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Parkinson's disease and neuroplasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908782/adaptive-responses-of-neuronal-mitochondria-to-bioenergetic-challenges-roles-in-neuroplasticity-and-disease-resistance
#1
REVIEW
Sophia M Raefsky, Mark P Mattson
An important concept in neurobiology is "neurons that fire together, wire together" which means that the formation and maintenance of synapses is promoted by activation of those synapses. Very similar to the effects of the stress of exercise on muscle cells, emerging findings suggest that neurons respond to activity by activating signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+), CREB, PGC-1α, NF-κB) that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular stress resistance. These pathways are also activated by aerobic exercise and food deprivation, two bioenergetic challenges of fundamental importance in the evolution of the brains of all mammals, including humans...
November 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859864/l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-and-neuroinflammation-do-microglia-and-astrocytes-play-a-role
#2
REVIEW
Anna R Carta, Giovanna Mulas, Mariza Bortolanza, Terence Duarte, Elisabetta Pillai, Gilberto Fisone, Rita Raisman Vozari, Elaine Del-Bel
In Parkinson's disease (PD), l-DOPA therapy leads to the emergence of motor complications including l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). LID relies on a sequence of pre- and postsynaptic neuronal events, leading to abnormal corticostriatal neurotransmission and maladaptive changes in striatal projection neurons. In recent years, additional non-neuronal mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to LID. Among these mechanisms, considerable attention has been focused on l-DOPA-induced inflammatory responses. Microglia and astrocytes are the main actors in neuroinflammatory responses, and their double role at the interface between immune and neurophysiological responses is starting to be elucidated...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778158/neurorehabilitation-applied-neuroplasticity
#3
Fary Khan, Bhasker Amatya, Mary P Galea, Roman Gonzenbach, Jürg Kesselring
The prevalence of disability due to neurological conditions is escalating worldwide. Neurological disorders have significant disability-burden with long-term functional and psychosocial issues, requiring specialized rehabilitation services for comprehensive management, especially treatments tapping into brain recovery 'neuroplastic' processes. Neurorehabilitation is interdisciplinary and cross-sectorial, requiring coordinated effort of diverse sectors, professions, patients and community to manage complex condition-related disability...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566172/paradoxical-facilitation-after-depotentiation-protocol-can-precede-dyskinesia-onset-in-early-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Angel Lago-Rodriguez, Viviana Ponzo, Ned Jenkinson, Sonia Benitez-Rivero, Miguel Fernandez Del-Olmo, Michele Hu, Giacomo Koch, Binith Cheeran
Loss of dopamine, a key modulator of synaptic signalling, and subsequent pulsatile non-physiological levodopa replacement is believed to underlie altered neuroplasticity in Parkinson's disease (PD). Animal models suggest that maladaptive plasticity (e.g. deficient depotentiation at corticostriatal synapses) is key in the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID), a common complication following levodopa replacement in PD. Human studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols have shown similar depotentiation deficit in patients with LID...
August 26, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445739/does-a-combination-of-virtual-reality-neuromodulation-and-neuroimaging-provide-a-comprehensive-platform-for-neurorehabilitation-a-narrative-review-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
Wei-Peng Teo, Makii Muthalib, Sami Yamin, Ashlee M Hendy, Kelly Bramstedt, Eleftheria Kotsopoulos, Stephane Perrey, Hasan Ayaz
In the last decade, virtual reality (VR) training has been used extensively in video games and military training to provide a sense of realism and environmental interaction to its users. More recently, VR training has been explored as a possible adjunct therapy for people with motor and mental health dysfunctions. The concept underlying VR therapy as a treatment for motor and cognitive dysfunction is to improve neuroplasticity of the brain by engaging users in multisensory training. In this review, we discuss the theoretical framework underlying the use of VR as a therapeutic intervention for neurorehabilitation and provide evidence for its use in treating motor and mental disorders such as cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, stroke, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, and other related clinical areas...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442690/neurorescue-by-a-ros-decomposition-catalyst
#6
Matan Soll, Orit Bar Am, Atif Mahammed, Irena Saltsman, Silvia Mandel, Moussa B H Youdim, Zeev Gross
The effect of the bis-sulfonated iron(III) corrole (1-Fe), a potent decomposition catalyst of reactive oxygen species, on rescuing SN4741 cells that were damaged by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was investigated as an in vitro model system for studying cell death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Important findings that accompanied the ability to rescue do-paminergic neurons were increased expression of phenotypic dopaminergic proteins, such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopa-mine transporter (DAT), which were significantly depleted upon 6-OHDA-induced damage...
July 21, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27370938/neurochemical-correlation-between-major-depressive-disorder-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Gislaine Z Réus, Stephanie E Titus, Helena M Abelaira, Sharon M Freitas, Talita Tuon, João Quevedo, Josiane Budni
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent and life-threatening forms of mental illnesses affecting elderly people and has been associated with poor cognitive function. Recent evidence suggests a strong relationship between MDD and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), as well as natural processes of aging. Changes in the neuroplasticity, morphology, and neurotransmission in the brain are seem to be associated to both, MDD and neurodegenerative diseases...
August 1, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245919/low-bdnf-is-associated-with-cognitive-impairments-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Yu Wang, Hong Liu, Ben-Shu Zhang, Jair C Soares, Xiang Yang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in neuroplasticity in the hippocampus that is related to learning and memory. Parkinson disease (PD) is associated with impairment of cognitive function that may evolve from decreased BDNF. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of BDNF with cognitive impairment in PD. METHODS: We compared 97 PD patients to 102 healthy controls on serum BDNF and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS)...
August 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213774/real-time-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-neurofeedback-in-motor-neurorehabilitation
#9
David E J Linden, Duncan L Turner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent developments in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have catalyzed a new field of translational neuroscience. Using fMRI to monitor the aspects of task-related changes in neural activation or brain connectivity, investigators can offer feedback of simple or complex neural signals/patterns back to the participant on a quasireal-time basis [real-time-fMRI-based neurofeedback (rt-fMRI-NF)]. Here, we introduce some background methodology of the new developments in this field and give a perspective on how they may be used in neurorehabilitation in the future...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27177725/increased-expression-of-endocytosis-related-proteins-in-rat-hippocampus-following-10-day-electroconvulsive-seizure-treatment
#10
Shingo Enomoto, Kunio Shimizu, Masashi Nibuya, Hiroyuki Toda, Aihide Yoshino, Eiji Suzuki, Takashi Kondo, Hiroshi Fukuda
Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is clinically used for severe depression and drug-resistant Parkinson's disease, its exact biological background and mechanism have not yet been fully elucidated. Two potential explanations have been presented so far to explain the increased neuroplastic and resilient profiles of multiple ECT administrations. One is the alteration of central neurotransmitter receptor densities and the other is the expressional upregulation of brain derived neurotrophic factor in various brain regions with enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis and mossy fiber sprouting...
June 15, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148016/the-network-model-of-depression-as-a-basis-for-new-therapeutic-strategies-for-treating-major-depressive-disorder-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Kevin D'Ostilio, Gaëtan Garraux
The high prevalence of major depressive disorder in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), its negative impact on health-related quality of life and the low response rate to conventional pharmacological therapies call to seek innovative treatments. Here, we review the new approaches for treating major depressive disorder in patients with PD within the framework of the network model of depression. According to this model, major depressive disorder reflects maladaptive neuronal plasticity. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) using high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the prefrontal cortex has been proposed as a feasible and effective strategy with minimal risk...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26878123/oral-biomarkers-in-exercise-induced-neuroplasticity-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Jean-Luc C Mougeot, Mark A Hirsch, Craig B Stevens, Farah K B Mougeot
In this paper we review candidate biomarkers for Parkinson's disease (PD) in oral cavity, potential of oral biomarkers as markers of neuroplasticity, and literature on effects of exercise on oral cavity biomarkers in PD. We first describe how pathophysiological pathways of PD may be transduced from brain stem and ganglia to oral cavity through the autonomic nervous system or transduced by a reverse path. Next we describe effects of exercise in PD and potential impact on oral cavity. We propose that biomarkers in oral cavity may be useful targets for describing exercise-induced brain neuroplasticity in PD...
February 15, 2016: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26780637/increased-fractional-anisotropy-in-the-motor-tracts-of-parkinson-s-disease-suggests-compensatory-neuroplasticity-or-selective-neurodegeneration
#13
Jilu Princy Mole, Leena Subramanian, Tobias Bracht, Huw Morris, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, David E J Linden
OBJECTIVE: To determine the differences in motor pathways and selected non-motor pathways of the basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients compared to healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: We analysed diffusion weighted imaging data of 24 PD patients and 26 HCs. We performed deterministic tractography analysis using the spherical deconvolution-based damped Richardson-Lucy algorithm and subcortical volume analysis. RESULTS: We found significantly increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the motor pathways of PD patients: the bilateral corticospinal tract (right; corrected p = 0...
October 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26512345/the-effects-of-exercise-on-dopamine-neurotransmission-in-parkinson-s-disease-targeting-neuroplasticity-to-modulate-basal-ganglia-circuitry
#14
G M Petzinger, D P Holschneider, B E Fisher, S McEwen, N Kintz, M Halliday, W Toy, J W Walsh, J Beeler, M W Jakowec
Animal studies have been instrumental in providing evidence for exercise-induced neuroplasticity of corticostriatal circuits that are profoundly affected in Parkinson's disease. Exercise has been implicated in modulating dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission, altering synaptogenesis, and increasing cerebral blood flow. In addition, recent evidence supports that the type of exercise may have regional effects on brain circuitry, with skilled exercise differentially affecting frontal-striatal related circuits to a greater degree than pure aerobic exercise...
2015: Brain Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26439945/exercise-induced-neuroplasticity-in-human-parkinson-s-disease-what-is-the-evidence-telling-us
#15
REVIEW
Mark A Hirsch, Sanjay S Iyer, Mohammed Sanjak
INTRODUCTION: While animal models of exercise and PD have pushed the field forward, few studies have addressed exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human PD. METHOD: As a first step toward promoting greater international collaboration on exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human PD, we present data on 8 human PD studies (published between 2008 and 2015) with 144 adults with PD of varying disease severity (Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 to stage 3), using various experimental (e...
January 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26298833/pharmacological-targeting-of-dopamine-d3-receptors-possible-clinical-applications-of-selective-drugs
#16
REVIEW
Emilio Merlo Pich, Ginetta Collo
Dopamine D3 receptors have been pharmacologically engaged in humans since the development of the first antipsychotics and ergot-derivative dopamine (DA) agonists, even without knowing it. These agents were generally non-selective, developed primarily to target D2 receptors. In the last 10 years the understanding of the clinical implication of D3 receptors has been progressing also due to the identification of D3 gene polymorphisms, the use of more selective PET ligands such as [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO and the learning regarding the clinical use of the D3-preferential D2/D3 agonists ropinirole and pramipexole...
September 2015: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26209418/we-need-to-move-more-neurobiological-hypotheses-of-physical-exercise-as-a-treatment-for-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Renato S Monteiro-Junior, Thais Cevada, Bruno R R Oliveira, Eduardo Lattari, Eduardo M M Portugal, Alessandro Carvalho, Andrea C Deslandes
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases in the world. The degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and chronic inflammation impair specific brain areas, which in turn result in lesser motor control, behavioral changes and cognitive decline. Nowadays, drug-treatments are the foremost approaches in treating PD. However, exercise has been shown to have powerful effects on PD, based on several neurobiological mechanisms. These effects may decrease the risk of developing PD by 33%...
November 2015: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26005114/dynamic-network-communication-as-a-unifying-neural-basis-for-cognition-development-aging-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Bradley Voytek, Robert T Knight
Perception, cognition, and social interaction depend upon coordinated neural activity. This coordination operates within noisy, overlapping, and distributed neural networks operating at multiple timescales. These networks are built upon a structural scaffolding with intrinsic neuroplasticity that changes with development, aging, disease, and personal experience. In this article, we begin from the perspective that successful interregional communication relies upon the transient synchronization between distinct low-frequency (<80 Hz) oscillations, allowing for brief windows of communication via phase-coordinated local neuronal spiking...
June 15, 2015: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25972820/musical-training-as-an-alternative-and-effective-method-for-neuro-education-and-neuro-rehabilitation
#19
REVIEW
Clément François, Jennifer Grau-Sánchez, Esther Duarte, Antoni Rodriguez-Fornells
In the last decade, important advances in the field of cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience have largely contributed to improve our knowledge on brain functioning. More recently, a line of research has been developed that aims at using musical training and practice as alternative tools for boosting specific perceptual, motor, cognitive, and emotional skills both in healthy population and in neurologic patients. These findings are of great hope for a better treatment of language-based learning disorders or motor impairment in chronic non-communicative diseases...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25868679/a-tripeptide-isolated-from-bothrops-atrox-venom-has-neuroprotective-and-neurotrophic-effects-on-a-cellular-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
N M Martins, N A G Santos, M A Sartim, A C O Cintra, S V Sampaio, A C Santos
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder; however, there is no treatment able to prevent the loss of dopaminergic neurons or its consequences. Trophic factors such as NGF and BDNF has positive effects on different disorders of the brain, including neurodegeneration. Additionally, studies have suggested the use of venom peptides as a therapeutic strategy for neurological disorders. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective activity of a peptide isolated from Bothrops atrox venom and its trophic ability by using a cellular model of dopaminergic neurotoxicity induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) in PC12 cells...
June 25, 2015: Chemico-biological Interactions
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