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Biomechanic locomotion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142272/individuals-of-the-common-namib-day-gecko-vary-in-how-adaptive-simplification-alters-sprint-biomechanics
#1
Clint E Collins, Timothy E Higham
Locomotion inextricably links biomechanics to ecology as animals maneuver through mechanically challenging environments. Faster individuals are more likely to escape predators, surviving to produce more offspring. Fast sprint speed evolved several times in lizards, including geckos. However, the underlying mechanisms determining performance await discovery in many clades. Novel morphological structures influence these mechanisms by adding complexity to the government of locomotion. Gecko adhesion coevolves with modified muscles, tendons, and reflexes...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121424/numerical-time-domain-modelling-of-hoof-ground-interaction-during-the-stance-phase
#2
R Behnke
BACKGROUND: Hoof-ground interaction impacts on the health and performance characteristics of horses. Due to complex interactions between hoof and ground during the stance phase, previous experimentally dominated studies concentrated on subproblems of the phenomena observed. A multidisciplinary methodology with mathematical modelling, material testing and in-vivo experimental measurements seems promising. OBJECTIVES: With the help of a mathematical approach, this contribution aims to explain from a biomechanical point of view the phenomena observed during experimental investigations (hoof acceleration, interacting forces) and aims to contribute to an overall experimental-mathematical multidisciplinary approach...
November 9, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117761/full-driving-soft-robotic-colonoscope-in-compliant-colon-tissue
#3
Kundong Wang, Jiayi Ma, Feng Wang, Zhiwu Wang, Guozheng Yan, Yilu Zhou
Robotic colonoscopy is an efficient examination method for finding malignant tumour in its early stage. This research developed a novel robotic endoscope with 13 mm diameter, 105 mm length and 22.3 g weight. A contact biomechanical model is proposed to increase the locomotion safety and efficiency in the soft tissue. The model shows that the friction difference between the robot and the tissue is a key factor to locomotion capability. A soft, full bellow with excellent compatibility was designed to package the robot body...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091048/role-of-contact-inhibition-of-locomotion-and-junctional-mechanics-in-epithelial-collective-responses-to-injury
#4
Luke Coburn, Hender Lopez, Irin-Maya Schouwenaar, Alpha Yap, Vladimir Lobaskin, Guillermo Gomez
Epithelial tissues form physically integrated barriers against the external environment protecting organs from infection and invasion. Within each tissue, epithelial cells respond to different challenges that can potentially compromise tissue integrity. In particular, cells collectively respond to injuries by reorganizing their cell-cell junctions and migrating directionally towards the sites of damage. Notwithstanding, the mechanisms that drive collective responses in epithelial aggregates remain poorly understood...
November 1, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079236/effectiveness-of-foot-biomechanical-orthoses-to-relieve-patients-knee-pain-changes-in-neural-strategy-after-9%C3%A2-weeks-of-treatment
#5
Sébastien Moyne-Bressand, Carole Dhieux, Patrick Decherchi, Erick Dousset
Knee pain is one of the most common lower leg complaints. It is often treated with plantar orthoses to provide cushioning and correct locomotion, imbalances of the foot, and postural deficits. However, the published scientific data are poor concerning the mechanisms involved in pain reduction after wearing foot orthoses, and, to the best of our knowledge, no trial has investigated the mid-term effectiveness. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of foot orthoses according to sound biomechanical principles in the treatment of knee pain...
November 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076148/behavioral-implications-of-ontogenetic-changes-in-intrinsic-hand-and-foot-proportions-in-olive-baboons-papio-anubis
#6
François Druelle, Jesse Young, Gilles Berillon
OBJECTIVES: Relatively long digits are considered to enhance grasping performance in primates. We tested whether growth-related changes in intrinsic hand and foot proportions may have behavioral implications for growing animals, by examining whether ontogenetic changes in digital proportions are related to variation in voluntary grasping behaviors in baboons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Longitudinal morphological and behavioral data were collected on 6 captive olive baboons (Papio anubis) as they aged from 5 to 22 months...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074289/gait-biomechanics-of-skipping-are-substantially-different-than-those-of-running
#7
Jessica McDonnell, John D Willson, Kevin A Zwetsloot, Joseph Houmard, Paul DeVita
The inherit injury risk associated with high-impact exercises calls for alternative ways to achieve the benefits of aerobic exercise while minimizing excessive stresses to body tissues. Skipping presents such an alternative, incorporating double support, flight, and single support phases. We used ground reaction forces (GRFs), lower extremity joint torques and powers to compare skipping and running in 20 healthy adults. The two consecutive skipping steps on each limb differed significantly from each other, and from running...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060407/influence-of-pre-processing-in-the-extraction-of-muscle-synergies-during-human-locomotion
#8
D Rimini, V Agostini, S Rosati, C Castagneri, G Balestra, M Knaflitz
The extraction of muscle synergies in human locomotion may be biased by the kind of pre-processing applied to electromyographic (EMG) data. The aim of this contribution is to analyze the differences in the muscle synergies extracted using a standard pre-processing procedure and a new procedure. The new procedure is based on the selection of the muscle's principal activations (necessary actuations of the muscle to accomplish its specific biomechanical task during gait), discarding secondary activations (with an auxiliary function in motor control)...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034479/scaling-of-the-ankle-extensor-muscle-tendon-units-and-the-biomechanical-implications-for-bipedal-hopping-locomotion-in-the-post-pouch-kangaroo-macropus-fuliginosus
#9
Edward P Snelling, Andrew A Biewener, Qiaohui Hu, David A Taggart, Andrea Fuller, Duncan Mitchell, Shane K Maloney, Roger S Seymour
Bipedal hopping is used by macropods, including rat-kangaroos, wallabies and kangaroos (superfamily Macropodoidea). Interspecific scaling of the ankle extensor muscle-tendon units in the lower hindlimbs of these hopping bipeds shows that peak tendon stress increases disproportionately with body size. Consequently, large kangaroos store and recover more strain energy in their tendons, making hopping more efficient, but their tendons are at greater risk of rupture. This is the first intraspecific scaling analysis on the functional morphology of the ankle extensor muscle-tendon units (gastrocnemius, plantaris and flexor digitorum longus) in one of the largest extant species of hopping mammal, the western grey kangaroo Macropus fuliginosus (5...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031139/biomechanics-of-the-infant-foot-during-the-transition-to-independent-walking-a-narrative-review
#10
REVIEW
Carina Price, Stewart C Morrison, Farina Hashmi, Jill Phethean, Christopher Nester
Recognising structural and functional development of the paediatric foot is fundamental to ensuring a strong theoretical framework for health professionals and scientists. The transition of an infant from sitting to walking takes approximately 9 months and is when the structures and function of the foot must respond to the challenges of bearing load; becoming increasingly more essential for locomotion. Literature pertaining to the phase of development was searched. A narrative approach synthesised the information from papers written in English, with non-symptomatic infant participants up to the development stage of independent walking or two years of age...
September 6, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970972/an-exploration-of-strategies-used-by-dressage-horses-to-control-moments-around-the-center-of-mass-when-performing-passage
#11
Hilary M Clayton, Sarah Jane Hobbs
BACKGROUND: Locomotion results from the generation of ground reaction forces (GRF) that cause translations of the center of mass (COM) and generate moments that rotate the body around the COM. The trot is a diagonally-synchronized gait performed by horses at intermediate locomotor speeds. Passage is a variant of the trot performed by highly-trained dressage horses. It is distinguished from trot by having a slow speed of progression combined with great animation of the limbs in the swing phase...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953178/effects-of-a-program-for-improving-biomechanical-characteristics-during-walking-and-running-in-children-who-are-obese
#12
Nili Steinberg, Meron Rubinstein, Dan Nemet, Moshe Ayalon, Aviva Zeev, Michal Pantanowitz, Tamar Brosh, Alon Eliakim
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of a weight-reduction program with locomotion-emphasis on improving biomechanical characteristics of children who are obese (OW). METHODS: Ten children who are OW participated in a 6-month multidisciplinary childhood obesity management program (GRP1); another 10 children who are OW participated in the same multidisciplinary childhood obesity management program with additional locomotion-emphasis exercises for improving biomechanical characteristics (GRP2); and 10 control children who are OW with no intervention program...
October 2017: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949001/forearm-pronation-efficiency-in-a-l-288-1-australopithecus-afarensis-and-mh2-australopithecus-sediba-insights-into-their-locomotor-and-manipulative-habits
#13
Pere Ibáñez-Gimeno, Joan Manyosa, Ignasi Galtés, Xavier Jordana, Salvador Moyà-Solà, Assumpció Malgosa
OBJECTIVES: The locomotor and manipulative abilities of australopithecines are highly debated in the paleoanthropological context. Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus sediba likely engaged in arboreal locomotion and, especially the latter, in certain activities implying manipulation. Nevertheless, their degree of arboreality and the relevance of their manipulative skills remain unclear. Here we calculate the pronation efficiency of the forearm (Erot ) in these taxa to explore their arboreal and manipulative capabilities using a biomechanical approach...
September 26, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934336/the-oldest-record-of-aquatic-amniote-congenital-scoliosis
#14
Tomasz Szczygielski, Dawid Surmik, Agnieszka Kapuścińska, Bruce M Rothschild
We report the first occurrence of congenital scoliosis in an early Permian aquatic parareptile, Stereosternum tumidum from Paraná state, Brazil. The spine malformation is caused by a congenital hemivertebra. These observations give insight into the biomechanical aspects of underwater locomotion in an axial skeleton-compromised aquatic amniote. This is the oldest record of a hemivertebra in an aquatic animal.
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928650/locomotor-sub-functions-for-control-of-assistive-wearable-robots
#15
Maziar A Sharbafi, Andre Seyfarth, Guoping Zhao
A primary goal of comparative biomechanics is to understand the fundamental physics of locomotion within an evolutionary context. Such an understanding of legged locomotion results in a transition from copying nature to borrowing strategies for interacting with the physical world regarding design and control of bio-inspired legged robots or robotic assistive devices. Inspired from nature, legged locomotion can be composed of three locomotor sub-functions, which are intrinsically interrelated: Stance: redirecting the center of mass by exerting forces on the ground...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882330/combining-muscle-synergies-and-biomechanical-analysis-to-assess-gait-in-stroke-patients
#16
Filipe O Barroso, Diego Torricelli, Francisco Molina-Rueda, Isabel M Alguacil-Diego, Roberto Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Cristina Santos, Juan C Moreno, Juan C Miangolarra-Page, José L Pons
The understanding of biomechanical deficits and impaired neural control of gait after stroke is crucial to prescribe effective customized treatments aimed at improving walking function. Instrumented gait analysis has been increasingly integrated into the clinical practice to enhance precision and inter-rater reliability for the assessment of pathological gait. On the other hand, the analysis of muscle synergies has gained relevance as a novel tool to describe the neural control of walking. Since muscle synergies and gait analysis capture different but equally important aspects of walking, we hypothesized that their combination can improve the current clinical tools for the assessment of walking performance...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874728/unpredictability-of-escape-trajectory-explains-predator-evasion-ability-and-microhabitat-preference-of-desert-rodents
#17
Talia Y Moore, Kimberly L Cooper, Andrew A Biewener, Ramanarayan Vasudevan
Mechanistically linking movement behaviors and ecology is key to understanding the adaptive evolution of locomotion. Predator evasion, a behavior that enhances fitness, may depend upon short bursts or complex patterns of locomotion. However, such movements are poorly characterized by existing biomechanical metrics. We present methods based on the entropy measure of randomness from Information Theory to quantitatively characterize the unpredictability of non-steady-state locomotion. We then apply the method by examining sympatric rodent species whose escape trajectories differ in dimensionality...
September 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832938/energetic-cost-of-walking-in-fossil-hominins
#18
M Vidal-Cordasco, A Mateos, G Zorrilla-Revilla, O Prado-Nóvoa, J Rodríguez
OBJECTIVE: Many biomechanical studies consistently show that a broader pelvis increases the reaction forces and bending moments across the femoral shaft, increasing the energetic costs of unloaded locomotion. However, a biomechanical model does not provide the real amount of metabolic energy expended in walking. The aim of this study is to test the influence of pelvis breadth on locomotion cost and to evaluate the locomotion efficiency of extinct Pleistocene hominins. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The current study measures in vivo the influence of pelvis width on the caloric cost of locomotion, integrating anthropometry, body composition and indirect calorimetry protocols in a sample of 46 subjects of both sexes...
November 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809445/a-quantitative-evaluation-of-physical-and-digital-approaches-to-centre-of-mass-estimation
#19
Sophie Macaulay, John R Hutchinson, Karl T Bates
Centre of mass is a fundamental anatomical and biomechanical parameter. Knowledge of centre of mass is essential to inform studies investigating locomotion and other behaviours, through its implications for segment movements, and on whole body factors such as posture. Previous studies have estimated centre of mass position for a range of organisms, using various methodologies. However, few studies assess the accuracy of the methods that they employ, and often provide only brief details on their methodologies...
November 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803852/dynamic-feet-distance-a-new-functional-assessment-during-treadmill-locomotion-in-normal-and-thoracic-spinal-cord-injured-rats
#20
Camila Cardoso Diogo, Luís Maltez da Costa, José Eduardo Pereira, Vítor Filipe, Pedro Alexandre Couto, Luís G Magalhães, Stefano Geuna, Paulo A Armada-da-Silva, Ana Colette Maurício, Artur Severo Varejão
Of all the detrimental effects of spinal cord injury (SCI), one of the most devastating is the disruption of the ability to perform functional movement. Very little is known on the recovery of hindlimb joint kinematics after clinically-relevant contusive thoracic lesion in experimental animal models. A new functional assessment instrument, the dynamic feet distance (DFD) was used to describe the distance between the two feet throughout the gait cycle in normal and affected rodents. The purpose of this investigation was the evaluation and characterization of the DFD during treadmill locomotion in normal and T9 contusion injured rats, using three-dimensional (3D) instrumented gait analysis...
August 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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