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Vancomycin pediatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042837/vancomycin-dosing-in-pediatric-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-potential-impacts-of-new-technologies
#1
Kevin P Lonabaugh, Kelly J Lunsford, Gary Y Fang, David A Kaufman, Samuel D Addison, Marcia L Buck
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the current study was to evaluate the doses of vancomycin used to obtain therapeutic drug concentrations in pediatric patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), using new ECMO technologies. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective study of patients treated with vancomycin while receiving ECMO using low-volume circuit technology. RESULTS: A total of 28 patients were included in the analysis of the primary endpoint...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020310/levofloxacin-prophylaxis-during-induction-therapy-for-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#2
Joshua Wolf, Li Tang, Patricia M Flynn, Ching-Hon Pui, Aditya H Gaur, Yilun Sun, Hiroto Inaba, Tracy Stewart, Randall T Hayden, Hana Hakim, Sima Jeha
Background: Infection is the most important cause of treatment-related morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Although routine in adults with leukemia, antibacterial prophylaxis is controversial in pediatrics because of insufficient evidence for its efficacy or antibiotic choice and concerns about promoting antibiotic resistance and Clostridium difficile infection. Methods: This was a single-center, observational cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed ALL, comparing prospectively collected infection-related outcomes in patients who received no prophylaxis, levofloxacin prophylaxis, or other prophylaxis during induction therapy on the total XVI study...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991343/endophthalmitis-following-pediatric-cataract-surgery-an-international-pediatric-ophthalmology-and-strabismus-council-global-perspective
#3
Almutez M Gharaibeh, Eedy Mezer, Luis H Ospina, Tamara Wygnanski-Jaffe
PURPOSE: To compile international data on the risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of endophthalmitis following pediatric cataract surgery. METHODS: An e-mail containing a link to an online survey was sent to all members of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. The questionnaire examined the incidence, risk factors, treatment, outcomes, and prophylaxis of endophthalmitis following pediatric cataract surgery around the world. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-seven ophthalmologists answered the questionnaire...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976336/cyclosporine-and-vancomycin-amikacin-induced-hot-kidney-appearance-in-a-young-adult-and-a-pediatric-patient
#4
Derya Çayır, Mine Araz, Mustafa Filik, Mehmet Erdoğan
The appearance of a hot kidney on bone scintigraphy is rare and can be seen due to various factors. In our clinic, we observed hot kidney appearance in two patients to whom technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) whole body scan has been performed: a young male adult at the age of 18 who was diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia with a presumptive diagnosis of avascular necrosis, and a 9-year-old girl with cystitis for a pre-diagnosis of osteomyelitis. The first patient had a history of cyclosporine usage and the second patient was being treated with amikacin + vancomycin...
October 3, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973124/association-of-acute-kidney-injury-with-concomitant-vancomycin-and-piperacillin-tazobactam-treatment-among-hospitalized-children
#5
Kevin J Downes, Carter Cowden, Benjamin L Laskin, Yuan-Shung Huang, Wu Gong, Matthew Bryan, Brian T Fisher, Stuart L Goldstein, Theoklis E Zaoutis
Importance: β-Lactam antibiotics are often coadministered with intravenous (IV) vancomycin hydrochloride for children with suspected serious infections. For adults, the combination of IV vancomycin plus piperacillin sodium/tazobactam sodium is associated with a higher risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) compared with vancomycin plus 1 other β-lactam antibiotic. However, few studies have evaluated the safety of this combination for children. Objective: To assess the risk of AKI in children during concomitant therapy with vancomycin and 1 antipseudomonal β-lactam antibiotic throughout the first week of hospitalization...
October 2, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971655/-reduction-of-antibiotic-consumption-in-rambam-health-care-campus-the-role-of-an-antibiotic-stewardship-program
#6
Roni Bitterman, Ayelet Raz-Pasteur, Zaher S Azzam, Amir Karban, Yishai Levy, Tony Hayek, Eyal Braun, Ilana Oren, Yaron Bar-Lavi, Imad Kassis, Khetam Hussein, Mical Paul
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASP) are designed to optimize antibiotic use in hospitals. Antibiotic consumption is one of the measures assessing the effects of ASPs. AIMS: To evaluate the effect of an ASP on antibiotic consumption in our hospital and compare it to hospitals in Israel and worldwide. METHODS: Between October 2012 and March 2013 an ASP was implemented in Rambam Hospital. The program included educational activities, publication of local guidelines for empirical antibiotic treatment, structured infectious diseases consultations, pre-authorization antibiotic restrictions and stop orders...
September 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903514/impact-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-on-antibiotic-use-at-a-nonfreestanding-children-s-hospital
#7
R Brigg Turner, Elena Valcarlos, Ann M Loeffler, Michael Gilbert, Dominic Chan
Background: Pediatric stewardship programs have been successful at reducing unnecessary antibiotic use. Data from nonfreestanding children's hospitals are currently limited. This study is an analysis of antibiotic use after implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program at a community nonfreestanding children's hospital. Methods: In April 2013, an antimicrobial stewardship program that consisted of physician-group engagement and pharmacist prospective auditing and feedback was initiated...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846665/assessment-of-initial-vancomycin-dosing-in-pediatric-oncology-patients
#8
Hillary Orr, Deni Trone, Joshua Elder, Ashok Raj
This was a retrospective audit assessing vancomycin dosing of 60 mg/kg/day in the attainment of therapeutic concentrations between 10-20 mcg/mL among 56 pediatric oncology patients. Twelve patients (21%) achieved therapeutic concentrations of 10-20 mcg/mL, while 44 patients (79%) obtained trough levels below 10 mcg/mL despite the addition of nephrotoxic agents.
August 28, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833385/empiric-vancomycin-dosing-in-pediatric-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease-and-the-impact-of-cardiopulmonary-bypass-on-trough-concentrations
#9
Christopher A Thomas, Amy Picone, Sharad Menon, Brigham C Willis
OBJECTIVES: To determine the optimal vancomycin dosing regimen to achieve empiric goal trough concentrations in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease and to examine the impact of cardiopulmonary bypass on vancomycin dosing requirements. METHODS: Patients younger than 18 years of age admitted to the pediatric cardiovascular intensive care unit (CVICU) at our institution from 10/1/2012 - 12/31/2014 who received at least one dose of vancomycin were retrospectively reviewed...
August 22, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828970/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-the-gram-positive-bacteria-isolated-from-children-with-bloodstream-infection-in-an-iranian-referral-hospital-a-6-year-study
#10
Setareh Mamishi, Babak Pourakbari, Shima Mahmoudi, Mina Moradzadeh, Masoumeh Mahzari, Mohammad TaghiHaghi Ashtiani, Parin Tanzifi
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSI) are considered as a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatricschildren. The aim of this study was to depict report the common Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) responsible for bloodstream infections in children and determine their antimicrobial resistance patterns in Children Medical Center Hospital (CMC), ) Hospital, Tehran, Iran. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted within a six-year period (March 2011 to September 2016) for pediatric patients with BSI...
August 21, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827495/the-north-wind-and-the-sun-pediatric-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-combining-restrictive-and-persuasive-approaches-in-hematology-oncology-ward-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-unit
#11
Yuho Horikoshi, Tetsuji Kaneko, Yoshihiko Morikawa, Mihoko Isogai, Junichi Suwa, Hiroshi Higuchi, Yuki Yuza, Takayo Shoji, Kenta Ito
OBJECTIVE: The Japanese government's goal for the reduction of antimicrobial consumption is two-thirds of the 2013 rate by 2020. While the antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) are essential in health care facilities, ASP data on pediatric hematology-oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients are limited. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of restrictive and persuasive ASP on immunocompromised children. DESIGN: The ASP for hematology-oncology and HSCT patients at Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center was assessed...
August 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777282/intrawound-vancomycin-powder-associated-with-reduced-surgical-site-infection-in-rib-based-distraction-surgery
#12
Justin M Haller, John A Heflin, David A Hulet, Qian Ding, Angela P Presson, John T Smith
BACKGROUND: Despite clinical reports of improved pulmonary function and reduced spinal deformity with rib-based distraction surgery in early-onset scoliosis (EOS) patients, infection remains a common complication, reported as high as 32% in some studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate intrawound vancomycin powder in pediatric patients managed with rib-based distraction for EOS. METHODS: This was a single institution retrospective cohort study of EOS patients treated with rib-based distraction...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776198/determining-the-optimal-vancomycin-daily-dose-for-pediatrics-a-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Geisa Cristina da Silva Alves, Samuel Dutra da Silva, Virginia Paula Frade, Danielle Rodrigues, André de Oliveira Baldoni, Whocely Victor de Castro, Cristina Sanches
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to check which initial dose of vancomycin is needed to achieve the therapeutic target that is currently used in pediatrics. METHODS: The search was conducted in the following data sources: Pubmed (1980-2017), the Cochrane Library, and Embase (1986-2017) and the references of the published studies; searches were performed using the key terms: child, children, pediatrics, infants and adolescents, vancomycin, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics...
August 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774865/shifts-in-antimicrobial-consumption-and-infection-rates-before-and-during-a-piperacillin-tazobactam-shortage
#14
S Travis King, Katie E Barber, Jason J Parham, Kayla R Stover
BACKGROUND: Anti-infective shortages represent a growing threat to the optimal management of the infected patient and alter the institutional selective pressure against hospital-acquired infections. The objective of this analysis was to assess the impact that a shortage of piperacillin-tazobactam had on the overall antibacterial use and HAI rates at an academic institution. METHODS: Antimicrobial use and infection data were extracted from TheraDoc Clinical Surveillance Software (Premier, Inc...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763427/safety-of-outpatient-parenteral-antimicrobial-therapy-in-children
#15
Priyanka Fernandes, Carly Milliren, Helen M Mahoney-West, Laura Schwartz, Catherine S Lachenauer, Mari M Nakamura
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) provides numerous benefits but may pose unique risks in children. We aimed to determine rates of OPAT antimicrobial- and intravenous-access-related complications and their associations with specific antimicrobials and type of intravenous access in pediatric patients. METHODS: Observational cohort study of patients receiving OPAT from 8/2008 to 5/2015 cared for by the Infectious Diseases service at a tertiary children's hospital...
July 31, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690689/vancomycin-use-dosing-and-serum-trough-concentrations-in-the-pediatric-population-a-retrospective-institutional-review
#16
Kevin Rajon, Regis Vaillancourt, Nisha Varughese, Gilda Villarreal
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin is used primarily for Gram-positive infections. Recommended dosage regimens and targeted therapeutic levels vary between institutions. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to describe therapeutic levels according to initial vancomycin doses and patient's age. A secondary objective was to evaluate appropriateness of vancomycin use in our hospital. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario...
April 2017: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689878/systematic-review-of-antimicrobial-lock-therapy-for-prevention-of-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-adult-and-pediatric-cancer-patients
#17
REVIEW
LeAnn B Norris, Farah Kablaoui, Maggie K Brilhart, P Brandon Bookstaver
BACKGROUND: Central venous catheter (CVC) use is commonplace in cancer patients. Antimicrobial lock therapy (ALT), the instillation of a concentrated antimicrobial solution into the catheter lumen, is one method for preventing infection among CVCs. This systematic review discusses the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic ALT in cancer patients with CVCs. METHODS: A literature search was performed using the Medline database and Google Scholar from inception until April 2016...
September 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668572/characteristics-of-pediatric-invasive-pneumococcal-diseases-and-the-pneumococcal-isolates-in-suzhou-china-before-introduction-of-pcv13
#18
Xiyan Zhang, Jianmei Tian, Wei Shan, Jian Xue, Yunzhen Tao, Qian Geng, Yunfang Ding, Genming Zhao, Tao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Data on characteristics of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) is limited in China. We aimed to understand the clinical features and explore the molecular characteristics of the pneumococcal isolates in China. METHODS: Since 2010, we prospectively collected the pneumococcal isolates and the IPD patients' demographic and clinical information in Suzhou University Affiliated Children's Hospital (SCH). The antibiotic susceptibility, serotypes, genotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were identified by E-test, quellung reaction and/or multiplex PCR, and multi-locus sequence typing, respectively...
June 28, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650363/population-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamic-target-attainment-of-vancomycin-in-neonates-on-extracorporeal-life-support
#19
Jeffrey J Cies, Wayne S Moore, Kristen Nichols, Chad A Knoderer, Dominick M Carella, Arun Chopra
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic target attainment of vancomycin in neonates with a contemporary ¼-inch extracorporeal life support circuit with a Quadrox-iD Pediatric oxygenator (Maquet Cardiovascular, LLC, Wayne, NJ). DESIGN: Retrospective medical record review. SETTING: Two free-standing tertiary/quaternary pediatric children's hospitals. PATIENTS: Neonates receiving either veno-arterial or veno-venous extracorporeal life support and vancomycin for empiric or definitive therapy with resulting serum concentrations...
June 22, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640009/augmented-renal-clearance-using-population-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-in-critically-ill-pediatric-patients
#20
Sean N Avedissian, Erin Bradley, Diana Zhang, John S Bradley, Lama H Nazer, Tri M Tran, Austin Nguyen, Jennifer Le
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate the prevalence of augmented renal clearance in critically ill pediatric patients using vancomycin clearance; 2) derive the pharmacokinetic model that best describes vancomycin clearance in critically ill pediatric patients; and 3) correlate vancomycin clearance with creatinine clearance estimated by modified Schwartz or Cockcroft-Gault. DESIGN: Retrospective, two-center, cohort study from 2003 to 2016...
September 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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