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Dermatophyte

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794551/efficacy-and-safety-of-terbinafine-500-mg-once-daily-in-patients-with-dermatophytosis
#1
P Ravindra Babu, A J S Pravin, Gaurav Deshmukh, Dhiraj Dhoot, Aniket Samant, Bhavesh Kotak
INTRODUCTION: Dermatophytosis are the most common fungal infections globally. Terbinafine is considered to have good potency against dermatophytes, but resistance to terbinafine is on the rise. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of terbinafine 500 mg given once daily in treatment of patients with superficial dermatophytosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a retrospective questionnaire-based survey...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771469/the-prevalence-and-association-with-health-related-quality-of-life-of-tungiasis-and-scabies-in-schoolchildren-in-southern-ethiopia
#2
Stephen L Walker, Eglantine Lebas, Valentina De Sario, Zeleke Deyasso, Shimelis N Doni, Michael Marks, Chrissy H Roberts, Saba M Lambert
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of skin disease in low and middle income countries is high and communicable skin diseases are a significant public health problem. Tungiasis is an ectoparasite infestation caused by the flea Tunga penetrans, which has a widespread geographical distribution. Tungiasis causes painful skin lesions and may affect activities of daily living. OBJECTIVE: We wished to determine the prevalence and impact of tungiasis and scabies in schoolchildren in southern Ethiopia...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757272/epidemiology-of-dermatomycoses-in-kerman-province-southeast-of-iran-a-10-years-retrospective-study-2004-2014
#3
Samira Salari, Seyyed Amin Ayatollahi Mousavi, Sanaz Hadizadeh, Alireza Izadi
OBJECTIVES: Superficial and cutaneous fungal infections (SCFIs) are an important public health problem and are common in tropical and subtropical countries. Pityriasis versicolor, dermatophytosis, erythrasma, onychomycosis, and otomycosis are the major diseases associated with SCFIs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and causative agents of dermatomycoses over a period of 10 years in Kerman province, southeast of Iran. METHODS: A number of 1782 subjects, including 1096 females and 686 males, with cutaneous disorders in their skin, nail, and hair suspected to have SCFIs participated in this study...
July 27, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733568/mycology-of-onychomycosis-a-5-year-retrospective-review-2011-2015-in-hospital-kuala-lumpur
#4
R Ramalingam, S Kunalan, M M Tang
Onychomycosis is a common nail disease with numerous etiological pathogens. In order to determine and trend the local mycological pattern of culture-positive diseased nail samples sent from the Department of Dermatology, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, a five-year retrospective audit was carried out, which revealed that non-dermatophyte molds were the predominant fungi isolated, followed by yeasts and dermatophytes. This is similar to two previous studies in Malaysia, but varies greatly from other studies around the world which showed a dermatophyte-predominant prevalence...
June 2017: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730647/swimming-pools-and-fungi-an-epidemiology-survey-in-polish-indoor-swimming-facilities
#5
Marek Jankowski, Anna Charemska, Rafał Czajkowski
Environmental conditions for swimming facilities may support fungal growth and also may represent a biological risk for users. However, since previously published studies both cleaning procedures and sanitary regulations are likely to have been improved. The aim of the study was to examine whether attendance to public swimming pools was still a risk factor for fungal infection of the skin in Poland. We investigated the occurrence of mycotic species, in a sample from Polish swimming pools. Detection and identification of isolated species were achieved by cultural and morphological methods...
July 20, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725545/a-severe-transmissible-majocchi-s-granuloma-in-an-immunocompetent-returned-traveler
#6
James G Gallo, Marion Woods, Rikki M Graham, Amy V Jennison
Severe dermatophyte infection is rare in immunocompetent adults. Recently cases have been described in travelers returning from South East Asia (Luchsinger et al., 2015) [1]. These may be sexually transmitted and can have permanent sequelae. We describe the first reported case of Majocchi's granuloma (MG) in an Australian returned traveler and its subsequent transmission via sexual contact. Both patients were successfully treated with systemic antifungals. MG should be considered in patients with severe rash after travel to South East Asia...
December 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722381/-revision-of-the-dermatophyte-species-and-the-nomenclature-of-these-fungi
#7
Michel Monod
Dermatophyte species identification often remains difficult because variation of isolates in the same species, overlapping characters in cultures and problems of nomenclature. DNA sequencing recently allowed the genus and species of these fungi to be reexamined. Species names were revised according to the new nomenclature convention adopted for fungi. The conclusions of this taxonomic study were approved by expert practitioners and searchers working with dermatophytes. Important points about species definition and nomenclature changes were summarized in the present communication...
March 29, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708048/quantitative-and-structural-analyses-of-the-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-biofilm-forming-ability-of-dermatophytes
#8
Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, Edmilson Emanuel Monteiro Correia, Glaucia Morgana de Melo Guedes, Vandbergue Santos Pereira, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Silviane Praciano Bandeira, Lucas Pereira de Alencar, Ana Raquel Colares de Andrade, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Adriana de Queiroz Pinheiro, Lúcio Jackson Queiroz Chaves, Waldemiro de Aquino Pereira Neto, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and ex vivo biofilm-forming ability of dermatophytes on a nail fragment. METHODOLOGY: Initially, four isolates of Trichophyton rubrum, six of Trichophyton tonsurans, three of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, ten of Microsporum canis and three of Microsporum gypseum were tested for production biomass by crystal violet assay. Then, one strain per species presenting the best biofilm production was chosen for further studies by optical microscopy (Congo red staining), confocal laser scanning (LIVE/DEAD staining) and scanning electron (secondary electron) microscopy...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706389/current-mycological-profile-of-onychomycosis-in-kashmir-valley-a-hospital-based-study
#9
Nazir Asifa, Kanth Farhath
INTRODUCTION: Onychomycosis is a common nail ailment associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity. It is caused by dermatophytes, nondermatophytic molds, and yeasts. Increased prevalence in the recent years is attributed to enhanced longevity, comorbid conditions such as diabetes, avid sports participation, and emergence of HIV. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to identify the mycological profile and etiological agents associated with this infection...
July 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699277/clinical-evaluation-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-real-time-pcr-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-dermatophytosis-a-comparison-with-mycological-methods
#10
Marjan Motamedi, Hossein Mirhendi, Kamiar Zomorodian, Hossein Khodadadi, Mahboobeh Kharazi, Zeinab Ghasemi, Mohammad Reza Shidfar, Koichi Makimura
Following our previous report on evaluation of the beta tubulin real-time PCR for detection of dermatophytosis, this study aimed to compare the real-time PCR assay with conventional methods for the clinical assessment of its diagnostic performance. Samples from a total of 853 patients with suspected dermatophyte lesions were subjected to direct examination (all samples), culture (499 samples) and real-time PCR (all samples). Fungal DNA was extracted directly from clinical samples using a conical steel bullet, followed by purification with a commercial kit and subjected to the Taq-Man probe-based real-time PCR...
July 12, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699222/in-vitro-fungicidal-effects-of-methylene-blue-at-625-nm
#11
J Stephen Guffey, William Payne, Wilson Roegge
The aim of the study is to confirm the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a significant inhibitor of Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) and to determine the most appropriate dose and rate of delivery. Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte worldwide, responsible for the majority of superficial fungal infections. The traditional treatment of T. rubrum has known adverse effects. An alternative treatment is warranted. Photosensitised T. rubrum specimens were treated with 625-nm light at doses of 3, 12, 24, 40 and 60 J/cm(2) ...
July 12, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698478/antifungal-and-ichthyotoxic-sesquiterpenoids-from-santalum-album-heartwood
#12
Tae Hoon Kim, Tsutomu Hatano, Keinosuke Okamoto, Takashi Yoshida, Hiroshi Kanzaki, Michiko Arita, Hideyuki Ito
In our continuing study on a survey of biologically active natural products from heartwood of Santalum album (Southwest Indian origin), we newly found potent fish toxic activity of an n-hexane soluble extract upon primary screening using killifish (medaka) and characterized α-santalol and β-santalol as the active components. The toxicity (median tolerance limit (TLm) after 24 h at 1.9 ppm) of α-santalol was comparable with that of a positive control, inulavosin (TLm after 24 h at 1.3 ppm). These fish toxic compounds including inulavosin were also found to show a significant antifungal effect against a dermatophytic fungus, Trichophyton rubrum...
July 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667753/invasive-dermatophyte-infection-with-trichophyton-interdigitale-is-associated-with-prurigo-induced-pseudoperforation-and-a-stat3-mutation
#13
J K Simpson, P Fröbel, S L Seneviratne, M Brown, D M Lowe, B Grimbacher, M Fliegauf, L Fearfield
Invasive dermatophyte infection, with extention beyond the dermis, in immunocompetent hosts is exceptionally rare. Dermatophytes are keratinophilic and are usually confined to the stratum corneum, hair and nails. Susceptibility to dermatophyte infections is incompletely understood but inherited mutations in key signaling pathways of the innate immune system have been identified.(1) We report the first case of an invasive dermatophyte infection associated with abrupt onset of a prurigo induced pseudoperforation and a loss of function mutation in Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT 3)...
July 1, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665341/chemical-composition-antibacterial-and-antifungal-activities-of-crude-dittrichia-viscosa-l-greuter-leaf-extracts
#14
Wafa Rhimi, Issam Ben Salem, Davide Immediato, Mouldi Saidi, Abdennacer Boulila, Claudia Cafarchia
The small amount of data regarding the antifungal activity of Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter against dermatophytes, Malassezia spp. and Aspergillus spp., associated with the few comparative studies on the antimicrobial activity of methanolic, ethanolic, and butanolic extracts underpins the study herein presented. The total condensed tannin (TCT), phenol (TPC), flavonoid (TFC), and caffeoylquinic acid (CQC) content of methanol, butanol, and ethanol (80% and 100%) extracts of D. viscosa were assessed and their bactericidal and fungicidal activities were evaluated...
June 30, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658757/molecular-strain-typing-of-clinical-isolates-trichophyton-rubrum-using-non-transcribed-spacer-nts-region-as-a-molecular-marker
#15
Vijayakumar Ramaraj, Rajyoganandh S Vijayaraman, Elangovan Elavarashi, Sudha Rangarajan, Anupma Jyoti Kindo
INTRODUCTION: Dermatophytes are a group of fungi which infect keratinized tissues and causes superficial mycoses in humans and animals. The group comprises of three major genera, Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. Among them Trichophyton rubrum is a predominant anthropophilic fungi which causes chronic infections. Although, the infection is superficial and treatable, reinfection/coinfection causes inflation in the treatment cost. Identifying the source and mode of transmission is essential to prevent its transmission...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653769/examining-the-importance-of-laboratory-and-diagnostic-testing-when-treating-and-diagnosing-onychomycosis
#16
REVIEW
Mahmoud Ghannoum, Pranab Mukherjee, Nancy Isham, Bryan Markinson, James Del Rosso, Luis Leal
Onychomycosis is a fungal nail infection caused primarily by dermatophytes. Several other nail disorders, including psoriasis, can simulate onychomycosis. Accurate diagnosis is therefore vital for the ongoing treatment and management of onychomycosis and to avoid misdiagnosis and treatment delay, which can be both lengthy and costly. Often, a combination of histologic and laboratory techniques is used to obtain an accurate diagnosis. The potential diagnostic challenges associated with the differential diagnosis of onychomycosis caused by dermatophytes and the most common techniques used to confirm the diagnosis are discussed...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651982/design-and-optimization-of-highly-selective-broad-spectrum-fungal-cyp51-inhibitors
#17
Christopher M Yates, Edward P Garvey, Sammy R Shaver, Robert J Schotzinger, William J Hoekstra
While the orally-active azoles such as fluconazole and posaconazole are effective antifungal agents, they potently inhibit a broad range of off-target human cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) leading to various safety issues (e.g., drug-drug interactions, liver, and reproductive toxicities). Recently we described the rationally-designed, antifungal agent VT-1161 that is more selective for fungal CYP51 than related human CYP enzymes such as CYP3A4. Herein, we describe the use of a homology model of Aspergillus fumigatus to design and optimize a novel series of highly selective, broad spectrum fungal CYP51 inhibitors...
August 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646963/spectrum-and-burden-of-dermatophytes-in-children
#18
Leila Ferguson, L Claire Fuller
Tinea capitis is the most important superficial fungal condition in children. It is often unrecognised but the presence of alopecia, scale and lymphadenopathy, especially in inner-city children should prompt investigation. An understanding of changing epidemiology and prevalence of causative organisms is important in deciding appropriate therapy. The use of diagnostic aids including dermoscopy is increasing and is reported to be helpful in identifying subtle signs. Trichophyton tonsurans accounts for the majority of cases in the UK and terbinafine is increasingly advocated as a safe and effective therapy...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639462/onychomycosis-in-the-21st-century-an-update-on-diagnosis-epidemiology-and-treatment
#19
Aditya K Gupta, Sarah G Versteeg, Neil H Shear
Onychomycosis accounts for 50% of all nail disease cases and is commonly caused by dermatophytes. Diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus, immunosuppression, obesity, smoking, and advancing age are predisposing factors of this fungal infection. Potassium hydroxide and culture are considered the current standard for diagnosing onychomycosis, revealing both fungal viability and species identification. Other diagnostic tests currently available include periodic acid-Schiff staining, polymerase chain reaction techniques, and fluorescent staining...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637907/online-identification-of-fungi-using-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-validation-of-a-new-web-application
#20
A C Normand, P Becker, F Gabriel, C Cassagne, I Accoceberry, M Gari-Toussaint, L Hasseine, D De Geyter, D Pierard, I Surmont, F Djenad, J L Donnadieu, M Piarroux, S Ranque, M Hendrickx, R Piarroux
MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry has emerged as a reliable technique to identify molds involved in human diseases, including dermatophytes, provided that exhaustive reference databases are available. This study assessed an online identification application based on original algorithms and an extensive in-house reference database comprising 11,851 spectra (938 fungal species and 246 fungal genera).Validation criteria were established using an initial panel of 422 molds, including dermatophytes, previously identified via DNA sequencing (126 species)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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