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Neuroscience emotions

Giuseppe Riva, Rosa M Baños, Cristina Botella, Fabrizia Mantovani, Andrea Gaggioli
During life, many personal changes occur. These include changing house, school, work, and even friends and partners. However, the daily experience shows clearly that, in some situations, subjects are unable to change even if they want to. The recent advances in psychology and neuroscience are now providing a better view of personal change, the change affecting our assumptive world: (a) the focus of personal change is reducing the distance between self and reality (conflict); (b) this reduction is achieved through (1) an intense focus on the particular experience creating the conflict or (2) an internal or external reorganization of this experience; (c) personal change requires a progression through a series of different stages that however happen in discontinuous and non-linear ways; and (d) clinical psychology is often used to facilitate personal change when subjects are unable to move forward...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
P Fourneret, H Desombre
INTRODUCTION: For a decade, the concept of irritability has known a renewed interest in infant and child psychopathology. Indeed, longitudinal follow-up studies clearly highlighted their predictive value - in the short, medium and long terms - of a broad field of behavioral disorders and emotion dysregulation. This dimensional and transnosographic approach of irritability, coupled with the latest neuroscience data, points out that irritability could be the equivalent of a psychopathological marker, covering both a neurobiological, cognitive and emotional component...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
José M Causadias, Eva H Telzer, Richard M Lee
Objective: Culture and biology have evolved together, influence each other, and concurrently shape behavior, affect, cognition, and development. This special section highlights 2 major domains of the interplay between culture and biology. Method: The first domain is neurobiology of cultural experiences-how cultural, ethnic, and racial experiences influence limbic systems and neuroendocrine functioning-and the second domain is cultural neuroscience-the connections between cultural processes and brain functioning...
August 15, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Israel Liberzon, James L Abelson
Progress in clinical and affective neuroscience is redefining psychiatric illness as symptomatic expression of cellular/molecular dysfunctions in specific brain circuits. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been an exemplar of this progress, with improved understanding of neurobiological systems subserving fear learning, salience detection, and emotion regulation explaining much of its phenomenology and neurobiology. However, many features remain unexplained and a parsimonious model that more fully accounts for symptoms and the core neurobiology remains elusive...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Agustín Ibáñez, Adolfo M García, Sol Esteves, Adrián Yoris, Edinson Muñoz, Lucila Reynaldo, Marcos Luis Pietto, Federico Adolfi, Facundo Manes
Multiple disorders once jointly conceived as 'nervous diseases' became segregated by the distinct institutional traditions forged in neurology and psychiatry. As a result, each field specialized in the study and treatment of a subset of such conditions. Here we propose new avenues for interdisciplinary interaction through a triangulation of both fields with social neuroscience. To this end, we review evidence from five relevant domains (facial emotion recognition, empathy, theory of mind, moral cognition, social context assessment), highlighting their common disturbances across neurological and psychiatric conditions and discussing their multiple pathophysiological mechanisms...
October 6, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Matthias J Wieser, Vladimir Miskovic, Andreas Keil
Like many other primates, humans place a high premium on social information transmission and processing. One important aspect of this information concerns the emotional state of other individuals, conveyed by distinct visual cues such as facial expressions, overt actions, or by cues extracted from the situational context. A rich body of theoretical and empirical work has demonstrated that these socioemotional cues are processed by the human visual system in a prioritized fashion, in the service of optimizing social behavior...
October 4, 2016: Psychophysiology
Jaak Panksepp
During the past half century of research with preclinical animal models, affective neuroscience has helped identify and illuminate the functional neuroanatomies and neurochemistries of seven primary process, i.e., genetically provided emotional systems of mammalian brains. All are subcortically localized, allowing animal models to guide the needed behavioral and neuroscientific analyses at levels of detail that cannot be achieved through human research, including modern brain imaging. They consist of the following neuronal processes: SEEKING/Enthusiasm, RAGE/Anger, FEAR/Anxiety, sexual LUST/Passion, maternal CARE/Nurturance, separation-distress PANIC/Grief and PLAY/Social Joy...
October 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Larry S McGrath
Recent historiography has put to rest debates over whether to address the neurosciences. The question is how? In this article, I stage a dialogue between neurohistory and the history of the emotions. My primary goal is to survey these two clusters and clarify their conceptual commitments. Both center on the role of affect in embodied subjectivity; but their accounts widely diverge. Whereas neurohistorians tend to treat affects as automatic bodily processes, historians of the emotions generally emphasize that affects are meaningful and volitional activities...
September 19, 2016: History of Psychology
Jaak Panksepp, Richard D Lane, Mark Solms, Ryan Smith
The "affective" and "cognitive" neuroscience approaches to understanding emotion (AN and CN, respectively) represent potentially synergistic, but as yet unreconciled, theoretical perspectives, which may in part stem from the methods that these distinct perspectives routinely employ-one focusing on animal brain emotional systems (AN) and one on diverse human experimental approaches (CN). Here we present an exchange in which each approach (1) describes its own theoretical perspective, (2) offers a critique of the other perspective, and then (3) responds to each other's critique...
September 15, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
James Giordano
Here we have a case in which (1) the outcome(s) for the patient do not comport with the projected-or initially defined-outcomes of the research study, and (2) these outcomes represent cognitive and behavioral effects that are positively interpreted by the patient, but not by the patient's immediate family. The 6Cs approach, which frames the technique or technology-and its effects-within defined considerations of domains and dimensions, can be used as part of a multistep approach to addressing issues arising from the use of neurotechnology...
October 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Philip A Kragel, Annchen R Knodt, Ahmad R Hariri, Kevin S LaBar
Pattern classification of human brain activity provides unique insight into the neural underpinnings of diverse mental states. These multivariate tools have recently been used within the field of affective neuroscience to classify distributed patterns of brain activation evoked during emotion induction procedures. Here we assess whether neural models developed to discriminate among distinct emotion categories exhibit predictive validity in the absence of exteroceptive emotional stimulation. In two experiments, we show that spontaneous fluctuations in human resting-state brain activity can be decoded into categories of experience delineating unique emotional states that exhibit spatiotemporal coherence, covary with individual differences in mood and personality traits, and predict on-line, self-reported feelings...
September 2016: PLoS Biology
Anthony C Ruocco, Dean Carcone
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental disorder with a multifactorial etiology. The development and maintenance of BPD is sustained by diverse neurobiological factors that contribute to the disorder's complex clinical phenotype. These factors may be identified using a range of techniques to probe alterations in brain systems that underlie BPD. We systematically searched the scientific literature for empirical studies on the neurobiology of BPD, identifying 146 articles in three broad research areas: neuroendocrinology and biological specimens; structural neuroimaging; and functional neuroimaging...
September 2016: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Claudia Subic-Wrana, Leslie S Greenberg, Richard D Lane, Matthias Michal, Jörg Wiltink, Manfred E Beutel
OBJECTIVES: Affective change has been considered the hallmark of therapeutic change in psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic writers have begun to incorporate theoretically the advanced understanding of emotional processing and transformation of the affective neurosciences. We ask if this theoretical advancement is reflected in treatment techniques addressing the processing of emotion. METHODS: We review psychoanalytic models and treatment recommendations of maladaptive affect processing in the light of a neuroscientifically informed model of achieving psychotherapeutic change by activation and reconsolidation of emotional memory...
September 2016: Zeitschrift Für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie
Roman Rutka, Anne Denis, Laurent Vercueil, Pascal Hot
Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are paroxysmal attacks that can imitate epileptic seizures but do not have a neurological origin. There has been mounting interest these last few years to unravel psychological and neuronal factors that contribute to the development of PNES. The objective of this review is twofold. First, we examine recent contributions of clinical and researches studies to define the main features of PNES. Then, we focus on the possible link between changes in processing of emotional information and the onset of PNES...
2016: Santé Mentale Au Québec
Edelyn Verona
Researchers have long acknowledged heterogeneity among persons who exhibit antisocial and violent behaviours. The study of psychopathic personality or psychopathy can help elucidate this heterogeneity through examination of the different facets that constitute this disorder. In particular, the distinct correlates of the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor 1) and the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy suggest at least two possible pathways to antisocial behaviours. Building on basic studies in cognitive and affective neuroscience, we provide a focused, non-comprehensive review of work identifying the biopsychological mechanisms involved in these two pathways, with special attention to studies using event-related potential (ERP) methods...
2016: Santé Mentale Au Québec
Zohreh Ghotbeddin, Mahyar Janahmadi, Ali Yadollahpour
Epilepsy affects about 1-2 % of world population as a chronic neurological disease that is manifested by repeated and consecutive seizures (Grone and Baraban, Nat Neurosci 18(3):339-343, 2015). There is no definitive therapy for epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs cannot offer a permanent and definitive cure for epilepsy, and most epileptic patients become drug resistant (Sasa, J Pharmacol Sci 100(5):487-494, 2006). Surgery and removal of the epileptic focus is a substitute method for treating drug-resistant patients and epilepsy surgery of either side of the brain improves seizure control...
August 26, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Katherine Bain, Jade Richards
OBJECTIVE: This paper examines maternal knowledge regarding perinatal and infant mental health amongst mothers in Alexandra township, Johannesburg. The applicability and utility of these Western-derived concepts in a low socio-economic South African setting is examined. METHOD: A concurrent mixed methods approach was used. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on the responses of 255 mothers on a structured questionnaire, designed to elicit levels of knowledge about the relational needs and awareness of infants and the psychosocial needs of mothers, to determine trends in mothers' knowledge...
July 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Nicola Lattanzi, Dario Menicagli, Lorenzo Dal Maso
Globalization phenomena and Information Communication Technology (ICT) are producing deep changes worldwide. The economic environment and society where firms both cooperate and compete with each other are rapidly changing leading firms towards recognizing the role of intangible resources as a source of fresh competitive advantage. Experience, innovation and the ability to create new knowledge completely arise from the act of human resources inviting firms to focus on how to generate and shape knowledge. Therefore, the future of firms depends greatly on how managers are able to explore and exploit human resources...
April 1, 2016: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
Kelly M Shaffer, Eric Riklin, Jamie M Jacobs, Jonathan Rosand, Ana-Maria Vranceanu
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to examine the associations of patients' and their informal caregivers' psychosocial resiliency factors with their own and their partners' emotion domains (distress, anxiety, depression, and anger) after admission to the neuroscience intensive care unit (Neuro-ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-three dyads of patients (total n = 87) and their informal caregivers (total n = 99) participated in this observational, cross-sectional study by self-reporting demographics and measures of resiliency factors (mindfulness [Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale Revised], coping [Measure of Coping Status-A], intimate bond [Intimate Bond Measure], self-efficacy [patients: General Self-Efficacy Scale; caregivers: Revised Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale]) and emotion domains (Emotion Thermometers) within 2 weeks of Neuro-ICU admission...
July 16, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Pooja Pooja, Pranab Kumar
In past few decades, emotional intelligence (EI) has gained much popularity worldwide. Intelligence quotient alone is not enough in today's age for achieving success and hence for developing a person's ability, the fields of psychology and neurosciences have highlighted the importance of EI, which is a person's response toward feelings and emotions. In this study, relationship of various demographic variables with EI, as measured by Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form, has been highlighted...
March 2016: Annals of Neurosciences
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