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Vancomycin pediatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652968/-therapeutic-monitoring-of-antimicrobial-agents-in-pediatrics-review-based-on-latin-american-experiences
#1
Brenda Zylbersztajn, Marlon Barraza, Juan P Torres, Jorge Morales
This review summarizes recommendations of therapeutic monitoring of three antimicrobials based in regional data: vancomycin, amikacin and voriconazole in pediatric population. Regional evidence agrees with international literature regarding the requirement of higher daily doses than 40 mg/kg/day of vancomycin, as well as with the possibility of use one daily doses of amikacin and to recommend higher doses of voriconazole compared to the initially recommended doses of 8 mg/kg/day. Local data on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic behavior of various antimicrobials in pediatrics are of great value for dosing adjustment in our pediatric population...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614568/-serotype-distribution-and-drug-resistance-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-haemophilus-influenzae-and-moraxella-catarrhalis-isolated-from-nasopharynx-of-uygur-children
#2
H L Tian, W Shi, H F Zhou, L Yuan, K H Yao, Dawuti Rexiati, A M Xu
Objective: To investigate the serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Streptococcus pneumoniae ( S. pneumoniae ), Haemophilus influenzae ( H. influenzae ) and Moraxella catarrhalis ( M. catarrhalis ) isolates collected from nasopharyngeal swabs from Uygur children in Kashi. Methods: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from inpatient Uygur children aged from 1 month to 5 years with respiratory infections from the pediatric department, the First People's Hospital of Kashi, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region...
April 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601458/epidemiology-and-clinical-relevance-of-toxic-shock-syndrome-in-us-children
#3
James T Gaensbauer, Meghan Birkholz, Michael A Smit, Roger Garcia, James K Todd
INTRODUCTION: It is important for clinicians to recognize the contribution of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) to the overall burden of pediatric septic shock because the clinical features, optimal therapy and prognosis differ from non-TSS septic shock. METHODS: We analyzed cases of pediatric septic shock reported to the Pediatric Health Information Systems (PHIS) database between 2009 and 2013 to define the clinical and demographic characteristics of pediatric TSS in the US...
March 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601446/analysis-of-treatment-outcomes-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infections-and-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-a-pediatric-hospital
#4
Aileen M Aldrich, Taylor Argo, Tracy J Koehler, Rosemary Olivero
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common nosocomial infections in the United States, with an increasing incidence in children. Approximately 20% of pediatric patients develop recurrent infections. It's imperative to further analyze the incidence of recurrent CDI in the pediatric population and determine the most effective treatments. The primary goal of this study is to characterize children with recurrent CDI at our institution, including both hospital-acquired (HA-CDI) and community-acquired (CA-CDI) cases, summarize the various treatments utilized, including fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), and compare their success rates...
March 29, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594082/vancomycin-induced-stevens-johnson-syndrome-in-a-boy-under-2-years-old-an-early-diagnosis-by-granulysin-rapid-test
#5
You-Cheng Lin, Ji-Nan Sheu, Wen-Hung Chung, Ren-You Pan, Chu-Ju Hung, Jen-Jung Cheng, Yu-Ping Hsiao
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a life-threatening disease, which is mainly ascribed to drugs, such as sulfonamides and psychoepileptics. In this article, we present a pediatric case of vancomycin-induced SJS and an alternative diagnostic algorithm. The patient presented with multiple target-like rashes and vesicles throughout the whole body after receiving vancomycin. Despite the fact that skin biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosing SJS, the granulysin rapid test by immunochromatographic assay is a non-invasive option for children...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590376/incidence-of-nephrotoxicity-among-pediatric-patients-receiving-vancomycin-with-either-piperacillin-tazobactam-or-cefepime-a-cohort-study
#6
Kathryn M Cook, Jessica Gillon, Alison G Grisso, Ritu Banerjee, Natalia Jimenez-Truque, Elizabeth J Phillips, Sara L Van Driest
Background: Recent studies in adults have found an incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients treated with a combination of vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) that is greater than that expected with either medication alone. The purpose of this study was to determine whether combination therapy with vancomycin and TZP is associated with an incidence of AKI in pediatric patients higher than that in those on combination therapy with vancomycin and cefepime. Methods: We performed a retrospective single-center matched-cohort study of pediatric patients who received vancomycin in combination with TZP or cefepime between January 2015 and June 2016...
March 26, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508362/staphylococcal-scalded-skin-syndrome-evaluation-diagnosis-and-management
#7
REVIEW
Alexander K C Leung, Benjamin Barankin, Kin Fon Leong
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcal-scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), also known as Ritter disease, is a potentially life-threatening disorder and a pediatric emergency. Early diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce the morbidity and mortality of this condition. The purpose of this article is to familiarize physicians with the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of SSSS. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key terms "Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome" and "Ritter disease"...
March 5, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461683/therapeutic-antibiotic-serum-concentrations-by-two-blood-collection-methods-within-the-pediatric-patient-a-comparative-effectiveness-trial
#8
Royanne L Lichliter, Lynea E Tremewan, Nicole M Shonka, Jennifer E Mehnert, Laney Brennan, Jodi M Thrasher, Teri L Hernandez
Repeated venipunctures and fingersticks to confirm serum drug concentrations cause pain and dissatisfaction for pediatric patients and their families. In many organizations, the standard of care to obtain therapeutic serum drug concentrations by peripheral venipuncture or capillary fingerstick, even when the patient has an existing peripheral intravenous catheter (PIV) or central venous catheter (CVC). The primary objective of this study was to assess agreement between serum tobramycin/vancomycin concentrations collected from a CVC or PIV, versus venipuncture or fingerstick...
February 20, 2018: Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing: JSPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461449/optimizing-vancomycin-monitoring-in-pediatric-patients
#9
Abdullah Alsultan, Manal Abouelkheir, Saeed Alqahtani, Ahmad Aljabri, Ali M Somily, Sarah Alsubaie, Abdulkarim Alrabiaah, Elham Bukhari, Fahad Alzamil
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have reported that trough levels may not be optimal for monitoring vancomycin therapy, because of overexposure and nephrotoxicity risks. Therefore, we developed a population pharmacokinetic model to optimize vancomycin dosing and monitoring in pediatrics. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected on 76 pediatric patients aged 1-12 years, admitted to general pediatric wards or ICUs at King Saud University Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia...
February 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446256/using-a-vancomycin-pbpk-model-in-special-populations-to-elucidate-case-based-clinical-pk-observations
#10
Chie Emoto, Trevor N Johnson, Brooks T McPhail, Alexander A Vinks, Tsuyoshi Fukuda
Simultaneous changes in several physiological factors may contribute to the large pharmacokinetic (PK) variability of vancomycin. This study was designed to systematically characterize the effects of multiple physiological factors to the altered PK of vancomycin observed in special populations. A vancomycin physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed as a PK simulation platform to quantitatively assess the effects of changes in physiologies to the PK profiles. The developed model predicted the concentration-time profiles in healthy adults and diseased patients...
February 15, 2018: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406465/randomized-multicenter-study-comparing-safety-and-efficacy-of-daptomycin-versus-standard-of-care-in-pediatric-patients-with-staphylococcal-bacteremia
#11
Antonio C Arrieta, John S Bradley, Myra W Popejoy, Mekki Bensaci, Anjana Grandhi, Paula Bokesch, Chad Glasser, Lihong Du, Nicholas A Kartsonis
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus, including community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus, is an important cause of pediatric bacteremia. Daptomycin is a well-established treatment option for gram-positive bacteremia in adults, but its safety and efficacy in children require confirmation. METHODS: This was a randomized (2:1), evaluator-blinded, multi-center, phase 4 clinical trial comparing intravenous daptomycin with standard-of-care (SOC) for treatment of S...
February 3, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403213/risk-factors-for-intestinal-colonization-with-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-a-prospective-study-in-a-level-iii-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#12
Rajesh Amberpet, Sujatha Sistla, Subhash Chandra Parija, Ramachandran Rameshkumar
PURPOSE: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens across the globe. Gut colonization rate with VRE is higher in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) due to the higher antibiotic pressure. VRE colonization increases the risk of developing infection up to 5-10 folds. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of VRE colonization among the patients admitted to pediatric ICU (PICU) and risk factors associated with it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rectal swabs were collected after 48 h of admission to PICU from 198 patients...
January 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394522/etiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-in-pediatrics-with-urinary-tract-infections
#13
Jun Wang, Lijiao He, Jintong Sha, Haobo Zhu, Liqu Huang, Xiaojiang Zhu, Juan Dong, Guogen Li, Zheng Ge, Rugang Lu, Geng Ma, Yaqi Shi, Yunfei Guo
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of most common pediatric infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of hospitalized children in our center. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of all UTIs from January 1, 2013 to November 31, 2016 in children discharged from Nanjing Children's Hospital. The isolated pathogens and their resistance patterns were examined from midstream urine culture...
February 2, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394210/achievement-of-therapeutic-vancomycin-exposure-with-continuous-infusion-in-critically-ill-children
#14
Mathieu Genuini, Mehdi Oualha, Naïm Bouazza, Florence Moulin, Jean-Marc Treluyer, Fabrice Lesage, Sylvain Renolleau, Sihem Benaboud
OBJECTIVE: Describe and assess a continuous infusion dosing scheme of vancomycin therapy in critically ill children. DESIGN: Retrospective single-center study, January to June 2015. SETTING: PICU located within a French tertiary academic pediatric hospital. PATIENTS: All children admitted in the PICU from January 2015 to June 2015, receiving continuous infusion of vancomycin therapy. INTERVENTIONS: None...
February 1, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344778/the-relationship-between-vancomycin-trough-concentrations-and-auc-mic-ratios-in-pediatric-patients-a-qualitative-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Stacey Tkachuk, Kyle Collins, Mary H H Ensom
BACKGROUND: In adults, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is associated with better clinical and bacteriological response to vancomycin in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus who achieve target AUC/MIC ≥ 400. This target is often extrapolated to pediatric patients despite the lack of similar evidence. The impracticalities of calculating the AUC in practice means vancomycin trough concentrations are used to predict the AUC/MIC...
April 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343421/frequency-of-small-colony-variants-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#16
Nuntra Suwantarat, Mayer Rubin, Latetia Bryan, Tsigereda Tekle, Michael P Boyle, Karen C Carroll, Mark T Jennings
BACKGROUND: Small-colony variants (SCVs) are a distinct phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus, known for their role in chronic, difficult to treat infections, including cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. The goal of this study was to characterize SCV MRSA infection in an adult and pediatric CF population and to identify antibiotic susceptibility patterns unique to SCV MRSA. METHODS: We recovered methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from respiratory culture samples from CF patients at the Johns Hopkins Hospital during a 6month study period...
December 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340851/comparison-of-antibiotic-dosing-recommendations-for-neonatal-sepsis-from-established-reference-sources
#17
T B Y Liem, E M A Slob, J U M Termote, T F W Wolfs, A C G Egberts, C M A Rademaker
Background Incorrect dosing is the most frequent prescribing error in neonatology, with antibiotics being the most frequently prescribed medicines. Computer physician order entry and clinical decision support systems can create consistency contributing to a reduction of medication errors. Although evidence-based dosing recommendations should be included in such systems, the evidence is not always available and subsequently, dosing recommendations mentioned in guidelines and textbooks are often based on expert opinion...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333818/community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-hospitalization-and-case-fatality-risk-in-10-pediatric-facilities-in-argentina
#18
Ángela Gentile, Julia Bakir, Gabriela Ensinck, Aldo Cancellara, Enrique V Casanueva, Verónica Firpo, Martín Caruso, María F Lución, Alejandro Santillán Iturres, Fabiana Molina, Héctor J Abate, Andrea Gajo Gane, Santiago López Papucci
INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are prevalent both in Argentina and worldwide, and they may have a severe clinical course. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the hospitalization rate and case fatality risk factors of CA-MRSA infection. METHODS: Cross-sectional, analytical study. All patients < 15 years old with community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) infections admitted to 10 pediatric facilities between January 2012 and December 2014 were included...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319843/prediction-of-vancomycin-dose-for-recommended-trough-concentrations-in-pediatric-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#19
Raid W Amin, Rodney P Guttmann, Quianna R Harris, Janesha W Thomas
Vancomycin is a key antibiotic used in the treatment of multiple conditions including infections associated with cystic fibrosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The present study sought to develop a model based on empirical evidence of optimal vancomycin dose as judged by clinical observations that could accelerate the achievement of desired trough level in children with cystic fibrosis. Transformations of dose and trough were used to arrive at regression models with excellent fit for dose based on weight or age for a target trough...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315987/compatibility-of-common-iv-drugs-with-6-hydroxyethyl-starch-130-0-42-and-4-gelatin
#20
Sebastian Heiderich, Anna Auf der Springe, Jonas Jürgens, Wolfgang Koppert, Andreas Leffler, Robert Sümpelmann, Nils Dennhardt
BACKGROUND: Acetate-containing colloid infusion solutions are recommended to recover normovolemia during pediatric anesthesia. Until now, no studies investigating the compatibility with common anesthetic drugs were available. AIMS: This in vitro study was conducted to reveal possible incompatibilities between common anesthetic drugs and the acetate-containing colloid infusion solutions 6% hydroxyethyl starch and 4% gelatin with normal saline as control. METHODS: The colloid infusion solutions were mixed 1:1 with 29 common intravenous drugs in concentrations used in daily clinical practice...
February 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
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