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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100736/methyl-cpg-binding-protein-mbd1-regulates-neuronal-lineage-commitment-through-maintaining-adult-neural-stem-cell-identity
#1
Emily M Jobe, Yu Gao, Brian E Eisinger, Janessa K Mladucky, Charles C Giuliani, Laurel E Kelnhofer, Xinyu Zhao
: Methyl-CpG-binding domain 1 (MBD1) belongs to a family of methyl-CpG-binding proteins that are epigenetic "readers" linking DNA methylation to transcriptional regulation. MBD1 is expressed in neural stem cells residing in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus (aNSCs) and MBD1 deficiency leads to reduced neuronal differentiation, impaired neurogenesis, learning deficits, and autism-like behaviors in mice; however, the precise function of MBD1 in aNSCs remains unexplored. Here, we show that MBD1 is important for maintaining the integrity and stemness of NSCs, which is critical for their ability to generate neurons...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095733/decoding-crucial-lncrnas-implicated-in-neurogenesis-and-neurological-disorders
#2
R Ayana, Shailja Singh, Soumya Pati
Unraveling transcriptional heterogeneity and the labyrinthine nature of neurodevelopment can probe insights into neuropsychiatric disorders. It is noteworthy that adult neurogenesis is restricted to the Sub Ventricular and Sub Granular zones (SVZ/SGZ) of the brain. Recent studies suggest long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as an avant-garde class of regulators implicated in neurodevelopment. But, paucity exists in the knowledge regarding lncRNAs in neurogenesis and their associations with neurodevelopmental defects...
January 17, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095060/executive-functioning-mediates-the-effect-of-behavioral-problems-on-depression-in-mothers-of-children-with-developmental-disabilities
#3
Wai Chan, Leann E Smith, Jan S Greenberg, Jinkuk Hong, Marsha R Mailick
The present investigation explored long-term relationships of behavioral symptoms of adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities with the mental health of their mothers. Fragile X premutation carrier mothers of an adolescent or adult child with fragile X syndrome (n = 95), and mothers of a grown child with autism (n = 213) were included. Behavioral symptoms at Time 1 were hypothesized to predict maternal depressive symptoms at Time 3 via maternal executive dysfunction at Time 2. Results provided support for the mediating pathway of executive dysfunction...
January 2017: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081516/autism-does-not-limit-strategic-thinking-in-the-beauty-contest-game
#4
Peter C Pantelis, Daniel P Kennedy
A popular hypothesis in developmental psychology is that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a specific impairment or developmental delay in their ability to reason about other people's mental processes, especially when this reasoning process is of a higher-order, recursive, or nested variety. One type of interpersonal interaction that involves this sort of complex reasoning about others' minds is an economic game, and because economic games have been extensively modeled in behavioral economics, they provide a unique testbed for a quantitative and precise analysis of cognitive functioning in ASD...
January 9, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073100/investigating-the-use-of-appropriation-in-the-writing-of-a-child-with-autism-a-case-study
#5
Jamie Maxwell, Christine Weill, Jack Damico
This case study investigated how a 10year old child with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder), Kameron (pseudonym), utilized appropriation as a writing strategy in the context of group therapy. Using the same questions as Lensmire and Beals (1994) in their study of a typically developing third-grader, written products were collected over the course of one semester and analyzed, along with video, audio, and participant observation data, to consider the following questions: 1) Where did the material come from? 2) What was taken? and 3) How was it used? Analysis of the process of Kameron's writing revealed utilization of appropriation as a strategy for 2 of the 4 written products...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070787/predictors-of-self-injurious-behavior-and-self-restraint-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-towards-a-hypothesis-of-impaired-behavioral-control
#6
Caroline Richards, Louise Davies, Chris Oliver
Self-injury is common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however few studies have investigated correlates of self-injury or the putative associations with self-restraint. Questionnaire data on self-injury, self-restraint, health conditions, overactivity/impulsivity and repetitive/restricted behavior were collected on 208 children and 216 adults with ASD (mean age = 24.10, range 6-61). Self-injury and self-restraint were frequent and significantly associated in both children (45.7% and 40.9%, p < 0...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070786/training-parents-of-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-to-advocate-for-adult-disability-services-results-from-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Julie Lounds Taylor, Robert M Hodapp, Meghan M Burke, Sydney N Waitz-Kudla, Carol Rabideau
This study presents findings from a pilot randomized controlled trial, testing a 12-week intervention to train parents of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to advocate for adult disability services-the Volunteer Advocacy Program-Transition (VAP-T). Participants included 41 parents of youth with ASD within 2 years of high school exit, randomly assigned to a treatment (N = 20) or wait-list control (N = 21) group. Outcomes, collected before and after the intervention, included parental knowledge about adult services, advocacy skills-comfort, and empowerment...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068407/significant-association-of-urinary-toxic-metals-and-autism-related-symptoms-a-nonlinear-statistical-analysis-with-cross-validation
#8
James Adams, Daniel P Howsmon, Uwe Kruger, Elizabeth Geis, Eva Gehn, Valeria Fimbres, Elena Pollard, Jessica Mitchell, Julie Ingram, Robert Hellmers, David Quig, Juergen Hahn
INTRODUCTION: A number of previous studies examined a possible association of toxic metals and autism, and over half of those studies suggest that toxic metal levels are different in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Additionally, several studies found that those levels correlate with the severity of ASD. METHODS: In order to further investigate these points, this paper performs the most detailed statistical analysis to date of a data set in this field...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067726/autism-spectrum-disorder-outcomes-in-adulthood
#9
Patricia Howlin, Iliana Magiati
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Until recently, there has been little systematic study of adult life among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but recognition of the high psychological and social costs of ASD has led to an increase in adult-focused research over the past decade. The aim of this review is to summarize recent empirical findings on outcomes for adults with ASD. RECENT FINDINGS: Most research on adult outcomes in ASD indicates very limited social integration, poor job prospects and high rates of mental health problems...
January 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064024/cognitive-profiles-of-adults-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-those-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-based-on-the-wais-iii
#10
Chieko Kanai, Ryuichiro Hashimoto, Takashi Itahashi, Masayuki Tani, Takashi Yamada, Haruhisa Ota, Akira Iwanami, Nobumasa Kato
The cognitive profile differences between adult patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not well characterized. We examined the cognitive profiles of adults having either ASD (n=120) or ADHD (n=76) with no intellectual disabilities (IQ≥70) using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). Verbal Intelligence (VIQ) - Performance Intelligence (PIQ) difference discrepancies were detected between the two groups. Information subtest scores of the Verbal Comprehension index and Arithmetic and Digit Span subtests of the Freedom from Distractibility index were significantly higher in ASD than in ADHD, while the Picture Completion subtest was significantly lower in ASD...
January 5, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060877/heightened-olfactory-sensitivity-in-young-females-with-recent-onset-anorexia-nervosa-and-recovered-individuals
#11
Mette Bentz, Johanne Guldberg, Signe Vangkilde, Tine Pedersen, Kerstin Jessica Plessen, Jens Richardt Moellegaard Jepsen
INTRODUCTION: Olfaction may be related to food restriction and weight loss. However, reports regarding olfactory function in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: Characterize olfactory sensitivity and identification in female adolescents and young adults with first-episode AN and young females recovered from AN. METHODS: We used the Sniffin' Sticks Odor Threshold Test and Odor Identification Test to assess 43 participants with first-episode AN, 27 recovered participants, and 39 control participants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058747/towards-a-neurochemical-profile-of-the-amygdala-using-short-te-1-h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-at-3%C3%A2-t
#12
Florian Schubert, Simone Kühn, Jürgen Gallinat, Ralf Mekle, Bernd Ittermann
The amygdala plays a key role in emotional learning and in the processing of emotions. As disturbed amygdala function has been linked to several psychiatric conditions, a knowledge of its biochemistry, especially neurotransmitter levels, is highly desirable. The spin echo full intensity acquired localized (SPECIAL) sequence, together with a transmit/receive coil, was used to perform very short-TE magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T to determine the neurochemical profile in a spectroscopic voxel containing the amygdala in 21 healthy adult subjects...
January 6, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057930/atypical-developmental-trajectory-of-local-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Xiaonan Guo, Heng Chen, Zhiliang Long, Xujun Duan, Youxue Zhang, Huafu Chen
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by atypical trajectory of brain maturation, yet the developmental abnormalities in brain function remain unclear. The current study examined the effect of age on amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in ASD and typical controls (TC) using a cross-sectional design. We classified all the participants into three age cohorts: child (<11 years, 18ASD/20TC), adolescent (11-18 years, 28ASD/26TC) and adult (≥18 years, 18ASD/18TC). Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to ascertain main effects and interaction effects on whole brain ALFF maps...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057726/reduced-hippocampal-functional-connectivity-during-episodic-memory-retrieval-in-autism
#14
Rose A Cooper, Franziska R Richter, Paul M Bays, Kate C Plaisted-Grant, Simon Baron-Cohen, Jon S Simons
Increasing recent research has sought to understand the recollection impairments experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we tested whether these memory deficits reflect a reduction in the probability of retrieval success or in the precision of memory representations. We also used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural mechanisms underlying memory encoding and retrieval in ASD, focusing particularly on the functional connectivity of core episodic memory networks...
January 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057721/in-vivo-evidence-of-reduced-integrity-of-the-gray-white-matter-boundary-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Derek Sayre Andrews, Thomas A Avino, Maria Gudbrandsen, Eileen Daly, Andre Marquand, Clodagh M Murphy, Meng-Chuan Lai, Michael V Lombardo, Amber N V Ruigrok, Steven C Williams, Edward T Bullmore, The Mrc Aims Consortium, John Suckling, Simon Baron-Cohen, Michael C Craig, Declan G M Murphy, Christine Ecker
Atypical cortical organization and reduced integrity of the gray-white matter boundary have been reported by postmortem studies in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there are no in vivo studies that examine these particular features of cortical organization in ASD. Hence, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging to examine differences in tissue contrast between gray and white matter in 98 adults with ASD and 98 typically developing controls, to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASD have significantly reduced tissue contrast...
January 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057268/control-of-neuronal-development-by-t-box-genes-in-the-brain
#16
A B Mihalas, R F Hevner
T-box transcription factors play key roles in the regulation of developmental processes such as cell differentiation and migration. Mammals have 17 T-box genes, of which several regulate brain development. The Tbr1 subfamily of T-box genes is particularly important in development of the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulbs (OBs), and cerebellum. This subfamily is comprised of Tbr1, Tbr2 (also known as Eomes), and Tbx21. In developing cerebral cortex, Tbr2 and Tbr1 are expressed during successive stages of differentiation in the pyramidal neuron lineage, from Tbr2+ intermediate progenitors to Tbr1+ postmitotic glutamatergic neurons...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056659/olfactory-functions-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
Rebecka N Addo, Stefan Wiens, Marie Nord, Maria Larsson
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often characterized by atypical sensory behavior (hyper- or hyporeactivity) although evidence is scarce regarding olfactory abilities in ASD; 16 adults with high-functioning ASD (mean age: 38.2, SD: 9.7) and 14 healthy control subjects (mean age: 42.0 years, SD: 12.5) were assessed in odor threshold, free and cued odor identification, and perceived pleasantness, intensity, and edibility of everyday odors. Although results showed no differences between groups, the Bayes Factors (close to 1) suggested that the evidence for no group differences on the threshold and identification tests was inconclusive...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#18
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042663/all-our-sons-the-developmental-neurobiology-and-neuroendocrinology-of-boys-at-risk
#19
Allan N Schore
Why are boys at risk? To address this question, I use the perspective of regulation theory to offer a model of the deeper psychoneurobiological mechanisms that underlie the vulnerability of the developing male. The central thesis of this work dictates that significant gender differences are seen between male and female social and emotional functions in the earliest stages of development, and that these result from not only differences in sex hormones and social experiences but also in rates of male and female brain maturation, specifically in the early developing right brain...
January 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039782/reduced-sensitivity-to-social-priors-during-action-prediction-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#20
Valerian Chambon, Chlöé Farrer, Elisabeth Pacherie, Pierre O Jacquet, Marion Leboyer, Tiziana Zalla
An extensive amount of evidence has documented a diminished ability to predict and understand other people's action in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Recently, two theoretical accounts, the "Hypo-priors" and the "Aberrant precision" hypotheses, have suggested that attenuated Bayesian priors or an imbalance of the precision ascribed to sensory evidence relative to prior expectations may be responsible for the atypical perceptual experience and difficulties with action understanding in ASD...
December 28, 2016: Cognition
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