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Parkinson's disease and neuroprotection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746897/parkinsonian-features-in-aging-gfap-hmox1-transgenic-mice-overexpressing-human-ho-1-in-the-astroglial-compartment
#1
Wei Song, Marisa Cressatti, Hillel Zukor, Adrienne Liberman, Carmela Galindez, Hyman M Schipper
Epigenetic influences mediating brain iron deposition, oxidative mitochondrial injury, and macroautophagy in Parkinson disease and related conditions remain enigmatic. Here, we show that selective overexpression of the stress protein, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in astrocytes of GFAP.HMOX1 transgenic mice between 8.5 and 19 months of age results in nigrostriatal hypodopaminergia associated with locomotor incoordination and stereotypy; downregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, DAT, LMX1B, Nurr1, Pitx3 and DJ-1 mRNA and/or protein; overproduction of α-synuclein and ubiquitin; oxidative stress; basal ganglia siderosis; mitochondrial damage/mitophagy; and augmented GABAergic systems (increased GABA, GAD67 and reelin)...
June 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738770/effects-of-resveratrol-and-other-polyphenols-on-the-most-common-brain-age-related-diseases
#2
Fiorella Sarubbo, David Moranta, Victor Jose Asensio, Antonio Miralles, Susana Esteban
With the global increase in the elderly population, modern societies must meet the challenge to find strategies to reduce the consequences of aging process; thereby decreasing the incidence of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Over the last two decades, oxidative stress and recently inflammation, have been pointed out as the leading causes of brain aging. As a suggested treatment, the consumption or administration of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecules, such as polyphenols, present in food, is recommended as a beneficial strategy for preventing brain aging and several brain age-related diseases...
July 24, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729832/the-role-of-microglia-in-retinal-neurodegeneration-alzheimer-s-disease-parkinson-and-glaucoma
#3
REVIEW
Ana I Ramirez, Rosa de Hoz, Elena Salobrar-Garcia, Juan J Salazar, Blanca Rojas, Daniel Ajoy, Inés López-Cuenca, Pilar Rojas, Alberto Triviño, José M Ramírez
Microglia, the immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system (CNS), act as neuropathology sensors and are neuroprotective under physiological conditions. Microglia react to injury and degeneration with immune-phenotypic and morphological changes, proliferation, migration, and inflammatory cytokine production. An uncontrolled microglial response secondary to sustained CNS damage can put neuronal survival at risk due to excessive inflammation. A neuroinflammatory response is considered among the etiological factors of the major aged-related neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS, and microglial cells are key players in these neurodegenerative lesions...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728000/tailor-made-purified-human-platelet-lysate-concentrated-in-neurotrophins-for-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Ming-Li Chou, Joe-Wei Wu, Flore Gouel, Aurélie Jonneaux, Kelly Timmerman, Ting-Yi Renn, Charlotte Laloux, Hung-Ming Chang, Liang-Tzung Lin, Jean-Christophe Devedjian, David Devos, Thierry Burnouf
Human platelet lysates (PLs), which contain multiple neurotrophins, have been proposed for treating neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). However, current PLs suspended in plasma have high protein content and contain fibrinogen/fibrin and, following activation, also proteolytic and thrombogenic enzymes. Upon brain administration, such PLs may saturate the cerebrospinal fluid and exert neurotoxicity. We assessed whether purified PLs, concentrated in neurotrophins, protected dopaminergic neurons in PD models...
July 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717970/prostaglandin-ep2-receptors-mediate-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-neuroprotective-effects-on-dopaminergic-neurons
#5
Juan Andrés Parga, María García-Garrote, Salvador Martínez, Ángel Raya, José Luis Labandeira-García, Jannette Rodríguez-Pallares
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to have useful properties for cell therapy and have been proposed for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease. However, the mechanisms involved in recovering dopaminergic neurons are not clear. The present study aims to evaluate the pathways and molecules involved in the neuroprotective effect of MSCs. We analyzed the viability of dopaminergic cells from different sources in response to conditioned medium derived from bone marrow MSC (MSC-CM)...
July 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714346/neuroprotective-effects-of-cassia-tora-against-paraquat-induced-neurodegeneration-relevance-for-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Sunil K Ravi, Ramesh B Narasingappa, Chandrashekar G Joshi, Talakatta K Girish, Bruno Vincent
The aim of the present study was to determine whether Cassia tora extracts could reverse the oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration in a Parkinson's disease in vitro model. The leaves were treated with ethyl acetate (CtEA) or methanol (CtME). The extracts were first analysed by HPLC for their phenolic content and then tested for their neuroprotective effects in human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. Cells were pre-treated with various concentrations of extracts followed by incubation with paraquat (14 μM)...
July 16, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711564/role-of-estrogen-and-levodopa-in-1-methyl-4-pheny-l-1-2-3-6-tetrahydropyridine-mptp-induced-cognitive-deficit-in-parkinsonian-ovariectomized-mice-model-a-comparative-study
#7
Satyndra Kumar Yadav, Shivani Pandey, Babita Singh
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disease found in the aging population. Currently, many studies are being conducted to find a suitable and effective cure for PD, with an emphasis on the use of herbal plants. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of estrogen was evaluated in the 1-methyl-4-phe-nyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD with cognitive deficit and compared to Levodopa (LD), a well reported neuroprotective agent used for treating PD. Twenty-four Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control, MPTP, MPTP+LD and MPTP+estrogen...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711402/beneficial-effects-of-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-in-brain-disorders
#8
REVIEW
J M Saavedra
A canonical brain Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), like the canonical peripheral RAS, has long been proposed as a major regulator of brain function. Because of methodological limitations, however, this system is in urgent need of critical revision. The Angiotensin II AT1 receptors have been confirmed as key factors in the regulation of brain function, and AT1 receptor over activity has been established as a major and early injury factor in the development of many brain diseases. Consequently, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs), compounds widely used to treat cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, are excellent candidates for repurposing for the treatment of brain disorders...
July 12, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699520/therapeutic-strategy-of-targeting-astrocytes-for-neuroprotection-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Ikuko Miyazaki, Masato Asanuma
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of common neurodegenerative diseases, which shows motor symptoms including tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and postural instability. It also involves non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment, mental manifestation, autonomic disorder and sensory disturbance. Although treatments to improve the motor disability in PD are being assessed at present, the main challenge remains that is the development of neuroprotective or disease-modifying treatments. Therefore, it is desirable to find approaches that can inhibit the progression of dopaminergic neurodegeneration...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697377/absence-of-regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-4-does-not-protect-against-dopamine-neuron-dysfunction-and-injury-in-the-mouse-6-hydroxydopamine-lesion-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Amer Ashrafi, Pierre Garcia, Heike Kollmus, Klaus Schughart, Antonio Del Sol, Manuel Buttini, Enrico Glaab
Regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4), a member of the RGS family of proteins that inactivate G-proteins, has gained interest as a potential drug target for neurological disorders, such as epilepsy and Parkinson's disease (PD). In the case of PD, the main current options for alleviating motor symptoms are dopamine replacement therapies, which have limitations because of side effects and reduced effectiveness over the long term. Research on new nondopaminergic PD drug targets has indicated that inhibition of RGS4 could be an effective adjuvant treatment option...
June 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697282/exploring-the-potential-of-natural-and-synthetic-neuroprotective-steroids-against-neurodegenerative-disorders-a-literature-review
#11
REVIEW
Ranju Bansal, Ranjit Singh
Neurodegeneration is a complex process, which leads to progressive brain damage due to loss of neurons. Despite exhaustive research, the cause of neuronal loss in various degenerative disorders is not entirely understood. Neuroprotective steroids constitute an important line of attack, which could play a major role against the common mechanisms associated with various neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Natural endogenous steroids induce the neuroprotection by protecting the nerve cells from neuronal injury through multiple mechanisms, therefore the structural modifications of the endogenous steroids could be helpful in the generation of new therapeutically useful neuroprotective agents...
July 11, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696167/neuroprotective-effect-of-%C3%AE-mangostin-on-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregation-in-rotenone-induced-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-differentiated-sh-sy5y-cells
#12
Xin-Mei Hao, Lian-Da Li, Chang-Ling Duan, Yu-Juan Li
The study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of α-mangostin and explore its mechanism in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by rotenone. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with rotenone and α-mangostin for 24 h. α-Mangostin significantly and concentration-dependently inhibited rotenone-induced cytotoxicity. The rotenone-induced aggregation of α-synuclein and loss of TH were alleviated by α-mangostin. α-Mangostin treatment also reversed the rotenone-induced overproduction of reactive oxygen species, activation of caspases (-8 and -3) and mitochondrial dysfunction, reflected by decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP levels...
August 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695482/role-of-apolipoproteins-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Fatemeh Nouri Emamzadeh
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive brain disorder that interferes with activities of normal life. The main pathological feature of this disease is the loss of more than 80% of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Dopaminergic neuronal cell death occurs when intraneuronal, insoluble, aggregated proteins start to form Lewy bodies (LBs), the most important component of which is a protein called α-synuclein (α-syn). α-Syn structurally contains hexameric repeats of 11 amino acids, which are characteristic of apolipoproteins and thus α-syn can also be considered an apolipoprotein...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695462/transgenic-mice-overexpressing-the-divalent-metal-transporter-1-exhibit-iron-accumulation-and-enhanced-parkin-expression-in-the-brain
#14
Cheng-Wu Zhang, Yee Kit Tai, Bing-Han Chai, Katherine C M Chew, Eng-Tat Ang, Fai Tsang, Bryce W Q Tan, Eugenia T E Hong, Abu Bakar Ali Asad, Kai-Hsiang Chuang, Kah-Leong Lim, Tuck Wah Soong
Exposure to divalent metals such as iron and manganese is thought to increase the risk for Parkinson's disease (PD). Under normal circumstances, cellular iron and manganese uptake is regulated by the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). Accordingly, alterations in DMT1 levels may underlie the abnormal accumulation of metal ions and thereby disease pathogenesis. Here, we have generated transgenic mice overexpressing DMT1 under the direction of a mouse prion promoter and demonstrated its robust expression in several regions of the brain...
July 10, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694175/daily-consumption-of-methylene-blue-reduces-attentional-deficits-and-dopamine-reduction-in-a-6-ohda-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Elizabeth S Smith, Madeline E Clark, Gwendolyn A Hardy, David J Kraan, Elisa Biondo, F Gonzalez-Lima, Lawrence K Cormack, Marie Monfils, Hongjoo J Lee
Recently, alternative drug therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) have been investigated as there are many shortcomings of traditional dopamine-based therapies including difficulties in treating cognitive and attentional dysfunction. A promising therapeutic avenue is to target mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in PD. One option might be the use of methylene blue (MB), an antioxidant and metabolic enhancer. MB has been shown to improve cognitive function in both intact rodents and rodent disease models...
July 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684694/neuroprotective-effects-of-%C3%AE-caryophyllene-against-dopaminergic-neuron-injury-in-a-murine-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-induced-by-mptp
#16
Juan M Viveros-Paredes, Rocio E González-Castañeda, Juerg Gertsch, Veronica Chaparro-Huerta, Rocio I López-Roa, Eduardo Vázquez-Valls, Carlos Beas-Zarate, Antoni Camins-Espuny, Mario E Flores-Soto
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders and is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Although the causes of PD are not understood, evidence suggests that its pathogenesis is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Recent studies have suggested a protective role of the cannabinoid signalling system in PD. β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that is an agonist of the cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R)...
July 6, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681931/assessments-of-plasma-ghrelin-levels-in-the-early-stages-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Ning Song, Weiwei Wang, Fengjv Jia, Xixun Du, Anmu Xie, Qing He, Xiaoli Shen, Jing Zhang, Jack T Rogers, Junxia Xie, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms are early events in Parkinson's disease (PD). The gastrointestinal hormone ghrelin was neuroprotective in the nigrostriatal dopamine system. The objective of this study was to assess ghrelin levels in the early stages of PD. METHODS: Plasma was collected in the fasting state in 291 PD patients in stages 1-3 and 303 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Additional samples were taken in the glucose response test to assess nutrition-related ghrelin levels in 20 PD patients and 20 healthy controls...
July 6, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676349/immunoregulatory-effect-of-mast-cells-influenced-by-microbes-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#18
Francesco Girolamo, Coppola Cristiana Coppola, Domenico Ribatti
When related to central nervous system (CNS) health and disease, brain mast cells (MCs) can be a source of either beneficial or deleterious signals acting on neural cells. We review the current state of knowledge about molecular interactions between MCs and glia in neurodegenerative diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy. We also discuss the influence on MC actions evoked by the host microbiota, which has a profound effect on the host immune system, inducing important consequences in neurodegenerative disorders...
July 1, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673122/rejuvenating-effect-of-long-term-igf-i-gene-therapy-in-the-hypothalamus-of-aged-rats-with-dopaminergic-dysfunction
#19
Jose Ignacio Schwerdt, Micaela Lopez-Leon, Gloria Miriam Console, Oscar Alfedo Brown, Gustavo Ramon Morel, Eduardo Spinedi, Rodolfo Gustavo Goya
The aging female rat constitutes an interesting model of spontaneous and progressive age-related dopaminergic dysfunction as it allows assessing new therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is emerging as a powerful neuroprotective molecule which is strongly induced in the central nervous system after different insults. We constructed a helper-dependent recombinant adenoviral vector (HDRAd-IGFI) harboring the gene for rat IGF-I. This was used it to implement long-term IGF-I gene therapy in the hypothalamus of aged female rats, which display hypothalamic dopaminergic (DA) dysfunction and as a consequence, chronic hyperprolactinemia...
July 3, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672983/neuroprotective-effect-of-carnosine-against-salsolinol-induced-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Jun Zhao, Lei Shi, Li-Rong Zhang
Carnosine is a dipeptide of β-alanine and histidine amino acids. It is widely present in muscle and brain tissues. Carnosine has been demonstrated to be an antioxidant agent that is beneficial in animals. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and aldehydes are are generated from membrane fatty acid oxidation. The antioxidant potential and toxicity of salsolinol had been extensively studied in vivo and in vitro. The present study analyzed the protective effect of carnosine against Parkinson's disease in the salsolinol-induced rat brain and rat brain endothelial cells...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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