study is to dissociate the activation of the sensorimotor-cortex by the observation of action traces from associated visual processes. Twenty-eight participants observed handmade graphics (acrylic paint on paper) of different complexity (line, triangle, shape of a house) and computer-generated counterparts...
January 23, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123079/zika-virus-targeting-in-the-developing-brain
#6
Anthony N van den Pol, Guochao Mao, Yang Yang, Sara Ornaghi, John N Davis
: Zika virus (ZIKV), a positive-sense RNA flavivirus, has attracted considerable attention recently for its potential to cause serious neurological problems including microcephaly, cortical thinning and blindness during early development. Recent findings suggest that ZIKV infection of the brain can occur not only during very early stages of development, but also in later fetal/early neonatal stages of maturation. Surprisingly, after peripheral inoculation of immunocompetent mice on the day of birth, the first cells targeted throughout the brain were isolated astrocytes...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119055/altered-mu-rhythm-suppression-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#7
Franziska Martin, Vera Flasbeck, Elliot C Brown, Martin Brüne
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized, among other symptoms, by interpersonal dysfunction and difficulties in empathizing. According to Simulation Theory empathy is linked to the activity of the mirror neuron system (MNS). Mu-rhythm desynchronization, as reflected in a suppression of electroencephalographic alpha-frequency bands (8-13Hz) provides a non-invasive electrophysiological window into MNS function. Here, we analyzed mu-desynchronization in twenty-two patients with BPD and twenty-three matched healthy controls in a reward and punishment-sensitive action observation task...
January 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099068/same-story-different-story
#8
Yaara Yeshurun, Stephen Swanson, Erez Simony, Janice Chen, Christina Lazaridi, Christopher J Honey, Uri Hasson
Differences in people's beliefs can substantially impact their interpretation of a series of events. In this functional MRI study, we manipulated subjects' beliefs, leading two groups of subjects to interpret the same narrative in different ways. We found that responses in higher-order brain areas-including the default-mode network, language areas, and subsets of the mirror neuron system-tended to be similar among people who shared the same interpretation, but different from those of people with an opposing interpretation...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091394/simplified-bionic-solutions-a-simple-bio-inspired-vehicle-collision-detection-system
#9
Manfred Hartbauer
Modern cars are equipped with both active and passive sensor systems that can detect potential collisions. In contrast, locusts avoid collisions solely by responding to certain visual cues that are associated with object looming. In neurophysiological experiments, I investigated the possibility that the 'collision-detector neurons' of locusts respond to impending collisions in films recorded with dashboard cameras of fast driving cars. In a complementary modelling approach, I developed a simple algorithm to reproduce the neuronal response that was recorded during object approach...
February 15, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071834/molecular-profiling-of-human-ips-derived-hypothalamic-neurons-provides-developmental-insights-to-genetic-loci-for-body-weight-regulation
#10
Li Yao, Yuanhang Liu, Zhifang Qiu, Satish Kumar, Joanne E Curran, John Blangero, Yidong Chen, Donna M Lehman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Recent data suggests that common genetic risk for metabolic disorders such as obesity may be human-specific and exert effects through the central nervous system. To overcome the limitation of human tissue access for study, we have generated induced human pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neuronal cultures which recapture many features of hypothalamic neurons within the arcuate nucleus. Here we have comprehensively characterized this model across development, benchmarked these neurons to in vivo events, and demonstrate a link between obesity risk variants and hypothalamic development...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057929/a-novel-role-for-the-dna-repair-gene-rad51-in-netrin-1-signalling
#11
K A Glendining, D Markie, R J M Gardner, E A Franz, S P Robertson, C L Jasoni
Mutations in RAD51 have recently been linked to human Congenital Mirror Movements (CMM), a developmental disorder of the motor system. The only gene previously linked to CMM encodes the Netrin-1 receptor DCC, which is important for formation of corticospinal and callosal axon tracts. Thus, we hypothesised that Rad51 has a novel role in Netrin-1-mediated axon development. In mouse primary motor cortex neurons, Rad51 protein was redistributed distally down the axon in response to Netrin-1, further suggesting a functional link between the two...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048306/we-fg-bra-04-a-portable-confocal-microscope-to-image-live-cell-damage-response-induced-by-therapeutic-radiation
#12
C McFadden, D Flint, D Sadetaporn, A Asaithamby, D Grosshans, G Sawakuchi
PURPOSE: To construct a custom and portable fluorescence confocal laser-scanning microscope (FCLSM) that can be placed in the path of therapeutic radiation beams to study real-time radiation-induced damage response in live cells. METHODS: We designed and constructed a portable FCLSM with three laser diodes for excitation (405, 488, and 635 nm). An objective lens focuses the excitation light and collects fluorescence from the sample. A pair of galvanometer mirrors scans/collects the laser beam/fluorescence along the focal plane (x/y-directions)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034660/social-learning-culture-and-the-socio-cultural-brain-of-human-and-non-human-primates
#13
REVIEW
Andrew Whiten, Erica van de Waal
Noting important recent discoveries, we review primate social learning, traditions and culture, together with associated findings about primate brains. We survey our current knowledge of primate cultures in the wild, and complementary experimental diffusion studies testing species' capacity to sustain traditions. We relate this work to theories that seek to explain the enlarged brain size of primates as specializations for social intelligence, that have most recently extended to learning from others and the cultural transmission this permits...
December 26, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909332/mirror-neurons-in-psychiatric-disorders-from-neuroception-to-bio-behavioral-system-dysregulation
#14
Amedeo Minichino, Kristin Cadenhead
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862868/mirror-neurons-in-the-tree-of-life-mosaic-evolution-plasticity-and-exaptation-of-sensorimotor-matching-responses
#15
Antonella Tramacere, Telmo Pievani, Pier F Ferrari
Considering the properties of mirror neurons (MNs) in terms of development and phylogeny, we offer a novel, unifying, and testable account of their evolution according to the available data and try to unify apparently discordant research, including the plasticity of MNs during development, their adaptive value and their phylogenetic relationships and continuity. We hypothesize that the MN system reflects a set of interrelated traits, each with an independent natural history due to unique selective pressures, and propose that there are at least three evolutionarily significant trends that gave raise to three subtypes: hand visuomotor, mouth visuomotor, and audio-vocal...
November 16, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815729/mu-rhythm-suppression-is-associated-with-the-classification-of-emotion-in-faces
#16
Matthew R Moore, Elizabeth A Franz
The mirror neuron system (MNS) has been mooted as a crucial component underlying human social cognition. Initial evidence based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) suggests that the MNS plays a role in emotion classification, but further confirmation and convergent evidence is needed. This study employed electroencephalography (EEG) to examine modulations in the mu rhythm associated with the inference of emotions from facial expressions. It was hypothesised that mu suppression would be associated with classifying the emotion portrayed by facial expressions...
November 4, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756546/recognition-of-the-semantics-and-kinematics-of-gestures-neural-responses-to-what-and-how
#17
Dahan Anat, Reiner Miriam
The extensive use of gestures for human-human communication, independently of culture and language, suggests an underlying universal neural mechanism for gesture recognition. The mirror neuron system (MNS) is known to respond to observed human actions, and overlaps with self-action. The minimal cues needed for activation of the MNS for gesture recognition, facial expressions and bodily dynamics, is not yet defined. Using LED-point representations of gestures, we compared two types of brain activations: 1) in response to human recognizable vs non-recognizable motion and 2) in response to human vs non-human motion...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746385/the-role-of-cortical-sensorimotor-oscillations-in-action-anticipation
#18
Dan Denis, Richard Rowe, A Mark Williams, Elizabeth Milne
The human mirror neuron system is believed to play an important role in facilitating the ability of athletes to anticipate the actions of an opponent. This system is often assessed with EEG by measuring event-related changes in mu (8-13Hz) sensorimotor oscillations. However, traditional channel-based analyses of this measure are flawed in that due to volume conduction effects mu and non-mu alpha activity can become mixed. This flaw means it is unclear the extent to which mu activity indexes the mirror system, as opposed to other processes such as attentional demand...
October 13, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734302/subarachnoid-hemorrhage-and-visuospatial-and-visuoperceptive-impairment-disruption-of-the-mirror-neuron-system
#19
Julio Plata-Bello, Cristián Modroño, Silvia Acosta-López, Yaiza Pérez-Martín, Francisco Marcano, Víctor García-Marín, José Luis González-Mora
Nearly 20 % of patients who suffer a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) still display cognitive impairment even a year after follow-up. Visuospatial and visuoperceptive domains may be impaired in this cognitive impairment and may not have been fully studied in these patients. Furthermore, these cognitively impaired domains have been associated with activity in the so-called mirror neuron system (MNS). The aim of the study is to analyze the pattern of brain activity with an MNS task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in SAH patients...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726691/poor-imitative-performance-of-unlearned-gestures-in-children-with-probable-developmental-coordination-disorder
#20
Jess E Reynolds, Sophie Kerrigan, Catherine Elliott, Brendan S Lay, Melissa K Licari
It has been hypothesized that deficits in imitation, linked to abnormal functioning of the mirror neuron system (MNS), may contribute to the motor impairments associated with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The authors aimed to examine imitation of complex novel postures and sequences of gestures in children with and without probable DCD (pDCD), using the postural praxis and sequencing praxis subtests of the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (Ayres, 1989 ). Participants were 29 boys with pDCD between 6...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
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