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Mirror neuron system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521007/computing-the-social-brain-connectome-across-systems-and-states
#1
Daniel Alcalá-López, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies, Frank Van Overwalle, Kai Vogeley, Rogier B Mars, Bruce I Turetsky, Angela R Laird, Peter T Fox, Simon B Eickhoff, Danilo Bzdok
Social skills probably emerge from the interaction between different neural processing levels. However, social neuroscience is fragmented into highly specialized, rarely cross-referenced topics. The present study attempts a systematic reconciliation by deriving a social brain definition from neural activity meta-analyses on social-cognitive capacities. The social brain was characterized by meta-analytic connectivity modeling evaluating coactivation in task-focused brain states and physiological fluctuations evaluating correlations in task-free brain states...
May 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505355/uncovering-the-neuroanatomical-correlates-of-cognitive-affective-and-conative-theory-of-mind-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-a-neural-systems-perspective
#2
Nicholas P Ryan, Cathy Catroppa, Richard Beare, Timothy J Silk, Stephen J Hearps, Miriam H Beauchamp, Keith Owen Yeates, Vicki A Anderson
Deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM) are common after neurological insult acquired in the first and second decade of life, however the contribution of large-scale neural networks to ToM deficits in children with brain injury is unclear. Using pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a model, this study investigated the sub-acute effect of brain injury on gray-matter volume of three large-scale, domain-general brain networks (the Default Mode Network, DMN; the Central Executive Network, CEN; and the Salience Network, SN), as well as two domain-specific neural networks implicated in social-affective processes (the Cerebro-Cerebellar Mentalizing Network, CCMN, and the Mirror Neuron/Empathy Network, MNEN)...
May 15, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438183/semaphorin-plexin-signaling-influences-early-ventral-telencephalic-development-and-thalamocortical-axon-guidance
#3
Manuela D Mitsogiannis, Graham E Little, Kevin J Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Sensory processing relies on projections from the thalamus to the neocortex being established during development. Information from different sensory modalities reaching the thalamus is segregated into specialized nuclei, whose neurons then send inputs to cognate cortical areas through topographically defined axonal connections. Developing thalamocortical axons (TCAs) normally approach the cortex by extending through the subpallium; here, axonal navigation is aided by distributed guidance cues and discrete cell populations, such as the corridor neurons and the internal capsule (IC) guidepost cells...
April 24, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434583/a-proposal-for-new-neurorehabilitative-intervention-on-moebius-syndrome-patients-after-smile-surgery-proof-of-concept-based-on-mirror-neuron-system-properties-and-hand-mouth-synergistic-activity
#4
REVIEW
Pier Francesco Ferrari, Anna Barbot, Bernardo Bianchi, Andrea Ferri, Gioacchino Garofalo, Nicola Bruno, Gino Coudé, Chiara Bertolini, Martina Ardizzi, Ylenia Nicolini, Mauro Belluardo, Elisa De Stefani
Studies of the last twenty years on the motor and premotor cortices of primates demonstrated that the motor system is involved in the control and initiation of movements, and in higher cognitive processes, such as action understanding, imitation, and empathy. Mirror neurons are only one example of such theoretical shift. Their properties demonstrate that motor and sensory processing are coupled in the brain. Such knowledge has been also central for designing new neurorehabilitative therapies for patients suffering from brain injuries and consequent motor deficits...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406906/water-diffusion-closely-reveals-neural-activity-status-in-rat-brain-loci-affected-by-anesthesia
#5
Yoshifumi Abe, Tomokazu Tsurugizawa, Denis Le Bihan
Diffusion functional MRI (DfMRI) reveals neuronal activation even when neurovascular coupling is abolished, contrary to blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI). Here, we show that the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from DfMRI increased in specific rat brain regions under anesthetic conditions, reflecting the decreased neuronal activity observed with local field potentials (LFPs), especially in regions involved in wakefulness. In contrast, BOLD signals showed nonspecific changes, reflecting systemic effects of the anesthesia on overall brain hemodynamics status...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405354/the-interpretation-of-mu-suppression-as-an-index-of-mirror-neuron-activity-past-present-and-future
#6
REVIEW
Hannah M Hobson, Dorothy V M Bishop
Mu suppression studies have been widely used to infer the activity of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) in a number of processes, ranging from action understanding, language, empathy and the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Although mu suppression is enjoying a resurgence of interest, it has a long history. This review aimed to revisit mu's past, and examine its recent use to investigate MNS involvement in language, social processes and ASDs. Mu suppression studies have largely failed to produce robust evidence for the role of the MNS in these domains...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402477/coercive-and-legitimate-authority-impact-tax-honesty-evidence-from-behavioral-and-erp-experiments
#7
Katharina Gangl, Daniela M Pfabigan, Claus Lamm, Erich Kirchler, Eva Hofmann
Cooperation in social systems such as tax honesty is of central importance in our modern societies. However, we know little about cognitive and neural processes driving decisions to evade or pay taxes. This study focuses on the impact of perceived tax authority and examines the mental chronometry mirrored in ERP data allowing a deeper understanding about why humans cooperate in tax systems. We experimentally manipulated coercive and legitimate authority and studied its impact on cooperation and underlying cognitive (experiment 1, 2) and neuronal (experiment 2) processes...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391066/lesion-evidence-for-a-human-mirror-neuron-system
#8
Ellen Binder, Anna Dovern, Maike D Hesse, Markus Ebke, Hans Karbe, Jochen Saliger, Gereon R Fink, Peter H Weiss
More than two decades ago, the mirror neuron system (MNS) was discovered in non-human primates: Single-cell recordings detected visuo-motor neurons that discharged not only when the monkey performed an action, but also when it observed conspecifics performing the same action. It has been proposed that a fronto-parietal circuitry constitutes the human homolog of the MNS. However, the functional role of a human MNS (i.e., whether it is functionally necessary for imitation or action understanding) to date remains controversial...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338793/sensitivity-to-perception-level-differentiates-two-subnetworks-within-the-mirror-neuron-system
#9
Shiri Simon, Roy Mukamel
Mirror neurons are a subset of brain cells that discharge during action execution and passive observation of similar actions. An open question concerns the functional role of their ability to match observed and executed actions. Since understanding of goals requires conscious perception of actions, we expect that mirror neurons potentially involved in action goal coding, will be modulated by changes in action perception level. Here, we manipulated perception level of action videos depicting short hand movements and measured the corresponding fMRI BOLD responses in mirror regions...
February 17, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334943/effects-of-prefrontal-cortex-damage-on-emotion-understanding-eeg-and-behavioural-evidence
#10
Anat Perry, Samantha N Saunders, Jennifer Stiso, Callum Dewar, Jamie Lubell, Torstein R Meling, Anne-Kristin Solbakk, Tor Endestad, Robert T Knight
Humans are highly social beings that interact with each other on a daily basis. In these complex interactions, we get along by being able to identify others' actions and infer their intentions, thoughts and feelings. One of the major theories accounting for this critical ability assumes that the understanding of social signals is based on a primordial tendency to simulate observed actions by activating a mirror neuron system. If mirror neuron regions are important for action and emotion recognition, damage to regions in this network should lead to deficits in these domains...
April 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322858/a-neuroendocrine-account-of-facial-mimicry-and-its-dynamic-modulation
#11
REVIEW
Eline J Kraaijenvanger, Dennis Hofman, Peter A Bos
Facial expressions are considered central in conveying information about one's emotional state. During social encounters, facial expressions of another individual are often automatically imitated by the observer, a process referred to as 'facial mimicry'. This process is assumed to facilitate prosocial behaviour and is thought to rely on the mirror neuron system, known for its involvement in both observation and execution of motor actions. However, recent studies have revealed mimicry to be a more dynamic process than previously conceptualized, leaving mere perception-action coupling insufficient to explain its behavioural flexibility...
March 18, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315038/the-mirror-neuron-system-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients-with-low-disability
#12
Julio Plata-Bello, Yaiza Pérez-Martín, Abril Castañón-Pérez, Cristián Modroño, Helga Fariña, Estefanía Hernández-Martín, Montserrat González-Platas, Francisco Marcano, José Luis González-Mora
To study the visuospatial/visuoperceptive function using a mirror neuron system (MNS) based approach in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and a healthy control group. Two task-based fMRIs (an execution task and an observation task) and one resting-fMRI were performed in a group of MS patients (n = 24) and a group of healthy controls (n = 15). The execution and observation tasks consisted of the performance or observation of the index-thumb opposition task. Statistical parametric mapping approaches were used to identify differences in the brain activity and functional connectivity (FC) of the MNS between MS patients and healthy controls...
March 17, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285946/development-of-rostral-inferior-parietal-lobule-area-functional-connectivity-from-late-childhood-to-early-adulthood
#13
Mengxing Wang, Jilei Zhang, Guangheng Dong, Hui Zhang, Haifeng Lu, Xiaoxia Du
Although the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been extensively studied in monkeys and adult humans, very little is known about its development. Previous studies suggest that the MNS is present by infancy and that the brain and MNS-related cognitive abilities (such as language, empathy, and imitation learning) continue to develop after childhood. In humans, the PFt area of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) seems to particularly correlate with the functional properties of the PF area in primates, which contains mirror neurons...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269584/virtual-reality-for-pediatric-neuro-rehabilitation-adaptive-visual-feedback-of-movement-to-engage-the-mirror-neuron-system
#14
Roopeswar Kommalapati, Konstantinos P Michmizos
Sensorimotor therapy gives optimal results when patients are cognitively engaged into highly repetitive tasks, a goal that most children find hard to pursue. This paper presents the key developments of our ongoing effort to design an interactive rehabilitation environment that motivates physically impaired children throughout their therapy. The continuous motivation is achieved by the system adapting fundamental therapeutic components to the performance of each child. The relevant movement is mirrored to an animated character projected in front of the child...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250456/biallelic-mutations-in-human-dcc-cause-developmental-split-brain-syndrome
#15
Saumya S Jamuar, Klaus Schmitz-Abe, Alissa M D'Gama, Marie Drottar, Wai-Man Chan, Maya Peeva, Sarah Servattalab, Anh-Thu N Lam, Mauricio R Delgado, Nancy J Clegg, Zayed Al Zayed, Mohammad Asif Dogar, Ibrahim A Alorainy, Abdullah Abu Jamea, Khaled Abu-Amero, May Griebel, Wendy Ward, Ed S Lein, Kyriacos Markianos, A James Barkovich, Caroline D Robson, P Ellen Grant, Thomas M Bosley, Elizabeth C Engle, Christopher A Walsh, Timothy W Yu
Motor, sensory, and integrative activities of the brain are coordinated by a series of midline-bridging neuronal commissures whose development is tightly regulated. Here we report a new human syndrome in which these commissures are widely disrupted, thus causing clinical manifestations of horizontal gaze palsy, scoliosis, and intellectual disability. Affected individuals were found to possess biallelic loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the axon-guidance receptor 'deleted in colorectal carcinoma' (DCC), which has been implicated in congenital mirror movements when it is mutated in the heterozygous state but whose biallelic loss-of-function human phenotype has not been reported...
April 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245068/positive-effects-of-neurofeedback-on-autism-symptoms-correlate-with-brain-activation-during-imitation-and-observation
#16
Michael Datko, Jaime A Pineda, Ralph-Axel Müller
Autism has been characterized by atypical task-related brain activation and functional connections, coinciding with deficits in sociocommunicative abilities. However, evidence of the brain's experience-dependent plasticity suggests that abnormal activity patterns may be reversed with treatment. In particular, neurofeedback training (NFT), an intervention based on operant conditioning resulting in self-regulation of brain electrical oscillations, has shown increasing promise in addressing abnormalities in brain function and behavior...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227840/virtual-reality-for-pediatric-neuro-rehabilitation-adaptive-visual-feedback-of-movement-to-engage-the-mirror-neuron-system
#17
Roopeswar Kommalapati, Konstantinos P Michmizos, Roopeswar Kommalapati, Konstantinos P Michmizos, Roopeswar Kommalapati, Konstantinos P Michmizos
Sensorimotor therapy gives optimal results when patients are cognitively engaged into highly repetitive tasks, a goal that most children find hard to pursue. This paper presents the key developments of our ongoing effort to design an interactive rehabilitation environment that motivates physically impaired children throughout their therapy. The continuous motivation is achieved by the system adapting fundamental therapeutic components to the performance of each child. The relevant movement is mirrored to an animated character projected in front of the child...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225838/-mental-simulation-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#18
Daniel G Politis, Wanda Y Rubinstein, María E Tabernero
There is a common network for perception and execution of actions necessary for the acquisition of Theory of Mind, and the mirror neuron system could be the neural substrate. OBJECTIVE: To study the presence of apraxia and their relationship to Theory of Mind in patients with behavioral variant of Frontotemporal Dementia. METHODS: 24 patients were assessed, and the cognitive praxis assessment battery and theory of mind were administered. RESULTS: All the tasks of the cognitive praxis assessment battery showed a significant correlation with the first order False Believe task, while Faces Test showed correlations with all the battery tasks except Auditory verbal income...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222356/extinction-of-avoidance-behavior-by-safety-learning-depends-on-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-the-hippocampus
#19
Vincenzo Micale, Jens Stepan, Angela Jurik, Fabricio A Pamplona, Rudolph Marsch, Filippo Drago, Matthias Eder, Carsten T Wotjak
The development of exaggerated avoidance behavior is largely responsible for the decreased quality of life in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Studies using animal models have contributed to the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the acquisition of avoidance responses. However, much less is known about its extinction. Here we provide evidence in mice that learning about the safety of an environment (i.e., safety learning) rather than repeated execution of the avoided response in absence of negative consequences (i...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165861/-i-feel-your-disgust-and-relief-can-the-action-understanding-system-mirror-neuron-system-be-recruited-to-induce-disgust-and-relief-from-contamination-vicariously-in-individuals-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-symptoms
#20
Baland Jalal, Vilayanur S Ramachandran
Research has shown that brain regions mediating disgust (e.g., the insula) become activated when viewing others' disgust, a response mediated, perhaps by the mirror neuron system or the Theory of Mind module. In a novel behavioral experiment, we explore vicarious disgust and relief, in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Participants (N = 10) provided disgust ratings to self-contamination or watching the contamination of an experimenter; and to the experimenter washing his own hands after the subjects had been contaminated...
February 6, 2017: Neurocase
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