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Biomechanic locomotion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753444/a-biplanar-x-ray-approach-for-studying-the-3d-dynamics-of-human-track-formation
#1
Kevin G Hatala, David A Perry, Stephen M Gatesy
Recent discoveries have made hominin tracks an increasingly prevalent component of the human fossil record, and these data have the capacity to inform long-standing debates regarding the biomechanics of hominin locomotion. However, there is currently no consensus on how to decipher biomechanical variables from hominin tracks. These debates can be linked to our generally limited understanding of the complex interactions between anatomy, motion, and substrate that give rise to track morphology. These interactions are difficult to study because direct visualization of the track formation process is impeded by foot and substrate opacity...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752863/3d-mri-modeling-of-thin-and-spatially-complex-soft-tissue-structures-without-shrinkage-lamprey-myosepta-as-an-example
#2
Bradley M Wood, Guang Jia, Owen Carmichael, Kevin McKlveen, Dominique G Homberger
3D imaging techniques enable the non-destructive analysis and modeling of complex structures. Among these, MRI exhibits good soft tissue contrast, but is currently less commonly used for non-clinical research than x-ray CT, even though the latter requires contrast-staining that shrinks and distorts soft tissues. When the objective is the creation of a realistic and complete 3D model of soft tissue structures, MRI data are more demanding to acquire and visualize and require extensive post-processing because they comprise non-cubic voxels with dimensions that represent a trade-off between tissue contrast and image resolution...
May 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680381/on-the-brink-of-daily-clinical-application-of-objective-gait-analysis-what-evidence-do-we-have-so-far-from-studies-using-an-induced-lameness-model
#3
REVIEW
F M Serra Bragança, M Rhodin, P R van Weeren
Quantitative gait analysis has the potential to offer objective and unbiased gait information that can assist clinical decision-making. In recent years, a growing number of gait analysis systems have come onto the market, highlighting the demand for such technology in equine orthopaedics. However, it is imperative that the measured variables which are used as outcome parameters are supported by scientific evidence and that the interpretation of such measurements is backed by a proper understanding of the biomechanical principles of equine locomotion...
April 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670666/passive-cushiony-biomechanics-of-head-protection-in-falling-geckos
#4
Hao Wang, Wenbo Wang, Yi Song, Lei Cai, Zhendong Dai
Gekko geckos are capable to crawl on the steep even on upside-down surfaces. Such movement, especially at great altitude, puts them at high risks of incidentally dropping down and inevitable body or head impactions, though they may trigger air-righting reaction (ARR) to attenuate the landing shocks. However, the air-righting ability (ARA) in Gekko geckos is not fully developed. The implementation of ARR in some geckos is quite slow; and for those without tails, the ARR is even unobservable. Since ARA is compromised in Gekko geckos , there must be some other mechanisms responsible for protecting them from head injuries during falls...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659583/a-modelling-approach-for-exploring-muscle-dynamics-during-cyclic-contractions
#5
Stephanie A Ross, Nilima Nigam, James M Wakeling
Hill-type muscle models are widely used within the field of biomechanics to predict and understand muscle behaviour, and are often essential where muscle forces cannot be directly measured. However, these models have limited accuracy, particularly during cyclic contractions at the submaximal levels of activation that typically occur during locomotion. To address this issue, recent studies have incorporated effects into Hill-type models that are oftentimes neglected, such as size-dependent, history-dependent, and activation-dependent effects...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657116/gaze-and-the-control-of-foot-placement-when-walking-in-natural-terrain
#6
Jonathan Samir Matthis, Jacob L Yates, Mary M Hayhoe
Human locomotion through natural environments requires precise coordination between the biomechanics of the bipedal gait cycle and the eye movements that gather the information needed to guide foot placement. However, little is known about how the visual and locomotor systems work together to support movement through the world. We developed a system to simultaneously record gaze and full-body kinematics during locomotion over different outdoor terrains. We found that not only do walkers tune their gaze behavior to the specific information needed to traverse paths of varying complexity but that they do so while maintaining a constant temporal look-ahead window across all terrains...
April 12, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653403/concurrent-phone-texting-alters-crossing-behavior-and-induces-gait-imbalance-during-obstacle-crossing
#7
Szu-Hua Chen, On-Yee Lo, Taylor Kay, Li-Shan Chou
Texting during walking has become a very common daily activity and could alter gait performance, especially during locomotion when additional visual attention is demanded, such as obstacle crossing. The purpose of this study was to examine biomechanical changes in obstructed gait characteristics while engaging in a phone texting activity. Gait analyses were performed on ten young healthy adults under the following two tasks: 1) walking and crossing an obstacle set at a 10% of the subject's height and 2) walking and crossing an obstacle while responding to a text message...
April 6, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653340/magnitude-and-variability-of-gait-characteristics-when-walking-on-an-irregular-surface-at-different-speeds
#8
Stephanie Blair, Mark J Lake, Rui Ding, Thorsten Sterzing
Different modes of perturbations have been used to understand how individuals negotiate irregular surfaces, with a general notion that increased locomotion variability induces a positive training stimulus. Individuals tend to walk slower when initially exposed to such locomotion tasks, potentially influencing the magnitude and variability of biomechanical parameters. This study investigated theeffects of gait speed on lower extremity biomechanics when walking on an irregular (IS) and regular surface (RS). Twenty physically active males walked on a RS and IS at three different speeds (4 km/h, 5 km/h, 6 km/h)...
April 10, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599417/robotics-inspired-biology
#9
REVIEW
Nick Gravish, George V Lauder
For centuries, designers and engineers have looked to biology for inspiration. Biologically inspired robots are just one example of the application of knowledge of the natural world to engineering problems. However, recent work by biologists and interdisciplinary teams have flipped this approach, using robots and physical models to set the course for experiments on biological systems and to generate new hypotheses for biological research. We call this approach robotics-inspired biology; it involves performing experiments on robotic systems aimed at the discovery of new biological phenomena or generation of new hypotheses about how organisms function that can then be tested on living organisms...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568785/articular-cartilage-repair-of-the-knee-in-children-and-adolescents
#10
REVIEW
Gian M Salzmann, Philipp Niemeyer, Alfred Hochrein, Martin J Stoddart, Peter Angele
Articular cartilage predominantly serves a biomechanical function, which begins in utero and further develops during growth and locomotion. With regard to its 2-tissue structure (chondrocytes and matrix), the regenerative potential of hyaline cartilage defects is limited. Children and adolescents are increasingly suffering from articular cartilage and osteochondral deficiencies. Traumatic incidents often result in damage to the joint surfaces, while repetitive microtrauma may cause osteochondritis dissecans...
March 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540460/hand-pressures-during-arboreal-locomotion-in-captive-bonobos-pan-paniscus
#11
Diana S Samuel, Sandra Nauwelaerts, Jeroen M G Stevens, Tracy L Kivell
Evolution of the human hand has undergone a transition from use during locomotion to use primarily for manipulation. Previous comparative morphological and biomechanical studies have focused on potential changes in manipulative abilities during human hand evolution, but few have focused on functional signals for arboreal locomotion. Here, we provide this comparative context though the first analysis of hand loading in captive bonobos during arboreal locomotion. We quantify pressure experienced by the fingers, palm and thumb in bonobos during vertical locomotion, suspension and arboreal knuckle-walking...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505917/association-between-stride-time-fractality-and-gait-adaptability-during-unperturbed-and-asymmetric-walking
#12
Scott W Ducharme, Joshua J Liddy, Jeffrey M Haddad, Michael A Busa, Laura J Claxton, Richard E A van Emmerik
Human locomotion is an inherently complex activity that requires the coordination and control of neurophysiological and biomechanical degrees of freedom across various spatiotemporal scales. Locomotor patterns must constantly be altered in the face of changing environmental or task demands, such as heterogeneous terrains or obstacles. Variability in stride times occurring at short time scales (e.g., 5-10 strides) is statistically correlated to larger fluctuations occurring over longer time scales (e.g., 50-100 strides)...
April 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498028/a-new-direction-to-athletic-performance-understanding-the-acute-and-longitudinal-responses-to-backward-running
#13
REVIEW
Aaron Uthoff, Jon Oliver, John Cronin, Craig Harrison, Paul Winwood
Backward running (BR) is a form of locomotion that occurs in short bursts during many overground field and court sports. It has also traditionally been used in clinical settings as a method to rehabilitate lower body injuries. Comparisons between BR and forward running (FR) have led to the discovery that both may be generated by the same neural circuitry. Comparisons of the acute responses to FR reveal that BR is characterised by a smaller ratio of braking to propulsive forces, increased step frequency, decreased step length, increased muscle activity and reliance on isometric and concentric muscle actions...
May 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489844/phalangeal-joints-kinematics-in-ostrich-struthio-camelus-locomotion-on-sand
#14
Rui Zhang, Qiaoli Ji, Dianlei Han, Haijin Wan, Xiujuan Li, Gang Luo, Shuliang Xue, Songsong Ma, Mingming Yang, Jianqiao Li
In ostriches, the toes are the only body parts that contact loose sand surfaces. Thus, toe interphalangeal joint motions may play vital biomechanical roles. However, there is little research on ostrich phalangeal joint movements while walking or running on sand. The results from the three-dimensional motion track analysis system Simi Motion show that gait pattern has no significant effect on the key indicators (angles at touch-down, mid-stance, lift-off and range of motion) of the toe joint angles. The motion of the toe phalanges when walking and running on sand is basically the same...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466362/the-influence-of-speed-and-size-on-avian-terrestrial-locomotor-biomechanics-predicting-locomotion-in-extinct-theropod-dinosaurs
#15
P J Bishop, D F Graham, L P Lamas, J R Hutchinson, J Rubenson, J A Hancock, R S Wilson, S A Hocknull, R S Barrett, D G Lloyd, C J Clemente
How extinct, non-avian theropod dinosaurs moved is a subject of considerable interest and controversy. A better understanding of non-avian theropod locomotion can be achieved by better understanding terrestrial locomotor biomechanics in their modern descendants, birds. Despite much research on the subject, avian terrestrial locomotion remains little explored in regards to how kinematic and kinetic factors vary together with speed and body size. Here, terrestrial locomotion was investigated in twelve species of ground-dwelling bird, spanning a 1,780-fold range in body mass, across almost their entire speed range...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459072/stride-length-determination-during-overground-running-using-a-single-foot-mounted-inertial-measurement-unit
#16
C Markus Brahms, Yang Zhao, David Gerhard, John M Barden
From a research perspective, detailed knowledge about stride length (SL) is important for coaches, clinicians and researchers because together with stride rate it determines the speed of locomotion. Moreover, individual SL vectors represent the integrated output of different biomechanical determinants and as such provide valuable insight into the control of running gait. In recent years, several studies have tried to estimate SL using body-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) and have reported promising results...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418119/leg-muscle-architecture-in-primates-and-its-correlation-with-locomotion-patterns
#17
Damiano Marchi, Carissa L Leischner, Francisco Pastor, Adam Hartstone-Rose
Bone biomechanical studies indicate that leg bone structure can be related to different locomotor patterns. The osteological correlates of extant primates' locomotion patterns and substrate use are important to consider when estimating corresponding behaviors of extinct primates. Here, we test if these same patterns are seen in the differences in leg muscular architecture. Muscle mass, fascicle lengths (FL), physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), reduced PCSA (RPCSA) and tendon-to-muscle belly ratio were studied in 33 primate species (6 strepsirrhines, 14 platyrrhines and 13 catarrhines)...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418111/scaling-of-primate-forearm-muscle-architecture-as-it-relates-to-locomotion-and-posture
#18
Carissa L Leischner, Michael Crouch, Kari L Allen, Damiano Marchi, Francisco Pastor, Adam Hartstone-Rose
It has been previously proposed that distal humerus morphology may reflect the locomotor pattern and substrate preferred by different primates. However, relationships between these behaviors and the morphological capabilities of muscles originating on these osteological structures have not been fully explored. Here, we present data about forearm muscle architecture in a sample of 44 primate species (N = 55 specimens): 9 strepsirrhines, 15 platyrrhines, and 20 catarrhines. The sample includes all major locomotor and substrate use groups...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380887/developments-in-development-what-have-we-learned-from-primate-locomotor-ontogeny
#19
REVIEW
Jesse W Young, Liza J Shapiro
The importance of locomotion to evolutionary fitness has led to extensive study of primate locomotor behavior, morphology and ecology. Most previous research has focused on adult primates, but in the last few decades, increased attention to locomotor development has provided new insights toward our broader understanding of primate adaptation and evolution. Here, we review the contributions of this body of work from three basic perspectives. First, we assess possible determinants on the timing of locomotor independence, an important life history event...
January 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376858/exercise-training-on-locomotion-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-feasibility-study
#20
Anna Pedrinolla, Massimo Venturelli, Cristina Fonte, Daniele Munari, Maria Vittoria Benetti, Doriana Rudi, Stefano Tamburin, Ettore Muti, Luisa Zanolla, Nicola Smania, Federico Schena
BACKGROUND: Although current literature has shown that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have worse locomotion compared with healthy counterparts, no studies have focused on the efficacy of exercise training in improving gait abnormalities including biomechanics and metabolic aspects, in this population. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effectiveness of exercise training (ET) on gait parameters (i.e., speed, step and stride length, single and double support, and energy cost of walking (Cw)) in patients with AD with respect to a standard cognitive treatment (CT)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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