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Adrenal cancer

Zachery R Reichert, Maha Hussain
The development of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) signals the terminal disease phase. The preceding hormone-dependent disease setting is effectively managed with androgen deprivation therapy. This foundation of treatment has a high rate of biochemical and clinical response and meaningful clinical benefit but is finite in duration as most cancers will progress to castration resistance. Historically, treatment for mCRPC entailed androgen receptor (AR) inhibitors (nilutamide, flutamide, bicalutamide), nonspecific steroidal biosynthesis inhibitors (ketoconazole, itraconazole), steroids (prednisone, diethylstilbesterol, dexamethasone), or palliative chemotherapy (mitoxantrone, estramustine), but none of these strategies impacted survival...
September 2016: Cancer Journal
Sankar N Maity, Mark A Titus, Revekka Gyftaki, Guanglin Wu, Jing-Fang Lu, S Ramachandran, Elsa M Li-Ning-Tapia, Christopher J Logothetis, John C Araujo, Eleni Efstathiou
Cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) is a validated treatment target for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Abiraterone acetate (AA) inhibits both 17α-hydroxylase (hydroxylase) and 17,20-lyase (lyase) reactions catalyzed by CYP17A1 and thus depletes androgen biosynthesis. However, coadministration of prednisone is required to suppress the mineralocorticoid excess and cortisol depletion that result from hydroxylase inhibition. VT-464, a nonsteroidal small molecule, selectively inhibits CYP17A1 lyase and therefore does not require prednisone supplementation...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Cristian M Suárez-Santana, Carolina Fernández-Maldonado, Josué Díaz-Delgado, Manuel Arbelo, Alejandro Suárez-Bonnet, Antonio Espinosa de Los Monteros, Nakita Câmara, Eva Sierra, Antonio Fernández
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm in humans, however this does not apply to other animal species. Living in an aquatic environment the respiratory system of cetaceans had to undergo unique adaptations in order to them to survive and cope with totally different respiratory pathogens and potentially carcinogens from those affecting humans. CASE PRESENTATION: This article discusses not only macroscopical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of a pulmonary carcinoma with disseminated metastases in a long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas), as well as the immunohistochemical analysis performed on various tissues of cetaceans belonging to the genus Globicephala...
October 11, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Paul H Sugarbaker
PURPOSE: Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare cancer that often presents in an advanced stage. Not only systemic metastases but also local recurrence and peritoneal metastases prevent long-term survival in these patients. METHODS: A profoundly symptomatic patient with extensive peritoneal metastases and local recurrence was treated using cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) with melphalan as the chemotherapy agent. RESULTS: Relative sparing of the small bowel within the abdomen and pelvis allowed a visible complete resection of all cancer...
September 27, 2016: Tumori
Mohamed Réda El Ochi, Mohammed Massine El Hammoumi, Abdelhamid Biyi, Mohamed Allaoui, El Hassane Kabiri, Abderrahman Albouzidi, Mohamed Oukabli
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary sarcomas are uncommon accounting for 0.5 % of all primary lung cancers. Undifferentiated sarcomas account for up to 20 % of soft tissue sarcomas. A lung tumor revealed to be an undifferentiated sarcoma with epithelioid features has never been reported in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old white Moroccan man presented with 2 months' history of hemoptysis and dyspnea. Chest computed tomography showed a cystic mass involving the lower field of his right lung evoking first a hydatid cyst...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Francisco Valenzuela-Sánchez, Blanca Valenzuela-Méndez, Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Ángel Estella-García, María Ángela González-García
Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) has a good biomarker profile: its half-life is several hours, and its plasma concentrations can be determined in clinical practice, it is essentially irrelevant, but proportionally represents the levels and activity of adrenomedullin (ADM). ADM synthesis is widely distributed in tissues, including bone, adrenal cortex, kidney, lung, blood vessels and heart. Its fundamental biological effects include vasodilator, positive inotropic, diuretic, natriuretic and bronchodilator...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Rafael H Abduch, Ana Carolina Bueno, Leticia F Leal, Marcelo M Cavalcanti, Débora C Gomes, Silvia R Brandalise, Maria J Masterallo, José A Yunes, Carlos E Martinelli, Luiz G Tone, Silvio Tucci, Carlos A F Molina, Fernando S Ramalho, Ayrton C Moreira, Izilda A Cardinalli, Carlos A Scrideli, Leandra N Z Ramalho, Margaret de Castro, Sonir R Antonini
BACKGROUND: Overexpression of the oncogene yes-associated-protein-1 (YAP1) is associated with increased cell proliferation in human cancers. YAP1 is a potential target of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, which plays an important role in adrenocortical tumors (ACT). The role of YAP1 in adrenocortical tumorigenesis has not been assessed. AIMS: To evaluate YAP1 expression in normal adrenals and pediatric ACT and its association with disease outcome. To investigate the interaction between YAP1 and the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in adrenocortical cells...
October 1, 2016: Oncotarget
Mutsushi Yamasaki, Yoshiyasu Sato, Takeo Nomura, Fuminori Sato, Shinya Uchino, Hiromitsu Mimata
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome with major components of medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and hyperparathyroidism. MEN2B is the most aggressive and rarest of the MEN2 variants. Pheochromocytoma in MEN2 is virtually always located in the adrenal medulla, but MEN2-associated extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas (paraganglioma) are rare. A 59-year-old man who has been diagnosed with MEN2B consulted our hospital for surgical treatment of a 10-mm left adrenal mass and a 30-mm retroperitoneal mass...
October 5, 2016: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
L Depypere, T Lerut, J Moons, W Coosemans, G Decker, H Van Veer, P De Leyn, P Nafteux
Recurrent disease after esophagectomy bears an infaust prognosis, especially when multiple recurrences are present. But little is known about survival in patients with limited recurrence (solitary locoregional recurrence or solid organ metastasis). Herein, we report our experience with these subgroups. We analyzed 1754 consecutive patients surgically treated with curative resection for esophageal cancer and cancer of the gastroesophageal junction between 1990 and 2012. Seven subgroups were defined according to the recurrence type (locoregional vs...
October 5, 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Michael Rutter
Translational research focuses on innovation in healthcare settings, but this is a two-way process that may have implications for either treatment or prevention. Smoking and lung cancer and the fetal alcohol syndrome are used as examples. Experimental medicine that budges basic and clinical science often constitutes a key way forward. Areas of scientific progress and challenge are discussed in relation to drug action, social cognition, cognitive neuroscience, molecular genetics, gene-environment interaction, and epigenetics...
October 3, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Wolfgang Saeger, Werner Mohren, Matthias Behrend, Peter Iglauer, Waldemar Wilczak
A tumor in the adrenal region with two metastases in the liver was classified as poorly differentiated sarcoma on the base of extensive immunostainings (expression of vimentin, desmin, myogenin, and CD31, no expression of inhibin, melan A). Four years later in a second examination with molecular methods for a study of adrenal sarcomas, this diagnosis must be revised due to the lack of MDM-2 gene amplification and FKHR translocation which exclude sarcoma. Further immunostainings of many other parts of the tumor showed in one area more mature tumor tissue expressing synaptophysin, SF-1, and melan A...
September 29, 2016: Endocrine Pathology
Amy A Lubik, Mannan Nouri, Sarah Truong, Mazyar Ghaffari, Hans H Adomat, Eva Corey, Michael E Cox, Na Li, Emma S Guns, Parvin Yenki, Steven Pham, Ralph Buttyan
Despite the substantial benefit of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa), patients often progress to castration-resistant disease (CRPC) that is more difficult to treat. CRPC is associated with renewed androgen receptor (AR) activity in tumor cells and restoration of tumor androgen levels through acquired intratumoral steroidogenesis (AIS). While prostate cancer (PCa) cells have been shown to have steroidogenic capability in vitro, we previously found that benign prostate stromal cells (PrSCs) can also synthesize testosterone (T) from an adrenal precursor, DHEA, when stimulated with a hedgehog (Hh) pathway agonist, SAG...
September 27, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Desmaré van Rooyen, Therina du Toit, Renate Louw-du Toit, Donita Africander, Pieter Swart, Amanda C Swart
16α-hydroxyprogesterone (16OHP4) is not well characterised in terms of metabolism and receptor interaction. We therefore investigated its metabolism by adrenal CYP11B and peripheral steroidogenic enzymes, SRD5A and AKR1C2. UHPLC-MS/MS analyses identified novel steroids: the biosynthesis of 4-pregnen-11β,16α-diol-3,20-dione catalysed by CYP11B2; the 5α-reduction of the latter and 16OHP4 catalysed by SRD5A yielding 5α-pregnan-11β,16α-diol-3,20-diovne and 5α-pregnan-16α-ol-3,20-dione (16OH-DHP4); and 16OH-DHP4 converted by AKR1C2 to 5α-pregnan-3α,16α-diol-20-one...
September 21, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Xin-Liang Gao, Ke-Wei Zhang, Ming-Bo Tang, Ke-Jian Zhang, Li-Nan Fang, Wei Liu
OBJECTIVES: This systematic review and pooled analysis investigated outcomes and prognostic factors in Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who underwent surgical treatment for an isolated adrenal metastasis and the primary NSCLC. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases was conducted for relevant retrospective studies in patients with NSCLC and isolated adrenal metastatic lesions treated with lobectomy or pneumonectomy and adrenalectomy...
September 23, 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Ugo Soffientini, Annette Graham
Effective cholesterol homoeostasis is essential in maintaining cellular function, and this is achieved by a network of lipid-responsive nuclear transcription factors, and enzymes, receptors and transporters subject to post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation, whereas loss of these elegant, tightly regulated homoeostatic responses is integral to disease pathologies. Recent data suggest that sterol-binding sensors, exchangers and transporters contribute to regulation of cellular cholesterol homoeostasis and that genetic overexpression or deletion, or mutations, in a number of these proteins are linked with diseases, including atherosclerosis, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, cancer, autosomal dominant hearing loss and male infertility...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Tarun Kumar Jain, Sampanna Jung Rayamajhi, Rajender Kumar Basher, Dheeraj Gupta, Venkata Nagarjuna Maturu, Bhagwant Rai Mittal
Lung cancer is one of the leading cancers all over the world. Positron emission tomography (PET) using 18F fluorodeoxyglucose (18F FDG) is useful for staging of the disease and decide the appropriate management. 3'-deoxy-3'-18 F-fluorothymidine (18F FLT) is a tracer being extensively evaluated currently and is said to represent tumor proliferation. Common sites of metastases from lung cancer include adrenal glands, bone, and brain. Muscle metastasis and cardiac metastasis are uncommon findings. We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung with metastases to multiple skeletal muscles and myocardium detected with both FDG and FLT PET/computed tomography (CT)...
September 2016: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
P Tomasini, M-E Garcia, L Greillier, C Paladino, F Sebag, F Barlesi
INTRODUCTION: Oligometastatic cancer prognosis is distinct from polymetastatic cancer prognosis and surgery can improve survival. The objective of this study was to assess the role of adrenalectomy and to look for prognostic or predictive factors for the treatment of patients with oligometastatic solid tumors and adrenal metastasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with oligometastatic solid tumors undergoing adrenalectomy were selected. Clinical data were retrieved from electronic patients records...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Visceral Surgery
Chiara Fiorentini, Martina Fragni, Paola Perego, Sara Vezzoli, Sara A Bonini, Monica Tortoreto, Diego Galli, Melanie Claps, Guido A Tiberio, Massimo Terzolo, Cristina Missale, Maurizio Memo, Giuseppe Procopio, Nadia Zaffaroni, Alfredo Berruti, Sandra Sigala
CONTEXT: Patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) frequently suffer from cortisol excess, which portends a negative prognosis. Rapid control of cortisol hypersecretion and tumor growth are the main goals of ACC therapy. Abiraterone acetate (AA) is a potent inhibitor of 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, a key enzyme of adrenal steroidogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic use of AA in preclinical models of ACC. DESIGN: AA antisecretive and antiproliferative effects were investigated in vitro using NCI-H295R and SW13 ACC cell lines and human primary ACC cell cultures, as well as in vivo using immunodeficient mice...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jacqueline E Reilly, Jeffrey D Neighbors, Raymond J Hohl
The isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway (IBP) plays a critical role in providing substrates and enzymes necessary for the post-translational modification and thus activation of a number of proteins involved in prostate cancer metastasis. Previous work by our lab found novel compound disodium [(6Z,11E,15E)-9-[bis(sodiooxy)phosphoryl]-17-hydroxy-2,6,12,16-tetramethyheptadeca-2,6,11,15-tetraen-9-yl]phosphonate (GGOHBP), which inhibits the IBP enzyme geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGDPS), reduced protein geranylgeranylation without altering protein farnesylation...
September 13, 2016: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Carlos Andrés Ossa, Gustavo Molina, Alicia María Cock-Rada
The Li-Fraumeni syndrome is characterized clinically by the appearance of tumors in multiple organs generally at an early age. This hereditary condition is caused by germinal mutations in the TP53 gene, which codifies for the tumoural suppressor gene p53. We present the case of a patient aged 31 with clinical and molecular diagnosis of Li-Fraumeni syndrome who presented two synchronous tumors: a leiomyosarcoma on the forearm and a phyllodes breast tumour. She had a family history of cancer, including a son diagnosed with a cortical adrenal carcinoma when he was three years old, who died at five from the disease...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
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