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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690790/neuroscience-of-addiction-relevance-to-prevention-and-treatment
#1
Nora D Volkow, Maureen Boyle
Addiction, the most severe form of substance use disorder, is a chronic brain disorder molded by strong biosocial factors that has devastating consequences to individuals and to society. Our understanding of substance use disorder has advanced significantly over the last 3 decades in part due to major progress in genetics and neuroscience research and to the development of new technologies, including tools to interrogate molecular changes in specific neuronal populations in animal models of substance use disorder, as well as brain imaging devices to assess brain function and neurochemistry in humans...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673215/what-is-going-on-the-process-of-generating-questions-about-emotion-and-social-cognition-in-bipolar-disorder-and-schizophrenia-with-cartoon-situations-and-faces
#2
Bryan D Fantie, Mary H Kosmidis, Maria Giannakou, Sotiria Moza, Athanasios Karavatos, Vassilis P Bozikas
Regarding the notion of putative “best” practices in social neuroscience and science in general, we contend that following established procedures has advantages, but prescriptive uniformity in methodology can obscure flaws, bias thinking, stifle creativity, and restrict exploration. Generating hypotheses is at least as important as testing hypotheses. To illustrate this process, we describe the following exploratory study. Psychiatric patients have difficulties with social functioning that affect their quality of life adversely...
April 17, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670873/severe-urban-outdoor-air-pollution-and-children-s-structural-and-functional-brain-development-from-evidence-to-precautionary-strategic-action
#3
Amedeo D'Angiulli
According to the latest estimates, about 2 billion children around the world are exposed to severe urban outdoor air pollution. Transdisciplinary, multi-method findings from epidemiology, developmental neuroscience, psychology, and pediatrics, show detrimental outcomes associated with pre- and postnatal exposure are found at all ages. Affected brain-related functions include perceptual and sensory information processing, intellectual and cognitive development, memory and executive functions, emotion and self-regulation, and academic achievement...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663656/immoral-behaviour-following-brain-damage-a-review
#4
Stefanie Roberts, Julie D Henry, Pascal Molenberghs
Despite the apparent sociability of human kind, immoral behaviour is ever present in society. The term 'immoral behaviour' represents a complex array of conduct, ranging from insensitivity to topics of conversation through to violent assault and murder. To better understand the neuroscience of immoral behaviour, this review investigates two clinical populations that commonly present with changes in moral behaviour - behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia and acquired brain injuries. Based on evidence from these groups, it is argued that rather than a single underlying cause, immoral behaviour can result from three distinct types of cognitive failure: (1) problems understanding others; (2) difficulties controlling behaviour; or (3) deficits in the capacity to make appropriate emotional contributions...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651240/cognitive-neuroscience-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-and-its-clinical-translation
#5
REVIEW
Katya Rubia
This review focuses on the cognitive neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and on recent clinically relevant applications such as fMRI-based diagnostic classification or neuromodulation therapies targeting fMRI deficits with neurofeedback (NF) or brain stimulation. Meta-analyses of fMRI studies of executive functions (EFs) show that ADHD patients have cognitive-domain dissociated complex multisystem impairments in several right and left hemispheric dorsal, ventral and medial fronto-cingulo-striato-thalamic and fronto-parieto-cerebellar networks that mediate cognitive control, attention, timing and working memory (WM)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625429/a-latent-variable-approach-to-differentiating-neural-mechanisms-of-irritability-and-anxiety-in-youth
#6
Katharina Kircanski, Lauren K White, Wan-Ling Tseng, Jillian Lee Wiggins, Heather R Frank, Stefanie Sequeira, Susan Zhang, Rany Abend, Kenneth E Towbin, Argyris Stringaris, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Melissa A Brotman
Importance: Comorbidity is ubiquitous in psychiatry, but it is unclear how to differentiate neural mechanisms of co-occurring symptoms. Pediatric irritability and anxiety symptoms are prevalent and frequently co-occur. Threat orienting is pertinent to both phenotypes and is an ideal context in which to examine their unique and common neural mechanisms. Objectives: To decompose the unique and shared variances of pediatric irritability and anxiety symptoms and to determine neural correlates of these differentiated phenotypes during threat orienting...
April 6, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615950/personality-influences-the-relationship-between-primary-emotions-and-religious-spiritual-well-being
#7
Michaela Hiebler-Ragger, Jürgen Fuchshuber, Heidrun Dröscher, Christian Vajda, Andreas Fink, Human F Unterrainer
The study of human emotions and personality provides valuable insights into the parameters of mental health and well-being. Affective neuroscience proposes that several levels of emotions - ranging from primary ones such as LUST or FEAR up to higher emotions such as spirituality - interact on a neural level. The present study aimed to further explore this theory. Furthermore, we hypothesized that personality - formed by bottom-up primary emotions and cortical top-down regulation - might act as a link between primary emotions and religious/spiritual well-being...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615882/multivariate-pattern-classification-of-facial-expressions-based-on-large-scale-functional-connectivity
#8
Yin Liang, Baolin Liu, Xianglin Li, Peiyuan Wang
It is an important question how human beings achieve efficient recognition of others' facial expressions in cognitive neuroscience, and it has been identified that specific cortical regions show preferential activation to facial expressions in previous studies. However, the potential contributions of the connectivity patterns in the processing of facial expressions remained unclear. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explored whether facial expressions could be decoded from the functional connectivity (FC) patterns using multivariate pattern analysis combined with machine learning algorithms (fcMVPA)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568270/unifying-theories-of-psychedelic-drug-effects
#9
REVIEW
Link R Swanson
How do psychedelic drugs produce their characteristic range of acute effects in perception, emotion, cognition, and sense of self? How do these effects relate to the clinical efficacy of psychedelic-assisted therapies? Efforts to understand psychedelic phenomena date back more than a century in Western science. In this article I review theories of psychedelic drug effects and highlight key concepts which have endured over the last 125 years of psychedelic science. First, I describe the subjective phenomenology of acute psychedelic effects using the best available data...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544898/a-better-approach-to-in-vivo-developmental-neurotoxicity-assessment-alignment-of-rodent-testing-with-effects-seen-in-children-after-neurotoxic-exposures
#10
Charles V Vorhees, Jenna N Sprowles, Samantha L Regan, Michael T Williams
High throughput screens for developmental neurotoxicity (DN) will facilitate evaluation of chemicals and can be used to prioritize those designated for follow-up. DN is evaluated under different guidelines. Those for drugs generally include peri- and postnatal studies and juvenile toxicity studies. For pesticides and commercial chemicals, when triggered, include developmental neurotoxicity studies (DNT) and extended one-generation reproductive toxicity studies. Raffaele et al. (2010) reviewed 69 pesticide DNT studies and found two of the four behavioral tests underperformed...
March 12, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544637/the-menstrual-cycle-influences-emotion-but-has-limited-effect-on-cognitive-function
#11
Inger Sundström-Poromaa
From a psychological perspective, the menstrual cycle has been a research topic for more than 50 years. The most recent menstrual cycle research has been driven by an increased interest in sex differences in neuroscience, and the urge to understand sex disparities in prevalence, clinical presentation, and treatment response in psychiatric or neurologic disorders. Indeed, the menstrual cycle is an excellent model of ovarian steroid influence on emotion, behavior, and cognition. This review summarizes the emotion-related and cognitive findings of methodologically sound menstrual cycle studies...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535617/yoga-therapy-and-polyvagal-theory-the-convergence-of-traditional-wisdom-and-contemporary-neuroscience-for-self-regulation-and-resilience
#12
Marlysa B Sullivan, Matt Erb, Laura Schmalzl, Steffany Moonaz, Jessica Noggle Taylor, Stephen W Porges
Yoga therapy is a newly emerging, self-regulating complementary and integrative healthcare (CIH) practice. It is growing in its professionalization, recognition and utilization with a demonstrated commitment to setting practice standards, educational and accreditation standards, and promoting research to support its efficacy for various populations and conditions. However, heterogeneity of practice, poor reporting standards, and lack of a broadly accepted understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms involved in yoga therapy limits the structuring of testable hypotheses and clinical applications...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532566/application-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-psychiatric-clinical-evaluation-controversies-and-avenues
#13
Sevdalina Kandilarova, Drozdstoy Stoyanov, Ivo D Popivanov, Stefan Kostianev
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we have attempted to replicate the findings of altered emotional processing in depressed patients compared with healthy controls by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging during passive viewing of positive, negative, and neutral pictures from the International Affective Pictures System. METHODS: Nineteen medicated depressed patients and 19 sex and age-matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during presentation of affective pictures in a block design...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512030/task-dependent-evaluative-processing-of-moral-and-emotional-content-during-comprehension-an-erp-study
#14
Angelika Kunkel, Ruth Filik, Ian Grant Mackenzie, Hartmut Leuthold
Recently, we showed that when participants passively read about moral transgressions (e.g., adultery), they implicitly engage in the evaluative (good-bad) categorization of incoming information, as indicated by a larger event-related brain potential (ERP) positivity to immoral than to moral scenarios (Leuthold, Kunkel, Mackenzie, & Filik in Social, Cognitive, and Affective Neuroscience, 10, 1021-1029, 2015). Behavioral and neuroimaging studies indicated that explicit moral tasks prioritize the semantic-cognitive analysis of incoming information but that implicit tasks, as used in Leuthold et al...
March 6, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508250/the-mechanism-of-cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical-neurocircuitry-in-response-inhibition-and-emotional-responding-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-with-comorbid-disruptive-behavior-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Yuncheng Zhu, Xixi Jiang, Weidong Ji
The neurocircuitries that constitute the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit provide a framework for bridging gaps between neuroscience and executive function in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it has been difficult to identify the mechanisms for regulating emotional problems from the understanding of ADHD comorbidity with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). Research based on "cool" and "hot" executive functional theory and the dual pathway models, which are thought of as applied response inhibition and delay aversion, respectively, within the neuropsychological view of ADHD, has shed light on emotional responding before and after decontextualized stimuli, while CSTC circuit-related domains have been suggested to explain the different emotional symptoms of ADHD with or without comorbid DBD...
March 5, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504685/imagining-with-the-body-in-analytical-psychology-movement-as-active-imagination-an-interdisciplinary-perspective-from-philosophy-and-neuroscience
#16
Ana Deligiannis
This article explores how the body and imagination operate as pathways of knowledge through the use of Movement as Active Imagination in clinical practice. This method activates the transcendent function, thus encouraging new therapeutic responses. A philosophical perspective (Spinoza, Nietzsche, Merleau-Ponty) and some concepts from neuroscience (embodied cognition, somatic markers, image schema, mirror neurons, neuronal plasticity) will accompany us throughout this work, illustrated with a clinical vignette...
April 2018: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501387/emotional-context-restores-cortical-prediction-error-responses-in-schizophrenia
#17
Bob O Vogel, Joanna Stasch, Henrik Walter, Andres H Neuhaus
The mismatch negativity (MMN) deficit in schizophrenia is a consistently replicated finding and is considered a potential biomarker. From the cognitive neuroscience perspective, MMN represents a cortical correlate of the prediction error, a fundamental computational operator that may be at the core of various cognitive and clinical deficits observed in schizophrenia. The impact of emotion on cognitive processes in schizophrenia is insufficiently understood, and its impact on basic operators of cortical computation is largely unknown...
February 28, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496613/neural-substrates-of-the-emotion-word-and-emotional-counting-stroop-tasks-in-healthy-and-clinical-populations-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-brain-imaging-studies
#18
Chunliang Feng, Benjamin Becker, Wenhao Huang, Xia Wu, Simon B Eickhoff, Taolin Chen
The emotional Stroop task (EST) is among the most influential paradigms used to probe attention-related or cognitive control-related emotional processing in healthy subjects and clinical populations. The neuropsychological mechanism underlying the emotional Stroop effect has attracted extensive and long-lasting attention in both cognitive and clinical psychology and neuroscience; however, a precise characterization of the neural substrates underlying the EST in healthy and clinical populations remains elusive...
February 26, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495377/embodied-cognition-and-the-direct-induction-of-affect-as-a-compliment-to-cognitive-behavioural-therapy
#19
Tania Pietrzak, Christina Lohr, Beverly Jahn, Gernot Hauke
We make the case for the possible integration of affect experience induced via embodiment techniques with CBT for the treatment of emotional disorders in clinical settings. Theoretically we propose a possible integration of cognitive behavioural theory, neuroscience, embodied cognition and important processes of client change outcomes such as the therapeutic alliance to enhance client outcomes. We draw from evidence of bidirectional effects between embodiment modes of bottom-up (sensory-motor simulations giving rise to important basis of knowledge) and top-down (abstract mental representations of knowledge) processes such as CBT in psychotherapy...
February 26, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481114/jaak-panksepp-1943-2017
#20
Howard Casey Cromwell
Presents an obituary for Jaak Panksepp, who died April 18, 2017. Panksepp reshaped the landscape of psychology by highlighting emotions and coincident feelings in basic and clinical research. Most of his career was spent convincing others that the key to understanding human mental illness was the understanding of primal emotional operating systems in conserved neural circuitry. His framework was carefully laid out in his book Affective Neuroscience: The Foundation of Human and Animal Emotions (1998). His controversial writings vigorously pushed for the acceptance of nonhuman animal feelings as primary states that link to motivated action and emotional expression...
February 2018: American Psychologist
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