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Biomechanic locomotion

Diana S Samuel, Sandra Nauwelaerts, Jeroen M G Stevens, Tracy L Kivell
Evolution of the human hand has undergone a transition from use during locomotion to use primarily for manipulation. Previous comparative morphological and biomechanical studies have focused on potential changes in manipulative abilities during human hand evolution, but few have focused on functional signals for arboreal locomotion. Here, we provide this comparative context though the first analysis of hand loading in captive bonobos during arboreal locomotion. We quantify pressure experienced by the fingers, palm and thumb in bonobos during vertical locomotion, suspension and arboreal knuckle-walking...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Scott W Ducharme, Joshua J Liddy, Jeffrey M Haddad, Michael A Busa, Laura J Claxton, Richard E A van Emmerik
Human locomotion is an inherently complex activity that requires the coordination and control of neurophysiological and biomechanical degrees of freedom across various spatiotemporal scales. Locomotor patterns must constantly be altered in the face of changing environmental or task demands, such as heterogeneous terrains or obstacles. Variability in stride times occurring at short time scales (e.g., 5-10 strides) is statistically correlated to larger fluctuations occurring over longer time scales (e.g., 50-100 strides)...
March 2, 2018: Human Movement Science
Aaron Uthoff, Jon Oliver, John Cronin, Craig Harrison, Paul Winwood
Backward running (BR) is a form of locomotion that occurs in short bursts during many overground field and court sports. It has also traditionally been used in clinical settings as a method to rehabilitate lower body injuries. Comparisons between BR and forward running (FR) have led to the discovery that both may be generated by the same neural circuitry. Comparisons of the acute responses to FR reveal that BR is characterised by a smaller ratio of braking to propulsive forces, increased step frequency, decreased step length, increased muscle activity and reliance on isometric and concentric muscle actions...
March 1, 2018: Sports Medicine
Rui Zhang, Qiaoli Ji, Dianlei Han, Haijin Wan, Xiujuan Li, Gang Luo, Shuliang Xue, Songsong Ma, Mingming Yang, Jianqiao Li
In ostriches, the toes are the only body parts that contact loose sand surfaces. Thus, toe interphalangeal joint motions may play vital biomechanical roles. However, there is little research on ostrich phalangeal joint movements while walking or running on sand. The results from the three-dimensional motion track analysis system Simi Motion show that gait pattern has no significant effect on the key indicators (angles at touch-down, mid-stance, lift-off and range of motion) of the toe joint angles. The motion of the toe phalanges when walking and running on sand is basically the same...
2018: PloS One
P J Bishop, D F Graham, L P Lamas, J R Hutchinson, J Rubenson, J A Hancock, R S Wilson, S A Hocknull, R S Barrett, D G Lloyd, C J Clemente
How extinct, non-avian theropod dinosaurs moved is a subject of considerable interest and controversy. A better understanding of non-avian theropod locomotion can be achieved by better understanding terrestrial locomotor biomechanics in their modern descendants, birds. Despite much research on the subject, avian terrestrial locomotion remains little explored in regards to how kinematic and kinetic factors vary together with speed and body size. Here, terrestrial locomotion was investigated in twelve species of ground-dwelling bird, spanning a 1,780-fold range in body mass, across almost their entire speed range...
2018: PloS One
C Markus Brahms, Yang Zhao, David Gerhard, John M Barden
From a research perspective, detailed knowledge about stride length (SL) is important for coaches, clinicians and researchers because together with stride rate it determines the speed of locomotion. Moreover, individual SL vectors represent the integrated output of different biomechanical determinants and as such provide valuable insight into the control of running gait. In recent years, several studies have tried to estimate SL using body-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) and have reported promising results...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Damiano Marchi, Carissa L Leischner, Francisco Pastor, Adam Hartstone-Rose
Bone biomechanical studies indicate that leg bone structure can be related to different locomotor patterns. The osteological correlates of extant primates' locomotion patterns and substrate use are important to consider when estimating corresponding behaviors of extinct primates. Here, we test if these same patterns are seen in the differences in leg muscular architecture. Muscle mass, fascicle lengths (FL), physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), reduced PCSA (RPCSA) and tendon-to-muscle belly ratio were studied in 33 primate species (6 strepsirrhines, 14 platyrrhines and 13 catarrhines)...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Carissa L Leischner, Michael Crouch, Kari L Allen, Damiano Marchi, Francisco Pastor, Adam Hartstone-Rose
It has been previously proposed that distal humerus morphology may reflect the locomotor pattern and substrate preferred by different primates. However, relationships between these behaviors and the morphological capabilities of muscles originating on these osteological structures have not been fully explored. Here, we present data about forearm muscle architecture in a sample of 44 primate species (N = 55 specimens): 9 strepsirrhines, 15 platyrrhines, and 20 catarrhines. The sample includes all major locomotor and substrate use groups...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Jesse W Young, Liza J Shapiro
The importance of locomotion to evolutionary fitness has led to extensive study of primate locomotor behavior, morphology and ecology. Most previous research has focused on adult primates, but in the last few decades, increased attention to locomotor development has provided new insights toward our broader understanding of primate adaptation and evolution. Here, we review the contributions of this body of work from three basic perspectives. First, we assess possible determinants on the timing of locomotor independence, an important life history event...
January 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Anna Pedrinolla, Massimo Venturelli, Cristina Fonte, Daniele Munari, Maria Vittoria Benetti, Doriana Rudi, Stefano Tamburin, Ettore Muti, Luisa Zanolla, Nicola Smania, Federico Schena
BACKGROUND: Although current literature has shown that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have worse locomotion compared with healthy counterparts, no studies have focused on the efficacy of exercise training in improving gait abnormalities including biomechanics and metabolic aspects, in this population. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effectiveness of exercise training (ET) on gait parameters (i.e., speed, step and stride length, single and double support, and energy cost of walking (Cw)) in patients with AD with respect to a standard cognitive treatment (CT)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jaehyun Bae, Louis N Awad, Andrew Long, Kathleen O'Donnell, Katy Hendron, Kenneth G Holt, Terry D Ellis, Conor J Walsh
Stroke-induced hemiparetic gait is characteristically asymmetric and metabolically expensive. Weakness and impaired control of the paretic ankle contribute to reduced forward propulsion and ground clearance-walking subtasks critical for safe and efficient locomotion. Targeted gait interventions that improve paretic ankle function after stroke are therefore warranted. We have developed textile-based, soft wearable robots that transmit mechanical power generated by off-board or body-worn actuators to the paretic ankle using Bowden cables (soft exosuits) and have demonstrated the exosuits can overcome deficits in paretic limb forward propulsion and ground clearance, ultimately reducing the metabolic cost of hemiparetic walking...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Sophie Regnault, Vivian R Allen, Kyle P Chadwick, John R Hutchinson
The patella ("kneecap") is a biomechanically important feature of the tendinous insertion of the knee extensor muscles, able to alter the moment arm lengths between its input and output tendons, and so modify the mechanical advantage of the knee extensor muscle. However, patellar gearing function is little-explored outside of humans, and the patella is often simplified or ignored in biomechanical models. Here, we investigate patellar gearing and kinematics in the ostrich-frequently used as an animal analogue to human bipedal locomotion and unusual in its possession of two patellae at the knee joint...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Alexandra S Voloshina, Daniel P Ferris
Studying human and animal locomotion on uneven terrain can be beneficial to basic science and applied studies for clinical and robotic applications. Traditional biomechanical analysis of human locomotion has often been limited to laboratory environments with flat, smooth runways and treadmills. We modified a regular exercise treadmill by attaching wooden blocks to the treadmill belt to yield an uneven locomotion surface. To ensure that these treadmill modifications facilitated biomechanical measurements, we compared ground reaction force data collected during running on the modified instrumented treadmill with a smooth surface to data collected using a conventional instrumented treadmill...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Enrica Sipio, Anna Dickmann, Irene Aprile, Marco Germanotta, Chiara Simbolotti, Annabella Salerni, Gustavo Savino, Luca Padua
Strabismus is a common visual disorder that negatively affects walking and balance. Therapeutic interventions for strabismus include strabismus surgery. Few studies investigated the relationship between strabismus surgery and postural control while, to the best of our knowledge, none has been conducted to assess the influence of strabismus surgery on gait. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the locomotion characteristics over patients with congenital or starting within one year of age strabismus, one month and three months after strabismus surgery...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Zexing Yan, Heyong Yin, Michael Nerlich, Christian G Pfeifer, Denitsa Docheva
BACKGROUND: Tendons are dense connective tissues and critical components for the integrity and function of the musculoskeletal system. Tendons connect bone to muscle and transmit forces on which locomotion entirely depends. Due to trauma, overuse and age-related degeneration, many people suffer from acute or chronic tendon injuries. Owing to their hypovascularity and hypocellularity, tendinopathies remain a substantial challenge for both clinicians and researchers. Surgical treatment includes suture or transplantation of autograft, allograft or xenograft, and these serve as the most common technique for rescuing tendon injuries...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Marco Iosa, Giovanni Morone, Stefano Paolucci
In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the use of the so-called golden ratio (Phi, ϕ), an irrational number with fractal properties, used in artworks since V century BC. and now for modelling complex biological structures and functions. This number, in fact, recursively pops-up in human history, from Ancient Greeks to Renaissance, and to contemporary scientific studies. Nevertheless, recent scientific results often fall between two extremes: those of a priori sceptic researchers accusing the artificial emergence of ϕ in many studies, and those of researchers that find a mystic meaning in the presence of ϕ in human physiology...
January 6, 2018: Bio Systems
Philippe Saltiel, Andrea d'Avella, Matthew C Tresch, Kuno Wyler, Emilio Bizzi
The central pattern generator (CPG) architecture for rhythm generation remains partly elusive. We compare cat and frog locomotion results, where the component unrelated to pattern formation appears as a temporal grid, and traveling wave respectively. Frog spinal cord microstimulation with N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA), a CPG activator, produced a limited set of force directions, sometimes tonic, but more often alternating between directions similar to the tonic forces. The tonic forces were topographically organized, and sites evoking rhythms with different force subsets were located close to the constituent tonic force regions...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Otar Akanyeti, Joy Putney, Yuzo R Yanagitsuru, George V Lauder, William J Stewart, James C Liao
Swimming animals need to generate propulsive force to overcome drag, regardless of whether they swim steadily or accelerate forward. While locomotion strategies for steady swimming are well characterized, far less is known about acceleration. Animals exhibit many different ways to swim steadily, but we show here that this behavioral diversity collapses into a single swimming pattern during acceleration regardless of the body size, morphology, and ecology of the animal. We draw on the fields of biomechanics, fluid dynamics, and robotics to demonstrate that there is a fundamental difference between steady swimming and forward acceleration...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Alejandro Otero, Vivian Allen, Diego Pol, John R Hutchinson
Many of the major locomotor transitions during the evolution of Archosauria, the lineage including crocodiles and birds as well as extinct Dinosauria, were shifts from quadrupedalism to bipedalism (and vice versa). Those occurred within a continuum between more sprawling and erect modes of locomotion and involved drastic changes of limb anatomy and function in several lineages, including sauropodomorph dinosaurs. We present biomechanical computer models of two locomotor extremes within Archosauria in an analysis of joint ranges of motion and the moment arms of the major forelimb muscles in order to quantify biomechanical differences between more sprawling, pseudosuchian (represented the crocodile Crocodylus johnstoni ) and more erect, dinosaurian (represented by the sauropodomorph Mussaurus patagonicus ) modes of forelimb function...
2017: PeerJ
Huaibin Miao, Jun Fu, Zhihui Qian, Luquan Ren, Lei Ren
Macroscopic mechanical properties of digitigrade paw pads, such as non-linear elastic and variable stiffness, have been investigated in previous studies; however, little is known about the micro-scale structural characteristics of digitigrade paw pads, or the relationship between these characteristics and the exceptional cushioning of the pads. The digitigrade paw pad consists of a multi-layered structure, which is mainly comprised of a stratified epithelium layer, a dermis layer and a subcutaneous layer. The stratified epithelium layer and dermal papillae constitute the epidermis layer...
December 15, 2017: Biology Open
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