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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811601/autonomic-versus-perceptual-accounts-for-tactile-hypersensitivity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Hiroshi Fukuyama, Shin-Ichiro Kumagaya, Kosuke Asada, Satsuki Ayaya, Masaharu Kato
Tactile atypicality in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has harmful effects on their everyday lives including social interactions. However, whether tactile atypicality in ASD reflects perceptual and/or autonomic processes is unknown. Here, we show that adults with ASD have hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli in the autonomic but not perceptual domain. In particular, adults with ASD showed a greater skin conductance response (SCR) to tactile stimuli compared to typically developing (TD) adults, despite an absence of differences in subjective responses...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805199/-the-case-of-an-adult-man-with-savant-syndrome-in-the-course-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Kasper Sipowicz, Tadeusz Pietras
The paper reports on a case of 57-year man with autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy with an unusual feature of calendar calculation. Namely, this is the case of savant syndrome, which appears rarely in the course of various neuropsychiatric disorders. Commorbidity of epilepsy and autism particularly predispose to the aforementioned syndrome. In the presented case, apart from the calendar calculation, the man has high language abilities. As previous studies suggest, the extraordinary abilities among persons with savant syndrome works similarly to the language module in healthy persons...
July 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805071/a-systematic-review-of-quality-of-life-of-adults-on-the-autism-spectrum
#3
Michael Ayres, Jeremy R Parr, Jacqui Rodgers, David Mason, Leah Avery, Darren Flynn
Autism spectrum disorder is associated with co-existing conditions that may adversely affect an individual's quality of life. No systematic review of quality of life of adults on the autism spectrum has been conducted. Our objectives were as follows: (1) review the evidence about quality of life for adults on the autism spectrum; (2) critically appraise current practice in assessing quality of life of adults on the autism spectrum. We searched bibliographic databases and other literature to identify studies using a direct measure of quality of life of adults on the autism spectrum...
August 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801946/imitation-inhibition-in-children-with-tourette-syndrome
#4
Valerie Cathérine Brandt, Agnes Moczydlowski, Melanie Jonas, Kai Boelmans, Tobias Bäumer, Marcel Brass, Alexander Münchau
OBJECTIVE: Echopraxia, that is, the open and automatic imitation of other peoples' actions, is common in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, and also those with frontal lobe lesions. While systematic reaction time tasks have confirmed increased automatic imitation in the latter two groups, adult patients with Tourette syndrome appear to compensate for automatic imitation tendencies by an overall slowing in response times. However, whether children with Tourette syndrome are already able to inhibit automatic imitation tendencies has not been investigated...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800716/co-occurrence-of-asd-and-adhd-traits-in-an-adult-population
#5
Maria Panagiotidi, Paul G Overton, Tom Stafford
OBJECTIVE: ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be viewed as the extreme end of traits found in the general population. Clinical and genetic studies suggest that ADHD and ASD often co-occur and share genetic susceptibility. The aim of this study was to examine co-occurrence of ADHD and ASD traits in the general population. METHOD: In total, 334 participants were recruited from a population-based sample. Four questionnaires assessing current and retrospective ADHD and ASD traits were administered online: the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Symptom Checklist, the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25), the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ), and the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797309/aging-well-on-the-autism-spectrum-the-perspectives-of-autistic-adults-and-carers
#6
Ye In Jane Hwang, Kitty-Rose Foley, Julian N Trollor
BACKGROUND: "Aging well" is an increasingly popular concept in gerontology. Adults with disabilities such as autism spectrum disorder represent a demographically substantial population, yet remain excluded from existing conceptualizations of aging well. This qualitative study aimed to explore what it means for autistic adults to "age well" from the perspectives of autistic adults and carers. METHODS: Twenty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 autistic adults (mean age 50...
August 11, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796781/embodied-conversational-agents-for-multimodal-automated-social-skills-training-in-people-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#7
Hiroki Tanaka, Hideki Negoro, Hidemi Iwasaka, Satoshi Nakamura
Social skills training, performed by human trainers, is a well-established method for obtaining appropriate skills in social interaction. Previous work automated the process of social skills training by developing a dialogue system that teaches social communication skills through interaction with a computer avatar. Even though previous work that simulated social skills training only considered acoustic and linguistic information, human social skills trainers take into account visual and other non-verbal features...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795135/male-and-female-mice-lacking-neuroligin-3-modify-the-behavior-of-their-wild-type-littermates
#8
Shireene Kalbassi, Sven O Bachmann, Ellen Cross, Victoria H Roberton, Stéphane J Baudouin
In most mammals, including humans, the postnatal acquisition of normal social and nonsocial behavior critically depends on interactions with peers. Here we explore the possibility that mixed-group housing of mice carrying a deletion of Nlgn3, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorders, and their wild-type littermates induces changes in each other's behavior. We have found that, when raised together, male Nlgn3 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates displayed deficits in sociability. Moreover, social submission in adult male Nlgn3 knockout mice correlated with an increase in their anxiety...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782981/an-examination-of-the-precision-of-the-autism-diagnostic-observation-schedule-using-item-response-theory
#9
Megan Kuhfeld, Alexandra Sturm
The current study examined the reliability of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) across the continuum of severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) core deficits. Modules 3 and 4 of the ADOS assess the deficits of ASD in 2 core domains (Social Affect and Restrictive and Repetitive Behaviors [RRB]) among verbally fluent children, adolescents, and adults, and ADOS diagnostic classification of ASD is based on a total score that combines the 2 domains. Currently, the total and domain scores are calculated using only a subset of the administered items...
August 7, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782371/patterns-of-fixation-during-face-recognition-differences-in-autism-across-age
#10
Jennifer Fedor, Andrew Lynn, William Foran, Jared DiCicco-Bloom, Beatriz Luna, Kirsten O'Hearn
Difficulties with face recognition increase from adolescence to adulthood in autism, reflecting a lack of typical late development. We examined whether this reflects differences in the development of patterns of fixation to eyes and mouths during face recognition. Children, adolescents, and adults (aged 7-30) with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test while gaze was recorded. Average duration and number of fixations were calculated for eyes and mouth regions of interest, defined individually for each face image in the task...
August 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774571/activation-of-neonatal-microglia-can-be-influenced-by-other-neural-cells
#11
Alexandra Turano, Jennifer H Lawrence, Jaclyn M Schwarz
During development, microglial progenitor cells migrate into the brain from the periphery, a process critical to the maturation of the developing brain. Although they perform functions similar to mature, adult microglia, immature microglia are distinct from mature microglia. Activation of immature microglia, via an early-life immune challenge, can lead to persistent changes in microglial function, resulting in long-term neuronal and cognitive dysfunction. Early-life immune activation is associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, ADHD, schizophrenia, and cerebral palsy - disorders with known or suspected immune etiologies, and strong sex biases for males...
July 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772114/cityscape-moving-beyond-indifference-in-education-for-pre-registration-nurses-about-learning-disability
#12
Lorna Saunder, Rachael-Anne Knight
People with learning disabilities and Autism continue to suffer from the delivery of ineffective and inadequate care from health services CitySCaPE (City Simulated Community and Practice Environment) is a multi media resource delivering a simulation of situations student nurses may encounter in relation to service users with learning disabilities. The resource is applicable to adult, mental health and children's nursing. It is delivered in a blended approach to students in the first part of their programme as part of their simulated practice...
July 25, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770527/cognitive-behaviour-therapy-versus-a-counselling-intervention-for-anxiety-in-young-people-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Suzanne M Murphy, Uttom Chowdhury, Susan W White, Laura Reynolds, Louisa Donald, Hilary Gahan, Zeinab Iqbal, Mahesh Kulkarni, Louise Scrivener, Hadi Shaker-Naeeni, Dee A Press
The use of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) as a treatment for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been explored in a number of trials. Whilst CBT appears superior to no treatment or treatment as usual, few studies have assessed CBT against a control group receiving an alternative therapy. Our randomised controlled trial compared use of CBT against person-centred counselling for anxiety in 36 young people with ASD, ages 12-18. Outcome measures included parent- teacher- and self-reports of anxiety and social disability...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770526/increased-prevalence-of-unusual-sensory-behaviors-in-infants-at-risk-for-and-teens-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Hannah M Van Etten, Maninderjit Kaur, Sudha M Srinivasan, Shereen J Cohen, Anjana Bhat, Karen R Dobkins
The current study investigated the prevalence and pattern of unusual sensory behaviors (USBs) in teens with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and infants (3-36 months) at risk for ASD. From two different sites (UCSD and UConn), caregivers of infants at high (n = 32) and low risk (n = 33) for ASD, and teenagers with (n = 12) and without ASD (n = 11), completed age-appropriate Sensory Profile questionnaires (Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile; Dunn 2002; Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile; Brown and Dunn 2002)...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769743/neural-response-to-biological-motion-in-healthy-adults-varies-as-a-function-of-autistic-like-traits
#15
Meghan H Puglia, James P Morris
Perception of biological motion is an important social cognitive ability that has been mapped to specialized brain regions. Perceptual deficits and neural differences during biological motion perception have previously been associated with autism, a disorder classified by social and communication difficulties and repetitive and restricted interests and behaviors. However, the traits associated with autism are not limited to diagnostic categories, but are normally distributed within the general population and show the same patterns of heritability across the continuum...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769018/fluorescence-imaging-of-synapse-dynamics-in-normal-circuit-maturation-and-in-developmental-disorders
#16
Shigeo Okabe
One of the most fundamental questions in neurobiology is how proper synaptic connections are established in the developing brain. Live-cell imaging of the synaptic structure and functional molecules can reveal the time course of synapse formation, molecular dynamics, and functional maturation. Using postsynaptic scaffolding proteins as a marker of synapse development, fluorescence time-lapse imaging revealed rapid formation of individual synapses that occurred within hours and their remodeling in culture preparations...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768803/modulation-of-prefrontal-cortex-excitation-inhibition-balance-rescues-social-behavior-in-cntnap2-deficient-mice
#17
Aslihan Selimbeyoglu, Christina K Kim, Masatoshi Inoue, Soo Yeun Lee, Alice S O Hong, Isaac Kauvar, Charu Ramakrishnan, Lief E Fenno, Thomas J Davidson, Matthew Wright, Karl Deisseroth
Alterations in the balance between neuronal excitation and inhibition (E:I balance) have been implicated in the neural circuit activity-based processes that contribute to autism phenotypes. We investigated whether acutely reducing E:I balance in mouse brain could correct deficits in social behavior. We used mice lacking the CNTNAP2 gene, which has been implicated in autism, and achieved a temporally precise reduction in E:I balance in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) either by optogenetically increasing the excitability of inhibitory parvalbumin (PV) neurons or decreasing the excitability of excitatory pyramidal neurons...
August 2, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762254/the-effects-of-prenatal-iron-deficiency-and-risperidone-treatment-on-the-rat-frontal-cortex-%C3%A2-a-proteomic-analysis
#18
Lorna Farrelly, Maria Victoria Rosato-Siri, Melanie Föcking, Martin Codagnone, Analia Reines, Patrick Dicker, Kieran Wynne, Michael Farrell, Mary Cannon, Gerard Cagney, Juana Maria Pasquini, David R Cotter
Prenatal iron deficiency (pID) has been described to increase the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia; however, the precise molecular mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we utilized high throughput mass spectrometry to examine the proteomic effects of pID in adulthood on the rat frontal cortex area (FCA). In addition, the FCA proteome was examined in adulthood following risperidone treatment in adolescence to see if these effects could be prevented. We identified 1501 proteins of which 100 were significantly differentially expressed in the FCA at post-natal day 90...
July 31, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761079/alterations-in-resting-state-connectivity-along-the-autism-trait-continuum-a-twin-study
#19
J Neufeld, R Kuja-Halkola, K Mevel, É Cauvet, P Fransson, S Bölte
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been found to be associated with alterations in resting state (RS) functional connectivity, including areas forming the default mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN). However, insufficient control for confounding genetic and environmental influences and other methodological issues limit the generalizability of previous findings. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that ASD might be marked by early hyper-connectivity followed by later hypo-connectivity. To date, only a few studies have explicitly tested age-related influences on RS connectivity alterations in ASD...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759626/glutamate-gaba-ratio-is-associated-with-the-psychosocial-domain-of-autistic-and-schizotypal-traits
#20
Talitha C Ford, Richard Nibbs, David P Crewther
BACKGROUND: The autism and schizophrenia spectra overlap to a large degree in the social and interpersonal domains. Similarly, abnormal excitatory glutamate and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter concentrations have been reported for both spectra, with the interplay of these neurotransmitters important for cortical excitation to inhibition regulation. This study investigates whether these neurotransmitter abnormalities are specific to the shared symptomatology, and whether the degree of abnormality increases with increasing symptom severity...
2017: PloS One
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