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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916790/neural-integration-in-body-perception
#1
Richard Ramsey
The perception of other people is instrumental in guiding social interactions. For example, the appearance of the human body cues a wide range of inferences regarding sex, age, health, and personality, as well as emotional state and intentions, which influence social behavior. To date, most neuroscience research on body perception has aimed to characterize the functional contribution of segregated patches of cortex in the ventral visual stream. In light of the growing prominence of network architectures in neuroscience, the current article reviews neuroimaging studies that measure functional integration between different brain regions during body perception...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914990/varieties-of-abstract-concepts-development-use-and-representation-in-the-brain
#2
Anna M Borghi, Laura Barca, Ferdinand Binkofski, Luca Tummolini
The capacity for abstract thought is one of the hallmarks of human cognition. However, the mechanisms underlying the ability to form and use abstract concepts like 'fantasy' and 'grace' have not been elucidated yet. This theme issue brings together developmental, social and cognitive psychologists, linguists, anthropologists, cognitive scientists, neuroscientists, philosophers and computer scientists to present theoretical insights and novel evidence on how abstract concepts are acquired, used and represented in the brain...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907531/the-microbiome-in-psychology-and-cognitive-neuroscience
#3
REVIEW
Amar Sarkar, Siobhán Harty, Soili M Lehto, Andrew H Moeller, Timothy G Dinan, Robin I M Dunbar, John F Cryan, Philip W J Burnet
Psychology and microbiology make unlikely friends, but the past decade has witnessed striking bidirectional associations between intrinsic gut microbes and the brain, relationships with largely untested psychological implications. Although microbe-brain relationships are receiving a great deal of attention in biomedicine and neuroscience, psychologists have yet to join this journey. Here, we illustrate microbial associations with emotion, cognition, and social behavior. However, despite considerable enthusiasm and potential, technical and conceptual limitations including low statistical power and lack of mechanistic descriptions prevent a nuanced understanding of microbiome-brain-behavior relationships...
June 8, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883547/the-time-course-of-neural-responses-to-social-versus-non-social-unfairness-in-the-ultimatum-game
#4
Mingliang Chen, Zhen Zhao, Hongxia Lai
The unfairness effects are always the hotspot within social psychology and cognitive neuroscience. However, people's neural responses to social versus non-social unfairness remain under-researched, especially about temporal features. We engaged participants in the Ultimatum Game to respond to human and computer proposers (representing social and non-social contexts respectively) and recorded their event-related potentials. The interactions elicited three components of interest: medial frontal negativity (MFN), late positive potential (LPP) and response related negativity (RRN)...
June 8, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859552/the-reciprocity-of-brain-and-behavior
#5
EDITORIAL
Joan L Luby
The rise of neuroscience in our field has raised legitimate questions about the relative value of brain versus behavioral data to inform our understanding of the etiology and treatment of childhood mental disorders. There is no doubt that data on brain function and structure have wielded unique power and influence in mental health research during the past two decades. This could be based in part on its inherent objective and quantitative features in a field that has searched for, and thus far has generally failed to find, clearly measurable markers of psychopathology for clinical use...
June 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803960/the-neuroscience-of-intergroup-emotion
#6
REVIEW
Marius C Vollberg, Mina Cikara
What happens to our emotions and in our brains when we experience the world through the lens of our group memberships rather than as individuals? Here we review recent advances in social and affective neuroscience that have identified potential input variables and processing mechanisms underlying one widely studied emotion in intergroup contexts: empathy. There is a well-documented in-group bias in empathy but the mental processes that generate it are poorly understood. Drawing from recent insights in memory research, we suggest that episodic simulation-the ability to imagine events-is an underexplored candidate process that is likely to be involved in shaping emotional experience in intergroup settings...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779740/the-influence-of-sensorimotor-experience-on-the-aesthetic-evaluation-of-dance-across-the-life-span
#7
Louise P Kirsch, Emily S Cross
Understanding how action perception, embodiment, and emotion interact is essential for advancing knowledge about how we perceive and interact with each other in a social world. One tool that has proved particularly useful in the past decade for exploring the relationship between perception, action, and affect is dance. Dance is, in its essence, a rich and multisensory art form that can be used to help answer not only basic questions about social cognition but also questions concerning how aging shapes the relationship between action perception, and the role played by affect, emotion, and aesthetics in social perception...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774002/on-the-drive-specificity-of-freudian-drives-for-the-generation-of-seeking-activities-the-importance-of-the-underestimated-imperative-motor-factor
#8
Michael Kirsch, Wolfgang Mertens
Doubters of Freud's theory of drives frequently mentioned that his approach is outdated and therefore cannot be useful for solving current problems in patients with mental disorders. At present, many scientists believe that affects rather than drives are of utmost importance for the emotional life and the theoretical framework of affective neuroscience, developed by Panksepp, strongly underpinned this view. Panksepp evaluated seven so-called command systems and the SEEKING system is therein of central importance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762862/stress-and-the-psyche-brain-immune-network-in-psychiatric-diseases-based-on-psychoneuroendocrineimmunology-a-concise-review
#9
REVIEW
Anna Giulia Bottaccioli, Francesco Bottaccioli, Andrea Minelli
In the last decades, psychoneuroendocrineimmunology research has made relevant contributions to the fields of neuroscience, psychobiology, epigenetics, molecular biology, and clinical research by studying the effect of stress on human health and highlighting the close interrelations between psyche, brain, and bodily systems. It is now well recognized that chronic stress can alter the physiological cross-talk between brain and biological systems, leading to long-lasting maladaptive effects (allostatic overload) on the nervous, immune, endocrine, and metabolic systems, which compromises stress resiliency and health...
May 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759944/testing-assumptions-on-prefrontal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-comparison-of-electrode-montages-using-multimodal-fmri
#10
Jana Wörsching, Frank Padberg, Stephan Goerigk, Irmgard Heinz, Christine Bauer, Christian Plewnia, Alkomiet Hasan, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Daniel Keeser
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been widely applied in cognitive neurosciences and advocated as a therapeutic intervention, e.g. in major depressive disorder. Although several targets and protocols have been suggested, comparative studies of tDCS parameters, particularly electrode montages and their cortical targets, are still lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated a priori hypotheses on specific effects of prefrontal-tDCS montages by using multimodal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in healthy participants...
May 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754412/affective-neuroscience-of-self-generated-thought
#11
REVIEW
Kieran C R Fox, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Caitlin Mills, Matthew L Dixon, Jelena Markovic, Evan Thompson, Kalina Christoff
Despite increasing scientific interest in self-generated thought-mental content largely independent of the immediate environment-there has yet to be any comprehensive synthesis of the subjective experience and neural correlates of affect in these forms of thinking. Here, we aim to develop an integrated affective neuroscience encompassing many forms of self-generated thought-normal and pathological, moderate and excessive, in waking and in sleep. In synthesizing existing literature on this topic, we reveal consistent findings pertaining to the prevalence, valence, and variability of emotion in self-generated thought, and highlight how these factors might interact with self-generated thought to influence general well-being...
May 12, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733956/patterns-of-thought-population-variation-in-the-associations-between-large-scale-network-organisation-and-self-reported-experiences-at-rest
#12
Hao-Ting Wang, Danilo Bzdok, Daniel Margulies, Cameron Craddock, Michael Milham, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
Contemporary cognitive neuroscience recognises unconstrained processing varies across individuals, describing variation in meaningful attributes, such as intelligence. It may also have links to patterns of on-going experience. This study examined whether dimensions of population variation in different modes of unconstrained processing can be described by the associations between patterns of neural activity and self-reports of experience during the same period. We selected 258 individuals from a publicly available data set who had measures of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, and self-reports of experience during the scan...
May 4, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733268/spiritual-well-being-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-study-from-iran
#13
Marzieh Hajiaghababaei, Hooshang Saberi, Parvin Rahnama, Ali Montazeri
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between spiritual well-being and health-related quality of life (QOL) among patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Brain and SCI Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. A sample of patients with SCI participated in the study and completed two questionnaires: the Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) in order to collect data on vitality, social functioning, mental health and role emotional and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) to measure religious and existential well-being...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725317/psychopathy-to-altruism-neurobiology-of-the-selfish-selfless-spectrum
#14
REVIEW
James W H Sonne, Don M Gash
The age-old philosophical, biological, and social debate over the basic nature of humans as being "universally selfish" or "universally good" continues today highlighting sharply divergent views of natural social order. Here we analyze advances in biology, genetics and neuroscience increasing our understanding of the evolution, features and neurocircuitry of the human brain underlying behavior in the selfish-selfless spectrum. First, we examine evolutionary pressures for selection of altruistic traits in species with protracted periods of dependence on parents and communities for subsistence and acquisition of learned behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696602/translational-shifts-in-preclinical-models-of-depression-implications-for-biomarkers-for-improved-treatments
#15
Chloe Slaney, Justyna K Hinchcliffe, Emma S J Robinson
Understanding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) remains one of the major challenges in neuroscience. The disease is heterogeneous in nature, and patients present with a varied symptom profile. Studies seeking to identify biomarkers for MDD diagnosis and treatment have not yet found any one candidate which achieves sufficient sensitivity and specificity. In this article, we consider whether neuropsychological impairments, specifically affective biases, could provide a behavioural biomarker...
April 26, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694845/interoceptive-inference-from-computational-neuroscience-to-clinic
#16
REVIEW
Andrew P Owens, Micah Allen, Sasha Ondobaka, Karl J Friston
The central and autonomic nervous systems can be defined by their anatomical, functional and neurochemical characteristics, but neither functions in isolation. For example, fundamental components of autonomically mediated homeostatic processes are afferent interoceptive signals reporting the internal state of the body and efferent signals acting on interoceptive feedback assimilated by the brain. Recent predictive coding (interoceptive inference) models formulate interoception in terms of embodied predictive processes that support emotion and selfhood...
July 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694315/is-intelligence-equivalent-to-executive-functions
#17
Alfredo Ardila
BACKGROUND: Since the mid 19th century, cognitive and behavioral neurosciences have attempted to find the neurological bases of intellectual abilities. During the early 20th century the psychometric concept of "intelligence" was coined; and toward the end of the 20th century the neuropsychological concept of "executive functions" was introduced. Controversies, however, remain about the unity or heterogeneity of so-called executive functions. METHODS: It is proposed that two major executive functions could be separated: metacognitive -or intelectual- and emotional/motivational...
May 2018: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690790/neuroscience-of-addiction-relevance-to-prevention-and-treatment
#18
Nora D Volkow, Maureen Boyle
Addiction, the most severe form of substance use disorder, is a chronic brain disorder molded by strong biosocial factors that has devastating consequences to individuals and to society. Our understanding of substance use disorder has advanced significantly over the last 3 decades in part due to major progress in genetics and neuroscience research and to the development of new technologies, including tools to interrogate molecular changes in specific neuronal populations in animal models of substance use disorder, as well as brain imaging devices to assess brain function and neurochemistry in humans...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673215/what-is-going-on-the-process-of-generating-questions-about-emotion-and-social-cognition-in-bipolar-disorder-and-schizophrenia-with-cartoon-situations-and-faces
#19
Bryan D Fantie, Mary H Kosmidis, Maria Giannakou, Sotiria Moza, Athanasios Karavatos, Vassilis P Bozikas
Regarding the notion of putative “best” practices in social neuroscience and science in general, we contend that following established procedures has advantages, but prescriptive uniformity in methodology can obscure flaws, bias thinking, stifle creativity, and restrict exploration. Generating hypotheses is at least as important as testing hypotheses. To illustrate this process, we describe the following exploratory study. Psychiatric patients have difficulties with social functioning that affect their quality of life adversely...
April 17, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670873/severe-urban-outdoor-air-pollution-and-children-s-structural-and-functional-brain-development-from-evidence-to-precautionary-strategic-action
#20
Amedeo D'Angiulli
According to the latest estimates, about 2 billion children around the world are exposed to severe urban outdoor air pollution. Transdisciplinary, multi-method findings from epidemiology, developmental neuroscience, psychology, and pediatrics, show detrimental outcomes associated with pre- and postnatal exposure are found at all ages. Affected brain-related functions include perceptual and sensory information processing, intellectual and cognitive development, memory and executive functions, emotion and self-regulation, and academic achievement...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
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