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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345153/the-functional-architectures-of-addition-and-subtraction-network-discovery-using-fmri-and-dcm
#1
Yang Yang, Ning Zhong, Karl Friston, Kazuyuki Imamura, Shengfu Lu, Mi Li, Haiyan Zhou, Haiyuan Wang, Kuncheng Li, Bin Hu
The neuronal mechanisms underlying arithmetic calculations are not well understood but the differences between mental addition and subtraction could be particularly revealing. Using fMRI and dynamic causal modeling (DCM), this study aimed to identify the distinct neuronal architectures engaged by the cognitive processes of simple addition and subtraction. Our results revealed significantly greater activation during subtraction in regions along the dorsal pathway, including the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), middle portion of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (mDLPFC), and supplementary motor area (SMA), compared with addition...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341927/optimal-network-for-patients-with-severe-mental-illness-a-social-network-analysis
#2
Vincent Lorant, James Nazroo, Pablo Nicaise
It is still unclear what the optimal structure of mental health care networks should be. We examine whether certain types of network structure have been associated with improved continuity of care and greater social integration. A social network survey was carried out, covering 954 patients across 19 mental health networks in Belgium in 2014. We found continuity of care to be associated with large, centralized, and homophilous networks, whereas social integration was associated with smaller, centralized, and heterophilous networks...
March 24, 2017: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338944/salience-network-engagement-with-the-detection-of-morally-laden-information
#3
Gunes Sevinc, I Hakan Gurvit, R Nathan Spreng
Moral cognition is associated with activation of the default network, regions implicated in mentalizing about one's own actions or the intentions of others. Yet little is known about the initial detection of moral information. We examined the neural correlates of moral processing during a narrative completion task, which included an implicit moral salience manipulation. During fMRI scanning, participants read a brief vignette and selected the most semantically congruent sentence from two options to complete the narrative...
March 9, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338943/dysfunction-of-large-scale-brain-networks-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#4
Debo Dong, Yulin Wang, Xuebin Chang, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with disorganized communication among large-scale brain networks, as demonstrated by impaired resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). Individual rsFC studies, however, vary greatly in their methods and findings. We searched for consistent patterns of network dysfunction in schizophrenia by using a coordinate-based meta-analysis. Fifty-six seed-based voxel-wise rsFC datasets from 52 publications (2115 patients and 2297 healthy controls) were included in this meta-analysis...
March 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336496/functional-eeg-network-analysis-in-schizophrenia-evidence-of-larger-segregation-and-deficit-of-modulation
#5
Javier Gomez-Pilar, Alba Lubeiro, Jesús Poza, Roberto Hornero, Marta Ayuso, César Valcárcel, Karim Haidar, José A Blanco, Vicente Molina
OBJECTIVE: Higher mental functions depend on global cerebral functional coordination. Our aim was to study fast modulation of functional networks in schizophrenia that has not been previously assessed. METHODS: Graph-theory was used to analyze the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during an odd-ball task in 57 schizophrenia patients (18 first episode patients, FEPs) and 59 healthy controls. Clustering coefficient (CLC), characteristic path length (PL) and small-worldness (SW) were computed at baseline ([-300 0] ms prior to stimulus delivery) and response ([150 450] ms post-stimulus) windows...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330831/the-efficacy-of-internet-based-mindfulness-training-and-cognitive-behavioral-training-with-telephone-support-in-the-enhancement-of-mental-health-among-college-students-and-young-working-adults-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Winnie Ws Mak, Floria Hn Chio, Amy Ty Chan, Wacy Ws Lui, Ellery Ky Wu
BACKGROUND: College students and working adults are particularly vulnerable to stress and other mental health problems, and mental health promotion and prevention are needed to promote their mental health. In recent decades, mindfulness-based training has demonstrated to be efficacious in treating physical and psychological conditions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to examine the efficacy of an Internet-based mindfulness training program (iMIND) in comparison with the well-established Internet-based cognitive-behavioral training program (iCBT) in promoting mental health among college students and young working adults...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327626/altered-resting-state-hippocampal-functional-networks-associated-with-chemotherapy-induced-prospective-memory-impairment-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#7
Huaidong Cheng, Wen Li, Liang Gong, Han Xuan, Zhonglian Huang, Hong Zhao, Long Sheng Wang, Kai Wang
In this study, we aimed to investigate the intrinsic hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) network and its relationship with prospective memory in patients with breast cancer suffering from chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI). Thirty-four breast cancer patients before and after adjuvant chemotherapy (CB and CC, respectively) and 31 age- and education-matched cognitively normal (CN) women were recruited and subjected to a prospective memory task and a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327593/characterisation-of-mental-health-conditions-in-social-media-using-informed-deep-learning
#8
George Gkotsis, Anika Oellrich, Sumithra Velupillai, Maria Liakata, Tim J P Hubbard, Richard J B Dobson, Rina Dutta
The number of people affected by mental illness is on the increase and with it the burden on health and social care use, as well as the loss of both productivity and quality-adjusted life-years. Natural language processing of electronic health records is increasingly used to study mental health conditions and risk behaviours on a large scale. However, narrative notes written by clinicians do not capture first-hand the patients' own experiences, and only record cross-sectional, professional impressions at the point of care...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326160/the-neural-correlates-of-childhood-maltreatment-and-the-ability-to-understand-mental-states-of-others
#9
Charlotte C van Schie, Anne-Laura van Harmelen, Kirsten Hauber, Albert Boon, Eveline A Crone, Bernet M Elzinga
Background: Emotional abuse and emotional neglect are related to impaired interpersonal functioning. One underlying mechanism could be a developmental delay in mentalizing, the ability to understand other people's thoughts and emotions. Objective: This study investigates the neural correlates of mentalizing and the specific relationship with emotional abuse and neglect whilst taking into account the level of sexual abuse, physical abuse and physical neglect. Method: The RMET was performed in an fMRI scanner by 46 adolescents (Age: M = 18...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325027/identifying-the-effects-of-visceral-interoception-on-human-brain-connectome-a-multivariate-analysis-of-covariance-of-fmri-data
#10
Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini
Sources of variations in the neural circuitry of the human brain and interrelationship between intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are still a matter of debate and ongoing research. Here, we applied a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) based on high-dimensional independent component analysis (ICA) to identify the effects of interoception and related variables on human brain connectome. Fifteen healthy right-handed subjects (all females, age range 21 - 48 years; mean age = 30.3, SD = 8.7 years) underwent a blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that included continuous intravesical saline infusion and drainage...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323166/neural-foundations-of-overt-and-covert-actions
#11
Panagiotis G Simos, Eleftherios Kavroulakis, Thomas Maris, Efrosini Papadaki, Themistoklis Boursianis, Giorgos Kalaitzakis, Helen E Savaki
We used fMRI to assess the human brain areas activated for execution, observation and 1st person motor imagery of a visually guided tracing task with the index finger. Voxel-level conjunction analysis revealed several cortical areas activated in common across all three motor conditions, namely, the upper limb representation of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices, the dorsal and ventral premotor, the superior and inferior parietal cortices as well as the posterior part of the superior and middle temporal gyrus including the temporo-parietal junction (TPj) and the extrastriate body area (EBA)...
March 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323092/the-effect-of-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-on-executive-functions-impaired-verbal-fluency-and-intact-updating-planning-and-conflict-resolution-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Gyula Demeter, István Valálik, Péter Pajkossy, Agnes Szőllősi, Ágnes Lukács, Ferenc Kemény, Mihály Racsmány
Although the improvement of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) after Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is well documented, there are open questions regarding its impact on cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of bilateral DBS of the STN on executive functions in PD patients using a DBS wait-listed PD control group. Ten PD patients with DBS implantation (DBS group) and ten PD wait-listed patients (Clinical control group) participated in the study...
March 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321186/brain-activity-during-mental-imagery-of-gait-versus-gait-like-plantar-stimulation-a-novel-combined-functional-mri-paradigm-to-better-understand-cerebral-gait-control
#13
Matthieu Labriffe, Cédric Annweiler, Liubov E Amirova, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Aram Ter Minassian, Louis-Marie Leiber, Olivier Beauchet, Marc-Antoine Custaud, Mickaël Dinomais
Human locomotion is a complex sensorimotor behavior whose central control remains difficult to explore using neuroimaging method due to technical constraints, notably the impossibility to walk with a scanner on the head and/or to walk for real inside current scanners. The aim of this functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study was to analyze interactions between two paradigms to investigate the brain gait control network: (1) mental imagery of gait, and (2) passive mechanical stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot with the Korvit boots...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321149/family-and-friendship-networks-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-among-african-americans-and-black-caribbeans
#14
Joseph A Himle, Robert Joseph Taylor, Ann W Nguyen, Monnica T Williams, Karen D Lincoln, Harry Owen Taylor, Linda M Chatters
Although there is a large literature on the influence of social support on mental health there is limited research on social support and OCD. This is especially the case for African Americans and Black Caribbeans. This study examines the relationship between family and friendship networks and the prevalence of OCD. The analysis is based on the National Survey of American Life a nationally representative sample of African Americans and Black Caribbeans. Variables included frequency of contact with family and friends, subjective closeness with family and friends, and negative interactions (conflict, criticisms) with family members...
March 2017: Behavior Therapist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319695/suicidal-ideation-reported-on-the-phq9-and-risk-of-suicidal-behavior-across-age-groups
#15
Rebecca C Rossom, Karen J Coleman, Brian K Ahmedani, Arne Beck, Eric Johnson, Malia Oliver, Greg E Simon
OBJECTIVE: The Joint Commission recommends all patients be screened for suicide. However, differences in suicide attempt and death rates may affect how well tools predict risk across age groups. Our objective was to determine whether item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9) predicts risk for suicide attempts and deaths across age groups. METHODS: PHQ9s completed by adult outpatients treated for mental health conditions in 2010-2012 at four Mental Health Research Network-affiliated healthcare systems were used to measure depression severity and suicidal ideation...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318903/understanding-human-intention-by-connecting-perception-and-action-learning-in-artificial-agents
#16
Sangwook Kim, Zhibin Yu, Minho Lee
To develop an advanced human-robot interaction system, it is important to first understand how human beings learn to perceive, think, and act in an ever-changing world. In this paper, we propose an intention understanding system that uses an Object Augmented-Supervised Multiple Timescale Recurrent Neural Network (OA-SMTRNN) and demonstrate the effects of perception-action connected learning in an artificial agent, which is inspired by psychological and neurological phenomena in humans. We believe that action and perception are not isolated processes in human mental development, and argue that these psychological and neurological interactions can be replicated in a human-machine scenario...
February 11, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300998/psychological-assistance-provided-to-patients-diagnosed-with-depression-in-primary-care
#17
Cibele Cunha Lima da Motta, Carmen Leontina Ojeda Ocampo Moré, Carlos Henrique Sancineto da Silva Nunes
The scope of this research was to understand the assistance provided by psychologists to patients diagnosed with depression in the municipal health care network. In this study, the phenomenon is examined from its broader perspective, taking the psychosocial dimensions of health into account. A group of 22 psychologists participated in this study of a qualitative nature. Data collection began with participant in-field observation of the institutional context followed by semi-structured interviews. Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze information, thereby facilitating its integration and categorization...
March 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298561/charlson-comorbidity-index-is-related-to-organ-damage-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-data-from-korean-lupus-network-kornet-registry
#18
Seong-Kyu Kim, Jung-Yoon Choe, Shin-Seok Lee
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify whether comorbidity status is associated with organ damage in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: A total of 502 patients with SLE enrolled in the KORean lupus Network were consecutively recruited. Data included demographics, age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCIa), disease activity indexes, the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SDI), the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 health survey (SF-36) score, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295877/neuroscientific-insights-into-the-development-of-analogical-reasoning
#19
Kirstie J Whitaker, Michael S Vendetti, Carter Wendelken, Silvia A Bunge
Analogical reasoning, or the ability to find correspondences between entities based on shared relationships, supports knowledge acquisition. As such, the development of this ability during childhood is thought to promote learning. Here, we sought to better understand the mechanisms by which analogical reasoning about semantic relations improves over childhood and adolescence (e.g. chalk is to chalkboard as pen is to…?). We hypothesized that age-related differences would manifest as differences in the brain regions associated with one or more of the following cognitive functions: (1) controlled semantic retrieval, or the ability to retrieve task-relevant semantic associations; (2) response control, or the ability to override the tendency to respond to a salient distractor; and/or (3) relational integration, or the ability to consider jointly two mental relations...
March 12, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293639/proteomic-analysis-of-liver-proteins-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-restraint-stress-induced-depression
#20
Cong Li, Zhengguang Guo, Ronghua Zhao, Wei Sun, Ming Xie
Depression is a global mental disorder disease and greatly threatened human health and stress is considered to be one of the important factors that lead to depression. In this study, we used newly developed iTRAQ labeling and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrum united analysis technology obtained the 2176 accurate proteins. Successively, we used the GO analysis and IPA software to analyze the 98 differentially expressed proteins of liver in depression rats due to chronic restraint stress, showing a map of proteomics analysis of liver proteins from the aspects of related functions, disease and function analysis, canonical pathway analysis, and associated network...
2017: BioMed Research International
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