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Biomechanic locomotion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728959/mechanisms-contributing-to-gait-speed-and-metabolic-cost-in-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy
#1
Tatiana Pessoa Silva Pinto, Sérgio Teixeira Fonseca, Rejane Vale Gonçalves, Thales Rezende Souza, Daniela Virgínia Vaz, Paula Lanna Pereira Silva, Marisa Cotta Mancini
BACKGROUND: Gait speed and metabolic cost are indicators of functional capacity in children with cerebral palsy. Uncovering their mechanisms helps guide therapeutic actions. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the contributions of energy-generating and energy-conserving mechanisms to gait speed and metabolic cost of children with unilateral cerebral palsy. METHODS: Data on eccentric and concentric muscle work, co-contraction, elastic torque and vertical stiffness of the affected-limb, forcing torque of the non-affected limb, gait speed and metabolic cost were collected from 14 children with unilateral cerebral palsy, aged 6-12 years...
July 5, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724627/using-step-width-to-compare-locomotor-biomechanics-between-extinct-non-avian-theropod-dinosaurs-and-modern-obligate-bipeds
#2
P J Bishop, C J Clemente, R E Weems, D F Graham, L P Lamas, J R Hutchinson, J Rubenson, R S Wilson, S A Hocknull, R S Barrett, D G Lloyd
How extinct, non-avian theropod dinosaurs locomoted is a subject of considerable interest, as is the manner in which it evolved on the line leading to birds. Fossil footprints provide the most direct evidence for answering these questions. In this study, step width-the mediolateral (transverse) distance between successive footfalls-was investigated with respect to speed (stride length) in non-avian theropod trackways of Late Triassic age. Comparable kinematic data were also collected for humans and 11 species of ground-dwelling birds...
July 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718780/biarticular-elements-as-a-contributor-to-energy-efficiency-biomechanical-review-and-application-in-bio-inspired-robotics
#3
Karen Junius, Marta Moltedo, Pierre Cherelle, Carlos David Rodriguez-Guerrero, Bram Vanderborght, Dirk Lefeber
Despite the increased interest in exoskeleton research in the last decades, not much progress has been made on the successful reduction of user effort. In humans, biarticular elements have been identied as one of the reasons for the energy economy of locomotion. This document gives an extensive literature overview concerning the function of biarticular mus- cles in human beings. The exact role of these muscles in the efficiency of human locomotion is reduced to three elementary functions: energy transfer towards distal joints, efficient control of output force direction and double joint actuation...
July 18, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707347/interspecific-variation-in-the-tetradactyl-manus-of-modern-tapirs-perissodactyla-tapirus-exposed-using-geometric-morphometrics
#4
Jamie A MacLaren, Sandra Nauwelaerts
The distal forelimb (autopodium) of quadrupedal mammals is a key morphological unit involved in locomotion, body support, and interaction with the substrate. The manus of the tapir (Perissodactyla: Tapirus) is unique within modern perissodactyls, as it retains the plesiomorphic tetradactyl (four-toed) condition also exhibited by basal equids and rhinoceroses. Tapirs are known to exhibit anatomical mesaxonic symmetry in the manus, although interspecific differences and biomechanical mesaxony have yet to be rigorously tested...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691925/design-and-analysis-of-aerodynamic-force-platforms-for-free-flight-studies
#5
Ben Hightower, Rivers Ingersoll, Diana Chin, Carl Lawhon, Andreas Haselsteiner, David Lentink
We describe and explain new advancements in the design of the aerodynamic force platform, a novel instrument that can directly measure the aerodynamic forces generated by freely flying animals and robots. Such <i>in vivo</i> recordings are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of flapping wings in nature, which can critically inform the design of new bioinspired robots. By designing the aerodynamic force platform to be stiff yet lightweight, the natural frequencies of all structural components can be made over five times greater than the frequencies of interest...
July 10, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683928/aging-leads-to-inferior-achilles-tendon-mechanics-and-altered-ankle-function-in-rodents
#6
A M Pardes, Z M Beach, H Raja, A B Rodriguez, B R Freedman, L J Soslowsky
Spontaneous rupture of the Achilles tendon is increasingly common in the middle aged population. However, the cause for the particularly high incidence of injury in this age group is not well understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify age-specific differences in the Achilles tendon-muscle complex using an animal model. Functional measures were performed in vivo and tissues were harvested following euthanasia for mechanical, structural, and histological analysis from young, middle aged, and old rats...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667696/phylogenetic-convergence-and-multiple-shell-shape-optima-for-gliding-scallops-bivalvia-pectinidae
#7
Jeanne M Serb, Emma Sherratt, Alvin Alejandrino, Dean C Adams
An important question in evolutionary biology is how often, and to what extent, do similar ecologies elicit distantly related taxa to evolve towards the same phenotype? In some scenarios, the repeated evolution of particular phenotypes may be expected, for instance when species are exposed to common selective forces that result from strong functional demands. In bivalved scallops (Pectinidae), some species exhibit a distinct swimming behavior (gliding), which requires specific biomechanical attributes to generate lift and reduce drag during locomotive events...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662569/the-physiology-of-exercise-in-free-living-vertebrates-what-can-we-learn-from-current-model-systems
#8
Kang Nian Yap, Mitchell W Serota, Tony D Williams
Many behaviors crucial for survival and reproductive success in free-living animals, including migration, foraging, and escaping from predators, involve elevated levels of physical activity. However, although there has been considerable interest in the physiological and biomechanical mechanisms that underpin individual variation in exercise performance, to date, much work on the physiology of exercise has been conducted in laboratory settings that are often quite removed from the animal's ecology. Here we review current, laboratory-based model systems for exercise (wind or swim tunnels for migration studies in birds and fishes, manipulation of exercise associated with non-migratory activity in birds, locomotion in lizards, and wheel running in rodents) to identify common physiological markers of individual variation in exercise capacity and/or costs of increased activity...
June 28, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661400/cortex-dependent-recovery-of-unassisted-hindlimb-locomotion-after-complete-spinal-cord-injury-in-adult-rats
#9
Anitha Manohar, Guglielmo Foffani, Patrick D Ganzer, John R Bethea, Karen A Moxon
After paralyzing spinal cord injury the adult nervous system has little ability to 'heal' spinal connections, and it is assumed to be unable to develop extra-spinal recovery strategies to bypass the lesion. We challenge this assumption, showing that completely spinalized adult rats can recover unassisted hindlimb weight support and locomotion without explicit spinal transmission of motor commands through the lesion. This is achieved with combinations of pharmacological and physical therapies that maximize cortical reorganization, inducing an expansion of trunk motor cortex and forepaw sensory cortex into the deafferented hindlimb cortex, associated with sprouting of corticospinal axons...
June 29, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649805/cross-country-skiing-movement-factorization-to-explore-relationships-between-skiing-economy-and-athletes-skills
#10
Barbara Pellegrini, Chiara Zoppirolli, Gennaro Boccia, Lorenzo Bortolan, Federico Schena
We investigated the relationships between the biomechanics of the double poling (DP) technique in cross-country skiing, its economy and athletes' skill. To this aim, skiers' motion has been factorized into components through principal component analysis (PCA).Eight high-level (HL) and eight regional level (RL) male cross-country skiers performed a 5-min submaximal DP trial while roller skiing on a treadmill at 14 km h(-1) and 2° incline. Whole-body kinematics was recorded with a motion capture system. PCA was applied to markers coordinates to extract principal movements (PMk ), which were ranked by their variance...
June 26, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639532/diminished-abductor-muscular-strength-in-patients-with-valgus-impacted-femoral-neck-fractures-treated-by-internal-fixation-clinical-study-and-biomechanical-considerations
#11
Mitsuaki Noda, Yasuhiro Saegusa, Masayasu Takahashi, Yuichi Kuroda, Yuma Takada, Chihiro Yoshikawa, Mimami Wakabayashi, Kazuhiko Adachi, Yukiko Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Valgus-impacted femoral neck fractures treated with internal fixation occasionally result in unsatisfactory postoperative locomotive function, partially due to muscle shortening and a decrease in the moment arm. This study quantifies the degree of diminished abduction strength both clinically and biomechanically. METHODS: Fifteen patients were enrolled in this study. Twelve patients with fracture healed in valgus-impacted position were further evaluated...
May 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636923/mechanosensitive-adhesion-explains-stepping-motility-in-amoeboid-cells
#12
Calina A Copos, Sam Walcott, Juan C Del Álamo, Effie Bastounis, Alex Mogilner, Robert D Guy
Cells employing amoeboid motility exhibit repetitive cycles of rapid expansion and contraction and apply coordinated traction forces to their environment. Although aspects of this process are well studied, it is unclear how the cell controls the coordination of cell length changes with adhesion to the surface. Here, we develop a simple model to mechanistically explain the emergence of periodic changes in length and spatiotemporal dynamics of traction forces measured in chemotaxing unicellular amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585281/the-deep-fascia-and-retinacula-of-the-equine-forelimb-structure-and-innervation
#13
Aleksandra Skalec, Monika Egerbacher
Recent advances in human fascia research have shed new light on the role of the fascial network in movement perception and coordination, transmission of muscle force, and integrative function in body biomechanics. Evolutionary adaptations of equine musculoskeletal apparatus that assure effective terrestrial locomotion are employed in equestrianism, resulting in the wide variety of movements in performing horses, from sophisticated dressage to jumping and high-speed racing. The high importance of horse motion efficiency in the present-day equine industry indicates the significance of scientific knowledge of the structure and physiology of equine fasciae...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546660/can-we-deliver-better
#14
REVIEW
Ajay Rane, Jay Iyer, Harsha Ananthram, Thomas Currie
Human childbirth has been described as an "obstetrical dilemma". Evolution favours enlargement of the foetal brain, whilst bipedal locomotion demands a reduction in pelvic breadth for improvements in biomechanical efficiency. The result of this conflict is a human pelvis incongruous with the dynamics of childbirth. Acute genital distortion at delivery can inflict lasting damage to female pelvic function. Pelvic organ prolapse, urinary, faecal incontinence and sexual dysfunction are long-term sequelae rarely discussed at antenatal care, impacting upon the expectant mother's ability to make an informed decision...
June 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539149/mobility-and-agility-during-locomotion-in-the-mark-iii-space-suit
#15
Conor R Cullinane, Richard A Rhodes, Leia A Stirling
INTRODUCTION: The Mark III (MIII) space suit assembly (SSAs) implements a multibearing, hard-material hip brief assembly (HBA). We hypothesize that: 1) the MIII HBA restricts operator mobility and agility which manifests in effects to gait parameters; 2) the waist bearing provides rotational motion, partially alleviating the restrictions; and 3) there are resistive, speed-dependent torques associated with the spinning bearings which further diminish mobility and agility. METHODS: A subject (Suited and Unsuited) performed two planetary tasks-walking forward (WF) and backward (WB)...
June 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533965/reappraisal-of-the-extinct-seal-phoca-vitulinoides-from-the-neogene-of-the-north-sea-basin-with-bearing-on-its-geological-age-phylogenetic-affinities-and-locomotion
#16
Leonard Dewaele, Eli Amson, Olivier Lambert, Stephen Louwye
BACKGROUND: Discovered on the southern margin of the North Sea Basin, "Phoca" vitulinoides represents one of the best-known extinct species of Phocidae. However, little attention has been given to the species ever since its original 19th century description. Newly discovered material, including the most complete specimen of fossil Phocidae from the North Sea Basin, prompted the redescription of the species. Also, the type material of "Phoca" vitulinoides is lost. METHODS: "Phoca" vitulinoides is redescribed...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515449/the-role-of-stride-frequency-for-walk-to-run-transition-in-humans
#17
Ernst Albin Hansen, Lasse Andreas Risgaard Kristensen, Andreas Møller Nielsen, Michael Voigt, Pascal Madeleine
It remains unclear why humans spontaneously shift from walking to running at a certain point during locomotion at gradually increasing velocity. We show that a calculated walk-to-run transition stride frequency (70.6 ± 3.2 strides min(-1)) agrees with a transition stride frequency (70.8 ± 3.1 strides min(-1)) predicted from the two stride frequencies applied during treadmill walking and running at freely chosen velocities and freely chosen stride frequencies. The agreement is based on Bland and Altman's statistics...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495869/kinematics-of-ram-filter-feeding-and-beat-glide-swimming-in-the-northern-anchovy-engraulis-mordax
#18
Nicholas Carey, Jeremy A Goldbogen
In the dense aquatic environment, the most adept swimmers are streamlined to reduce drag and increase the efficiency of locomotion. However, because they open their mouth to wide gape angles to deploy their filtering apparatus, ram filter feeders apparently switch between diametrically opposite swimming modes; highly efficient, streamlined 'beat-glide' swimming, and ram filter feeding, which has been hypothesized to be a high-cost feeding mode because of presumed increased drag. Ram filter feeding forage fish are thought to play an important role in the flux of nutrients and energy in upwelling ecosystems, however the biomechanics and energetics of this feeding mechanism remain poorly understood...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484857/muscle-architectural-properties-in-the-common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus
#19
Naomichi Ogihara, Motoharu Oishi, Ryogo Kanai, Hikaru Shimada, Takahiro Kondo, Kimika Yoshino-Saito, Junichi Ushiba, Hideyuki Okano
The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is a small New World monkey that has recently gained attention as an important experimental animal model in the field of neuroscience as well in rehabilitative and regenerative medicine. This attention reflects the closer phylogenetic relationship between humans and common marmosets compared to that between humans and other experimental animals. When studying the neuronal mechanism behind various types of neurological motor disorders using the common marmoset, possible differences in muscle parameters (e...
July 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448908/biological-impacts-of-glyphosate-on-morphology-embryo-biomechanics-and-larval-behavior-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#20
Shuhui Zhang, Jia Xu, Xiangyu Kuang, Shibao Li, Xiang Li, Dongyan Chen, Xin Zhao, Xizeng Feng
All of these days, residues of herbicides such as glyphosate are widely distributed in the environment. The ubiquitous use of glyphosate has drawn extensive attention to its toxicity as an organic pollutant. In this study, we employed larval zebrafish as an animal model to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of glyphosate on early development via morphological, biomechanics, behavioral and physiological analyses. Morphological results showed that an obvious delay occurred in the epiboly process and body length, eye and head area were reduced at concentrations higher than 10 mg/L...
April 21, 2017: Chemosphere
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