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Mirror neuron system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099068/same-story-different-story
#1
Yaara Yeshurun, Stephen Swanson, Erez Simony, Janice Chen, Christina Lazaridi, Christopher J Honey, Uri Hasson
Differences in people's beliefs can substantially impact their interpretation of a series of events. In this functional MRI study, we manipulated subjects' beliefs, leading two groups of subjects to interpret the same narrative in different ways. We found that responses in higher-order brain areas-including the default-mode network, language areas, and subsets of the mirror neuron system-tended to be similar among people who shared the same interpretation, but different from those of people with an opposing interpretation...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091394/a-simple-bio-inspired-vehicle-collision-detection-system
#2
Manfred Hartbauer
Modern cars are equipped with both active and passive sensor systems that can detect potential collisions. In contrast, locusts avoid collisions solely by responding to certain visual cues that are associated with object looming. In neurophysiological experiments, I investigated the possibility that "collision-detector neurons��� of locusts respond to impending collisions in films recorded with dashboard cameras of fast driving cars. In a complementary modelling approach, I developed a simple algorithm to reproduce the neuronal response that was recorded during object approach...
January 16, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071834/molecular-profiling-of-human-ips-derived-hypothalamic-neurons-provides-developmental-insights-to-genetic-loci-for-body-weight-regulation
#3
Li Yao, Yuanhang Liu, Zhifang Qiu, Satish Kumar, Joanne E Curran, John Blangero, Yidong Chen, Donna M Lehman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Recent data suggests that common genetic risk for metabolic disorders such as obesity may be human-specific and exert effects through the central nervous system. To overcome the limitation of human tissue access for study, we have generated induced human pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neuronal cultures which recapture many features of hypothalamic neurons within the arcuate nucleus. Here we have comprehensively characterized this model across development, benchmarked these neurons to in vivo events, and demonstrate a link between obesity risk variants and hypothalamic development...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057929/a-novel-role-for-the-dna-repair-gene-rad51-in-netrin-1-signalling
#4
K A Glendining, D Markie, R J M Gardner, E A Franz, S P Robertson, C L Jasoni
Mutations in RAD51 have recently been linked to human Congenital Mirror Movements (CMM), a developmental disorder of the motor system. The only gene previously linked to CMM encodes the Netrin-1 receptor DCC, which is important for formation of corticospinal and callosal axon tracts. Thus, we hypothesised that Rad51 has a novel role in Netrin-1-mediated axon development. In mouse primary motor cortex neurons, Rad51 protein was redistributed distally down the axon in response to Netrin-1, further suggesting a functional link between the two...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048306/we-fg-bra-04-a-portable-confocal-microscope-to-image-live-cell-damage-response-induced-by-therapeutic-radiation
#5
C McFadden, D Flint, D Sadetaporn, A Asaithamby, D Grosshans, G Sawakuchi
PURPOSE: To construct a custom and portable fluorescence confocal laser-scanning microscope (FCLSM) that can be placed in the path of therapeutic radiation beams to study real-time radiation-induced damage response in live cells. METHODS: We designed and constructed a portable FCLSM with three laser diodes for excitation (405, 488, and 635 nm). An objective lens focuses the excitation light and collects fluorescence from the sample. A pair of galvanometer mirrors scans/collects the laser beam/fluorescence along the focal plane (x/y-directions)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034660/social-learning-culture-and-the-socio-cultural-brain-of-human-and-non-human-primates
#6
REVIEW
Andrew Whiten, Erica van de Waal
Noting important recent discoveries, we review primate social learning, traditions and culture, together with associated findings about primate brains. We survey our current knowledge of primate cultures in the wild, and complementary experimental diffusion studies testing species' capacity to sustain traditions. We relate this work to theories that seek to explain the enlarged brain size of primates as specializations for social intelligence, that have most recently extended to learning from others and the cultural transmission this permits...
December 26, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909332/mirror-neurons-in-psychiatric-disorders-from-neuroception-to-bio-behavioral-system-dysregulation
#7
Amedeo Minichino, Kristin Cadenhead
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862868/mirror-neurons-in-the-tree-of-life-mosaic-evolution-plasticity-and-exaptation-of-sensorimotor-matching-responses
#8
Antonella Tramacere, Telmo Pievani, Pier F Ferrari
Considering the properties of mirror neurons (MNs) in terms of development and phylogeny, we offer a novel, unifying, and testable account of their evolution according to the available data and try to unify apparently discordant research, including the plasticity of MNs during development, their adaptive value and their phylogenetic relationships and continuity. We hypothesize that the MN system reflects a set of interrelated traits, each with an independent natural history due to unique selective pressures, and propose that there are at least three evolutionarily significant trends that gave raise to three subtypes: hand visuomotor, mouth visuomotor, and audio-vocal...
November 16, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815729/mu-rhythm-suppression-is-associated-with-the-classification-of-emotion-in-faces
#9
Matthew R Moore, Elizabeth A Franz
The mirror neuron system (MNS) has been mooted as a crucial component underlying human social cognition. Initial evidence based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) suggests that the MNS plays a role in emotion classification, but further confirmation and convergent evidence is needed. This study employed electroencephalography (EEG) to examine modulations in the mu rhythm associated with the inference of emotions from facial expressions. It was hypothesised that mu suppression would be associated with classifying the emotion portrayed by facial expressions...
November 4, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756546/recognition-of-the-semantics-and-kinematics-of-gestures-neural-responses-to-what-and-how
#10
Dahan Anat, Reiner Miriam
The extensive use of gestures for human-human communication, independently of culture and language, suggests an underlying universal neural mechanism for gesture recognition. The mirror neuron system (MNS) is known to respond to observed human actions, and overlaps with self-action. The minimal cues needed for activation of the MNS for gesture recognition, facial expressions and bodily dynamics, is not yet defined. Using LED-point representations of gestures, we compared two types of brain activations: 1) in response to human recognizable vs non-recognizable motion and 2) in response to human vs non-human motion...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746385/the-role-of-cortical-sensorimotor-oscillations-in-action-anticipation
#11
Dan Denis, Richard Rowe, A Mark Williams, Elizabeth Milne
The human mirror neuron system is believed to play an important role in facilitating the ability of athletes to anticipate the actions of an opponent. This system is often assessed with EEG by measuring event-related changes in mu (8-13Hz) sensorimotor oscillations. However, traditional channel-based analyses of this measure are flawed in that due to volume conduction effects mu and non-mu alpha activity can become mixed. This flaw means it is unclear the extent to which mu activity indexes the mirror system, as opposed to other processes such as attentional demand...
October 13, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734302/subarachnoid-hemorrhage-and-visuospatial-and-visuoperceptive-impairment-disruption-of-the-mirror-neuron-system
#12
Julio Plata-Bello, Cristián Modroño, Silvia Acosta-López, Yaiza Pérez-Martín, Francisco Marcano, Víctor García-Marín, José Luis González-Mora
Nearly 20 % of patients who suffer a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) still display cognitive impairment even a year after follow-up. Visuospatial and visuoperceptive domains may be impaired in this cognitive impairment and may not have been fully studied in these patients. Furthermore, these cognitively impaired domains have been associated with activity in the so-called mirror neuron system (MNS). The aim of the study is to analyze the pattern of brain activity with an MNS task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in SAH patients...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726691/poor-imitative-performance-of-unlearned-gestures-in-children-with-probable-developmental-coordination-disorder
#13
Jess E Reynolds, Sophie Kerrigan, Catherine Elliott, Brendan S Lay, Melissa K Licari
It has been hypothesized that deficits in imitation, linked to abnormal functioning of the mirror neuron system (MNS), may contribute to the motor impairments associated with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The authors aimed to examine imitation of complex novel postures and sequences of gestures in children with and without probable DCD (pDCD), using the postural praxis and sequencing praxis subtests of the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (Ayres, 1989 ). Participants were 29 boys with pDCD between 6...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703276/bdnf-val-66-met-polymorphism-influences-visuomotor-associative-learning-and-the-sensitivity-to-action-observation
#14
Vincent Taschereau-Dumouchel, Sébastien Hétu, Pierre-Emmanuel Michon, Etienne Vachon-Presseau, Elsa Massicotte, Louis De Beaumont, Shirley Fecteau, Judes Poirier, Catherine Mercier, Yvon C Chagnon, Philip L Jackson
Motor representations in the human mirror neuron system are tuned to respond to specific observed actions. This ability is widely believed to be influenced by genetic factors, but no study has reported a genetic variant affecting this system so far. One possibility is that genetic variants might interact with visuomotor associative learning to configure the system to respond to novel observed actions. In this perspective, we conducted a candidate gene study on the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism, a genetic variant linked to motor learning in regions of the mirror neuron system, and tested the effect of this polymorphism on motor facilitation and visuomotor associative learning...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663908/hitting-is-male-giving-is-female-automatic-imitation-and-complementarity-during-action-observation
#15
Luisa Lugli, Anna Chiara Obertis, Anna M Borghi
Is somebody going to hurt us? We draw back. The present study investigates using behavioral measures the interplay between imitative and complementary actions activated while observing female/male hands performing different actions. Female and male participants were required to discriminate the gender of biologically and artificially colored hands that displayed both individual (grasping) and social (giving and punching) actions. Biological hands evoked automatic imitation, while hands of different gender activated complementary mechanisms...
September 23, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608438/mirror-neuron-activation-as-a-function-of-explicit-learning-changes-in-mu-event-related-power-after-learning-novel-responses-to-ideomotor-compatible-partially-compatible-and-non-compatible-stimuli
#16
Lawrence P Behmer, Lisa R Fournier
Questions regarding the malleability of the mirror neuron system (MNS) continue to be debated. MNS activation has been reported when people observe another person performing biological goal-directed behaviors, such as grasping a cup. These findings support the importance of mapping goal-directed biological behavior onto one's motor repertoire as a means of understanding the actions of others. Still, other evidence supports the Associative Sequence Learning (ASL) model which predicts that the MNS responds to a variety of stimuli after sensorimotor learning, not simply biological behavior...
November 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600840/a-leptin-fragment-mirrors-the-cognitive-enhancing-and-neuroprotective-actions-of-leptin
#17
Yasaman Malekizadeh, Alison Holiday, Devon Redfearn, James A Ainge, Gayle Doherty, Jenni Harvey
A key pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation that triggers synaptic impairments and neuronal death. Metabolic disruption is common in AD and recent evidence implicates impaired leptin function in AD. Thus the leptin system may be a novel therapeutic target in AD. Indeed, leptin has cognitive enhancing properties and it prevents the aberrant effects of Aβ on hippocampal synaptic function and neuronal viability. However, as leptin is a large peptide, development of smaller leptin-mimetics may be the best therapeutic approach...
September 6, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598310/the-importance-of-visual-feedback-design-in-bcis-from-embodiment-to-motor-imagery-learning
#18
Maryam Alimardani, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro
Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) have been developed and implemented in many areas as a new communication channel between the human brain and external devices. Despite their rapid growth and broad popularity, the inaccurate performance and cost of user-training are yet the main issues that prevent their application out of the research and clinical environment. We previously introduced a BCI system for the control of a very humanlike android that could raise a sense of embodiment and agency in the operators only by imagining a movement (motor imagery) and watching the robot perform it...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547498/power-modulation-of-electroencephalogram-mu-and-beta-frequency-depends-on-perceived-level-of-observed-actions
#19
Shiri Simon, Roy Mukamel
INTRODUCTION: The ability to understand actions and intentions of others is of great importance to social relationships and is associated with the mirror neuron system of the human brain. Whether conscious perception of specific actions is necessary to trigger activity in this system, or alternatively whether this response is independent of conscious perception is not known. METHODS: We addressed this issue by rendering videos of right hand movements invisible to conscious perception, and measuring electroencephalogram (EEG) power suppression in the mu (8-13 Hz) and beta (15-25 Hz) range as index corresponding to the magnitude of mirror neuron activity...
August 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520887/sources-of-mu-activity-and-their-functional-connectivity-in-perceiving-complexities-in-reciprocal-social-interactive-motion-an-exploratory-study-using-the-namaste-task
#20
Sai Krishna Tikka, Umesh Shreekantiah, Asha Krishnan, Nishant Goyal, S Haque Nizamie, Daya Ram
Cognitive processes underlying reciprocal social interactions are understood by the mechanism of embodiment, which is closely related to the mirror neuron system. Electroencephalographic (EEG) mu activity is a neural marker of the mirror neuron system. This study investigated the mu activity, localization of its sources and functional connectivity, which was induced while watching reciprocal social interactive motion across various degrees of complexity. Eighteen healthy participants underwent high-resolution EEG recording using 256-channels while they watched a specifically designed, culture specific, video task that showed two persons interacting socially using body gestures...
August 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
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