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Vancomycin pediatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446256/using-a-vancomycin-pbpk-model-in-special-populations-to-elucidate-case-based-clinical-pk-observations
#1
Chie Emoto, Trevor N Johnson, Brooks T McPhail, Alexander A Vinks, Tsuyoshi Fukuda
Simultaneous changes in several physiological factors may contribute to the large pharmacokinetic (PK) variability of vancomycin. This study was designed to systematically characterize the effects of multiple physiological factors to the altered PK of vancomycin observed in special populations. A vancomycin physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed as a PK simulation platform to quantitatively assess the effects of changes in physiologies to the PK profiles. The developed model predicted the concentration-time profiles in healthy adults and diseased patients...
February 15, 2018: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406465/randomized-multicenter-study-comparing-safety-and-efficacy-of-daptomycin-versus-standard-of-care-in-pediatric-patients-with-staphylococcal-bacteremia
#2
Antonio C Arrieta, John S Bradley, Myra W Popejoy, Mekki Bensaci, Anjana Grandhi, Paula Bokesch, Chad Glasser, Lihong Du, Nicholas A Kartsonis
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus, including community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus, is an important cause of pediatric bacteremia. Daptomycin is a well-established treatment option for gram-positive bacteremia in adults, but its safety and efficacy in children require confirmation. METHODS: This was a randomized (2:1), evaluator-blinded, multi-center, phase 4 clinical trial comparing intravenous daptomycin with standard-of-care (SOC) for treatment of S...
February 3, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403213/risk-factors-for-intestinal-colonization-with-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-a-prospective-study-in-a-level-iii-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#3
Rajesh Amberpet, Sujatha Sistla, Subhash Chandra Parija, Ramachandran Rameshkumar
PURPOSE: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens across the globe. Gut colonization rate with VRE is higher in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) due to the higher antibiotic pressure. VRE colonization increases the risk of developing infection up to 5-10 folds. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of VRE colonization among the patients admitted to pediatric ICU (PICU) and risk factors associated with it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rectal swabs were collected after 48 h of admission to PICU from 198 patients...
January 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394522/etiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-in-pediatrics-with-urinary-tract-infections
#4
Jun Wang, Lijiao He, Jintong Sha, Haobo Zhu, Liqu Huang, Xiaojiang Zhu, Juan Dong, Guogen Li, Zheng Ge, Rugang Lu, Geng Ma, Yaqi Shi, Yunfei Guo
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of most common pediatric infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of hospitalized children in our center. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of all UTIs from January 1, 2013 to November 31, 2016 in children discharged from Nanjing Children's Hospital. The isolated pathogens and their resistance patterns were examined from midstream urine culture...
February 2, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394210/achievement-of-therapeutic-vancomycin-exposure-with-continuous-infusion-in-critically-ill-children
#5
Mathieu Genuini, Mehdi Oualha, Naïm Bouazza, Florence Moulin, Jean-Marc Treluyer, Fabrice Lesage, Sylvain Renolleau, Sihem Benaboud
OBJECTIVE: Describe and assess a continuous infusion dosing scheme of vancomycin therapy in critically ill children. DESIGN: Retrospective single-center study, January to June 2015. SETTING: PICU located within a French tertiary academic pediatric hospital. PATIENTS: All children admitted in the PICU from January 2015 to June 2015, receiving continuous infusion of vancomycin therapy. INTERVENTIONS: None...
February 1, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344778/the-relationship-between-vancomycin-trough-concentrations-and-auc-mic-ratios-in-pediatric-patients-a-qualitative-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Stacey Tkachuk, Kyle Collins, Mary H H Ensom
BACKGROUND: In adults, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is associated with better clinical and bacteriological response to vancomycin in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus who achieve target AUC/MIC ≥ 400. This target is often extrapolated to pediatric patients despite the lack of similar evidence. The impracticalities of calculating the AUC in practice means vancomycin trough concentrations are used to predict the AUC/MIC...
January 17, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343421/frequency-of-small-colony-variants-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#7
Nuntra Suwantarat, Mayer Rubin, Latetia Bryan, Tsigereda Tekle, Michael P Boyle, Karen C Carroll, Mark T Jennings
BACKGROUND: Small-colony variants (SCVs) are a distinct phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus, known for their role in chronic, difficult to treat infections, including cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. The goal of this study was to characterize SCV MRSA infection in an adult and pediatric CF population and to identify antibiotic susceptibility patterns unique to SCV MRSA. METHODS: We recovered methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from respiratory culture samples from CF patients at the Johns Hopkins Hospital during a 6month study period...
December 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340851/comparison-of-antibiotic-dosing-recommendations-for-neonatal-sepsis-from-established-reference-sources
#8
T B Y Liem, E M A Slob, J U M Termote, T F W Wolfs, A C G Egberts, C M A Rademaker
Background Incorrect dosing is the most frequent prescribing error in neonatology, with antibiotics being the most frequently prescribed medicines. Computer physician order entry and clinical decision support systems can create consistency contributing to a reduction of medication errors. Although evidence-based dosing recommendations should be included in such systems, the evidence is not always available and subsequently, dosing recommendations mentioned in guidelines and textbooks are often based on expert opinion...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333818/community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-hospitalization-and-case-fatality-risk-in-10-pediatric-facilities-in-argentina
#9
Ángela Gentile, Julia Bakir, Gabriela Ensinck, Aldo Cancellara, Enrique V Casanueva, Verónica Firpo, Martín Caruso, María F Lución, Alejandro Santillán Iturres, Fabiana Molina, Héctor J Abate, Andrea Gajo Gane, Santiago López Papucci
INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are prevalent both in Argentina and worldwide, and they may have a severe clinical course. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the hospitalization rate and case fatality risk factors of CA-MRSA infection. METHODS: Cross-sectional, analytical study. All patients < 15 years old with community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) infections admitted to 10 pediatric facilities between January 2012 and December 2014 were included...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319843/prediction-of-vancomycin-dose-for-recommended-trough-concentrations-in-pediatric-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#10
Raid W Amin, Rodney P Guttmann, Quianna R Harris, Janesha W Thomas
Vancomycin is a key antibiotic used in the treatment of multiple conditions including infections associated with cystic fibrosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The present study sought to develop a model based on empirical evidence of optimal vancomycin dose as judged by clinical observations that could accelerate the achievement of desired trough level in children with cystic fibrosis. Transformations of dose and trough were used to arrive at regression models with excellent fit for dose based on weight or age for a target trough...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315987/compatibility-of-common-iv-drugs-with-6-hydroxyethyl-starch-130-0-42-and-4-gelatin
#11
Sebastian Heiderich, Anna Auf der Springe, Jonas Jürgens, Wolfgang Koppert, Andreas Leffler, Robert Sümpelmann, Nils Dennhardt
BACKGROUND: Acetate-containing colloid infusion solutions are recommended to recover normovolemia during pediatric anesthesia. Until now, no studies investigating the compatibility with common anesthetic drugs were available. AIMS: This in vitro study was conducted to reveal possible incompatibilities between common anesthetic drugs and the acetate-containing colloid infusion solutions 6% hydroxyethyl starch and 4% gelatin with normal saline as control. METHODS: The colloid infusion solutions were mixed 1:1 with 29 common intravenous drugs in concentrations used in daily clinical practice...
January 9, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315849/continuous-intravenous-vancomycin-in-children-with-normal-renal-function-hospitalized-in-hematology-oncology-prospective-validation-of-a-dosing-regimen-optimizing-steady-state-concentration
#12
Delphine Hoegy, Sylvain Goutelle, Nathalie Garnier, Cécile Rénard, Cécile Faure-Conter, Christophe Bergeron, Yves Bertrand, Nathalie Bleyzac
Continuous intravenous (IV) infusion has been shown to be the best option to administer vancomycin because of its time-dependent bactericidal activity. Available IV vancomycin dosing guidelines in pediatrics with normal renal function leads to less than 50% of patients achieving a vancomycin serum concentration (Css) in the target range (15 to 20 mg/l). The primary objective of this study was to prospectively validate an age-based dosing regimen in pediatric onco-hematology. The secondary objective was to investigate the influence on Css attainment of different variables...
January 6, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299893/response-of-vancomycin-according-to-steroid-dosage-in-pediatric-patients-with-culture-proven-bacterial-meningitis
#13
Shin Ae Lee, Jin Kyu Kim, Dae Sun Jo, Sun Jun Kim
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of combined vancomycin and steroid therapy for the treatment of culture-proven bacterial meningitis in pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified a total of 86 pediatric patients with culture-positive cerebrospinal fluid who were treated at our facility between 2005 and 2015. Ten of these patients (5 boys and 5 girls) received first-line treatment with vancomycin as the initial form of therapy. All cultured bacteria were sensitive to vancomycin...
December 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290740/vancomycin-dosing-and-monitoring-in-the-treatment-of-cystic-fibrosis-results-of-a-national-practice-survey
#14
Rebecca S Pettit, Stacy J Peters, Erin J McDade, Kaci Kreilein, Radha Patel, Kevin Epps, Frederick Kittell, Mariela A Duval, Jeffery T Zobell
OBJECTIVES: Vancomycin is commonly used in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) to treat acute pulmonary exacerbations, but few guidelines exist to help dose and monitor patients. The objective of this study was to assess vancomycin use and monitoring strategies at Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF)-accredited centers in hopes of developing and implementing vancomycin dosing and monitoring standards. METHODS: An anonymous national cross-sectional survey of pharmacists affiliated with CFF-accredited pediatric and/or adult centers was performed by using Surveymonkey...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290237/antibiotic-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-parameters-in-pediatric-clinical-practice
#15
R Cohen, E Grimprel
Progress in the knowledge of antibiotic mechanisms of action allows to determine the pharmacodynamics/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) parameters predictive of antibiotic efficacy in bacterial infections. According to the antibiotic compound, the bacterial species implicated, the location of the infection, and the severity of the disease, these parameters may vary. The PK/PD parameters described in this paper, focus only on blood compartments. These PK/PD parameters best predict efficacy in the most frequent infections (e...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290234/bacterial-meningitis-antibiotic-treatment
#16
R Cohen, J Raymond, L Hees, D Pinquier, E Grimprel, C Levy
The implementation of pneumococal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) 7 then 13 valent (Prevenar13®) in 2010-2011 has significantly changed the profile of pneumococcal meningitis. Since 3 years, the National Pediatric Meningitis Network of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Group (GPIP) and the National Reference Centre of Pneumococci have reported no cases of meningitis due to pneumococcus resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (3GC): cefotaxime or ceftriaxone. In the light of these new data, vancomycin should no longer be prescribed at the initial phase of pneumococcal meningitis treatment (confirmed or only suspected) and this antibiotic should only be added when 3GC minimum inhibitory concentration of the strain isolated is greater than 0...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280786/nephrotoxicity-with-vancomycin-in-the-pediatric-population-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Theresa M Fiorito, Megan K Luther, Penelope H Dennehy, Kerry L LaPlante, Kelly L Matson
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin is frequently used to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in pediatric patients. Vancomycin exposure may lead to an increase in frequency of nephrotoxicity. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review to describe predictors of nephrotoxicity associated with vancomycin, including documented trough concentrations ≥15mg/L. We also aimed to use a meta-analysis to assess the impact of a vancomycin trough ≥15 mg/L on nephrotoxicity. METHODS: A literature search was performed using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Sciences database...
December 26, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277142/carriage-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-among-pediatric-patients-before-and-during-their-hospitalization-in-a-tertiary-pediatric-unit-in-tunisia
#18
Miniar Tfifha, Asma Ferjani, Manel Mallouli, Nesrine Mlika, Saoussen Abroug, Jalel Boukadida
The pandemic spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria (i.e., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum b-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLPE), vancomycin-resistant enterococci, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii) pose a threat to healthcare Worldwide. We found limited data of MDR bacteria in pediatric patients hospitalized in Tunisian tertiary healthcare.The aim of the study is to evaluate the acquisition rate of MDR acquisition during hospitalization and to explore some of the associated risk factors for both carriage and acquisition at the pediatric department, Sahloul University Hospital...
December 2018: Libyan Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258474/full-title-peripheral-venous-catheter-complications-in-children-predisposing-factors-in-a-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Rim Ben Abdelaziz, Habiba Hafsi, Hela Hajji, Hela Boudabous, Amel Ben Chehida, Ali Mrabet, Khadija Boussetta, Sihem Barsaoui, Azza Sammoud, Mourad Hamzaoui, Hatem Azzouz, Néji Tebib
BACKGROUND: Peripheral venous catheterization (PVC) is frequently used in children. This procedure is not free from potential complications. Our purpose was to identify the types and incidences of PVC complications in children and their predisposing factors in a developing country. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational multicenter study in five pediatric and pediatric surgery departments over a period of 2 months. Two hundred fifteen PVC procedures were conducted in 98 children...
December 19, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229640/adverse-effects-of-intravenous-vancomycin-based-prophylaxis-during-therapy-for-pediatric-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#20
Yilun Sun, Rachael L Huskey, Li Tang, Hiroto Inaba, Aditya H Gaur, Raul Ribeiro, Jeffrey E Rubnitz, Joshua Wolf
Background Children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are at risk of life-threatening bacterial infection, especially with viridans group streptococci. Primary antibacterial prophylaxis with vancomycin-based regimens reduces this risk, but might increase risk of renal or liver toxicity, or Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).Methods A retrospective review was conducted of patients treated for newly diagnosed AML at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital from 2002 to 2008. Nephrotoxicity was classified according to pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End Stage Renal Disease (RIFLE) criteria, and hepatotoxicity according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events criteria...
December 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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