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Bryan Markinson, Mahmoud Ghannoum, Tate Winter, Anthony Rycerz, Fernando Rock, Aditya K Gupta
Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail primarily caused by the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The topical-based treatment of onychomycosis remains a challenge because of the difficulty associated with penetrating the dense, protective structure of the keratinized nail plate. Tavaborole is a novel small-molecule antifungal agent recently approved in the United States for the topical treatment of toenail onychomycosis. The low molecular weight, slight water solubility, and boron chemistry of tavaborole maximize nail penetration after topical application, allowing for effective targeting of the infection in the nail bed...
January 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Yvonne Gräser, Michel Monod, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Karolina Dukik, Pietro Nenoff, Alexandra Kargl, Christiane Kupsch, Ping Zhan, Ann Packeu, Vishnu Chaturvedi, Sybren de Hoog
Dermatophyte research has renewed interest because of changing human floras with changing socioeconomic conditions, and because of severe chronic infections in patients with congenital immune disorders. Main taxonomic traits at the generic level have changed considerably, and now fine-tuning at the species level with state-of-the-art technology has become urgent. Research on virulence factors focuses on secreted proteases now has support in genome data. It is speculated that most protease families are used for degrading hard keratin during nitrogen recycling in the environment, while others, such as Sub6 may have emerged as a result of ancestral gene duplication, and are likely to have specific roles during infection...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Raza Aly, Tate Winter, Steve Hall, Tracey Vlahovic
Dermatophytoma is a little-known, difficult to treat fungal infection that complicates onychomycosis. First described by Roberts and Evans in the late 1990's, dermatophytoma presents as a dense concentration of fungal hyphae within or under the nail plate and is generally white or yellow/brown in color, and linear (streaks) or round (patches) in shape; primary etiologic organisms are dermatophytes. Oral antifungals have limited success in treating dermatophytoma owing to difficulties accessing and penetrating what is hypothesized to be a fungal biofilm...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Sebastian Gnat, Aneta Nowakiewicz, Dominik Lagowski, Aleksandra Troscianczyk, Przemyslaw Zieba
Dermatophyte infections are extremely frequent worldwide, and their epidemiological features and distribution make them one of the most frequent infections all over the world. We identified and analysed multiform T. mentagrophytes strains isolated from a silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) kept on a breeding farm. Identification of dermatophyte strains was carried out traditionally by correlating both the clinical manifestations of the infection with a micro- and macroscopic examination. To confirm the species affiliation fully, molecular differentiation methods were used...
March 8, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Nova Zairina Lubis, Kamaliah Muis, Lukmanul Hakim Nasution
BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of one or more units of the nail caused by dermatophytes, or mould and nondermatophytes yeast. Investigations are needed to establish the diagnosis of onychomycosis before starting treatment. Several investigations methods for diagnosing onychomycosis are microscopic examination with 20% KOH, fungal culture, histopathology examination with PAS staining (Periodic acid Schiff) and PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) is a method after PCR amplification allowing more specific results...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Shamanth A Shankarnarayan, Sunil Dogra, Dipika Shaw, Khurram Mushtaq, Raees A Paul, Tarun Narang, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
Dermatophytosis, the commonest superficial fungal infection, has gained recent attention due to its change of epidemiology and treatment failures. Despite availability of several effective antifungal agents against dermatophytes, the incidence of chronic infection, re-infection and treatment failures are on the rise. Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale are the two frequent clinical isolates in India. Consecutive patients (n=195) with suspected dermatophytosis during second half of 2014 were included in this study...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Ali Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Sadegh Khodavaisy, Mohamad Mahdi Alshahni, Takashi Tamura, Kazuo Satoh, Mahdi Abastabar, Gholam Reza Shokoohi, Bahram Ahmadi, Mohammad Kord, Simin Taghipour, Koichi Makimura, Hamid Badali
The objective was to assess the in vitro activity of the novel triazole antifungal drug, efinaconazole, and five comparators (luliconazole, lanoconazole, terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole) against a large collection of Trichophyton interdigitale and Trichophyton rubrum clinical isolates. The geometric mean MICs were the lowest for luliconazole (0.0005 μg/mL), followed by lanoconazole (0.002 μg/mL), efinaconazole (0.007 μg/mL), terbinafine (0.011 μg/mL), itraconazole (0.095 μg/mL) and fluconazole (12...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Aditya K Gupta, Sarah G Versteeg
Because of the ubiquitous nature of dermatophytes and a lack of an adaptive immune response in the nail plate, recurrence and relapse rates associated with superficial fungal infections are high (10%-53%). Cured or improved dermatophytosis patients could become reinfected if exposed to fungal reservoirs, such as an infected shoe, sock, or textile. To prevent this, footwear, sock, and textile sanitization methods can be used. To provide insight into effective sanitization options, the focus of this article is to review footwear, sock, and textile sanitization studies conducted throughout history (1920-2016)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, Edmilson Emanuel Monteiro Correia, Glaucia Morgana de Melo Guedes, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Adriana de Queiroz Pinheiro, Lúcio Jackson Queiroz Chaves, Waldemiro de Aquino Pereira Neto, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
BACKGROUND: As shown by recent researches, most of the clinically relevant fungi, including dermatophytes, form biofilms in vitro and in vivo, which may present antimicrobial tolerance favoring recurrent infections. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VCZ) and griseofulvin (GRI) against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum, in planktonic and biofilm growth...
March 8, 2018: Mycoses
Chenwen Xiao, Ling Li, Limin Lao, Yan Liu, Qiang Wei, Quan'an Ji, Guochang Sun, Fucheng Lin, Jiaoyu Wang, Guolian Bao
Trichophyton mentagrophytes is a fungus that causes skin disease in humans and other animals worldwide. Studies on molecular biology and fluorescent labeling of the fungus are limited. Here, we applied mCherry for the first time in T. mentagrophytes to label the fungus and its organelles. We constructed four expression vectors of mCherry or mCherry fusions containing a variety of resistance markers and promoters, which were then integrated, together with two previous mCherry expression vectors, in T. mentagrophytes via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AtMT)...
March 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Rajiv Dahiya, Sunil Singh
Synthesis of a proline-rich cyclic hexapeptide - diandrine A [VI] was accomplished by coupling of tetrapeptide unit Boc-Gly-Pro-Trp-Pro-OH with dipeptide unit Tyr-Phe-OMe followed by cyclization of linear peptide unit [V] under alkaline condition. Structure of newly synthesized cyclopolypeptide was elucidated by means of spectral techniques including FTIR, 'H NMR, "C NMR, MS analyses. VI was subjected to pharmacological screening and found to exhibit good antifungal activity against dermatophytes. Further, VI possessed potent antihelmintic activity against earthworms M...
May 2017: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
Vijayakumar Ramaraj, Rajyoganandh S Vijayaraman, Veena Hemanth, Sudha Rangarajan, Anupma Jyoti Kindo
Background & objectives: : Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that infect keratinized tissues of human and animal origin. Trichophyton mentagrophytes is considered to be a species complex composed of several strains, which include both anthropophiles and zoophiles. Accurate discrimination is critical for comprehensive understanding of the clinical and epidemiological implications of the genetic heterogeneity of this complex. Molecular strain typing renders an effective way to discriminate each strain...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Sandeep Kotwal, Geeta Sumbali, Supriya Sharma, Sanjana Kaul
Dermatophytes are considered as the main pathogens responsible for onychomycosis, but recently successive isolations of yeast-like fungi from the infected nails has led to consider these also as primary agents of nail infections. Trichosporon species which are non-candidal, basidiomycetous, yeast-like, anamorphic fungi are commonly isolated from soil but they are also emerging as important etiological agents of onychomycosis. Three species of Trichosporon viz., T. asahii, T. asteroides and T. faecale were isolated from the infected nails of three female members of a family from district Doda of Jammu and Kashmir State...
March 3, 2018: Mycoses
Rodrigo Abonia, Alexander Garay, Juan C Castillo, Braulio Insuasty, Jairo Quiroga, Manuel Nogueras, Justo Cobo, Estefanía Butassi, Susana Zacchino
Two practical and efficient approaches have been implemented as alternative procedures for the synthesis of naftifine and novel diversely substituted analogues 16 and 20 in good to excellent yields, mediated by Mannich-type reactions as the key step of the processes. In these approaches, the γ-aminoalcohols 15 and 19 were obtained as the key intermediates and their subsequent dehydration catalyzed either by Brønsted acids like H₂SO₄ and HCl or Lewis acid like AlCl₃, respectively, led to naftifine, along with the target allylamines 16 and 20 ...
February 26, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yuichi Sakata, Tsuyoshi Ushigami, Kazushi Anzawa, Takashi Mochizuki
Trichophyton tonsurans, a major pathogen of tinea capitis and tinea corporis, has been isolated from players of contact sports in Japan. To understand the contemporary epidemic in Japan, the molecular types of 208 strains isolated between 2011 and 2015 were determined. Of these, 142 were isolated from practitioners of judo, 28 from wrestlers, seven from sumo wrestlers, and 31 from individuals with unknown backgrounds. Based on length polymorphisms of the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) region of the ribosomal RNA gene, these 208 strains could be divided into three subtypes, NTS I(204; 98...
February 28, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
A C Normand, A Packeu, C Cassagne, M Hendrickx, S Ranque, R Piarroux
Conventional dermatophyte identification is based on morphological features. However, recent studies have proposed to use the nucleotide sequences of the rRNA ITS region as an identification barcode of all fungi, including dermatophytes. Several nucleotide databases are available to compare sequences and thus identify isolates; however, these databases often contain mislabeled sequences that impair sequence-based identification.We evaluated five of these databases on a clinical isolate panel. We selected 292 clinical dermatophyte strains that were prospectively subjected to ITS2 nucleotide sequence analysis...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Anastasiya Atanasova Chokoeva, Uwe Wollina, Torello Lotti, Georgi Konstantinov Maximov, Ilia Lozev, Georgi Tchernev
Although tinea capitis is the most common fungal infection in children, significant changes have been reported in its epidemiology worldwide, as a result from certain geographic, climatic and cultural differences in one hand, as well as the changes in its etiologic pattern. The clinical manifestation of the infection and the stage of inflammation vary from mild desquamation to severe suppurative indurated plaques in kerion - like the pattern, depending on the nature of the etiologic agent and the host-immune response...
January 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
M Metzner, T Schwarz, J Brasch
We report on a tinea faciei caused by Nannizzia (N.) persicolor. The 4‑year-old boy had probably been infected by a guinea pig. Unambiguous infections caused by N. persicolor are rarely seen in Germany; however, this zoophilic and geophilic dermatophyte may only be rarely identified due to its resemblance to Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes. Therefore, the diagnostic attributes of N. persicolor and its differentiation from T. mentagrophytes are described. Particularly in case of contact with rodents, N...
February 21, 2018: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Gabriela F Persinoti, Diego A Martinez, Wenjun Li, Aylin Döğen, R Blake Billmyre, Anna Averette, Jonathan M Goldberg, Terrance Shea, Sarah Young, Qiandong Zeng, Brian G Oliver, Richard Barton, Banu Metin, Süleyha Hilmioğlu-Polat, Macit Ilkit, Yvonne Gräser, Nilce M Martinez-Rossi, Theodore C White, Joseph Heitman, Christina A Cuomo
Dermatophytes include fungal species that infect humans, as well as those which also infect other animals or only grow in the environment. The dermatophyte species Trichophyton rubrum is a frequent cause of skin infection in immunocompetent individuals. While members of the T. rubrum species complex have been further categorized based on various morphologies, the population structure and ability to undergo sexual reproduction are not well understood. In this study, we analyze a large set of T. rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale isolates to examine mating types, evidence of mating, and genetic variation...
February 21, 2018: Genetics
Lauren K Hoffman, Isabelle Raymond, Leon Kircik
BACKGROUND: Tinea pedis is the most common dermatophyte infection. Treatment is critical to alleviate pruritic symptoms, to reduce the risk for secondary bacterial infection, and to limit the spread of infection to other body sites or other individuals. The objective of this study was to compare the abilities of econazole nitrate topical foam, 1% and ketoconazole cream (2%) to reduce pruritus, thus improving quality of life, and to determine patient preference for the foam product versus the cream product in patients with interdigital tinea pedis...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
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