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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790920/elucidating-the-role-of-the-maternal-embryonic-leucine-zipper-kinase-melk-in-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#1
Katja Kiseljak-Vassiliades, Yu Zhang, Adwitiya Kar, Raud Razzaghi, Mei Xu, Katherine Gowan, Christopher D Raeburn, Maria Albuja-Cruz, Kenneth L Jones, Hilary Somerset, Lauren Fishbein, Stephen Leong, Margaret E Wierman
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive cancer with a five-year survival less than 35%. Mortality remains high due to lack of targeted therapies. Using bioinformatic analyses, we identified Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase (MELK) as 4.1-fold overexpressed in ACC compared to normal adrenal samples. High MELK expression in human tumors correlated with shorter survival and with increased expression of genes involved in cell division and growth. We investigated the functional effects of MELK inhibition using newly developed ACC cell lines with variable MELK expression, CU-ACC1 and CU-ACC2, compared with H295R cells...
May 21, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785317/a-rare-case-of-penile-metastases-as-a-harbinger-of-primary-pulmonary-adenosquamous-carcinoma
#2
Partha Hota, Tejas N Patel, Xiaofeng Zhao, Carrie Schneider, Omar Agosto
Although lung cancer has a high propensity for distant metastatic disease, penile metastases from primary lung neoplasms are considered particularly rare. A 71-year-old male presented to our hospital with a rapidly enlarging hard palpable penile mass. MR imaging demonstrated two penile masses centered in the left and right corpus cavernosa. Subsequent CT imaging revealed a spiculated pulmonary mass in the right upper lobe with PET/CT, MRI, and surgical exploration, demonstrating evidence of metastases to the left adrenal gland, right subscapularis muscle, brain, and small bowel...
2018: Case Reports in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781039/sex-dependent-association-of-circulating-sex-steroids-and-pituitary-hormones-with-treatment-free-survival-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-patients
#3
Eric P Allain, Karin Venzl, Patrick Caron, Véronique Turcotte, David Simonyan, Michaela Gruber, Trang Le, Eric Lévesque, Chantal Guillemette, Katrina Vanura
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is not considered a hormone-regulated cancer although sex is a recognized risk factor with men more frequently diagnosed and developing progressive disease. We hypothesized that variable hormonal exposure may have a sexually dimorphic influence on treatment-free survival (TFS). In 156 CLL cases, we quantitatively profiled 29 circulating steroids (progesterone, adrenal precursors, androgens, estrogens, and catechol estrogens) as well as luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone...
May 21, 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772620/-development-of-ectopic-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-prostate-cancer-during-combined-androgen-blockade-therapy
#4
Yosuke Sekii, Mitsuhiro Yoshinaga, Masahiro Nakagawa, Hidefumi Kishikawa, Kazumasa Oka, Kenji Nishimura
A 74-year old man presented to us with difficulty urinating. The laboratory examinations revealed an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. A prostate biopsy revealed prostate adenocarcinoma. The computed tomography scan showed metastasis to lymph nodes in the pelvic cavity and both adrenal glands. Combined androgen blockade therapy was started, and PSA levels began to decrease gradually. However, 2 months later, he was hospitalized for treatment of cellulitis and was found to have hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hypokalemia...
April 2018: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762233/adrenal-histoplasmosis
#5
Vanessa Sanders, Joseph Donald, Barry A Siegel
An 89-year-old woman presented with seizure and hyponatremia. CT and MRI demonstrated mass-like enlargement of the adrenal glands and multiple pulmonary nodules. PET/CT performed to evaluate for metastatic disease demonstrated intense 18F-FDG uptake within enlarged adrenal glands. Given mild uptake in the pulmonary nodules, the differential diagnosis for the adrenal uptake included lymphoma, granulomatous infection, and less likely, metastatic lung cancer.
May 14, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761333/adrenal-incidentalomas-during-diagnostic-work-up-of-colorectal-cancer-patients-what-is-the-risk-of-metastases
#6
Joris van den Broek, Remy Geenen, Luc Heijnen, Carolien Kobus, Hermien Schreurs
BACKGROUND: Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are regularly discovered on staging computed tomography (CT) of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Although CRC is considered unlikely to metastasize to the adrenal gland, it is not known how often an AI appears to be a CRC metastasis. This causes a diagnostic dilemma for many patients with newly diagnosed CRC. This study aimed primarily to describe the incidence of AIs and adrenal metastases in CRC patients. METHODS: A single-center cohort of 475 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed CRC was defined...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755405/dual-paraneoplastic-endocrine-syndromes-heralding-onset-of-extrapulmonary-small-cell-carcinoma-a-case-report-and-narrative-review
#7
Jill B Feffer, Natalia M Branis, Jeanine B Albu
Objective: Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC) is rare and frequent metastases at presentation can complicate efforts to identify a site of origin. In particular, SCC comprises <1% of prostate cancers and has been implicated in castration resistance. Methods: Clinical, laboratory, imaging, and pathology data are presented. Results: A 56-year-old man with locally advanced prostate adenocarcinoma on androgen deprivation therapy presented with a clogged nephrostomy tube...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742084/first-line-use-of-novel-hormonal-agents-in-prostate-cancer-a-critical-appraisal
#8
Derek Raghavan
Castration has been the hallmark of the treatment of advanced prostate cancer for nearly a century. Conventional surgical or medical castration for the management of metastatic prostate cancer has been associated with an initial response rate greater than 60% to 70%, depending on the criteria employed. The median duration of the initial response is usually less than 3 to 5 years, however, depending on the extent of disease. The failure of disease to respond to castration has been associated with an increase in the production of adrenal androgens and/or the evolution of upregulated or mutated androgen receptors...
April 2018: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707605/scaling-up-to-study-brca2-the-zeppelin-zebrafish-mutant-reveals-a-role-for-brca2-in-embryonic-development-of-kidney-mesoderm
#9
Bridgette E Drummond, Rebecca A Wingert
Specialized renal epithelial cells known as podocytes are essential components of the filtering structures within the kidney that coordinate the process of removing waste from the bloodstream. Podocyte loss initiates many human kidney diseases as it triggers subsequent damage to the kidney, leading to progressive loss of function that culminates with end stage renal failure. Podocyte morphology, function and gene expression profiles are well conserved between zebrafish and humans, making the former a relevant model to study podocyte development and model kidney diseases...
2018: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705848/how-to-monitor-the-neuroimmune-biological-response-in-patients-affected-by-immune-alteration-related-systemic-diseases
#10
Paolo Lissoni, Franco Rovelli, Luigi Vigorè, Giusy Messina, Arianna Lissoni, Giorgio Porro, Giuseppe Di Fede
The clinical management of patients affected by systemic diseases, including cancer and autoimmune diseases, is generally founded on the evaluation of the only markers related to the single disease rather than the biological immuno-inflammatory response of patients, despite the fundamental role of cytokine network in the pathogenesis of cancer and autoimmunity is well known. Cancer progression has appeared to be associated with a progressive decline in the blood levels of the main antitumor cytokines, including IL-2 and IL-12, in association with an increase in those of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1-beta, and immunosuppressive cytokines, namely TGF-beta and IL-10...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695779/a-dual-role-for-glucocorticoid-induced-leucine-zipper-in-glucocorticoid-function-tumor-growth-promotion-or-suppression
#11
Emira Ayroldi, Lorenza Cannarile, Domenico V Delfino, Carlo Riccardi
Glucocorticoids (GCs), important therapeutic tools to treat inflammatory and immunosuppressive diseases, can also be used as part of cancer therapy. In oncology, GCs are used as anticancer drugs for lymphohematopoietic malignancies, while in solid neoplasms primarily to control the side effects of chemo/radiotherapy treatments. The molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of GCs are numerous and often overlapping, but not all have been elucidated. In normal, cancerous, and inflammatory tissues, the response to GCs differs based on the tissue type...
April 26, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693248/risk-for-virus-and-non-virus-related-malignancies-following-immunosuppression-in-a-cohort-of-liver-transplant-recipients-italy-1985-2014
#12
Martina Taborelli, Pierluca Piselli, Giuseppe Maria Ettorre, Augusto Lauro, Laura Galatioto, Umberto Baccarani, Maria Rendina, Sarah Shalaby, Raffaella Petrara, Francesco Nudo, Luca Toti, Daniele Sforza, Giovanni Fantola, Claudia Cimaglia, Alessandro Agresta, Giovanni Vennarecci, Antonio Daniele Pinna, Salvatore Gruttadauria, Andrea Risaliti, Alfredo Di Leo, Patrizia Burra, Massimo Rossi, Giuseppe Tisone, Fausto Zamboni, Diego Serraino
This cohort study assessed, in Italy, the overall pattern of risk for de novo malignancies following liver transplantation (LT). The study group included 2832 individuals who underwent LT between 1985 and 2014 in nine centres throughout all of Italy. Person-years (PYs) at cancer risk were computed from 30 days after LT to the date of cancer diagnosis, to the date of death, or to the end of follow-up. Excess cancer risk, as compared to the general population, was estimated using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692735/mequindox-induced-genotoxicity-and-carcinogenicity-in-mice
#13
Qianying Liu, Zhixin Lei, Qin Wu, Deyu Huang, Shuyu Xie, Xu Wang, Yuanhu Pan, Zonghui Yuan
Mequindox (MEQ), acting as an inhibitor of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, is a synthetic heterocyclic N -oxides. To investigate the potential carcinogenicity of MEQ, four groups of Kun-Ming (KM) mice (50 mice/sex/group) were fed with diets containing MEQ (0, 25, 55, and 110 mg/kg) for one and a half years. The result showed adverse effects on body weights, feed consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights, relative organ weights, and incidence of tumors during most of the study period. Treatment-related changes in hematology, serum chemistry, relative weights and histopathological examinations revealed that the hematological system, liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands, as well as the developmental and reproductive system, were the main targets after MEQ administration...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691317/cholesterol-signaling-in-single-cells-lessons-from-star-and-sm-fish
#14
REVIEW
Colin R Jefcoate, Jinwoo Lee
Cholesterol is an important regulator of cell signaling, both through direct impacts on cell membranes and through oxy-metabolites that activate specific receptors (steroids, hydroxy-cholesterols, bile acids). Cholesterol moves slowly through and between cell membranes with the assistance of specific binding proteins and transfer processes. The prototype cholesterol regulator is the Steroidogenesis Acute Regulatory (STAR), which moves cholesterol into mitochondria, where steroid synthesis is initiated by cytochrome P450 11A1 in multiple endocrine cell types...
May 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682773/mortality-data-from-the-european-adrenal-insufficiency-registry-patient-characterization-and-associations
#15
Marcus Quinkler, Bertil Ekman, Pinggao Zhang, Andrea M Isidori, Robert D Murray
OBJECTIVE: Mortality from primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI; PAI and SAI, respectively) is 2-3-fold higher than in the general population. Mortality relates to cardiovascular disease, acute adrenal crisis (AC), cancer and infections; however, there has been little further characterization of patients who have died. DESIGN/METHODS: We analysed real-world data from 2034 patients (801 PAI, 1233 SAI) in the European Adrenal Insufficiency Registry (EU-AIR; NCT01661387)...
April 22, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674118/germline-variant-in-hsd3b1-1245-a-c-and-response-to-abiraterone-acetate-plus-prednisone-in-men-with-new-onset-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#16
Andrew W Hahn, David M Gill, Roberto H Nussenzveig, Austin Poole, Jim Farnham, Lisa Cannon-Albright, Neeraj Agarwal
BACKGROUND: The HSD3B1 gene encodes the enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (3βHSD1), which catalyzes adrenal androgen precursors into dihydrotestosterone, the most potent androgen. Recently, the HSD3B1 (1245C) variant was shown to predict shorter duration of response to androgen deprivation therapy with medical or surgical castration in the setting of castration-sensitive prostate cancer (CSPC). The HSD3B1 (1245C) variant also predicts longer duration of response to ketoconazole in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)...
March 27, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668082/altered-stress-hormone-response-following-acute-exercise-during-prostate-cancer-treatment
#17
Erik D Hanson, Samy Sakkal, William S Evans, John A Violet, Claudio L Battaglini, Glenn K McConell, Alan Hayes
Exercise training reduces the side effects of cancer treatments, however, the stress hormone response to acute exercise during prostate cancer (PCa) treatment is unclear. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of acute exercise on circulating cortisol, epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations during PCa treatment with and without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). METHODS: Men with PCa (n=11), with PCa on ADT (n=11) and non-cancer controls (n=8) had blood samples for stress hormones collected before and immediately (0h), 2h, and 24h after 45 minutes of intermittent cycling at 60% of peak wattage...
April 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649281/classification-for-long-term-survival-in-oligometastatic-patients-treated-with-ablative-radiotherapy-a-multi-institutional-pooled-analysis
#18
Julian C Hong, Diandra N Ayala-Peacock, Jason Lee, A William Blackstock, Paul Okunieff, Max W Sung, Ralph R Weichselbaum, Johnny Kao, James J Urbanic, Michael T Milano, Steven J Chmura, Joseph K Salama
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is increasingly used to treat oligometastatic patients. We sought to identify prognostic criteria in oligometastatic patients undergoing definitive hypofractionated image-guided radiotherapy (HIGRT). METHODS: Exclusively extracranial oligometastatic patients treated with HIGRT were pooled. Characteristics including age, sex, primary tumor type, interval to metastatic diagnosis, number of treated metastases and organs, metastatic site, prior systemic therapy for primary tumor treatment, prior definitive metastasis-directed therapy, and systemic therapy for metastasis associated with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and treated metastasis control (TMC) were assessed by the Cox proportional hazards method...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609826/results-of-adrenalectomy-in-lung-cancer-metastases
#19
A Jalón-Monzón, D Castanedo-Álvarez, M A Hevia-Suárez, M Álvarez-Múgica, A Medina-González, S Escaf-Barmadah
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to report our centre's experience over the past 15 years with patients with lung carcinoma and adrenal metastases treated sequentially with lung resection and adrenalectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analysed a retrospective series of 19 patients who underwent adrenalectomy for lung carcinoma metastasis. All patients were operated on at the same centre, between October 2000 and October 2015. We performed a descriptive analysis and an overall survival and disease-free survival analysis...
March 30, 2018: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605047/biological-origins-of-sexual-orientation-and-gender-identity-impact-on-health
#20
REVIEW
Katherine A O'Hanlan, Jennifer C Gordon, Mackenzie W Sullivan
Gynecologic Oncologists are sometimes consulted to care for patients who present with diverse gender identities or sexual orientations. Clinicians can create more helpful relationships with their patients if they understand the etiologies of these diverse expressions of sexual humanity. Multidisciplinary evidence reveals that a sexually dimorphic spectrum of somatic and neurologic anatomy, traits and abilities, including sexual orientation and gender identity, are conferred together during the first half of pregnancy due to genetics, epigenetics and the diversity of timing and function of sex chromosomes, sex-determining protein secretion, gonadal hormone secretion, receptor levels, adrenal function, maternally ingested dietary hormones, fetal health, and many other factors...
April 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
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