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Mirror neuron system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791860/the-olfactory-logic-behind-fruit-odor-preferences-in-larval-and-adult-drosophila
#1
Hany K M Dweck, Shimaa A M Ebrahim, Tom Retzke, Veit Grabe, Jerrit Weißflog, Ales Svatoš, Bill S Hansson, Markus Knaden
Despite the comprehensive knowledge on odor coding, our understanding of the relationship between sensory input and behavioral output in Drosophila remains weak. Here, we measure the behavioral responses generated by larval and adult flies in response to 34 fruit odors and find that larval preference for fruit odors differs from that of adult flies. Next, we provide a functional analysis of the full repertoire of the peripheral olfactory system using the same comprehensive stimulus spectrum. We find that 90% and 53% of larval and adult olfactory receptors tested here, respectively, are involved in evaluating these fruit odors...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787867/investigating-common-coding-of-observed-and-executed-actions-in-the-monkey-brain-using-cross-modal-multi-variate-fmri-classification
#2
Prosper Agbesi Fiave, Saloni Sharma, Jan Jastorff, Koen Nelissen
Mirror neurons are generally described as a neural substrate hosting shared representations of actions, by simulating or 'mirroring' the actions of others onto the observers' own motor system. Since single neuron recordings are rarely feasible in humans, it has been argued that cross-modal multi-variate pattern analysis (MVPA) of non-invasive fMRI data is a suitable technique to investigate common coding of observed and executed actions, allowing researchers to infer the presence of mirror neurons in the human brain...
May 19, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779671/resting-state-connectivity-biomarkers-of-cognitive-performance-and-social-function-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder-and-healthy-control-subjects
#3
Joseph D Viviano, Robert W Buchanan, Navona Calarco, James M Gold, George Foussias, Nikhil Bhagwat, Laura Stefanik, Colin Hawco, Pamela DeRosse, Miklos Argyelan, Jessica Turner, Sofia Chavez, Peter Kochunov, Peter Kingsley, Xiangzhi Zhou, Anil K Malhotra, Aristotle N Voineskos
BACKGROUND: Deficits in neurocognition and social cognition are drivers of reduced functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, with potentially shared neurobiological underpinnings. Many studies have sought to identify brain-based biomarkers of these clinical variables using a priori dichotomies (e.g., good vs. poor cognition, deficit vs. nondeficit syndrome). METHODS: We evaluated a fully data-driven approach to do the same by building and validating a brain connectivity-based biomarker of social cognitive and neurocognitive performance in a sample using resting-state and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (n = 74 healthy control participants, n = 114 persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 188 total)...
April 13, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751998/does-somatostatin-have-a-role-to-play-in-migraine-headache
#4
REVIEW
Geoffrey A Lambert, Alessandro S Zagami
Migraine is a condition without apparent pathology. Its cardinal symptom is the prolonged excruciating headache. Theories about this pain have posited pathologies which run the gamut from neural to vascular to neurovascular, but no observations have detected a plausible pathology. We believe that no pathology can be found for migraine headache because none exists. Migraine is not driven by pathology - it is driven by neural events produced by triggers - or simply by neural noise- noise that has crossed a critical threshold...
April 17, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734039/what-neuromodulation-and-lesion-studies-tell-us-about-the-function-of-the-mirror-neuron-system-and-embodied-cognition
#5
REVIEW
Christian Keysers, Riccardo Paracampo, Valeria Gazzola
We review neuromodulation and lesion studies that address how activations in the mirror neuron system contribute to our perception of observed actions. Past reviews showed disruptions of this parieto-premotor network impair imitation and goal and kinematic processing. Recent studies bring five new themes. First, focal perturbations of a node of that circuit lead to changes across all nodes. Second, primary somatosensory cortex is an integral part of this network suggesting embodied representations are somatosensory-motor...
April 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722797/action-observation-areas-represent-intentions-from-subtle-kinematic-features
#6
Atesh Koul, Andrea Cavallo, Franco Cauda, Tommaso Costa, Matteo Diano, Massimiliano Pontil, Cristina Becchio
Mirror neurons have been proposed to underlie humans' ability to understand others' actions and intentions. Despite 2 decades of research, however, the exact computational and neuronal mechanisms implied in this ability remain unclear. In the current study, we investigated whether, in the absence of contextual cues, regions considered to be part of the human mirror neuron system represent intention from movement kinematics. A total of 21 participants observed reach-to-grasp movements, performed with either the intention to drink or to pour while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging...
May 2, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715510/hierarchical-organization-within-the-ventral-premotor-cortex-of-the-macaque-monkey
#7
REVIEW
Kiyoshi Kurata
Recent studies have revealed that the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) of nonhuman primates plays a pivotal role in various behaviors that require the transformation of sensory cues to appropriate actions. Examples include decision-making based on various sensory cues, preparation for upcoming motor behavior, adaptive sensorimotor transformation, and the generation of motor commands using rapid sensory feedback. Although the PMv has frequently been regarded as a single entity, it can be divided into at least five functionally distinct regions: F4, a dorsal convexity region immediately rostral to the primary motor cortex (M1); F5p, a cortical region immediately rostral to F4, lying within the arcuate sulcus; F5c, a ventral convexity region rostral to F4; and F5a, located in the caudal bank of the arcuate sulcus inferior limb lateral to F5p...
April 28, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700312/action-and-object-words-are-differentially-anchored-in-the-sensory-motor-system-a-perspective-on-cognitive-embodiment
#8
Houpand Horoufchin, Danilo Bzdok, Giovanni Buccino, Anna M Borghi, Ferdinand Binkofski
Embodied and grounded cognition theories have assumed that the sensorimotor system is causally involved in processing motor-related language content. Although a causal proof on a single-cell basis is ethically not possible today, the present fMRI study provides confirmation of this longstanding speculation, as far as it is possible with recent methods, employing a new computational approach. More specifically, we were looking for common activation of nouns and objects, and actions and verbs, representing the canonical and mirror neuron system, respectively...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674949/effect-of-different-movement-speed-modes-on-human-action-observation-an-eeg-study
#9
Tian-Jian Luo, Jitu Lv, Fei Chao, Changle Zhou
Action observation (AO) generates event-related desynchronization (ERD) suppressions in the human brain by activating partial regions of the human mirror neuron system (hMNS). The activation of the hMNS response to AO remains controversial for several reasons. Therefore, this study investigated the activation of the hMNS response to a speed factor of AO by controlling the movement speed modes of a humanoid robot's arm movements. Since hMNS activation is reflected by ERD suppressions, electroencephalography (EEG) with BCI analysis methods for ERD suppressions were used as the recording and analysis modalities...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672449/cortical-astrocytes-prime-the-induction-of-spine-plasticity-and-mirror-image-pain
#10
Tatsuya Ishikawa, Kei Eto, Sun Kwang Kim, Hiroaki Wake, Ikuko Takeda, Hiroshi Horiuchi, Andrew J Moorhouse, Hitoshi Ishibashi, Junichi Nabekura
Peripheral nerve injury causes maladaptive plasticity in the central nervous system and induces chronic pain. In addition to the injured limb, abnormal pain sensation can appear in the limb contralateral to the injury, called mirror image pain. Since synaptic remodeling in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) has critical roles in the induction of chronic pain, cortical reorganization in the S1 ipsilateral to the injured limb may also accompany mirror image pain. To elucidate this, we conducted in vivo two-photon calcium imaging of neuron and astrocyte activity in the ipsilateral S1 following a peripheral nerve injury...
April 16, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665128/a-role-for-astrocyte-derived-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptides-in-the-degeneration-of-neurons-in-an-animal-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
A Kodam, D Ourdev, M Maulik, J Hariharakrishnan, M Banerjee, Y Wang, S Kar
Kainic acid, an analogue of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, can trigger seizures and neurotoxicity in the hippocampus and other limbic structures in a manner that mirrors the neuropathology of human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, the underlying mechanisms associated with the neurotoxicity remain unclear. Since amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, which are critical in the development of Alzheimer's disease, can mediate toxicity by activating glutamatergic NMDA receptors, it is likely that the enhanced glutamatergic transmission that renders hippocampal neurons vulnerable to kainic acid treatment may involve Aβ peptides...
April 17, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599093/aberrant-within-and-between-network-connectivity-of-the-mirror-neuron-system-network-and-the-mentalizing-network-in-first-episode-psychosis
#12
Eugenie Choe, Tae Young Lee, Minah Kim, Ji-Won Hur, Youngwoo Bryan Yoon, Kang-Ik K Cho, Jun Soo Kwon
INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that the mentalizing network and the mirror neuron system network support important social cognitive processes that are impaired in schizophrenia. However, the integrity and interaction of these two networks have not been sufficiently studied, and their effects on social cognition in schizophrenia remain unclear. METHODS: Our study included 26 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and 26 healthy controls. We utilized resting-state functional connectivity to examine the a priori-defined mirror neuron system network and the mentalizing network and to assess the within- and between-network connectivities of the networks in FEP patients...
March 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556211/deficits-in-visuo-motor-temporal-integration-impacts-manual-dexterity-in-probable-developmental-coordination-disorder
#13
Satoshi Nobusako, Ayami Sakai, Taeko Tsujimoto, Takashi Shuto, Yuki Nishi, Daiki Asano, Emi Furukawa, Takuro Zama, Michihiro Osumi, Sotaro Shimada, Shu Morioka, Akio Nakai
The neurological basis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is thought to be deficits in the internal model and mirror-neuron system (MNS) in the parietal lobe and cerebellum. However, it is not clear if the visuo-motor temporal integration in the internal model and automatic-imitation function in the MNS differs between children with DCD and those with typical development (TD). The current study aimed to investigate these differences. Using the manual dexterity test of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (second edition), the participants were either assigned to the probable DCD (pDCD) group or TD group...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556185/feasibility-of-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs-to-investigate-the-mirror-neuron-system-an-experimental-study-in-a-real-life-situation
#14
Pei-Pei Sun, Fu-Lun Tan, Zong Zhang, Yi-Han Jiang, Yang Zhao, Chao-Zhe Zhu
The mirror neuron system (MNS), mainly including the premotor cortex (PMC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), superior parietal lobule (SPL), and rostral inferior parietal lobule (IPL), has attracted extensive attention as a possible neural mechanism of social interaction. Owing to high ecological validity, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has become an ideal approach for exploring the MNS. Unfortunately, for the feasibility of fNIRS to detect the MNS, none of the four dominant regions were found in previous studies, implying a very limited capacity of fNIRS to investigate the MNS...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524845/eeg-beta-desynchronization-during-hand-goal-directed-action-observation-in-newborn-monkeys-and-its-relation-to-the-emergence-of-hand-motor-skills
#15
Fabrizia Festante, Ross E Vanderwert, Valentina Sclafani, Annika Paukner, Elizabeth A Simpson, Stephen J Suomi, Nathan A Fox, Pier Francesco Ferrari
Previous developmental research suggests that motor experience supports the development of action perception across the lifespan. However, it is still unknown when the neural mechanisms underlying action-perception coupling emerge in infancy. The goal of this study was to examine the neural correlates of action perception during the emergence of grasping abilities in newborn rhesus macaques. Neural activity, recorded via electroencephalogram (EEG), while monkeys observed grasping actions, mimed actions and means-end movements during the first (W1) and second week (W2) of life was measured...
April 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519475/the-role-of-the-parietal-cortex-in-sensorimotor-transformations-and-action-coding
#16
Ferdinand Binkofski, Giovanni Buccino
The picture of the human cortical motor system has fully changed in the last two decades. In the light of new data, the notion of a motor system devoted solely to action execution, strictly isolated from the sensory system, is not sustainable. There is evidence that parietal areas are strictly connected to frontal areas and these connections build up sensorimotor circuits aimed at interacting with objects in the environment, and at understanding actions. They are known as the canonic neuron system and mirror neuron system, respectively...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512874/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-reveals-a-role-for-the-left-inferior-parietal-lobule-in-matching-observed-kinematics-during-imitation
#17
Arran T Reader, Ben P Royce, Jade E Marsh, Katy-Jayne Chivers, Nicholas P Holmes
Apraxia (a disorder of complex movement) suggests that the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) plays a role in kinematic or spatial aspects of imitation, which may be particularly important for meaningless (i.e. unfamiliar intransitive) actions. Mirror neuron theories indicate that the IPL is part of a frontoparietal system that can support imitation by linking observed and stored actions through visuomotor matching, and have less to say about different subregions of the left IPL, or how different types of action (i...
April 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497259/artificial-intelligence-and-brain
#18
Paul Shapshak
From the start, Kurt Godel observed that computer and brain paradigms were considered on a par by researchers and that researchers had misunderstood his theorems. He hailed with displeasure that the brain transcends computers. In this brief article, we point out that Artificial Intelligence (AI) comprises multitudes of human-made methodologies, systems, and languages, and implemented with computer technology. These advances enhance development in the electron and quantum realms. In the biological realm, animal neurons function, also utilizing electron flow, and are products of evolution...
2018: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486653/brain-activity-on-observation-of-another-person-s-action-a-magnetoencephalographic-study
#19
Jumpei Mizuno, Masashi Kawamura, Minoru Hoshiyama
Brain activity was recorded using a whole-head magnetoencephalography system followed by coherence analysis to assess neural connectivity in 10 healthy right-handed adults to clarify differences in neural connectivity in brain regions during action observation from several perspectives. The subjects were instructed to observe and memorize or imitate the hand action from a first-person or second-person visual perspective. The brain activity in coherence was modified among frontal and central, sensorimotor, and mirror neuron system-related regions based on the visual perspectives of finger movements...
February 28, 2018: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473159/developmental-and-degenerative-cardiac-defects-in-the-taiwanese-mouse-model-of-severe-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#20
Gillian K Maxwell, Eva Szunyogova, Hannah K Shorrock, Thomas H Gillingwater, Simon H Parson
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive disease caused by a decrease in levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, is the most common genetic cause of infant mortality. Although neuromuscular pathology is the most severe feature of SMA, other organs and tissues, including the heart, are also known to be affected in both patients and animal models. Here, we provide new insights into changes occurring in the heart, predominantly at pre- and early symptomatic ages, in the Taiwanese mouse model of severe SMA...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
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