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Mentalizing network

Benjamin W Mooneyham, Michael D Mrazek, Alissa J Mrazek, Kaita L Mrazek, Dawa T Phillips, Jonathan W Schooler
During tasks that require continuous engagement, the mind alternates between mental states of focused attention and mind-wandering. Existing research has assessed the functional connectivity of intrinsic brain networks underlying the experience and training of these mental states using "static" approaches that assess connectivity across an entire task. To disentangle the functional connectivity between brain regions as the mind fluctuates between discrete brain states, we employed a dynamic functional connectivity approach that characterized brain activity using a sliding window...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Rahib H Abiyev, Nurullah Akkaya, Ersin Aytac, Irfan Günsel, Ahmet Çağman
The design of brain-computer interface for the wheelchair for physically disabled people is presented. The design of the proposed system is based on receiving, processing, and classification of the electroencephalographic (EEG) signals and then performing the control of the wheelchair. The number of experimental measurements of brain activity has been done using human control commands of the wheelchair. Based on the mental activity of the user and the control commands of the wheelchair, the design of classification system based on fuzzy neural networks (FNN) is considered...
2016: BioMed Research International
Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, C Nathan Marti
BACKGROUND: Given increasing numbers of older-adult marijuana users, this study examined the association of marijuana use and marijuana use disorder with life stressors and perceived social support in the 50+ age group. METHODS: Data came from the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N=14,715 respondents aged 50+). Life stressors were measured with 12 items related to interpersonal, legal, and financial problems and being a crime victim...
October 18, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Baptiste Brossard, Normand Carpentier
Contemporary research into health and mental health treats diagnosis as a central step in understanding illness management and trajectory; consequently, in the last two decades, sociology of diagnosis has attained increasing influence within medical sociology. Deeply embedded in social constructionism, the set of research divides between those who focus on the social and historical construction of diagnoses as categories, and those who see diagnosis as a process. Regarding the latter, this approach explores the constitution of the medical production, highlighting how it constitutes a starting point for entering a 'sick role', for being labelled, for naming one's problem and by extension, for framing one's illness narrative...
October 22, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
Joan K Monin, Natalie Mota, Becca Levy, John Pachankis, Robert H Pietrzak
OBJECTIVES: Objectives were to: (a) identify the mental health needs of older and younger sexual minority and heterosexual U.S. veterans and (b) examine whether sexual minority status confers vulnerability or resiliency in older adulthood. Support and trauma exposure were examined as potential mechanisms for age by sexual orientation differences. METHODS: Participants were a nationally representative sample of 3,095 U.S. veterans (ages 21 to 96 years). Measures included demographics, military characteristics, sexual orientation (lesbian, gay, or bisexual; LGB), social support, trauma, and mental health indicators (lifetime and present depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); lifetime anxiety and suicidal ideation)...
September 23, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Roxanne Keynejad, Maya Semrau, Mark Toynbee, Sara Evans-Lacko, Crick Lund, Oye Gureje, Sheila Ndyanabangi, Emilie Courtin, Jibril O Abdulmalik, Atalay Alem, Abebaw Fekadu, Graham Thornicroft, Charlotte Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the interventions required to build the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conducted a systematic review with the primary aim of identifying and synthesizing the evidence base for building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in LMICs. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, ScieELO, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases for studies reporting evidence, experience or evaluation of capacity-building of policy-makers, service planners or managers in mental health system strengthening in LMICs...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Elisa C K Steinfurth, Manuela G Alius, Julia Wendt, Alfons O Hamm
The current experiments tested neural and physiological correlates of worry and rumination in comparison to thinking about neutral events. According to the avoidance model-stating that worry is a strategy to reduce intense emotions-physiological and neurobiological activity during worried thinking should not differ from activation during neutral thinking. According to the contrast avoidance model-stating that worry is a strategy to reduce abrupt shifts of emotions-activity should be increased. To test these competing models, we induced worry and neutral thinking in healthy participants using personal topics...
October 21, 2016: Psychophysiology
Eric Smart, Adeeta Aulakh, Carolyn McDougall, Patty Rigby, Gillian King
PURPOSE: Identify strategies youth perceive will optimize their engagement in goal pursuit in life skills and transition programs using an engagement framework involving affective, cognitive, and behavioral components. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive design was used. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven youth. The first was informed by a prior observation session, and the second occurred after the program ended and explored youths' perceptions of whether and how their engagement changed...
October 21, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Joyce Cheng, Paul Benassi, Claire De Oliveira, Juveria Zaheer, Michael Collins, Paul Kurdyak
OBJECTIVE: Despite the high prevalence of mental illnesses and addictions, treatment rates remain low. In April 2010, a regional mass media campaign was implemented to increase awareness of mental health services in central Toronto, Canada. We studied the impact of this campaign on rates of psychiatric emergency department (PED) visits among all hospital emergency departments (EDs) located in Toronto. DESIGN: Monthly PED visit totals were obtained for all Toronto EDs from April 1, 2007 to March 31, 2012 (n = 148,704)...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Amelia Rock, Clare Barrington, Sara Abdoulayi, Maxton Tsoka, Peter Mvula, Sudhanshu Handa
Extensive research documents that social network characteristics affect health, but knowledge of peer networks of youth in Malawi and sub-Saharan Africa is limited. We examine the networks and social participation of youth living in extreme poverty in rural Malawi, using in-depth interviews with 32 youth and caregivers. We describe youth's peer networks and assess how gender and the context of extreme poverty influence their networks and participation, and how their networks influence health. In-school youth had larger, more interactive, and more supportive networks than out-of-school youth, and girls described less social participation and more isolation than boys...
October 8, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Su Yeon Lee-Tauler, Seung Hee Lee-Kwan, Haera Han, Hochang B Lee, Joseph J Gallo, Jin Hui Joo
OBJECTIVE: Korean American Elderly (KAE) have high rates of depression but underuse mental health services. The purpose of this study was to assess the meaning of depression and help seeking among KAE residing in the United States who have clinically significant depressive symptoms. METHODS: As a follow up to the Memory and Aging Study of Koreans (MASK; n=1,118), a descriptive epidemiological study which showed that only one in four of KAE with clinically significant depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9≥10) used mental health services, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms regarding the meaning of depression and beliefs about help seeking...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Marie-Josée Fleury, Guy Grenier, Catherine Vallée, Denise Aubé, Lambert Farand, Jean-Marie Bamvita, Geneviève Cyr
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates implementation of the Quebec Mental Health (MH) Reform (2005-2015) which aimed to improve accessibility, quality and continuity of care by developing primary care and optimizing integrated service networks. Implementation of MH primary care teams, clinical strategies for consolidating primary care, integration strategies to improve collaboration between primary care and specialized services, and facilitators and barriers related to these measures were examined...
October 18, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Julia Schellong, Franziska Epple, Kerstin Weidner, Andrea Möllering
A non-neglectable portion of people that have fled to Germany have been subjected to expulsion, violence, torture and grave human loss. In some of them, signs of secondary mental problems are obvious. In the light of the efforts at integration, these diseases must not be neglected. Outlined are the federal legal requirements and how the cost coverage, as well as the admission to health care system, is structured. Additionally, 2 exemplary regional models for psychosomatic health care are being introduced: Dresden's "Stepped Care Model for Psychologically Vulnerable Refugees" includes phased offers for prevention and treatment of acute mental crises, as well as somatoform disorders in refugees and their volunteer helpers...
October 17, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Gillian Fergie, Kate Hunt, Shona Hilton
Social media offer opportunities to both produce and consume content related to health experiences. However, people's social media practices are likely to be influenced by a range of individual, social and environmental factors. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore how engagement with user-generated content can support people with long-term health conditions, and what limits users' adoption of these technologies in the everyday experience of their health condition. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with young adults, aged between 18 and 30 years, with experience of diabetes or a common mental health disorder (CMHD)...
October 8, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Toru Akiyama, Kosuke Uehara, Koichi Ogura, Yusuke Shinoda, Shintaro Iwata, Kazuo Saita, Yoshikazu Tanzawa, Fumihiko Nakatani, Tsukasa Yonemoto, Hirotaka Kawano, Aileen M Davis, Akira Kawai
BACKGROUND: The Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) is a widely used disease-specific patient-completed questionnaire for the assessment of physical function in patients with musculoskeletal tumors; however, there had not been the validated Japanese version of the TESS. The aim of this study was to validate the Japanese version of the TESS in patients with musculoskeletal tumors in the upper extremity. METHODS: After developing a Japanese version of the TESS, the questionnaire was administered to 53 patients to examine its reliability and validity in comparison with the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) scoring system and Short Form-36 (SF-36)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Jéssica Elias Vicentini, Marina Weiler, Sara Regina Meira Almeida, Brunno Machado de Campos, Lenise Valler, Li Min Li
Depression and anxiety symptoms are common after stroke and associated to reduction in quality of life and poor physical and social outcomes. The Default Mode Network (DMN) plays an important role in the emotional processing. We investigated whether these symptoms are associated to a disruption of DMN functional connectivity in the first month after stroke. Thirty-four subacute ischemic stroke patients were submitted to: 1) behavioral assessment through Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders; 2) neuropsychological assessment using Mini Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment; 3) resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging acquisition using a 3 T scanner (Philips Achieva)...
October 14, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
John R Wingard, William A Wood, Michael Martens, Jennifer Le-Rademacher, Brent Logan, Jennifer M Knight, Paul B Jacobsen, Heather Jim, Navneet S Majhail, Karen Syrjala, J Douglas Rizzo, Stephanie J Lee
Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) Protocol 0902 evaluated whether exercise and stress management training prior to hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) improved physical and mental functioning after HCT. Neither overall survival nor other patient-reported transplant outcomes were improved by the training intervention. In some animal studies of HCT, moderate intensity exercise for 8 weeks before HCT has been associated with positive effects on hematopoietic progenitors resulting in improved donor engraftment and improved survival...
October 11, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Dilip V Jeste, Dan G Blazer, Kathleen C Buckwalter, Keri-Leigh K Cassidy, Len Fishman, Lisa P Gwyther, Saul M Levin, Christopher Phillipson, Ramesh R Rao, Ellen Schmeding, William A Vega, Julie A Avanzino, Danielle K Glorioso, John Feather
Older adults consistently prefer aging in place, which requires a high level of community support and services that are currently lacking. With a rapidly aging population, the present infrastructure for healthcare will prove even more inadequate to meet seniors' physical and mental health needs. A paradigm shift away from the sole focus on delivery of interventions at an individual level to more prevention-focused, community-based approaches will become essential. Recent initiatives have been proposed to promote healthy lifestyles and preventive care to enable older adults to age in place...
July 28, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Stella M Resko, Suzanne Brown, Natasha S Mendoza, Shantel Crosby, Antonio González-Prendes
OBJECTIVE: Perception of need is a key factor that influences decisions to seek help and complete treatment for substance use and mental health problems. In the current study, we examine patterns of perceived treatment needs among women with co-occurring substance use disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and explore how these patterns are associated with demographics, psychosocial variables, and treatment-related factors. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of the Women and Trauma Study from the National Institute on Drug Abuse's Clinical Trial Network was conducted...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Suzanne Brown, Laurel M Hicks, Elizabeth M Tracy
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 73% of women entering treatment for substance use disorders are mothers of children under the age of 18 (SAMHSA, 2009), and the high rate of mental health disorders among mothers with substance use disorders increases their vulnerability to poor parenting practices. Parenting efficacy and social support for parenting have emerged as significant predictors of positive parenting practices among families at risk for child maltreatment. The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of parenting support and parenting efficacy on the likelihood of out-of-home placement and custody status among the children of mothers with dual substance use and mental health disorders...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
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