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Biomechanic locomotion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144406/fatigue-effect-on-linear-center-of-pressure-measures-during-gait-in-people-with-flat-feet
#1
Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Sahar Boozari, Ali Ashraf Jamshidi, Mohammad Reza Nikmaram
BACKGROUND: Flat foot, as one of the common foot deformities can affect gait biomechanics and risk of lower extremity injury. Fatigue, as a high load task, can also change biomechanical parameters of locomotion. Studying normal and flat footed individuals under high load tasks such as fatigue can elucidate their differences more easily. OBJECTIVES: In this study, center of pressure (CoP) changes were studied between individuals with flat and normal feet after fatigue...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112828/ecological-associations-of-autopodial-osteology-in-neotropical-geckos
#2
Priscila S Rothier, Renata Brandt, Tiana Kohlsdorf
Coevolution of form and function inspires investigation of associations between morphological variation and the exploitation of specific ecological settings. Such relationships, based mostly on traits of external morphology, have been extensively described for vertebrates, and especially so for squamates. External features are, however, composed by both soft tissues and bones, and these likely play different biomechanical roles during locomotion, such as in the autopodia. Therefore, ecological trends identified on the basis of external morphological measurements may not be directly correlated with equivalent variation in osteology...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104260/robot-guided-ankle-sensorimotor-rehabilitation-of-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Yunju Lee, Kai Chen, Yupeng Ren, Jongsang Son, Bruce A Cohen, James A Sliwa, Li-Qun Zhang
BACKGROUND: People with multiple sclerosis (MS) often develop symptoms including muscle weakness, spasticity, imbalance, and sensory loss in the lower limbs, especially at the ankle, which result in impaired balance and locomotion and increased risk of falls. Rehabilitation strategies that improve ankle function may improve mobility and safety of ambulation in patients with MS. This pilot study investigated effectiveness of a robot-guided ankle passive-active movement training in reducing motor and sensory impairments and improving balance and gait functions...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097064/phalangeal-joints-kinematics-during-ostrich-struthio-camelus-locomotion
#4
Rui Zhang, Qiaoli Ji, Gang Luo, Shuliang Xue, Songsong Ma, Jianqiao Li, Lei Ren
The ostrich is a highly cursorial bipedal land animal with a permanently elevated metatarsophalangeal joint supported by only two toes. Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running ostriches have been examined, these studies have been largely limited to above the metatarsophalangeal joint. In this study, kinematic data of all major toe joints were collected from gaits with double support (slow walking) to running during stance period in a semi-natural setup with two selected cooperative ostriches. Statistical analyses were conducted to investigate the effect of locomotor gait on toe joint kinematics...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087655/hagfish-houdinis-biomechanics-and-behavior-of-squeezing-through-small-openings
#5
Calli R Freedman, Douglas S Fudge
Hagfishes are able to squeeze through small openings to gain entry to crevices, burrows, hagfish traps, and carcasses, but little is known about how they do this, or what the limits of this ability are. The purpose of this study was to describe this ability, and to investigate possible mechanisms by which it is accomplished. We investigated the hypothesis that the passive movement of blood within a hagfish's flaccid subcutaneous sinus allows it to squeeze through narrow apertures that it would not be able to if it were turgid...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046009/stiffness-effects-in-rocker-soled-shoes-biomechanical-implications
#6
Shih-Yun Lin, Pei-Fang Su, Chia-Hua Chung, Chi-Chun Hsia, Chih-Han Chang
Rocker-soled shoes provide a way to reduce the possible concentration of stress, as well as change movement patterns, during gait. This study attempts to examine how plantar force and spatio-temporal variables are affected by two rocker designs, one with softer and one with denser sole materials, by comparing them with the barefoot condition and with flat-soled shoes. Eleven subjects' gait parameters during walking and jogging were recorded. Our results showed that compared with barefoot walking, plantar forces were higher for flat shoes while lower for both types of rocker shoes, the softer-material rocker being the lowest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031036/kinematic-and-spatiotemporal-assessment-of-habituation-to-treadmill-walking-in-labrador-retrievers
#7
Pia Gustås, Kjerstin Pettersson, Sofia Honkavaara, Anne-Sofie Lagerstedt, Anna Byström
BACKGROUND: This study investigated differences in kinematic and spatiotemporal variables in Labrador retrievers during introduction to treadmill walking, with the aim to determine the time required for them to become habituated. Twenty-five healthy, treadmill-naive Labrador retrievers participated in the study. The total angular displacement of the carpus, elbow, tarsus and stifle, as well as stride time and stance duration were calculated from the 3-D tracking of skin mounted reflective markers recorded with 6 infrared light emitting video cameras at 240 Hz...
December 28, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002437/non-sagittal-knee-joint-kinematics-and-kinetics-during-gait-on-level-and-sloped-grounds-with-unicompartmental-and-total-knee-arthroplasty-patients
#8
Igor Komnik, Markus Peters, Johannes Funken, Sina David, Stefan Weiss, Wolfgang Potthast
After knee arthroplasty (KA) surgery, patients experience abnormal kinematics and kinetics during numerous activities of daily living. Biomechanical investigations have focused primarily on level walking, whereas walking on sloped surfaces, which is stated to affect knee kinematics and kinetics considerably, has been neglected to this day. This study aimed to analyze over-ground walking on level and sloped surfaces with a special focus on transverse and frontal plane knee kinematics and kinetics in patients with KA...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939311/diversity-in-morphology-and-locomotory-behavior-is-associated-with-niche-expansion-in-the-semi-aquatic-bugs
#9
Antonin J J Crumière, M Emilia Santos, Marie Sémon, David Armisén, Felipe F F Moreira, Abderrahman Khila
Acquisition of new ecological opportunities is a major driver of adaptation and species diversification [1-4]. However, how groups of organisms expand their habitat range is often unclear [3]. We study the Gerromorpha, a monophyletic group of heteropteran insects that occupy a large variety of water surface-associated niches, from small puddles to open oceans [5, 6]. Due to constraints related to fluid dynamics [7-9] and exposure to predation [5, 10], we hypothesize that selection will favor high speed of locomotion in the Gerromorpha that occupy water-air interface niches relative to the ancestral terrestrial life style...
December 19, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898852/horse-species-symposium-biomechanics-of-the-exercising-horse
#10
Hilary M Clayton
In spite of having large height and body mass, horses are cursorial animals with an extensive gait repertoire and considerable athletic abilities. The limbs have evolved so that the heavy musculature is confined to the proximal limbs while the distal limbs are light in weight with a single functional digit and long, lightweight tendons to move and support the distal joints. These adaptations reduce the moment of inertia and decrease the energy expended to protract and retract the limbs during locomotion. There is a division of labor between the forelimbs, which have a pillar-like construction specialized for weight bearing, and the hind limbs, in which the more angulated joints provide leverage for the generation of propulsion...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858517/slip-initiation-in-alternative-and-slip-resistant-footwear
#11
Harish Chander, Chip Wade, John C Garner, Adam C Knight
Slips occur as a result of failure of normal locomotion. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of alternative footwear (Crocs™, flip-flops) and an industry standard low-top slip-resistant shoe (SRS) under multiple gait trials (normal dry, unexpected slip, alert slip and expected slip) on lower extremity joint kinematics, kinetics and muscle activity. Eighteen healthy male participants (age: 22.28 ± 2.2 years; height: 177.66 ± 6.9 cm; mass: 79.27 ± 7.6 kg) completed the study...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856717/confidence-in-the-curve-establishing-instantaneous-cost-mapping-techniques-using-bilateral-ankle-exoskeletons
#12
Jeffrey Russell Koller, Deanna H Gates, Daniel Perry Ferris, Christian David Remy
Lower extremity robotic prostheses and exoskeletons can require tuning a large number of control parameters on a subject-specific basis to reduce users' metabolic power during locomotion. We refer to the functional relationship between control parameter configurations and users' metabolic power as the metabolic cost landscape. Standard practice for estimating a metabolic cost landscape, and thus identifying optimal parameter configurations, is to vary control parameters while measuring steady state metabolic power during walking...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852765/light-level-impacts-locomotor-biomechanics-in-a-secondarily-diurnal-gecko-rhoptropus-afer
#13
Aleksandra V Birn-Jeffery, Timothy E Higham
Locomotion through complex habitats relies on the continuous feedback from a number of sensory systems, including vision. Animals face a visual trade-off between acuity and light sensitivity that depends on light levels, which will dramatically impact the ability to process information and move quickly through a habitat, making ambient illumination an incredibly important ecological factor. Despite this, there is a paucity of data examining ambient light in the context of locomotor dynamics. There have been several independent transitions from the nocturnal ancestor to a diurnal activity pattern among geckos...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802151/the-private-life-of-echidnas-using-accelerometry-and-gps-to-examine-field-biomechanics-and-assess-the-ecological-impact-of-a-widespread-semi-fossorial-monotreme
#14
Christofer J Clemente, Christine E Cooper, Philip C Withers, Craig Freakley, Surya Singh, Philip Terrill
The short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) is a monotreme and therefore provides a unique combination of phylogenetic history, morphological differentiation and ecological specialisation for a mammal. The echidna has a unique appendicular skeleton, a highly specialised myrmecophagous lifestyle and a mode of locomotion that is neither typically mammalian nor reptilian, but has aspects of both lineages. We therefore were interested in the interactions of locomotor biomechanics, ecology and movements for wild, free-living short-beaked echidnas...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802142/a-different-angle-comparative-analyses-of-whole-animal-transport-costs-when-running-uphill
#15
Lewis G Halsey, Craig R White
Comparative work on the cost of terrestrial locomotion in animals has focused on the underpinning physiology and biomechanics. Often, much of an animal's energy budget is spent on moving around; thus, there is also value in interpreting such data from an ecological perspective. When animals move through their environment, they encounter topographical variation, and this is a key factor that can dramatically affect their energy expenditure. We collated published data on the costs for birds and mammals to locomote terrestrially on inclines, and investigated the scaling relationships using a phylogenetically informed approach...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801744/long-term-effects-of-habitual-barefoot-running-and-walking-a-systematic-review
#16
Karsten Hollander, Christoph Heidt, Babette van der Zwaard, Klaus-Michael Braumann, Astrid Zech
INTRODUCTION: Barefoot locomotion is widely believed to be beneficial for motor development and biomechanics but are implied to be responsible for foot pathologies and running-related injuries. While most of available studies focused on acute effects of barefoot running and walking little is known regarding the effects of long-term barefoot vs. shod locomotion. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature to evaluate current evidence of habitual barefoot (HB) vs...
October 31, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794536/adaptive-patterns-in-aquatic-amniote-bone-microanatomy-more-complex-than-previously-thought
#17
Alexandra Houssaye, P Martin Sander, Nicole Klein
Numerous amniote groups adapted to an aquatic life. This change of habitat naturally led to numerous convergences. The various adaptive traits vary depending on the degree of adaptation to an aquatic life, notably between shallow water taxa still able to occasionally locomote on land and open-marine forms totally independent from the terrestrial environment, but also between surface swimmers and deep divers. As a consequence, despite convergences, there is a high diversity within aquatic amniotes in e.g., shape, size, physiology, swimming mode...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777742/phylogenetic-comparisons-of-pedestrian-locomotion-costs-confirmations-and-new-insights
#18
Craig R White, Lesley A Alton, Taryn S Crispin, Lewis G Halsey
The energetic costs for animals to locomote on land influence many aspects of their ecology. Size accounts for much of the among-species variation in terrestrial transport costs, but species of similar body size can still exhibit severalfold differences in energy expenditure. We compiled measurements of the (mass-specific) minimum cost of pedestrian transport (COTmin, mL/kg/m) for 201 species - by far the largest sample to date - and used phylogenetically informed comparative analyses to investigate possible eco-evolutionary differences in COTmin between various groupings of those species...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766187/summary-of-human-ankle-mechanical-impedance-during-walking
#19
Hyunglae Lee, Elliott J Rouse, Hermano Igo Krebs
The human ankle joint plays a critical role during walking and understanding the biomechanical factors that govern ankle behavior and provides fundamental insight into normal and pathologically altered gait. Previous researchers have comprehensively studied ankle joint kinetics and kinematics during many biomechanical tasks, including locomotion; however, only recently have researchers been able to quantify how the mechanical impedance of the ankle varies during walking. The mechanical impedance describes the dynamic relationship between the joint position and the joint torque during perturbation, and is often represented in terms of stiffness, damping, and inertia...
2016: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720027/lameness-in-dairy-heifers-impacts-of-hoof-lesions-present-around-first-calving-on-future-lameness-milk-yield-and-culling-risk
#20
L V Randall, M J Green, M G G Chagunda, C Mason, L E Green, J N Huxley
The importance of lameness in primiparous dairy heifers is increasingly recognised. Although it is accepted that clinical lameness in any lactation increases the risk of future lameness, the impact of foot lesions during the first lactation on long-term lameness risk is less clear. This retrospective cohort study aimed to investigate the impacts of foot lesions occurring around the time of first calving in heifers on future lameness risk, daily milk yield and survival within a dairy herd. Records were obtained for 158 heifers from one UK dairy herd...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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