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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942912/an-evolving-role-for-cancer-rehabilitation-in-the-era-of-low-dose-lung-computed-tomography-screening
#1
REVIEW
Sean Robinson Smith, Ashish Khanna, Eric M Wisotzky
Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and is often detected in the later stages. Use of low-dose chest computed tomography in at-risk patients provides earlier detection and is being adopted as the standard screening tool, replacing less precise methods of radiography and sputum cytology. In the past, late detection of disease meant that rehabilitation interventions attempted to salvage function and to improve aerobic capacity to the point where patients could tolerate the sometimes-extensive oncologic treatment, including lobectomy or pneumonectomy...
September 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939237/brief-isoflurane-administration-as-a-post-exposure-treatment-for-organophosphate-poisoning
#2
Jishnu K S Krishnan, Taíza H Figueiredo, John R Moffett, Peethambaran Arun, Abhilash P Appu, Narayanan Puthillathu, Maria F Braga, Thomas Flagg, Aryan M Namboodiri
Organophosphate chemical threat agents (OP-CTA) exert toxic effects through cholinergic over-activation. However, after the initial cholinergic phase, the pathophysiology shifts to a non-cholinergic phase which leads to prolonged status epilepticus (SE), irreversible neuronal degeneration and long-term damage to the central nervous system. The efficacy of delayed treatments against OP-CTA is generally low due to the fact that most drugs fail to inhibit the later phase of non-cholinergic activation. Recently, we reported that intranasal brain delivery of obidoxime (OBD) provides complete neuroprotection against a lethal dose of paraoxon when administered 5minutes after intoxication...
September 19, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937300/infants-processing-of-prosodic-cues-electrophysiological-evidence-for-boundary-perception-beyond-pause-detection
#3
Julia Holzgrefe-Lang, Caroline Wellmann, Barbara Höhle, Isabell Wartenburger
Infants as young as six months are sensitive to prosodic phrase boundaries marked by three acoustic cues: pitch change, final lengthening, and pause. Behavioral studies suggest that a language-specific weighting of these cues develops during the first year of life; recent work on German revealed that eight-month-olds, unlike six-month-olds, are capable of perceiving a prosodic boundary on the basis of pitch change and final lengthening only. The present study uses Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neuro-cognitive development of prosodic cue perception in German-learning infants...
September 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934728/has-toxicity-testing-moved-into-the-21st-century-a-survey-and-analysis-of-perceptions-in-the-field-of-toxicology
#4
Virginia Zaunbrecher, Elizabeth Beryt, Daniela Parodi, Donatello Telesca, Joseph Doherty, Timothy Malloy, Patrick Allard
BACKGROUND: Ten years ago, leaders in the field of toxicology called for a transformation of the discipline and a shift from primarily relying on traditional animal testing to incorporating advances in biotechnology and predictive methodologies into alternative testing strategies (ATS). Governmental agencies and academic and industry partners initiated programs to support such a transformation, but a decade later, the outcomes of these efforts are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the use of ATS and the perceived barriers and drivers to their adoption by toxicologists and by others working in, or closely linked with, the field of toxicology...
August 30, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934330/an-analysis-of-beak-shape-variation-in-two-ages-of-domestic-turkeys-meleagris-gallopavo-using-landmark-based-geometric-morphometrics
#5
Hillary A Dalton, Benjamin J Wood, Tina M Widowski, Michele T Guerin, Stephanie Torrey
The objective of this study was to assess beak shape variation in domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and determine the effects of age, sex, and beak size on beak shape variation using geometric morphometrics. Dorsal and right lateral images were taken of 2442 turkeys at 6 and 18.5 weeks of age. Landmarks were digitized in tpsDig in three analyses of the dorsal upper mandible, lateral upper mandible, and lateral lower mandible shape of each turkey at both ages. The coordinate data were then subjected to a principal components analysis (PCA), multivariate regression, and a canonical variates analysis (CVA) with a Procrustes ANOVA in MorphoJ...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932880/double-bundle-anatomical-medial-patellofemoral-ligament-reconstruction-with-lateral-retinaculum-plasty-can-lead-to-good-outcomes-in-patients-with-patellar-dislocation
#6
Yingzhen Niu, Xinmin Wang, Chang Liu, Xiaomeng Wang, Zhenyue Dong, Jinghui Niu, Fei Wang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of double-bundle anatomical medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction combined with lateral retinaculum plasty versus isolated MPFL reconstruction for patellar dislocation. METHODS: From 2011 to 2013, 64 patients underwent either double-bundle anatomical MPFL reconstruction combined with lateral retinaculum plasty (Group A, 32 patients), or isolated MPFL reconstruction (Group B, 32 patients). Clinical evaluations were performed 2 years post-operatively and included determination of the number of patients with patellar redislocation, the patellar tilt angle, lateral patellar shift, subjective symptoms, and functional outcomes as evaluated with the Kujala score and Lysholm score...
September 20, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929184/metabolic-changes-in-primary-secondary-and-lipid-metabolism-in-tobacco-leaf-in-response-to-topping
#7
Jieyu Zhao, Lili Li, Yanni Zhao, Chunxia Zhao, Xia Chen, Pingping Liu, Huina Zhou, Junjie Zhang, Chunxiu Hu, Aiguo Chen, Guanshan Liu, Xiaojun Peng, Xin Lu, Guowang Xu
As an important cultivation practice used for flue-cured tobacco, topping affects diverse biological processes in the later stages of development and growth. Some studies have focused on using tobacco genes to reflect the physiological changes caused by topping. However, the complex metabolic shifts in the leaf resulting from topping have not yet been investigated in detail. In this study, a comprehensive metabolic profile of primary, secondary, and lipid metabolism in flue-cured tobacco leaf was generated with use of a multiple platform consisting of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/ultraviolet spectroscopy...
September 19, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927483/the-impact-of-younger-onset-dementia-on-relationships-intimacy-and-sexuality-in-midlife-couples-a-systematic-review
#8
Kristen Holdsworth, Marita McCabe
BACKGROUND: The impact of dementia on relationships, intimacy, and sexuality has been documented in later life couples. However, little is known about the experiences of couples living with younger-onset dementia. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the literature describing the impact of younger-onset dementia on relationships, intimacy, and sexuality in midlife couples. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in July 2016 for relevant research papers...
September 20, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924248/adaptive-pixel-super-resolved-lensfree-in-line-digital-holography-for-wide-field-on-chip-microscopy
#9
Jialin Zhang, Jiasong Sun, Qian Chen, Jiaji Li, Chao Zuo
High-resolution wide field-of-view (FOV) microscopic imaging plays an essential role in various fields of biomedicine, engineering, and physical sciences. As an alternative to conventional lens-based scanning techniques, lensfree holography provides a new way to effectively bypass the intrinsical trade-off between the spatial resolution and FOV of conventional microscopes. Unfortunately, due to the limited sensor pixel-size, unpredictable disturbance during image acquisition, and sub-optimum solution to the phase retrieval problem, typical lensfree microscopes only produce compromised imaging quality in terms of lateral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923494/transformative-research-is-not-easily-predicted
#10
REVIEW
Sarah A Gravem, Silke M Bachhuber, Heather K Fulton-Bennett, Zachary H Randell, Alissa J Rickborn, Jenna M Sullivan, Bruce A Menge
Transformative research (TR) statements in scientific grant proposals have become mainstream. However, TR is defined as radically changing our understanding of a concept, causing a paradigm shift, or opening new frontiers. We argue that it is rarely possible to predict the transformative nature of research. Interviews and surveys of 78 transformative ecologists suggest that most TR began with incremental goals, while transformative potential was recognized later. Most respondents thought TR is unpredictable and should not be prioritized over 'incremental' research that typically leads to breakthroughs...
September 15, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923128/-items-for-criticism-not-in-sequence-joseph-delee-pare-lorentz-and-the-fight-for-life-1940
#11
Caitjan Gainty
In the late 1920s, the American obstetrician Joseph DeLee brought the motion-picture camera into the birth room. Following that era's trend of adapting industrial efficiency practices for medical environments, DeLee's films give spectacular and unexpected expression to the engineering concept of 'streamlining'. Accomplishing what more tangible obstetric streamlining practices had failed to, DeLee's cameras, and his post-production manipulation, shifted birth from messy and dangerous to rationalized, efficient, death-defying...
September 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922361/impact-of-four-different-recumbencies-on-the-distribution-of-ventilation-in-conscious-or-anaesthetized-spontaneously-breathing-beagle-dogs-an-electrical-impedance-tomography-study
#12
Tamas D Ambrisko, Johannes P Schramel, Ulrike Auer, Yves P S Moens
The aim was to examine the effects of recumbency and anaesthesia on distribution of ventilation in beagle dogs using Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Nine healthy beagle dogs, aging 3.7±1.7 (mean±SD) years and weighing 16.3±1.6 kg, received a series of treatments in a fixed order on a single occasion. Conscious dogs were positioned in right lateral recumbency (RLR) and equipped with 32 EIT electrodes around the thorax. Following five minutes of equilibration, two minutes of EIT recordings were made in each recumbency in the following order: RLR, dorsal (DR), left (LLR) and sternal (SR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922015/over-the-top-acl-reconstruction-plus-extra-articular-lateral-tenodesis-with-hamstring-tendon-grafts-prospective-evaluation-with-20-year-minimum-follow-up
#13
Stefano Zaffagnini, Giulio Maria Marcheggiani Muccioli, Alberto Grassi, Tommaso Roberti di Sarsina, Federico Raggi, Cecilia Signorelli, Francisco Urrizola, Paolo Spinnato, Eugenio Rimondi, Maurilio Marcacci
BACKGROUND: There are few published studies with very long-term follow-up of combined intra- and extra-articular anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. PURPOSE: To analyze clinical and radiographic outcomes of over-the-top ACL reconstruction plus extra-articular lateral tenodesis with autologous hamstrings at minimum 20-year follow-up. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: Of 60 originally eligible patients who underwent over-the-top ACL reconstruction with double-stranded hamstring tendon (leaving intact graft tibial insertions) and extra-articular lateral plasty (performed with the remnant part of tendons), 52 were prospectively evaluated at a minimum 20-year follow-up (mean follow-up, 24 years; 41 men, 11 women; mean age at time of surgery, 25...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919980/hemicerebellitis-can-drive-handedness-shift
#14
Mario Mascalchi, Matteo Lenge, Andrea Bianchi, Emanuele Bartolini, Gioele Gavazzi, Flavio Giordano, Renzo Guerrini
BACKGROUND: Hemicerebellitisis a rare acquired condition, typical of the pediatric age. A residual switched handedness may develop after remission of acute cerebellar symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein we describe a motor functional MRI studyperformed in a 35-year old girl who had switched to left-handedness after acute right hemicerebellitis in childhood. During left hand tapping, we observed activation in the right primary sensori-motor cortex, right supplementary motor area and left superior cerebellum...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919030/investigating-the-familiarity-effect-in-texture-segmentation-by-means-of-event-related-brain-potentials
#15
L Becker, D T Smith, T Schenk
The familiarity effect (FE) refers to the phenomenon that it is easier to find an unfamiliar element on a background of familiar elements than vice versa. In this study, we examined the FE in texture segmentation while recording event-related brain potentials with the aim to find out which processing stages were influenced by familiarity. In two experiments, with different levels of texture homogeneity, the N1, the N2p, and the P3 components were investigated. It was found that the FE in texture segmentation is associated with a modulation of the early N1 and of the intermediate N2p component for homogeneous textures...
September 21, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916912/morphological-changes-in-tibial-tunnels-after-anatomic-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-with-hamstring-tendon-graft
#16
Tomoki Ohori, Tatsuo Mae, Konsei Shino, Yuta Tachibana, Kazuomi Sugamoto, Hideki Yoshikawa, Ken Nakata
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed computed tomography (CT) is crucial for the reliable and accurate evaluation of tunnel enlargement after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the tibial tunnel enlargement at the tunnel aperture and inside the tunnel and to clarify the morphological change at the tunnel footprint 1 year after the anatomic triple-bundle (ATB) ACL reconstruction using 3D CT models. METHODS: Eighteen patients with unilateral ACL rupture were evaluated...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914358/dynamic-foraging-of-a-top-predator-in-a-seasonal-polar-marine-environment
#17
Ben G Weinstein, Ari S Friedlaender
The seasonal movement of animals at broad spatial scales provides insight into life-history, ecology and conservation. By combining high-resolution satellite-tagged data with hierarchical Bayesian movement models, we can associate spatial patterns of movement with marine animal behavior. We used a multi-state mixture model to describe humpback whale traveling and area-restricted search states as they forage along the West Antarctic Peninsula. We estimated the change in the geography, composition and characteristics of these behavioral states through time...
September 15, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913691/intestinal-mechanomorphological-remodeling-induced-by-long-term-low-fiber-diet-in-rabbits
#18
Yue Liu, Jingbo Zhao, Donghua Liao, Guixue Wang, Hans Gregersen
Short-term feeding with low-fiber diet remodels the mechanomorphological properties in the rabbit small intestine. The aims were to study the effect of feeding low-fiber diet for 5 months on mechanomorphological properties including the collagen fraction in the rabbit intestines. Fifteen rabbits were divided into an Intervention group (IG, n = 10) fed a low-fiber diet and a Control group (CG, n = 5) fed a normal diet for 5 months. Five months later, four 10-cm-long segments obtained from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and large intestine were used for histological and mechanical analysis, respectively...
September 14, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913001/methamphetamine-use-and-emergency-department-utilization-20-years-later
#19
John R Richards, Sheiva Hamidi, Connor D Grant, Colin G Wang, Nabil Tabish, Samuel D Turnipseed, Robert W Derlet
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (MAP) users present to the emergency department (ED) for myriad reasons, including trauma, chest pain, and psychosis. The purpose of this study is to determine how their prevalence, demographics, and resource utilization have changed. METHODS: Retrospective review of MAP patients over 3 months in 2016. Demographics, mode of arrival, presenting complaints, disposition, and concomitant cocaine/ethanol use were compared to a 1996 study at the same ED...
2017: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903559/three-faces-of-n-acetylaspartate-activator-substrate-and-inhibitor-of-human-aspartoacylase
#20
Maria G Khrenova, Ekaterina D Kots, Sergey D Varfolomeev, Sofya V Lushchekina, Alexander V Nemukhin
Hydrolysis of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), one of the most concentrated metabolites in brain, catalyzed by human aspartoacylase (hAsp) shows a remarkable dependence of the reaction rate on substrate concentration. At low NAA concentrations, sigmoidal shape of kinetic curve is observed, followed by typical rate growth of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction, whereas at high NAA concentrations self-inhibition takes place. We show that this rate dependence is consistent with a molecular model, in which N-acetylaspartate appears to have three faces in the enzyme reaction, acting as activator at low concentrations, substrate at moderate concentrations, and inhibitor at high concentrations...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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