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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324983/the-precuneus-may-encode-irrationality-in-human-gambling
#1
P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale
Humans often make irrational decisions, especially psychiatric patients who have dysfunctional cognitive and emotional circuitry. Understanding the neural basis of decision-making is therefore essential towards patient management, yet current studies suffer from several limitations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in humans have dominated decision-making neuroscience, but have poor temporal resolution and the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal is only a proxy for neural activity. On the other hand, lesion studies in humans used to infer functionality in decision-making lack characterization of neural activity altogether...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321194/mindfulness-and-emotion-regulation-insights-from-neurobiological-psychological-and-clinical-studies
#2
REVIEW
Simón Guendelman, Sebastián Medeiros, Hagen Rampes
There is increasing interest in the beneficial clinical effects of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Research has demonstrated their efficacy in a wide range of psychological conditions characterized by emotion dysregulation. Neuroimaging studies have evidenced functional and structural changes in a myriad of brain regions mainly involved in attention systems, emotion regulation, and self-referential processing. In this article we review studies on psychological and neurobiological correlates across different empirically derived models of research, including dispositional mindfulness, mindfulness induction, MBIs, and expert meditators in relation to emotion regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302564/tackling-maladaptive-memories-through-reconsolidation-from-neural-to-clinical-science
#3
James W B Elsey, Merel Kindt
Behavioral neuroscience has greatly informed how we understand the formation, persistence, and plasticity of memory. Research has demonstrated that memory reactivation can induce a labile period, during which previously consolidated memories are sensitive to change, and in need of restabilization. This process is known as reconsolidation. Such findings have advanced not only our basic understanding of memory processes, but also hint at the prospect of harnessing these insights for the development of a new generation of treatments for disorders of emotional memory...
March 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286321/synaptic-proteome-changes-in-the-hypothalamus-of-mother-rats
#4
Edina Brigitta Udvari, Katalin Völgyi, Péter Gulyássy, Diána Dimén, Viktor Kis, János Barna, Éva Rebeka Szabó, Gert Lubec, Gábor Juhász, Katalin Adrienna Kékesi, Árpád Dobolyi
To establish synaptic proteome changes associated with motherhood, we isolated synaptosome fractions from the hypothalamus of mother rats and non-maternal control females at the 11th postpartum day. Proteomic analysis by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometric protein identification established 26 significant proteins, 7 increasing and 19 decreasing protein levels in the dams. The altered proteins are mainly involved in energy homeostasis, protein folding, and metabolic processes suggesting the involvement of these cellular processes in maternal adaptations...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283392/addictions-neuroclinical-assessment-a-reverse-translational-approach
#5
REVIEW
Laura E Kwako, Reza Momenan, Erica N Grodin, Raye Z Litten, David Goldman
Incentive salience, negative emotionality, and executive function are functional domains that are etiologic in the initiation and progression of addictive disorders, having been implicated in humans with addictive disorders and in animal models of addictions. Measures of these three neuroscience-based functional domains can capture much of the effects of inheritance and early exposures that lead to trait vulnerability shared across different addictive disorders. For specific addictive disorders, these measures can be supplemented by agent specific measures such as those that access pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic variation attributable to agent-specific gatekeeper molecules including receptors and drug-metabolizing enzymes...
March 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274677/pediatric-irritability-a-systems-neuroscience-approach
#6
REVIEW
Ellen Leibenluft
Irritability, defined as an increased propensity to exhibit increased anger relative to one's peers, is a common clinical problem in youth. Irritability can be conceptualized as aberrant responses to frustration (where frustration is the emotional response to blocked goal attainment) and/or aberrant 'approach' responses to threat. Irritable youth show hyper-reactivity to threat mediated by dysfunction in amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, striatum, and association cortex...
March 5, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268456/emotion-classification-using-single-channel-scalp-eeg-recording
#7
Amir Jalilifard, Ednaldo Brigante Pizzolato, Md Kafiul Islam
Several studies have found evidence for corticolimbic Theta electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillation in the neural processing of visual stimuli perceived as fear or threatening scene. Recent studies showed that neural oscillations' patterns in Theta, Alpha, Beta and Gamma sub-bands play a main role in brain's emotional processing. The main goal of this study is to classify two different emotional states by means of EEG data recorded through a single-electrode EEG headset. Nineteen young subjects participated in an EEG experiment while watching a video clip that evoked three emotional states: neutral, relaxation and scary...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268331/toward-an-analysis-of-emotion-regulation-in-children-using-late-positive-potential
#8
Raja Majid Mehmood, Hyo Jong Lee
The ability of emotion regulation and emotional responses in children is a main component of emotional competence through the development process. We had employed electroencephalography (EEG) a well-known noninvasive method for recording of brain emotion signals in order to analyze the emotion regulations in children. The international affective picture system (IAPS) pictures dataset was used for selection of stimuli presentation. The stimulus presentation was commonly practiced to induce the emotional responses from human brain...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264981/reason-s-enemy-is-not-emotion-engagement-of-cognitive-control-networks-explains-biases-in-gain-loss-framing
#9
Rosa Li, David V Smith, John A Clithero, Vinod Venkatraman, R McKell Carter, Scott A Huettel
In the classic gain/loss framing effect, describing a gamble as a potential gain or loss biases people to make risk-averse or risk-seeking decisions, respectively. The canonical explanation for this effect is that frames differentially modulate emotional processes - which in turn leads to irrational choice behavior. Here, we evaluate the source of framing biases by integrating functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 143 human participants performing a gain/loss framing task with meta-analytic data from over 8000 neuroimaging studies...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263649/fostering-engagement-during-termination-applying-attachment-theory-and-research
#10
Cheri L Marmarosh
Therapists often struggle to determine the most important things to focus on during termination. Reviewing the treatment, identifying plans for the future, summarizing positive gains, and saying goodbye receive the most attention. Despite our best intentions, termination can end up becoming intellectualized. Attachment theory and recent developments in neuroscience offer us a road map for facilitating endings that address client's underlying relational needs, direct us to foster engagement, and help us facilitate new relational experience that can be transformative for clients...
March 2017: Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228081/the-neurobiology-and-psychiatric-perspective-of-vaginismus-linking-the-pharmacological-and-psycho-social-interventions
#11
Zuri Shahidii Kadir, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Najwa Baharuddin
Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition, it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227248/the-precuneus-may-encode-irrationality-in-human-gambling
#12
P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale, P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale, S Subramanian, M S D Kerr, M A Johnson, J T Gale, K Kahn, P Sacre, S V Sarma, J Gonzalez-Martinez
Humans often make irrational decisions, especially psychiatric patients who have dysfunctional cognitive and emotional circuitry. Understanding the neural basis of decision-making is therefore essential towards patient management, yet current studies suffer from several limitations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in humans have dominated decision-making neuroscience, but have poor temporal resolution and the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal is only a proxy for neural activity. On the other hand, lesion studies in humans used to infer functionality in decision-making lack characterization of neural activity altogether...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226629/emotion-classification-using-single-channel-scalp-eeg-recording
#13
Amir Jalilifard, Ednaldo Brigante Pizzolato, Md Kafiul Islam, Amir Jalilifard, Ednaldo Brigante Pizzolato, Md Kafiul Islam, Ednaldo Brigante Pizzolato, Amir Jalilifard, Md Kafiul Islam
Several studies have found evidence for corticolimbic Theta electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillation in the neural processing of visual stimuli perceived as fear or threatening scene. Recent studies showed that neural oscillations' patterns in Theta, Alpha, Beta and Gamma sub-bands play a main role in brain's emotional processing. The main goal of this study is to classify two different emotional states by means of EEG data recorded through a single-electrode EEG headset. Nineteen young subjects participated in an EEG experiment while watching a video clip that evoked three emotional states: neutral, relaxation and scary...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226492/toward-an-analysis-of-emotion-regulation-in-children-using-late-positive-potential
#14
Raja Majid Mehmood, Hyo Jong Lee, Raja Majid Mehmood, Hyo Jong Lee, Raja Majid Mehmood, Hyo Jong Lee
The ability of emotion regulation and emotional responses in children is a main component of emotional competence through the development process. We had employed electroencephalography (EEG) a well-known noninvasive method for recording of brain emotion signals in order to analyze the emotion regulations in children. The international affective picture system (IAPS) pictures dataset was used for selection of stimuli presentation. The stimulus presentation was commonly practiced to induce the emotional responses from human brain...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225843/-poverty-and-mental-disability-in-the-criminal-law-the-invisibles
#15
Ezequiel N Mercurio
In recent decades neuroscience research show the negative consequences of poverty in cognitive development. Environmental factors, such as material deprivation, exposure to stressful situations, violence, nutritional deprivation, environmental toxins may shape the developing brain. The changes of the structure and function of the brain since prenatal stages and their consequences can remain stable throughout the life cycle except early interventions are made. Research investigating have found significant link between child poverty and function and structural brain focusing on prefrontal cortex (i...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191317/intersect-between-self-esteem-and-emotion-regulation-in-narcissistic-personality-disorder-implications-for-alliance-building-and-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Elsa Ronningstam
Building an alliance with patients with pathological narcissism or narcissistic personality disorder, NPD, can be challenging and include avoidance, negative reactivity and disruptions. A main contributing factor can be the complex interaction between emotion and self-esteem regulation, which affects patients' ability to engage in a therapeutic alliance and treatment. Recent studies, especially in neuroscience have identified functional characteristic and compromises in self-esteem and emotion regulation related to NPD...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188890/the-hierarchical-basis-of-neurovisceral-integration
#17
REVIEW
Ryan Smith, Julian F Thayer, Sahib S Khalsa, Richard D Lane
The neurovisceral integration (NVI) model was originally proposed to account for observed relationships between peripheral physiology, cognitive performance, and emotional/physical health. This model has also garnered a considerable amount of empirical support, largely from studies examining cardiac vagal control. However, recent advances in functional neuroanatomy, and in computational neuroscience, have yet to be incorporated into the NVI model. Here we present an updated/expanded version of the NVI model that incorporates these advances...
February 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188857/sensitivity-to-carbon-dioxide-and-translational-studies-of-anxiety-disorders
#18
Marco Battaglia
Heightened concentrations of CO2 in inhaled air provoke temporary acidification of the brain, followed by compensatory hyperventilation and increased arousal/anxiety. These responses are likely to map a basic, latent general alarm/avoidance system that is largely shared across mammals, and are sources of individual differences. By showing paroxysmal respiratory and emotional responses to CO2 challenges, humans with panic and separation anxiety disorders lie at one extreme of the distribution for CO2 sensitivity...
February 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184204/neuroscience-of-childhood-poverty-evidence-of-impacts-and-mechanisms-as-vehicles-of-dialog-with-ethics
#19
Sebastián J Lipina, Kathinka Evers
Several studies have identified associations between poverty and development of self-regulation during childhood, which is broadly defined as those skills involved in cognitive, emotional, and stress self-regulation. These skills are influenced by different individual and contextual factors at multiple levels of analysis (i.e., individual, family, social, and cultural). Available evidence suggests that the influences of those biological, psychosocial, and sociocultural factors on emotional and cognitive development can vary according to the type, number, accumulation of risks, and co-occurrence of adverse circumstances that are related to poverty, the time in which these factors exert their influences, and the individual susceptibility to them...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169814/-scoping-review-on-the-concepts-of-touch-and-massage-and-their-effects-on-agitation-and-stress-in-aged-hospitalized-patients-suffering-from-dementia
#20
Corinne Schaub, Armin von Gunten, Diane Morin
This scoping review examines the effects of touch/massage on agitation and stress in aged hospitalized patients suffering from dementia. This intervention is multidimensional, at the edges of medical neurosciences, nursing sciences, and social sciences. This review is primarily supported by a biological model of social relations, describing the interconnection between cognition, affect, and endocrine aspects of attachment modes. It is also guided by nursing sciences conceptualizations which anchors touch/massage in the heart of nursing practice...
2016: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
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