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Mirror neuron system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933662/deficiency-of-serotonin-in-raphe-neurons-and-altered-behavioral-responses-in-tryptophan-hydroxylase-2-knockout-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#1
Satoshi Ansai, Hiroshi Hosokawa, Shingo Maegawa, Kiyoshi Naruse, Youhei Washio, Kenji Sato, Masato Kinoshita
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) is a bioactive monoamine that acts as a neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system of animals. Teleost fish species have serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei of the brainstem; however, the role of 5-HT in the raphe neurons in teleost fish remains largely unknown. Here, we established a medaka (Oryzias latipes) strain with targeted disruption of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (tph2) gene that is involved in the 5-HT synthesis in the raphe nuclei. Immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the homozygous mutants (tph2(Δ13/Δ13)) lacked the ability to synthesize 5-HT in the raphe neurons...
September 21, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929542/visuomotor-effects-of-body-part-movements-presented-in-the-first-person-perspective-on-imitative-behavior
#2
Rui Watanabe, Takahiro Higuchi, Yoshiaki Kikuchi, Masato Taira
Imitative stimuli presented from a first-person perspective (FPP) produce stronger visuomotor effects than those presented from a third-person perspective (TPP) due to the relatively greater response of the mirror neuron system (MNS) to FPP stimuli. Some previous studies utilizing TPP stimuli have reported no differences in MNS activity between moving and static bodies' stimuli. However, few studies have compared visuomotor effects of such stimuli when presented in the FPP. To clarify this issue, we measured cortical activation in 17 participants during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imitation task involving three conditions: moving (a lifting finger was presented), static (an "X" appeared on a static finger), and control (an "X" appeared on a button)...
September 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928646/cortical-activation-during-action-observation-action-execution-and-interpersonal-synchrony-in-adults-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs-study
#3
Anjana N Bhat, Michael D Hoffman, Susanna L Trost, McKenzie L Culotta, Jeffrey Eilbott, Daisuke Tsuzuki, Kevin A Pelphrey
Introduction: Humans engage in Interpersonal Synchrony (IPS) as they synchronize their own actions with that of a social partner over time. When humans engage in imitation/IPS behaviors, multiple regions in the frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices are activated including the putative Mirror Neuron Systems (Iacoboni, 2005; Buxbaum et al., 2014). In the present study, we compared fNIRS-based cortical activation patterns across three conditions of action observation ("Watch" partner), action execution ("Do" on your own), and IPS (move "Together")...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906130/human-movement-responses-to-the-rorschach-and-mirroring-activity-an-fmri-study
#4
Luciano Giromini, Donald J Viglione, Jaime A Pineda, Piero Porcelli, David Hubbard, Alessandro Zennaro, Franco Cauda
It has been suggested that the Rorschach human movement (M) response could be associated with an embodied simulation mechanism mediated by the mirror neuron system (MNS). To date, evidence for this hypothesis comes from two electroencephalogram studies and one repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study. To provide additional data on this topic, the Rorschach was administered during fMRI to a sample of 26 healthy adult volunteers. Activity in MNS-related brain areas temporally associated with M responses was compared with such activity for other, non-M Rorschach responses...
September 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890691/predicting-intentions-of-a-familiar-significant-other-beyond-the-mirror-neuron-system
#5
Stephanie Cacioppo, Elsa Juan, George Monteleone
Inferring intentions of others is one of the most intriguing issues in interpersonal interaction. Theories of embodied cognition and simulation suggest that this mechanism takes place through a direct and automatic matching process that occurs between an observed action and past actions. This process occurs via the reactivation of past self-related sensorimotor experiences within the inferior frontoparietal network (including the mirror neuron system, MNS). The working model is that the anticipatory representations of others' behaviors require internal predictive models of actions formed from pre-established, shared representations between the observer and the actor...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867516/modelling-the-neuromotor-abnormalities-of-psychotic-illness-putative-mechanisms-and-systems-dysfunction
#6
John L Waddington, Colm M O'Tuathaigh
Limitations in access to antipsychotic-naïve patients and in the incisiveness of studies that can be conducted on them, together with the inevitability of subsequent antipsychotic treatment, indicate an enduring role for animal models that can inform on the pathobiology of neuromotor abnormalities in schizophrenia and related psychotic illness. This review focusses particularly on genetically modified mouse models that involve genes associated with risk for schizophrenia and with mechanisms implicated in the neuromotor abnormalities evident in psychotic patients, as well as developmental models that seek to mirror the trajectory, phenomenology and putative pathophysiology of psychotic illness...
August 31, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867202/a-neural-basis-for-contagious-yawning
#7
Beverley J Brown, Soyoung Kim, Hannah Saunders, Clarissa Bachmann, Jessica Thompson, Danielle Ropar, Stephen R Jackson, Georgina M Jackson
Contagious yawning, in which yawning is triggered involuntarily when we observe another person yawn, is a common form of echophenomena-the automatic imitation of another's words (echolalia) or actions (echopraxia) [1]. The neural basis for echophenomena is unknown; however, it has been proposed that it is linked to disinhibition of the human mirror-neuron system [1-4] and hyper-excitability of cortical motor areas [1]. We investigated the neural basis for contagious yawning using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864245/musical-training-increases-functional-connectivity-but-does-not-enhance-mu-suppression
#8
C Carolyn Wu, Jeff P Hamm, Vanessa K Lim, Ian J Kirk
Musical training provides an ideal platform for investigating action representation for sound. Learning to play an instrument requires integration of sensory and motor perception-action processes. Functional neuroimaging studies have indicated that listening to trained music can result in the activity in premotor areas, even after a short period of training. These studies suggest that action representation systems are heavily dependent on specific sensorimotor experience. However, others suggest that because humans naturally move to music, sensorimotor training is not necessary and there is a more general action representation for music...
August 31, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846741/decoding-social-intentions-in-human-prehensile-actions-insights-from-a-combined-kinematics-fmri-study
#9
Maria Grazia Di Bono, Chiara Begliomini, Sanja Budisavljevic, Luisa Sartori, Diego Miotto, Raffaella Motta, Umberto Castiello
Consistent evidence suggests that the way we reach and grasp an object is modulated not only by object properties (e.g., size, shape, texture, fragility and weight), but also by the types of intention driving the action, among which the intention to interact with another agent (i.e., social intention). Action observation studies ascribe the neural substrate of this 'intentional' component to the putative mirror neuron (pMNS) and the mentalizing (MS) systems. How social intentions are translated into executed actions, however, has yet to be addressed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829994/language-for-action-motor-resonance-during-the-processing-of-human-and-robotic-voices
#10
G Di Cesare, A Errante, M Marchi, V Cuccio
In this fMRI study we evaluated whether the auditory processing of action verbs pronounced by a human or a robotic voice in the imperative mood differently modulates the activation of the mirror neuron system (MNs). The study produced three results. First, the activation pattern found during listening to action verbs was very similar in both the robot and human conditions. Second, the processing of action verbs compared to abstract verbs determined the activation of the fronto-parietal circuit classically involved during the action goal understanding...
August 19, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818270/the-glass-ceiling-a-biological-phenomenon
#11
Tom W J Schulpen
Many brilliant and ambitious young women lose their drive for top careers after childbirth. New maternal impulses are at odds with their original ambitions and for many mothers stress and frustration will be the result as they have to combine child care with workweeks of 60-80h to reach or remain at the top. Pregnancy hormones modify the female's brain as has been demonstrated already for decades in animals. This brain plasticity due to adult neurogenesis in the so called maternal circuitry of the limbic system is long-lasting and perhaps lifelong...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734837/neural-reuse-of-action-perception-circuits-for-language-concepts-and-communication
#12
REVIEW
Friedemann Pulvermüller
Neurocognitive and neurolinguistics theories make explicit statements relating specialized cognitive and linguistic processes to specific brain loci. These linking hypotheses are in need of neurobiological explanation. Recent mathematical models of human language mechanisms constrained by fundamental neuroscience principles and established knowledge about comparative neuroanatomy offer explanations for where, when and how language is processed in the human brain. In these models, network structure and connectivity along with action- and perception-induced correlation of neuronal activity co-determine neurocognitive mechanisms...
July 19, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720525/motor-resonance-during-action-observation-is-gaze-contingent-a-tms-study
#13
Giorgia D'Innocenzo, Claudia C Gonzalez, Alexander V Nowicky, A Mark Williams, Daniel T Bishop
When we observe others performing an action, visual input to our mirror neuron system is reflected in the facilitation of primary motor cortex (M1), a phenomenon known as 'motor resonance'. However, it is unclear whether this motor resonance is contingent upon our point-of-gaze. In order to address this issue, we collected gaze data from participants as they viewed an intransitive action - thumb abduction/adduction - under four conditions: with natural gaze behaviour (free viewing) and with their gaze fixated on each of three predetermined loci at various distances from the prime mover...
July 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705258/fate-bias-during-neural-regeneration-adjusts-dynamically-without-recapitulating-developmental-fate-progression
#14
Jeremy Ng Chi Kei, Peter David Currie, Patricia Regina Jusuf
BACKGROUND: Regeneration of neurons in the central nervous system is poor in humans. In other vertebrates neural regeneration does occur efficiently and involves reactivation of developmental processes. Within the neural retina of zebrafish, Müller glia are the main stem cell source and are capable of generating progenitors to replace lost neurons after injury. However, it remains largely unknown to what extent Müller glia and neuron differentiation mirror development. METHODS: Following neural ablation in the zebrafish retina, dividing cells were tracked using a prolonged labelling technique...
July 13, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684759/social-coordination-information-in-dynamic-chase-modulates-eeg-mu-rhythm
#15
Jun Yin, Xiaowei Ding, Haokui Xu, Feng Zhang, Mowei Shen
Understanding actions plays an impressive role in our social life. Such processing has been suggested to be reflected by EEG Mu rhythm (8-13 Hz in sensorimotor regions). However, it remains unclear whether Mu rhythm is modulated by the social nature of coordination information in interactive actions (i.e., inter-dependency). This study used a novel manipulation of social coordination information: in a computer-based task, participants viewed a replay of two chasers chasing a common target coordinately (coordinated chase) or independently (solo chase)...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673921/two-social-brains-neural-mechanisms-of-intersubjectivity
#16
REVIEW
Kai Vogeley
It is the aim of this article to present an empirically justified hypothesis about the functional roles of the two social neural systems, namely the so-called 'mirror neuron system' (MNS) and the 'mentalizing system' (MENT, also 'theory of mind network' or 'social neural network'). Both systems are recruited during cognitive processes that are either related to interaction or communication with other conspecifics, thereby constituting intersubjectivity. The hypothesis is developed in the following steps: first, the fundamental distinction that we make between persons and things is introduced; second, communication is presented as the key process that allows us to interact with others; third, the capacity to 'mentalize' or to understand the inner experience of others is emphasized as the fundamental cognitive capacity required to establish successful communication...
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670296/the-evolution-of-lateralized-brain-circuits
#17
Michael C Corballis
In the vast clade of animals known as the bilateria, cerebral and behavioral asymmetries emerge against the backdrop of bilateral symmetry, with a functional trade-off between the two. Asymmetries can lead to more efficient processing and packaging of internal structures, but at the expense of efficient adaptation to a natural world without systematic left-right bias. Asymmetries may arise through the fissioning of ancestral structures that are largely symmetrical, creating new circuits. In humans these may include asymmetrical adaptations to language and manufacture, and as one or other hemisphere gains dominance for functions that were previously represented bilaterally...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651628/separability-of-motor-imagery-of-the-self-from-interpretation-of-motor-intentions-of-others-at-the-single-trial-level-an-eeg-study
#18
João Andrade, José Cecílio, Marco Simões, Francisco Sales, Miguel Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the separability of the neural correlates of 2 types of motor imagery, self and third person (actions owned by the participant himself vs. another individual). If possible this would allow for the development of BCI interfaces to train disorders of action and intention understanding beyond simple imitation, such as autism. METHODS: We used EEG recordings from 20 healthy participants, as well as electrocorticography (ECoG) in one, based on a virtual reality setup...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642865/spinal-muscular-atrophy-from-defective-chaperoning-of-snrnp-assembly-to-neuromuscular-dysfunction
#19
REVIEW
Maia Lanfranco, Neville Vassallo, Ruben J Cauchi
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder that results from decreased levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. SMN is part of a multiprotein complex that also includes Gemins 2-8 and Unrip. The SMN-Gemins complex cooperates with the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) complex, whose constituents include WD45, PRMT5 and pICln. Both complexes function as molecular chaperones, interacting with and assisting in the assembly of an Sm protein core onto small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) to generate small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), which are the operating components of the spliceosome...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627281/mirroring-meaningful-actions-sensorimotor-learning-modulates-imitation-of-goal-directed-actions
#20
Caroline Catmur, Cecilia Heyes
Imitation is important in the development of social and technological skills throughout the lifespan. Experiments investigating the acquisition and modulation of imitation (and of its proposed neural substrate, the mirror neuron system) have produced evidence that the capacity for imitation depends on associative learning in which connections are formed between sensory and motor representations of actions. However, evidence that the development of imitation depends on associative learning has been found only for non-goal-directed actions...
June 19, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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