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Mirror neuron system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127313/current-source-density-mapping-of-antennal-sensory-selectivity-reveals-conserved-olfactory-systems-between-tephritids-and-drosophila
#1
Vincent Jacob, Francesca Scolari, Hélène Delatte, Giuliano Gasperi, Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly, Anna R Malacrida, Pierre-François Duyck
Ecological specialization of insects involves the functional and morphological reshaping of olfactory systems. Little is known about the degree to which insect sensitivity to odorant compounds is conserved between genera, tribes, or families. Here we compared the olfactory systems of six tephritid fruit fly species spanning two tribes and the distantly related Drosophila melanogaster at molecular, functional, and morphological levels. Olfaction in these flies is mediated by a set of olfactory receptors (ORs) expressed in different functional classes of neurons located in distinct antennal regions...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123503/hyperleptinemia-in-neonatally-overfed-female-rats-does-not-dysregulate-feeding-circuitry
#2
Ilvana Ziko, Luba Sominsky, Thai-Xinh Nguyen, Kit-Yi Yam, Simone De Luca, Aniko Korosi, Sarah J Spencer
Neonatal overfeeding during the first weeks of life in male rats is associated with a disruption in the peripheral and central leptin systems. Neonatally overfed male rats have increased circulating leptin in the first 2 weeks of life, which corresponds to an increase in body weight compared to normally fed counterparts. These effects are associated with a short-term disruption in the connectivity of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons within the regions of the hypothalamus responsible for control of energy balance and food intake...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097704/potential-for-social-involvement-modulates-activity-within-the-mirror-and-the-mentalizing-systems
#3
Chiara Begliomini, Andrea Cavallo, Valeria Manera, Cristina Becchio, Roberto Stramare, Diego Miotto, Umberto Castiello
Processing biological motion is fundamental for everyday life activities, such as social interaction, motor learning and nonverbal communication. The ability to detect the nature of a motor pattern has been investigated by means of point-light displays (PLD), sets of moving light points reproducing human kinematics, easily recognizable as meaningful once in motion. Although PLD are rudimentary, the human brain can decipher their content including social intentions. Neuroimaging studies suggest that inferring the social meaning conveyed by PLD could rely on both the Mirror Neuron System (MNS) and the Mentalizing System (MS), but their specific role to this endeavor remains uncertain...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093674/an-emotion-enriched-context-influences-the-effect-of-action-observation-on-cortical-excitability
#4
Giovanna Lagravinese, Ambra Bisio, Alessia Raffo De Ferrari, Elisa Pelosin, Piero Ruggeri, Marco Bove, Laura Avanzino
Observing other people in action activates the "mirror neuron system" that serves for action comprehension and prediction. Recent evidence suggests that this function requires a high level codification triggered not only by components of motor behavior, but also by the environment where the action is embedded. An overlooked component of action perceiving is the one related to the emotional information provided by the context where the observed action takes place. Indeed, whether valence and arousal associated to an emotion might exert an influence on motor system activation during action observation has not been assessed so far...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091537/why-do-we-fall-into-sync-with-others-interpersonal-synchronization-and-the-brain-s-optimization-principle
#5
Leonie Koban, Anand Ramamoorthy, Ivana Konvalinka
Spontaneous interpersonal synchronization of rhythmic behavior such as gait or clapping is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human interactions, and is potentially important for social relationships and action understanding. Although several authors have suggested a role of the mirror neuron system in interpersonal coupling, the underlying brain mechanisms are not well understood. Here we argue that more general theories of neural computations, namely predictive coding and the Free Energy Principle, could explain interpersonal coordination dynamics...
November 1, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048247/spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-the-mirror-neuron-system-during-social-intentions
#6
Stephanie Cacioppo, Mylene Bolmont, George Monteleone
Previous research has shown that specific goals and intentions influence a person's allocation of social attention. From a neural viewpoint, a growing body of evidence suggests that the inferior fronto-parietal network, including the mirror neuron system, plays a role in the planning and the understanding of motor intentions. However, it is unclear whether and when the mirror neuron system plays a role in social intentions. Combining a behavioral task with electrical neuroimaging in 22 healthy male participants, the current study investigates whether the temporal brain dynamic of the mirror neuron system differs during two types of social intentions i...
October 27, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033874/testing-the-motor-simulation-account-of-source-errors-for-actions-in-recall
#7
Nicholas Lange, Timothy J Hollins, Patric Bach
Observing someone else perform an action can lead to false memories of self-performance - the observation inflation effect. One explanation is that action simulation via mirror neuron activation during action observation is responsible for observation inflation by enriching memories of observed actions with motor representations. In three experiments we investigated this account of source memory failures, using a novel paradigm that minimized influences of verbalization and prior object knowledge. Participants worked in pairs to take turns acting out geometric shapes and letters...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033783/the-mechanisms-of-psychedelic-visionary-experiences-hypotheses-from-evolutionary-psychology
#8
Michael J Winkelman
Neuropharmacological effects of psychedelics have profound cognitive, emotional, and social effects that inspired the development of cultures and religions worldwide. Findings that psychedelics objectively and reliably produce mystical experiences press the question of the neuropharmacological mechanisms by which these highly significant experiences are produced by exogenous neurotransmitter analogs. Humans have a long evolutionary relationship with psychedelics, a consequence of psychedelics' selective effects for human cognitive abilities, exemplified in the information rich visionary experiences...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031830/action-observation-facilitates-motor-cortical-activity-in-patients-with-stroke-and-hemiplegia
#9
Marina Tani, Yumie Ono, Miku Matsubara, Satoko Ohmatsu, Yoshihiro Yukawa, Masashi Kohno, Takanori Tominaga
Motor imagery (MI) is a mental practice that reproduces the visual- and/or kinesthetic-modality brain activations accompanying movement. It is a useful rehabilitation technique as the affected motor cortex can be stimulated in patients with stroke and hemiplegia. However, most patients with stroke have difficulty with MI owing to advanced age and/or higher-cognitive dysfunction, thus impairing their ability to internally simulate the action. We therefore investigated whether action observation (AO), an alternative form of motor stimulation that works via the mirror-neuron system, could facilitate motor cortical activity in such patients...
October 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031545/social-modeling-of-eating-mediated-by-mirror-neuron-activity-a-causal-model-moderated-by-frontal-asymmetry-and-bmi
#10
Laura McGeown, Ron Davis
The social modeling of eating effect refers to the consistently demonstrated phenomenon that individuals tend to match their quantity of food intake to their eating companion. The current study sought to explore whether activity within the mirror neuron system (MNS) mediates the social modeling of eating effect as a function of EEG frontal asymmetry and body mass index (BMI). Under the guise of rating empathy, 93 female undergraduates viewed a female video confederate "incidentally" consume either a low or high intake of chips while electroencephalogram (EEG) activity was recorded...
October 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031472/catching-on-it-early-bodily-and-brain-anticipatory-mechanisms-for-excellence-in-sport
#11
Ana M Abreu, Matteo Candidi, Salvatore M Aglioti
Programming and executing a subsequent move is inherently linked to the ability to anticipate the actions of others when interacting. Such fundamental social ability is particularly important in sport. Here, we discuss the possible mechanisms behind the highly sophisticated anticipation skills that characterize experts. We contend that prediction in sports might rely on a finely tuned perceptual system that endows experts with a fast, partially unconscious, pickup of relevant cues. Furthermore, we discuss the role of the multimodal, perceptuomotor, multiple-duty cells (mirror neurons) that play an important function in action anticipation by means of an inner motor simulation process...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027066/white-matter-microstructure-of-the-human-mirror-neuron-system-is-related-to-symptom-severity-in-adults-with-autism
#12
Odette Fründt, Robert Schulz, Daniel Schöttle, Bastian Cheng, Götz Thomalla, Hanna Braaß, Christos Ganos, Nicole David, Ina Peiker, Andreas K Engel, Tobias Bäumer, Alexander Münchau
Mirror neuron system (MNS) dysfunctions might underlie deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Diffusion tensor imaging based probabilistic tractography was conducted in 15 adult ASD patients and 13 matched, healthy controls. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was quantified to assess group differences in tract-related white matter microstructure of both the classical MNS route (mediating "emulation") and the alternative temporo-frontal route (mediating "mimicry"). Multiple linear regression was used to investigate structure-function relationships between MNS connections and ASD symptom severity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024234/vicariously-touching-products-through-observing-others-hand-actions-increases-purchasing-intention-and-the-effect-of-visual-perspective-in-this-process-an-fmri-study
#13
Yi Liu, Xuelian Zang, Lihan Chen, Leonardo Assumpção, Hong Li
The growth of online shopping increases consumers' dependence on vicarious sensory experiences, such as observing others touching products in commercials. However, empirical evidence on whether observing others' sensory experiences increases purchasing intention is still scarce. In the present study, participants observed others interacting with products in the first- or third-person perspective in video clips, and their neural responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We investigated (1) whether and how vicariously touching certain products affected purchasing intention, and the neural correlates of this process; and (2) how visual perspective interacts with vicarious tactility...
October 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985371/the-preoptic-area-and-the-rfamide-related-peptide-neuronal-system-gate-seasonal-changes-in-chemosensory-processing
#14
Kimberly J Jennings, Manon Chasles, Hweyryoung Cho, Jens Mikkelsen, George Bentley, Matthieu Keller, Lance J Kriegsfeld
Males of many species rely on chemosensory information for social communication. In male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), as in many species, female chemosignals potently stimulate sexual behavior and a concurrent, rapid increase in circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T). However, under winter-like, short-day (SD) photoperiods, when Syrian hamsters are reproductively quiescent, these same female chemosignals fail to elicit behavioral or hormonal responses, even after T replacement...
August 9, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982320/astroglial-connexins-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Chenju Yi, Annette Koulakoff, Christian Giaume
BACKGROUND: In Alzheimer's disease (AD), modification of astrocytic properties is a well-known and documented fact, but their involvement in pathophysiology has only been examined in recent years. One distinct hallmark of AD is reactive gliosis which are represented in microglial and astrocytic phenotype changes. This reactive gliosis has been associated with changes in the expression and function of connexins. Connexins are proteins that can form gap junction channels and hemichannels, and in a disease context, have shown increased expression in astrocytes that contact amyloid plaques in vivo...
October 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978349/effects-of-action-observation-therapy-and-mirror-therapy-after-stroke-on-rehabilitation-outcomes-and-neural-mechanisms-by-meg-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Tsai-Yu Shih, Ching-Yi Wu, Keh-Chung Lin, Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Yu-Wei Hsieh, Chia-Ling Chen, Chih-Jou Lai, Chih-Chi Chen
BACKGROUND: Loss of upper-extremity motor function is one of the most debilitating deficits following stroke. Two promising treatment approaches, action observation therapy (AOT) and mirror therapy (MT), aim to enhance motor learning and promote neural reorganization in patients through different afferent inputs and patterns of visual feedback. Both approaches involve different patterns of motor observation, imitation, and execution but share some similar neural bases of the mirror neuron system...
October 4, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933662/deficiency-of-serotonin-in-raphe-neurons-and-altered-behavioral-responses-in-tryptophan-hydroxylase-2-knockout-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#17
Satoshi Ansai, Hiroshi Hosokawa, Shingo Maegawa, Kiyoshi Naruse, Youhei Washio, Kenji Sato, Masato Kinoshita
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) is a bioactive monoamine that acts as a neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system of animals. Teleost fish species have serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei of the brainstem; however, the role of 5-HT in the raphe neurons in teleost fish remains largely unknown. Here, we established a medaka (Oryzias latipes) strain with targeted disruption of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (tph2) gene that is involved in the 5-HT synthesis in the raphe nuclei. Immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the homozygous mutants (tph2(Δ13/Δ13)) lacked the ability to synthesize 5-HT in the raphe neurons...
September 21, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929542/visuomotor-effects-of-body-part-movements-presented-in-the-first-person-perspective-on-imitative-behavior
#18
Rui Watanabe, Takahiro Higuchi, Yoshiaki Kikuchi, Masato Taira
Imitative stimuli presented from a first-person perspective (FPP) produce stronger visuomotor effects than those presented from a third-person perspective (TPP) due to the relatively greater response of the mirror neuron system (MNS) to FPP stimuli. Some previous studies utilizing TPP stimuli have reported no differences in MNS activity between moving and static bodies' stimuli. However, few studies have compared visuomotor effects of such stimuli when presented in the FPP. To clarify this issue, we measured cortical activation in 17 participants during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imitation task involving three conditions: moving (a lifting finger was presented), static (an "X" appeared on a static finger), and control (an "X" appeared on a button)...
September 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928646/cortical-activation-during-action-observation-action-execution-and-interpersonal-synchrony-in-adults-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs-study
#19
Anjana N Bhat, Michael D Hoffman, Susanna L Trost, McKenzie L Culotta, Jeffrey Eilbott, Daisuke Tsuzuki, Kevin A Pelphrey
Introduction: Humans engage in Interpersonal Synchrony (IPS) as they synchronize their own actions with that of a social partner over time. When humans engage in imitation/IPS behaviors, multiple regions in the frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices are activated including the putative Mirror Neuron Systems (Iacoboni, 2005; Buxbaum et al., 2014). In the present study, we compared fNIRS-based cortical activation patterns across three conditions of action observation ("Watch" partner), action execution ("Do" on your own), and IPS (move "Together")...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906130/human-movement-responses-to-the-rorschach-and-mirroring-activity-an-fmri-study
#20
Luciano Giromini, Donald J Viglione, Jaime A Pineda, Piero Porcelli, David Hubbard, Alessandro Zennaro, Franco Cauda
It has been suggested that the Rorschach human movement (M) response could be associated with an embodied simulation mechanism mediated by the mirror neuron system (MNS). To date, evidence for this hypothesis comes from two electroencephalogram studies and one repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study. To provide additional data on this topic, the Rorschach was administered during fMRI to a sample of 26 healthy adult volunteers. Activity in MNS-related brain areas temporally associated with M responses was compared with such activity for other, non-M Rorschach responses...
September 1, 2017: Assessment
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