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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431108/investments-in-children-s-health-and-the-kenyan-cash-transfer-for-orphans-and-vulnerable-children-evidence-from-an-unconditional-cash-transfer-scheme
#1
Carolyn Huang, Kavita Singh, Sudhanshu Handa, Carolyn Halpern, Audrey Pettifor, Harsha Thirumurthy
Child mortality is one of the most pressing global health and policy issues in the developing world. The leading drivers of death-pneumonia, diarrhea and malaria-are preventable and treatable. However, these illnesses are exacerbated by a lack of accessible nutrition, water, basic and preventive health services, and sanitary living conditions-all factors which are more likely to disproportionately impact the poor. We examine whether Kenya's largest social protection impacts children's incidence of upper respiratory illness...
April 18, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430031/evaluation-of-multidimensional-models-of-wais-iv-subtest-performance
#2
Dennis J McFarland
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the extent to which the covariance structure of the WAIS-IV is best accounted for by models that assume that test performance is the result of group-level factors and multiple independent general factors. METHOD: Structural models with one to four general factors were evaluated with either four or five group-level factors. Simulations based on four general factors were run to clarify the adequacy of the estimates of the allocation of covariance by the models...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429633/the-reliability-of-multidimensional-neuropsychological-measures-from-alpha-to-omega
#3
Marley W Watkins
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that Coefficient omega, a model-based estimate, is more a more appropriate index of reliability than coefficient alpha for the multidimensional scales that are commonly employed by neuropsychologists. METHOD: As an illustration, a structural model of an overarching general factor and four first-order factors for the WAIS-IV based on the standardization sample of 2200 participants was identified and omega coefficients were subsequently computed for WAIS-IV composite scores...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425582/personality-immune-response-and-reproductive-success-an-appraisal-of-the-pace-of-life-syndrome-hypothesis
#4
Karine Monceau, François-Xavier Dechaume-Moncharmont, Jérôme Moreau, Camille Lucas, Rémi Capoduro, Sébastien Motreuil, Yannick Moret
The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis is an extended concept of the life history theory that includes behavioural traits. The studies challenging the POLS hypothesis often focus on the relationships between a single personality trait and a physiological and/or life history traits. While pathogens represent a major selective pressure, few studies have been interested in testing relationships between behavioural syndrome, and several fitness components including immunity. The aim of this study is to address this question in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, a model species in immunity studies...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421630/the-factor-structure-of-dental-fear
#5
Caroline M H H van Houtem, Arjen J van Wijk, Dorret I Boomsma, Lannie Ligthart, Corine M Visscher, Ad de Jongh
There is limited empirical information as to whether or how stimuli associated with dental fear can be classified into distinct subtypes. The purpose of the current study was to develop a descriptive framework for the classification of dental fear. Data were collected using a survey among Dutch twin families (n = 11,771). The sample was randomly divided into two subsamples of, respectively, 5,920 and 5,851 individuals. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on the first subsample to delineate the multidimensional structure of a set of 28 dental-fear-provoking objects and situations...
April 18, 2017: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420369/improving-the-effectiveness-of-sickness-benefit-case-management-through-a-public-private-partnership-a-difference-in-difference-analysis-in-eighteen-danish-municipalities
#6
Malene Rode Larsen, Birgit Aust, Jan Høgelund
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether a multidimensional public-private partnership intervention, focussing on improving the quality and efficiency of sickness benefit case management, reduced the sickness benefit duration and the duration until self-support. METHODS: We used a difference-in-difference (DID) design with six intervention municipalities and 12 matched control municipalities in Denmark. The study sample comprised 282,103 sickness benefit spells exceeding four weeks...
April 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420335/trajectories-of-life-satisfaction-and-their-predictors-among-korean-older-adults
#7
Hyun Ja Lim, Dae Kee Min, Lilian Thorpe, Chel Hee Lee
BACKGROUND: Among older adults, life satisfaction (LS) correlates with health, mortality, and successful ageing. As various potential threats to LS tend to increase with advancing years, patterns of age-related changes in LS among older adults remain inconsistent. This study aimed to identify LS trajectories in older adults and the characteristics of individuals who experience them. METHODS: Large-scale, nationally representative, longitudinal data collected from 2005 to 2013 were analyzed for this study...
April 19, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418323/the-personality-profile-of-tinnitus-sufferers-and-a-nontinnitus-control-group
#8
Mithila Durai, Mary G O'Keeffe, Grant D Searchfield
BACKGROUND: Chronic tinnitus (phantom perception of sound) significantly disrupts quality of life in 15-20% of those who experience it. Understanding how certain personality traits impact tinnitus perception and distress can be beneficial for the development of interventions to improve the lives of tinnitus sufferers. PURPOSE: Four key self-reported personality traits (social closeness, stress reaction, alienation, and self-control) were identified from previous research as being associated with tinnitus...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417666/exploring-the-differential-associations-between-components-of-executive-functioning-and-reactive-and-proactive-aggression
#9
Lisa K Hecht, Robert D Latzman
OBJECTIVE: A large body of literature confirms the importance of executive functioning (EF) in the explanation of aggressive and antisocial behaviors. However, the common and specific associations between subtypes of aggression, such as reactive (RA), proactive aggression (PA), and EF are unclear. The current study explored the nuanced associations between components of EF and subtypes of aggression, using a latent variable approach. METHOD: Participants were 384 racially diverse undergraduate students (ages 18-52 years) who completed a self-report measure of RA and PA, and traditional neuropsychological tasks of EF...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417174/multidimensional-single-cell-analysis-based-on-fluorescence-microscopy-and-automated-image-analysis
#10
Michael Sandmann, Martin Lippold, Franziska Saalfrank, Chimezie Progress Odika, Sascha Rohn
A single-cell analytical technology was developed for evaluating fast-growing cultures of green algae. The main part of the single-cell analysis is an epifluorescence microscopy-based cytometric approach combined with an automated image analysis algorithm and a single-threshold discrimination procedure. The reliability of the technique in terms of object recognition, evaluating particle size, and determining chlorophyll was successfully proven via reference analyses. The microscopy technique was used to determine the size of single cells, the amount of chlorophyll, and the density of chlorophyll in a model algal culture (Acutodesmus o...
April 17, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411723/fatigue-of-chinese-railway-employees-and-its-influential-factors-structural-equation-modelling
#11
Liuxing Tsao, Jing Chang, Liang Ma
Fatigue is an identifiable and preventable cause of accidents in transport operations. Regarding the railway sector, incident logs and simulation studies show that employee fatigue leads to lack of alertness, impaired performance, and occurrence of incidents. China has one of the largest rail systems in the world, and Chinese railway employees work under high fatigue risks; therefore, it is important to assess their fatigue level and find the major factors leading to fatigue. We designed a questionnaire that uses Multidimensional Fatigue Instrument (MFI-20), NASA-TLX and subjective rating of work overtime feelings to assess employee fatigue...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407890/characterization-and-authentication-of-spanish-pdo-wine-vinegars-using-multidimensional-fluorescence-and-chemometrics
#12
Rocío Ríos-Reina, Saioa Elcoroaristizabal, Juan A Ocaña-González, Diego L García-González, José M Amigo, Raquel M Callejón
This work assesses the potential of multidimensional fluorescence spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for characterization and authentication of Spanish Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) wine vinegars. Seventy-nine vinegars of different categories (aged and sweet) belonging to the Spanish PDOs "Vinagre de Jerez", "Vinagre de Montilla-Moriles" and "Vinagre de Condado de Huelva", were analyzed by excitation-emission fluorescence spectroscopy. A visual assessment of fluorescence landscapes pointed out different trends with vinegar categories...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406671/a-comparison-of-self-report-measures-of-psychopathy-among-nonforensic-samples-using-item-response-theory-analyses
#13
Siny Tsang, Randall T Salekin, C Adam Coffey, Jennifer Cox
This study investigated how well components of the psychopathy trait are measured among college students with the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP), the Personality Assessment Inventory-Antisocial Features Scale (PAI ANT), the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form (PPI-SF), and the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale-II (SRP-II). Using Samejima (1969)'s graded response model (GRM), the subscales were found to vary in their ability to measure the corresponding latent traits. The LSRP primary psychopathy factor is more precise in measuring the latent trait than the secondary psychopathy factor...
April 13, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406361/predictors-of-performance-in-a-4-h-mountain-bike-race
#14
Andrew R Novak, Kyle J M Bennett, Job Fransen, Ben J Dascombe
This study aimed to cross validate previously developed predictive models of mountain biking performance in a new cohort of mountain bikers during a 4-h event (XC4H). Eight amateur XC4H cyclists completed a multidimensional assessment battery including a power profile assessment that consisted of maximal efforts between 6 and 600 s, maximal hand grip strength assessments, a video-based decision-making test as well as a XC4H race. A multiple linear regression model was found to predict XC4H performance with good accuracy (R(2) = 0...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406342/modelling-the-effect-of-perceived-interdependence-among-mental-healthcare-professionals-on-their-work-role-performance
#15
Marie-Pierre Markon, François Chiocchio, Marie-Josée Fleury
The purpose of mental healthcare system reform was to enhance service efficiency by strengthening primary mental healthcare and increasing service integration in communities. Reinforcing interprofessional teamwork also intended to address the extensive and multidimensional needs of patients with mental disorders by bringing together a broader array of expertise. In this context, mental healthcare professionals (MHCPs) from various health and social care professions are more interdependent in many aspects of their work (tasks, resources, and goals)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405963/multidimensional-investigation-of-bedrock-heterogeneity-unconformities-at-a-dnapl-impacted-site
#16
Colby M Steelman, Jessica R Meyer, Beth L Parker
Organic solvent (i.e., dense nonaqueous phase liquid, DNAPL) migration in the subsurface is known to be extremely sensitive to geologic heterogeneity. There is often a focus on heterogeneity that results from changing depositional conditions over short spatial scales. Similar or even more extreme spatial heterogeneity can result postdeposition due to erosional processes. This study applies a synergistic approach based on a combination of high-resolution lithologic logs of continuous cores, borehole geophysical logs, surface electrical resistivity, and seismic refraction tomography models to assess spatial heterogeneity in a shallow bedrock sequence subject to multiple unconformities and contaminated with a mixture of organic chemicals...
April 12, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403164/characterising-the-latent-structure-and-organisation-of-self-reported-thoughts-feelings-and-behaviours-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#17
Michelle C St Clair, Sharon Neufeld, Peter B Jones, Peter Fonagy, Edward T Bullmore, Raymond J Dolan, Michael Moutoussis, Umar Toseeb, Ian M Goodyer
Little is known about the underlying relationships between self-reported mental health items measuring both positive and negative emotional and behavioural symptoms at the population level in young people. Improved measurement of the full range of mental well-being and mental illness may aid in understanding the aetiological substrates underlying the development of both mental wellness as well as specific psychiatric diagnoses. A general population sample aged 14 to 24 years completed self-report questionnaires on anxiety, depression, psychotic-like symptoms, obsessionality and well-being...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402904/longitudinal-relations-between-adolescents-self-esteem-and-prosocial-behavior-toward-strangers-friends-and-family
#18
Xinyuan Fu, Laura M Padilla-Walker, Michael N Brown
The present study examined age-trends and longitudinal bidirectional relations in self-esteem and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family over a four-year time period (age 11 to 14). A total of 681 adolescents were recruited in the United States (51% girls, 28% single parent families). A longitudinal panel model was conducted and the results showed that adolescent self-esteem was associated longitudinally with subsequent prosocial behavior toward strangers, and earlier prosocial behavior toward strangers promoted subsequent self-esteem...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401538/women-s-attitude-towards-routine-hpa-screening-in-pregnancy
#19
Dian Winkelhorst, Rosanne M Loeff, Elske van den Akker-van Marle, Masja de Haas, Dick Oepkes
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a potentially life-threatening disease with excellent preventative treatment available for subsequent pregnancies. In order to prevent index cases, the effectiveness of a population-based screening program has been suggested repeatedly. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate women's attitude towards possible future human platelet antigen (HPA)-screening in pregnancy MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study amongst healthy pregnant women receiving prenatal care in one of seven participating midwifery practices...
April 12, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400539/mass-cytometry-deep-phenotyping-of-human-mononuclear-phagocytes-and-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-from-human-blood-and-bone-marrow
#20
Mikael Roussel, P Brent Ferrell, Allison R Greenplate, Faustine Lhomme, Simon Le Gallou, Kirsten E Diggins, Douglas B Johnson, Jonathan M Irish
The monocyte phagocyte system (MPS) includes numerous monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell (DC) populations that are heterogeneous, both phenotypically and functionally. In this study, we sought to characterize those diverse MPS phenotypes with mass cytometry (CyTOF). To identify a deep phenotype of monocytes, macrophages, and DCs, a panel was designed to measure 38 identity, activation, and polarization markers, including CD14, CD16, HLA-DR, CD163, CD206, CD33, CD36, CD32, CD64, CD13, CD11b, CD11c, CD86, and CD274...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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