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Mentalizing network

Alessandro Pepe, Loredana Addimando, Jamal Dagdouke, Shaher Yagi, Guido Veronese
BACKGROUND: Subjective wellbeing can be defined in terms of good mental state, including positive and negative evaluations that people make of their affect and lives. The aim of this study was to identify specific domains of wellbeing that are salient to Palestinian teachers living in three different contexts (West Bank, Gaza Strip, and Israel) and to map how components of subjective wellbeing vary between the three cohorts. METHODS: Data were gathered from interviews of teachers participating in 16 focus groups and from 36 key informants (including psychologists, counsellors, school principals, lawyers)...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Irina Tammenmaa-Aho, Rosie Asher, Karla Soares-Weiser, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) remains a troublesome adverse effect of conventional antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication. It has been proposed that TD could have a component of central cholinergic deficiency. Cholinergic drugs have been used to treat TD. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of cholinergic drugs (arecoline, choline, deanol, lecithin, meclofenoxate, physostigmine, RS 86, tacrine, metoxytacrine, galantamine, ipidacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine, eptastigmine, metrifonate, xanomeline, cevimeline) for treating antipsychotic-induced TD in people with schizophrenia or other chronic mental illness...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Bente Wold, Maurice B Mittelmark
AIMS: This debate paper traces the development of innovative methods for undertaking health promotion research with a socialecological orientation, with a few examples drawn from 30 years of research on adolescent health promotion research at the University of Bergen. CONCLUSION: We aim to show how the social-ecological model is becoming more evident as a guide to research, using three cases that illustrate progress and potential. The first case is the Norwegian part of the European Network of Health Promoting Schools...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Laurie E Powers, Ann Fullerton, Jessica Schmidt, Sarah Geenen, Molly Oberweiser-Kennedy, JoAnn Dohn, May Nelson, Rosemary Iavanditti, Jennifer Blakeslee
Research clearly documents the serious challenges and poor outcomes experienced by many young people exiting foster care, as well as compounded disparities for the high percentage of youth in care who are identified with disabilities and/or mental health challenges. However, very little research has been conducted to specify or validate effective models for improving the transition trajectories of youth exiting care. Evidence suggests the My Life self-determination enhancement model offers a promising approach for supporting youths' self-determined and positive transition to adulthood...
February 2018: Children and Youth Services Review
Jacques Bagur
Intrafamily violence is a major public health problem, due to its frequency and the severity of its consequences. The aim is to establish links between violence and psychopathology, for the perpetrators as well as the victims. Data reveal a higher frequency of certain mental health disorders and history of abuse in the perpetrators, without it being systematic. It is important to adopt a global and multidisciplinary approach, and a holistic perspective faced with the people concerned by these acts. Health professionals, from the social sector and associations must therefore work together in a network to manage and attempt to prevent crisis situations...
March 2018: Soins. Psychiatrie
Anna Rita Giovagnoli, Valentina Manfredi, Letizia Schifano, Chiara Paterlini, Annalisa Parente, Fabrizio Tagliavini
Alzheimer's disease (AD) can impair language, but active music therapy (AMT) and memantine (M) can improve communication. This study aimed to clarify whether adding AMT to M may improve language in comparison with drugs alone in patients with moderate AD on stable therapy with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEI). Forty-five AD patients treated with stable dose of AchEI were randomized to receive AMT plus M 20 mg/day or M 20 mg/day for 24 weeks. The Severe Impairment Battery-Language (SIB-l), SIB, Mini Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Lubben Social Network Scale, Activities of Daily Living, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scores at baseline and 12 and 24 weeks assessed language (primary variable) and overall cognitive, psycho-behavior, social, and functional aspects (secondary variables)...
March 17, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Rhiannon K Owen, Nicola J Cooper, Terence J Quinn, Rosalind Lees, Alex J Sutton
OBJECTIVE: Network meta-analyses have extensively been used to compare the effectiveness of multiple interventions for healthcare policy and decision-making. However, methods for evaluating the performance of multiple diagnostic tests are less established. In a decision-making context, we are often interested in comparing and ranking the performance of multiple diagnostic tests, at varying levels of test thresholds, in one simultaneous analysis. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Motivated by an example of cognitive impairment diagnosis following stroke, we synthesized data from 13 studies assessing the efficiency of two diagnostic tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), at two test thresholds: MMSE <25/30 and <27/30, and MoCA <22/30 and <26/30...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Rogério M Pinto, Susan S Witte, Prema L Filippone, C Jean Choi, Melanie Wall
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions project has disseminated HIV behavioral interventions (EBIs) across the United States since the 1990s. In 2011, the CDC launched the High-Impact HIV Prevention (HIP) project, providing EBIs plus high-impact services (HIV testing, primary care, and support services). Providers (nurses, social workers, educators) are unable to consistently make linkages; thus, numerous at-risk individuals are not benefitting from HIP...
March 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Marc N Jarczok, Corina Aguilar-Raab, Julian Koenig, Michael Kaess, Jeremy C Borniger, Randy J Nelson, Martica Hall, Beate Ditzen, Julian F Thayer, Joachim E Fischer
INTRODUCTION: Successful regulation of emotional states is positively associated to mental health, while difficulties in regulating emotions are negatively associated to overall mental health and in particular associated with anxiety or depression symptoms. A key structure associated to socio-emotional regulatory processes is the central autonomic network. Activity in this structure is associated to vagal activity can be indexed noninvasively and simply by measures of peripheral cardiac autonomic modulations such as heart rate variability...
March 15, 2018: Chronobiology International
Angus P Yu, Bjorn T Tam, Christopher W Lai, Doris S Yu, Jean Woo, Ka-Fai Chung, Stanley S Hui, Justina Y Liu, Gao X Wei, Parco M Siu
Tai Chi Chuan (TCC), a traditional Chinese martial art, is well-documented to result in beneficial consequences in physical and mental health. TCC is regarded as a mind-body exercise that is comprised of physical exercise and meditation. Favorable effects of TCC on body balance, gait, bone mineral density, metabolic parameters, anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and sleep have been previously reported. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining the effects of TCC remain largely unclear. Recently, advances in neuroimaging technology have offered new investigative opportunities to reveal the effects of TCC on anatomical morphologies and neurological activities in different regions of the brain...
2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Amelia Gulliver, Alyssa R Morse, Niah Wilson, Ginny Sargent, Michelle Banfield
Partners in Recovery (PIR) is a nation-wide Australian program designed to improve coordinated care for people with severe and persistent mental health problems. This study evaluated PIR's effectiveness for individual and system-level outcomes. A total of 25 PIR participants (male = 7, female = 15, not stated = 3) provided data for the evaluation of the program across six community mental health service providers in Canberra, Australia. Individual-level measures included quality of life, social inclusion, and perceptions of recovery...
March 5, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
Débora Stephanie Ribeiro, Fernanda Mendes Lages Ribeiro, Suely Ferreira Deslandes
The aim of this article is to analyze how professionals in the mental health teams of the juvenile detention system in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, perceive the relations with the external Network of Psychosocial Care in dealing with mental health issues in adolescents serving time in juvenile detention centers. Nine interviews were held with mental health professionals in the system, and the results were presented with Fairclough's critical discourse analysis as the reference. The results were organized in three parts: the relationship between the juvenile detention system's mental health teams and the external services, difficulties experienced by the teams from the detention centers and the external network's services, and prospects and proposals...
March 12, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Alexandra Henteleff, Helena Wall
INTRODUCTION: HANS KAI is a unique health promotion intervention to improve participants' health by focussing on interrelated chronic disease prevention behaviours through peer support and strengthening of social support networks. The study objective was to determine the effectiveness of HANS KAI in an urban Canadian setting. METHODS: We used a mixed methods intervention research design that involved multiple sites from November 2010 to April 2015. Data was obtained from participant surveys as well as in-person interviews at zero, 6, 12 and 24 months...
March 2018: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Mylène Bolmont, Marie-Laure Amram, Florence Rochon, Pierre-Yves Dietrich, Francesco Bianchi-Demicheli
Cancer affects sexual function, sexual health and relationships as well as mental health and quality of life. Due to the importance of sexual health for each individual and in order to ensure optimal and quality care, we have assessed the demand for sexual health and advise not only among cancer patients but also among professionals in this area and nursing staff. The results showed that sexuality was important both for patients and caregivers. Also we did find out that carers want to create a better professional network with the aim of redirecting patients to specialists according to their specific needs...
March 14, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Ann Sheridan, Donal O'Keeffe, Barbara Coughlan, Kate Frazer, Johnathan Drennan, Mary Kemple
BACKGROUND: Social opportunities can be limited in the lives of people with enduring mental illness (EMI) due to psychiatric stigma, restricted home environments and employment barriers. Supported socialisation programmes have the potential to redress the impact of social isolation. AIM: To explore the experiences of service users with EMI taking part in a supported socialisation programme, using written diary entries. METHODS: This article reports on the qualitative component of a randomised controlled trial of supported socialisation for people with EMI (published previously in this journal)...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Boldizsár Czéh, Szilvia A Nagy
Depressive disorders are complex, multifactorial mental disorders with unknown neurobiology. Numerous theories aim to explain the pathophysiology. According to the "gliocentric theory", glial abnormalities are responsible for the development of the disease. The aim of this review article is to summarize the rapidly growing number of cellular and molecular evidences indicating disturbed glial functioning in depressive disorders. We focus here exclusively on the clinical studies and present the in vivo neuroimaging findings together with the postmortem molecular and histopathological data...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Attila Kőrösi, Attila Csoma, Gábor Rétvári, Zalán Heszberger, József Bíró, János Tapolcai, István Pelle, Dávid Klajbár, Márton Novák, Valentina Halasi, András Gulyás
Humans are involved in various real-life networked systems. The most obvious examples are social and collaboration networks but the language and the related mental lexicon they use, or the physical map of their territory can also be interpreted as networks. How do they find paths between endpoints in these networks? How do they obtain information about a foreign networked world they find themselves in, how they build mental model for it and how well they succeed in using it? Large, open datasets allowing the exploration of such questions are hard to find...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Data
Hilary Richardson, Grace Lisandrelli, Alexa Riobueno-Naylor, Rebecca Saxe
Human adults recruit distinct networks of brain regions to think about the bodies and minds of others. This study characterizes the development of these networks, and tests for relationships between neural development and behavioral changes in reasoning about others' minds ('theory of mind', ToM). A large sample of children (n = 122, 3-12 years), and adults (n = 33), watched a short movie while undergoing fMRI. The movie highlights the characters' bodily sensations (often pain) and mental states (beliefs, desires, emotions), and is a feasible experiment for young children...
March 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Vittorio Iacovella, Luca Faes, Uri Hasson
Neuroimaging research has shown that different cognitive tasks induce relatively specific activation patterns, as well as less task-specific deactivation patterns. Here we examined whether individual differences in Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) activity during task performance correlate with the magnitude of task-induced deactivation. In an fMRI study, participants performed a continuous mental arithmetic task in a task/rest block design, while undergoing combined fMRI and heart / respiration rate acquisitions using photoplethysmograph and respiration belt...
March 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Ann R Peden
BACKGROUND: Dr. Hildegard Peplau, considered to be our first modern Nurse theorist and the Mother of Psychiatric Nursing, was a prolific writer, engaging in correspondence with colleagues and students who sought her professional and theoretical expertise. Through these letters, she influenced psychiatric nursing while maintaining a broad international network of professional colleagues. OBJECTIVES: An analysis of letters, written between 1990 and 1998, provides insights into Peplau's last decade of professional life and a model of how to support the next generation of nurse scholars...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
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