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Biomechanic locomotion

Hyunglae Lee, Elliott J Rouse, Hermano Igo Krebs
The human ankle joint plays a critical role during walking and understanding the biomechanical factors that govern ankle behavior and provides fundamental insight into normal and pathologically altered gait. Previous researchers have comprehensively studied ankle joint kinetics and kinematics during many biomechanical tasks, including locomotion; however, only recently have researchers been able to quantify how the mechanical impedance of the ankle varies during walking. The mechanical impedance describes the dynamic relationship between the joint position and the joint torque during perturbation, and is often represented in terms of stiffness, damping, and inertia...
2016: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
L V Randall, M J Green, M G G Chagunda, C Mason, L E Green, J N Huxley
The importance of lameness in primiparous dairy heifers is increasingly recognised. Although it is accepted that clinical lameness in any lactation increases the risk of future lameness, the impact of foot lesions during the first lactation on long-term lameness risk is less clear. This retrospective cohort study aimed to investigate the impacts of foot lesions occurring around the time of first calving in heifers on future lameness risk, daily milk yield and survival within a dairy herd. Records were obtained for 158 heifers from one UK dairy herd...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Frank E Fish
Re-invasion of the aquatic environment by terrestrial vertebrates resulted in the evolution of species expressing a suite of adaptations for high-performance swimming. Examination of swimming by secondarily aquatic vertebrates provides opportunities to understand potential selection pressures and mechanical constraints, which may have directed the evolution of these aquatic species. Mammals and birds realigned the body and limbs for cursorial movements and flight, respectively, from the primitive tetrapod configuration...
October 3, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Simona Ferrante, Noelia Chia Bejarano, Emilia Ambrosini, Antonio Nardone, Anna M Turcato, Marco Monticone, Giancarlo Ferrigno, Alessandra Pedrocchi
It has been largely suggested in neuroscience literature that to generate a vast variety of movements, the Central Nervous System (CNS) recruits a reduced set of coordinated patterns of muscle activities, defined as muscle synergies. Recent neurophysiological studies have recommended the analysis of muscle synergies to finely assess the patient's impairment, to design personalized interventions based on the specific nature of the impairment, and to evaluate the treatment outcomes. In this scope, the aim of this study was to design a personalized multi-channel functional electrical stimulation (FES) controller for gait training, integrating three novel aspects: (1) the FES strategy was based on healthy muscle synergies in order to mimic the neural solutions adopted by the CNS to generate locomotion; (2) the FES strategy was personalized according to an initial locomotion assessment of the patient and was designed to specifically activate the impaired biomechanical functions; (3) the FES strategy was mapped accurately on the altered gait kinematics providing a maximal synchronization between patient's volitional gait and stimulation patterns...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yingzhou Han, Yalu Cao, Jingjing Zhao, Yajiang Yin, Liangchen Ye, Xiaofeng Wang, Zheng You
Biomechanical energy harvesting is a feasible solution for powering wearable sensors by directly driving electronics or acting as wearable self-powered sensors. A wearable insole that not only can harvest energy from foot pressure during walking but also can serve as a self-powered human motion recognition sensor is reported. The insole is designed as a sandwich structure consisting of two wavy silica gel film separated by a flexible piezoelectric foil stave, which has higher performance compared with conventional piezoelectric harvesters with cantilever structure...
2016: Sensors
Timothy E Higham, Sean M Rogers, R Brian Langerhans, Heather A Jamniczky, George V Lauder, William J Stewart, Christopher H Martin, David N Reznick
Speciation is a multifaceted process that involves numerous aspects of the biological sciences and occurs for multiple reasons. Ecology plays a major role, including both abiotic and biotic factors. Whether populations experience similar or divergent ecological environments, they often adapt to local conditions through divergence in biomechanical traits. We investigate the role of biomechanics in speciation using fish predator-prey interactions, a primary driver of fitness for both predators and prey. We highlight specific groups of fishes, or specific species, that have been particularly valuable for understanding these dynamic interactions and offer the best opportunities for future studies that link genetic architecture to biomechanics and reproductive isolation (RI)...
September 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Luke Coburn, Hender Lopez, Benjamin J Caldwell, Elliott Moussa, Chloe Yap, Rashmi Priya, Adrian Noppe, Anthony P Roberts, Vladimir Lobaskin, Alpha S Yap, Zoltan Neufeld, Guillermo A Gomez
We generated a computational approach to analyze the biomechanics of epithelial cell aggregates, either island or stripes or entire monolayers, that combines both vertex and contact-inhibition-of-locomotion models to include both cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion. Examination of the distribution of cell protrusions (adhesion to the substrate) in the model predicted high order profiles of cell organization that agree with those previously seen experimentally. Cells acquired an asymmetric distribution of basal protrusions, traction forces and apical aspect ratios that decreased when moving from the edge to the island center...
September 7, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
E Brunt, A J Turko, G R Scott, P A Wright
Air and water differ dramatically in density and viscosity, posing different biomechanical challenges for animal locomotion. We asked how terrestrial acclimation influences locomotion in amphibious fish, specifically testing the hypothesis that terrestrial tail flip performance is improved by plastic changes in the skeletal muscle. Mangrove rivulus Kryptolebias marmoratus, which remain largely inactive out of water, were exposed to water or air for 14 days and a subgroup of air-exposed fish was also recovered in water...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Dario J Villarreal, David Quintero, Robert D Gregg
Bipedal locomotion is a popular area of study across multiple fields (e.g., biomechanics, neuroscience and robotics). Different hypotheses and models have tried explaining how humans achieve stable locomotion. Perturbations that produce shifts in the nominal periodic orbit of the joint kinematics during locomotion could inform about the manner in which the human neuromechanics represent the phase of gait. Ideally, this type of perturbation would modify the progression of the human subject through the gait cycle without deviating from the nominal kinematic orbits of the leg joints...
2016: IEEE Access: Practical Innovations, Open Solutions
Diego Torricelli, Jose Gonzalez, Maarten Weckx, René Jiménez-Fabián, Bram Vanderborght, Massimo Sartori, Strahinja Dosen, Dario Farina, Dirk Lefeber, Jose L Pons
This review paper provides a synthetic yet critical overview of the key biomechanical principles of human bipedal walking and their current implementation in robotic platforms. We describe the functional role of human joints, addressing in particular the relevance of the compliant properties of the different degrees of freedom throughout the gait cycle. We focused on three basic functional units involved in locomotion, i.e. the ankle-foot complex, the knee, and the hip-pelvis complex, and their relevance to whole-body performance...
2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Gary Gillis, Timothy E Higham
Autotomy has evolved in many animal lineages as a means of predator escape, and involves the voluntary shedding of body parts. In vertebrates, caudal autotomy (or tail shedding) is the most common form, and it is particularly widespread in lizards. Here, we develop a framework for thinking about how tail loss can have fitness consequences, particularly through its impacts on locomotion. Caudal autotomy is fundamentally an alteration of morphology that affects an animal's mass and mass distribution. These morphological changes affect balance and stability, along with the performance of a range of locomotor activities, from running and climbing to jumping and swimming...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Kai Gui, Dingguo Zhang
This paper investigates the relationship of biomechanical subtasks, and muscle synergies with various locomotion speeds. Ground reaction force (GRF) of eight healthy subjects is measured synchronously by force plates of treadmill at five different speeds ranging from 0.5m/s to 1.5m/s. Four basic biomechanical subtasks, body support, propulsion, swing, and heel strike preparation, are identified according to GRF. Meanwhile, electromyography (EMG) data, used to extract muscle synergies, are collected from lower limb muscles...
October 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Gianluca Vernillo, Marlène Giandolini, W Brent Edwards, Jean-Benoît Morin, Pierre Samozino, Nicolas Horvais, Guillaume Y Millet
Most running studies have considered level running (LR), yet the regulation of locomotor behaviour during uphill (UR) and downhill (DR) running is fundamental to increase our understanding of human locomotion. The purpose of this article was to review the existing literature regarding biomechanical, neuromuscular and physiological adaptations during graded running. Relative to LR, UR is characterized by a higher step frequency, increased internal mechanical work, shorter swing/aerial phase duration, and greater duty factor, while DR is characterized by increased aerial time, reduced step frequency and decreased duty factor...
August 9, 2016: Sports Medicine
Olga Panagiotopoulou, Jeffery W Rankin, Stephen M Gatesy, John R Hutchinson
Horse racing is a multi-billion-dollar industry that has raised welfare concerns due to injured and euthanized animals. Whilst the cause of musculoskeletal injuries that lead to horse morbidity and mortality is multifactorial, pre-existing pathologies, increased speeds and substrate of the racecourse are likely contributors to foot disease. Horse hooves have the ability to naturally deform during locomotion and dissipate locomotor stresses, yet farriery approaches are utilised to increase performance and protect hooves from wear...
2016: PeerJ
Kari A Verner, Michael Lehner, Luis P Lamas, Russell P Main
Understanding of the diversity of skeletal loading regimes in vertebrate long bones during locomotion has been significantly enhanced by the application of planar strain theory (PST) to in vivo bone strain data. PST is used to model the distribution of longitudinal strains normal to the bone's transverse cross-section and the location of the neutral axis of bending. To our knowledge, the application of this theory to skeletal biomechanics has not been experimentally validated. We evaluated the accuracy of PST using strain measurements from emu tibiotarsi instrumented with four strain gauges and loaded in ex vivo four-point bending...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
T Alexander Dececchi, Hans C E Larsson, Michael B Habib
BACKGROUND: Powered flight is implicated as a major driver for the success of birds. Here we examine the effectiveness of three hypothesized pathways for the evolution of the flight stroke, the forelimb motion that powers aerial locomotion, in a terrestrial setting across a range of stem and basal avians: flap running, Wing Assisted Incline Running (WAIR), and wing-assisted leaping. METHODS: Using biomechanical mathematical models based on known aerodynamic principals and in vivo experiments and ground truthed using extant avians we seek to test if an incipient flight stroke may have contributed sufficient force to permit flap running, WAIR, or leaping takeoff along the phylogenetic lineage from Coelurosauria to birds...
2016: PeerJ
W T Lo, D P Wong, K L Yick, S P Ng, J Yip
BACKGROUND: Turning during locomotion involves considerable changes of the body's center of mass and reduced stability, as well as lower limb kinematics and kinetics. However, many previous studies have been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness and applications of orthotic insoles as well as different types of orthotic materials in various clinical symptoms, which are focused primarily on straight line walking. Hence, the influence of custom-made insoles with the use of advanced three-dimensional spacer fabrics on biomechanics parameters in terms of plantar pressure distribution and lower limb electromyography during turning movement was studied...
2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
Arito Yozu, Shigeru Obayashi, Katsumi Nakajima, Yukihiro Hara
To understand cortical mechanisms related to truncal posture control during human locomotion, we investigated hemodynamic responses in the supplementary motor area (SMA) with quadrupedal and bipedal gaits using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in 10 healthy adults. The subjects performed three locomotor tasks where the degree of postural instability varied biomechanically, namely, hand-knee quadrupedal crawling (HKQuad task), upright quadrupedalism using bilateral Lofstrand crutches (UpQuad task), and typical upright bipedalism (UpBi task), on a treadmill...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Kevin G Hatala, Neil T Roach, Kelly R Ostrofsky, Roshna E Wunderlich, Heather L Dingwall, Brian A Villmoare, David J Green, John W K Harris, David R Braun, Brian G Richmond
Bipedalism is a defining feature of the human lineage. Despite evidence that walking on two feet dates back 6-7 Ma, reconstructing hominin gait evolution is complicated by a sparse fossil record and challenges in inferring biomechanical patterns from isolated and fragmentary bones. Similarly, patterns of social behavior that distinguish modern humans from other living primates likely played significant roles in our evolution, but it is exceedingly difficult to understand the social behaviors of fossil hominins directly from fossil data...
2016: Scientific Reports
Noriyuki Kanzaki, Yuta Otsuka, Takayuki Izumo, Hiroshi Shibata, Hideyuki Nagao, Keita Ogawara, Hiroshi Yamada, Seiji Miyazaki, Yutaka Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Previously, we demonstrated that glucosamine-containing supplementation was effective for improving locomotor functions, especially walking speed. However, the biomechanical mechanism of efficacy has not been elucidated. This study aimed to address this challenge in subjects with knee pain, using a motion capture system. METHODS: An open label study was conducted in 30 Japanese subjects with knee pain. The subjects were administered a daily supplement containing 1,200 mg of glucosamine hydrochloride, 60 mg of chondroitin sulfate, 45 mg of type II collagen peptides, 90 mg of quercetin glycosides, 10 mg of imidazole peptides, 1 mg of proteoglycan, and 5 μg of vitamin D (GCQID)...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
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