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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108320/modulation-on-brain-gray-matter-activity-and-white-matter-integrity-by-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-risk-gene-in-cognitively-intact-elderly-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study
#1
Suping Cai, Yuanyuan Jiang, Yubo Wang, Xiaoming Wu, Junchan Ren, Min Seob Lee, Sunghoon Lee, Liyu Huang
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the genetic risk factor with the most established evidence for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated insufficiently consistent functional and structural changes among healthy APOE ε4 carriers when compared to non-carriers. Here, in a cognitively intact elderly group (a total of 110: 45 APOE ε4 carriers, 65 non-carriers), we aimed to investigate the potential role of APOE ε4 in the modulation of grey matter activity, white matter integrity, and brain morphology before the development of clinically significant symptoms and signs, by methods of: amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity analysis based on resting state fMRI, and fiber tractography approach based on diffusion tensor imaging...
January 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107039/future-directions-in-the-study-of-early-life-stress-and-physical-and-emotional-health-implications-of-the-neuroimmune-network-hypothesis
#2
Camelia E Hostinar, Robin Nusslock, Gregory E Miller
Early-life stress is associated with increased vulnerability to physical and emotional health problems across the lifespan. The recently developed neuroimmune network hypothesis proposes that one of the underlying mechanisms for these associations is that early-life stress amplifies bidirectional crosstalk between the brain and the immune system, contributing to several mental and physical health conditions that have inflammatory underpinnings, such as depression and coronary heart disease. Neuroimmune crosstalk is thought to perpetuate inflammation and neural alterations linked to early-life stress exposure, and also foster behaviors that can further compromise health, such as smoking, drug abuse and consumption of high-fat diets...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103476/on-the-globality-of-motor-suppression-unexpected-events-and-their-influence-on-behavior-and-cognition
#3
REVIEW
Jan R Wessel, Adam R Aron
Unexpected events are part of everyday experience. They come in several varieties-action errors, unexpected action outcomes, and unexpected perceptual events-and they lead to motor slowing and cognitive distraction. While different varieties of unexpected events have been studied largely independently, and many different mechanisms are thought to explain their effects on action and cognition, we suggest a unifying theory. We propose that unexpected events recruit a fronto-basal-ganglia network for stopping...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100830/neural-bases-of-recommendations-differ-according-to-social-network-structure
#4
Matthew Brook O'Donnell, Joseph B Bayer, Christopher N Cascio, Emily B Falk
Ideas spread across social networks, but not everyone is equally positioned to be a successful recommender. Do individuals with more opportunities to connect otherwise unconnected others-high information brokers-use their brains differently than low information brokers when making recommendations? We test the hypothesis that those with more opportunities for information brokerage may use brain systems implicated in considering the thoughts, perspectives, and mental states of others (i.e. 'mentalizing') more when spreading ideas...
January 18, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100506/twittering-on-about-mental-health-is-it-worth-the-effort
#5
Mahesh Jayaram, Lindsay Moran, Clive Adams
The medical community disseminates information increasingly using social media. Randomised controlled trials are being conducted in this area to evaluate effectiveness of social media with mixed results so far, but more trials are likely to be published in the coming years. One recent twitter randomised control trial using Cochrane Schizophrenia Group reviews suggests that tweets increase the hits to the target web page by about threefold and time spent on the web page is also increased threefold when referrals come in via twitter...
January 18, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093386/association-of-facebook-use-with-compromised-well-being-a-longitudinal-study
#6
Holly B Shakya, Nicholas A Christakis
Face-to-face social interactions enhance well-being. With the ubiquity of social media, important questions have arisen about the impact of online social interactions. In the present study, we assessed the associations of both online and offline social networks with several subjective measures of well-being. We used 3 waves (2013, 2014, and 2015) of data from 5,208 subjects in the nationally representative Gallup Panel Social Network Study survey, including social network measures, in combination with objective measures of Facebook use...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091796/preferences-for-smoking-cessation-support-from-family-and-friends-among-adults-with-serious-mental-illness
#7
Kelly A Aschbrenner, John A Naslund, Lydia Gill, Stephen J Bartels, A James O'Malley, Mary F Brunette
Engaging natural supports may be a promising strategy to promote the use of evidence-based smoking cessation treatment for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) who smoke. This qualitative study explored preferences for support for quitting from family and friends among individuals with SMI who participated in cessation treatment. Participants were 41 individuals with SMI enrolled in a Medicaid Demonstration Project of smoking cessation at community mental health centers. Open-ended questions asked during a social network interview explored participants' preferences for more support for quitting smoking from family and friends...
January 16, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087837/off-target-effects-of-neuroleptics-and-antidepressants-on-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#8
M Caldara, S Graziano, M Gullì, S Cadonici, Nelson Marmiroli
Over the past years, the use of antidepressants and neuroleptics has steadily increased. Although incredibly useful to treat disorders like depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy, or mental retardation, these drugs display many side effects. Toxicogenomic studies aim to limit this problem by trying to identify cellular targets and off-targets of medical compounds. The baker yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been shown to be a key player in this approach, as it represents an incredible toolbox for the dissection of complex biological processes...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087798/social-network-types-and-mental-health-among-lgbt-older-adults
#9
Hyun-Jun Kim, Karen I Fredriksen-Goldsen, Amanda E B Bryan, Anna Muraco
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: This study was designed to identify social network types among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults and examine the relationship between social network type and mental health. DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed the 2014 survey data of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,450) from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study. Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify clusters of social network ties based on 11 indicators...
February 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086925/partnerships-in-mental-healthcare-service-delivery-in-low-resource-settings-developing-an-innovative-network-in-rural-nepal
#10
Bibhav Acharya, Duncan Maru, Ryan Schwarz, David Citrin, Jasmine Tenpa, Soniya Hirachan, Madhur Basnet, Poshan Thapa, Sikhar Swar, Scott Halliday, Brandon Kohrt, Nagendra P Luitel, Erick Hung, Bikash Gauchan, Rajeev Pokharel, Maria Ekstrand
BACKGROUND: Mental illnesses are the largest contributors to the global burden of non-communicable diseases. However, there is extremely limited access to high quality, culturally-sensitive, and contextually-appropriate mental healthcare services. This situation persists despite the availability of interventions with proven efficacy to improve patient outcomes. A partnerships network is necessary for successful program adaptation and implementation. PARTNERSHIPS NETWORK: We describe our partnerships network as a case example that addresses challenges in delivering mental healthcare and which can serve as a model for similar settings...
January 13, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086889/hybrid-brain-computer-interface-for-biomedical-cyber-physical-system-application-using-wireless-embedded-eeg-systems
#11
Rifai Chai, Ganesh R Naik, Sai Ho Ling, Hung T Nguyen
BACKGROUND: One of the key challenges of the biomedical cyber-physical system is to combine cognitive neuroscience with the integration of physical systems to assist people with disabilities. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been explored as a non-invasive method of providing assistive technology by using brain electrical signals. METHODS: This paper presents a unique prototype of a hybrid brain computer interface (BCI) which senses a combination classification of mental task, steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and eyes closed detection using only two EEG channels...
January 7, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080975/neural-correlates-of-heart-focused-interoception-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Stefan M Schulz
Interoception is the ability to perceive one's internal body state including visceral sensations. Heart-focused interoception has received particular attention, in part due to a readily available task for behavioural assessment, but also due to accumulating evidence for a significant role in emotional experience, decision-making and clinical disorders such as anxiety and depression. Improved understanding of the underlying neural correlates is important to promote development of anatomical-functional models and suitable intervention strategies...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080973/changes-in-interoceptive-processes-following-brain-stimulation
#13
Olga Pollatos, Beate M Herbert, Sandra Mai, Thomas Kammer
The processing and perception of individual internal bodily signals (interoception) has been differentiated to comprise different levels and processes involved. The so-called heartbeat-evoked potential (HEP) offers an additional possibility to examine automatic processing of cardiac signals. Knowledge on neural structures potentially supporting different facets of interoception is still sparse. One way to get insights into neuroanatomical function is to manipulate the activity of different brain structures...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080965/feeling-learning-from-and-being-aware-of-inner-states-interoceptive-dimensions-in-neurodegeneration-and-stroke
#14
Indira García-Cordero, Lucas Sedeño, Laura de la Fuente, Andrea Slachevsky, Gonzalo Forno, Francisco Klein, Patricia Lillo, Jesica Ferrari, Clara Rodriguez, Julian Bustin, Teresa Torralva, Sandra Baez, Adrian Yoris, Sol Esteves, Margherita Melloni, Paula Salamone, David Huepe, Facundo Manes, Adolfo M García, Agustín Ibañez
Interoception is a complex process encompassing multiple dimensions, such as accuracy, learning and awareness. Here, we examined whether each of those dimensions relies on specialized neural regions distributed throughout the vast interoceptive network. To this end, we obtained relevant measures of cardiac interoception in healthy subjects and patients offering contrastive lesion models of neurodegeneration and focal brain damage: behavioural variant fronto-temporal dementia (bvFTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and fronto-insular stroke...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080963/is-the-cardiac-monitoring-function-related-to-the-self-in-both-the-default-network-and-right-anterior-insula
#15
Mariana Babo-Rebelo, Nicolai Wolpert, Claude Adam, Dominique Hasboun, Catherine Tallon-Baudry
The self has been proposed to be rooted in the neural monitoring of internal bodily signals and might thus involve interoceptive areas, notably the right anterior insula (rAI). However, studies on the self consistently showed the involvement of midline default network (DN) nodes, without referring to visceral monitoring. Here, we investigate this apparent discrepancy. We previously showed that neural responses to heartbeats in the DN encode two different self-dimensions, the agentive 'I' and the introspective 'Me', in a whole-brain analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078194/trauma-exposed-latina-immigrants-networks-a-social-network-analysis-approach
#16
Alejandra Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Adriana Serrano, Felisa A Gonzales, Nicole C Fernandez, Mark Cabling, Stacey Kaltman
OBJECTIVE: Trauma exposure among Latina immigrants is common. Social support networks can buffer the impact of trauma on mental health. This study characterizes the social networks of trauma-exposed Latina immigrants using a social network analysis perspective. METHODS: In 2011-2012 a convenience sample (n=28) of Latina immigrants with trauma exposure and presumptive depression or posttraumatic stress disorder was recruited from a community clinic in Washington DC...
November 2016: Journal of Latina/o Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077708/dynamic-shifts-in-large-scale-brain-network-balance-as-a-function-of-arousal
#17
Christina B Young, Gal Raz, Daphne Everaerd, Christian F Beckmann, Indira Tendolkar, Talma Hendler, Guillén Fernández, Erno J Hermans
: The ability to temporarily prioritize rapid and vigilant reactions over slower higher-order cognitive functions is essential for adaptive responding to threat. This reprioritization is believed to reflect shifts in resource allocation between large-scale brain networks that support these cognitive functions, including the salience and executive control networks. However, how changes in communication within and between such networks dynamically unfold as a function of threat-related arousal remains unknown...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073591/neuropeptide-y-neuronal-network-dysfunction-in-the-frontal-lobe-of-a-genetic-mouse-model-of-schizophrenia
#18
Shunsuke Morosawa, Shuji Iritani, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Hirotaka Sekiguchi, Youta Torii, Chikako Habuchi, Keisuke Kuroda, Kozo Kaibuchi, Norio Ozaki
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been found to play a critical role in various mental functions as a neurotransmitter and is involved in the development of schizophrenia, a particularly intractable psychiatric disease whose precise etiology remains unknown. Recent molecular biological investigations have identified several candidate genes which may be associated with this disease, including disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1). The role of DISC1 would involve neurogenesis and neuronal migration. However, the functional consequences of this gene defect have not yet been fully clarified in neuronal systems...
January 5, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069925/cerebellar-tdcs-modulates-neural-circuits-during-semantic-prediction-a-combined-tdcs-fmri-study
#19
Anila M D'Mello, Peter E Turkeltaub, Catherine J Stoodley
: It has been proposed that the cerebellum acquires internal models of mental processes that enable prediction, allowing for the optimization of behavior. In language, semantic prediction speeds speech production and comprehension. Right cerebellar lobules VI and VII (including Crus I/II) are engaged during a variety of language processes and are functionally connected with cerebral cortical language networks. Further, right posterolateral cerebellar neuromodulation modifies behavior during predictive language processing...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069445/person-perception-involves-functional-integration-between-the-extrastriate-body-area-and-temporal-pole
#20
Inez M Greven, Richard Ramsey
The majority of human neuroscience research has focussed on understanding functional organisation within segregated patches of cortex. The ventral visual stream has been associated with the detection of physical features such as faces and body parts, whereas the theory-of-mind network has been associated with making inferences about mental states and underlying character, such as whether someone is friendly, selfish, or generous. To date, however, it is largely unknown how such distinct processing components integrate neural signals...
January 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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