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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921201/sensory-clusters-of-adults-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-conditions
#1
Marie Elwin, Agneta Schröder, Lena Ek, Tuula Wallsten, Lars Kjellin
We identified clusters of atypical sensory functioning adults with ASC by hierarchical cluster analysis. A new scale for commonly self-reported sensory reactivity was used as a measure. In a low frequency group (n = 37), all subscale scores were relatively low, in particular atypical sensory/motor reactivity. In the intermediate group (n = 17) hyperreactivity, sensory interests and sensory/motor issues were significantly elevated in relation to the first group, but not hyporeactivity. In a high frequency subgroup (n = 17) all subscale scores were significantly elevated and co-occurrence of hyper- and hyporeactivity was evident...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920144/methyl-cpg-binding-protein-mbd1-regulates-neuronal-lineage-commitment-through-maintaining-adult-neural-stem-cell-identity
#2
Emily M Jobe, Yu Gao, Brian E Eisinger, Janessa K Mladucky, Charles C Giuliani, Laurel E Kelnhofer, Xinyu Zhao
: MBD1 belongs to a family of methyl-CpG binding proteins that are epigenetic "readers", linking DNA methylation to transcriptional regulation. MBD1 is expressed in neural stem cells residing in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus (aNSCs), and MBD1 deficiency leads to reduced neuronal differentiation, impaired neurogenesis, learning deficits, and autism-like behaviors in mice; however the precise function of MBD1 in aNSCs remains unexplored. Here, we show that MBD1 is important for maintaining the integrity and stemness of NSCs, which is critical for their ability to generate neurons...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918948/adult-autism-subthreshold-spectrum-adas-spectrum-validation-of-a-questionnaire-investigating-subthreshold-autism-spectrum
#3
L Dell'Osso, C Gesi, E Massimetti, I M Cremone, M Barbuti, G Maccariello, I Moroni, S Barlati, G Castellini, M Luciano, L Bossini, M Rocchetti, M Signorelli, E Aguglia, A Fagiolini, P Politi, V Ricca, A Vita, C Carmassi, M Maj
AIM: Increasing literature has shown the usefulness of a dimensional approach to autism. The present study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum), a new questionnaire specifically tailored to assess subthreshold forms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adulthood. METHODS: 102 adults endorsing at least one DSM-5 symptom criterion for ASD (ASDc), 143 adults diagnosed with a feeding and eating disorder (FED), and 160 subjects with no mental disorders (CTL), were recruited from 7 Italian University Departments of Psychiatry and administered the following: SCID-5, Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale 14-item version (RAADS-14), and AdAS Spectrum...
November 9, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917445/legal-provisions-educational-services-and-health-care-across-the-lifespan-for-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-india
#4
Merry Barua, Jaya Shankar Kaushik, Sheffali Gulati
India is estimated to have over 10 million persons with autism. Rising awareness of autism in India over last decade with ready access to information has led to an increase in prevalence and earlier diagnosis, the creation of services and some policy initiatives. However, there remains a gaping chasm between policy and implementation. The reach and quality of services continues sketchy and uneven, especially in the area of education. The present review discusses existing legal provisions for children and adults with autism in India...
December 5, 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916731/associations-between-the-cntnap2-gene-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-and-cognitive-performance-on-the-stroop-task
#5
Bi Zhu, Chuansheng Chen, Gui Xue, Xuemei Lei, Yunxin Wang, Jin Li, Robert K Moyzis, Jun Li, Qi Dong, Chongde Lin
The CNTNAP2 (contactin associated protein-like 2) gene, highly expressed in the human prefrontal cortex, has been linked with autism and language impairment. Potential relationships between CNTNAP2, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and cognition have been suggested by previous clinical studies, but have not been directly examined in the same study. The current study collected structural MRI, genetic, and behavioral data in 317 healthy Chinese adults, and examined associations between CNTNAP2 variants, DLPFC, and cognitive performance (measured by the Stroop task)...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912058/impaired-amino-acid-transport-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-is-a-cause-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Dora C Tărlungeanu, Elena Deliu, Christoph P Dotter, Majdi Kara, Philipp Christoph Janiesch, Mariafrancesca Scalise, Michele Galluccio, Mateja Tesulov, Emanuela Morelli, Fatma Mujgan Sonmez, Kaya Bilguvar, Ryuichi Ohgaki, Yoshikatsu Kanai, Anide Johansen, Seham Esharif, Tawfeg Ben-Omran, Meral Topcu, Avner Schlessinger, Cesare Indiveri, Kent E Duncan, Ahmet Okay Caglayan, Murat Gunel, Joseph G Gleeson, Gaia Novarino
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of genetic disorders often overlapping with other neurological conditions. We previously described abnormalities in the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolic pathway as a cause of ASD. Here, we show that the solute carrier transporter 7a5 (SLC7A5), a large neutral amino acid transporter localized at the blood brain barrier (BBB), has an essential role in maintaining normal levels of brain BCAAs. In mice, deletion of Slc7a5 from the endothelial cells of the BBB leads to atypical brain amino acid profile, abnormal mRNA translation, and severe neurological abnormalities...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911749/casting-a-wide-net-role-of-perineuronal-nets-in-neural-plasticity
#7
Barbara A Sorg, Sabina Berretta, Jordan M Blacktop, James W Fawcett, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Jessica C F Kwok, Marta Miquel
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are unique extracellular matrix structures that wrap around certain neurons in the CNS during development and control plasticity in the adult CNS. They appear to contribute to a wide range of diseases/disorders of the brain, are involved in recovery from spinal cord injury, and are altered during aging, learning and memory, and after exposure to drugs of abuse. Here the focus is on how a major component of PNNs, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, control plasticity, and on the role of PNNs in memory in normal aging, in a tauopathy model of Alzheimer's disease, and in drug addiction...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909005/repetition-suppression-and-memory-for-faces-is-reduced-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-conditions
#8
Michael P Ewbank, Philip J Pell, Thomas E Powell, Elisabeth A H von dem Hagen, Simon Baron-Cohen, Andrew J Calder
Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are associated with a number of atypicalities in face processing, including difficulties in face memory. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this difficulty are unclear. In neurotypical individuals, repeated presentation of the same face is associated with a reduction in activity, known as repetition suppression (RS), in the fusiform face area (FFA). However, to date, no studies have investigated RS to faces in individuals with ASC, or the relationship between RS and face memory...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900342/cacna1c-protecting-young-hippocampal-neurons-in-the-adult-brain
#9
Héctor De Jesús-Cortés, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha, Andrew A Pieper
Neuropsychiatric disease is the leading cause of disability in the United States, and fourth worldwide.(1,2) Not surprisingly, human genetic studies have revealed a common genetic predisposition for many forms of neuropsychiatric disease, potentially explaining why overlapping symptoms are commonly observed across multiple diagnostic categories. For example, the CACNA1C gene was recently identified in the largest human genome-wide association study to date as a risk loci held in common across 5 major forms of neuropsychiatric disease: bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, major depressive disorder (MDD), autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899713/when-do-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-show-superiority-in-visual-search
#10
Aya Shirama, Nobumasa Kato, Makio Kashino
Although superior visual search skills have been repeatedly reported for individuals with autism spectrum disorder, the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. To specify the locus where individuals with autism spectrum disorder excel in visual search, we compared the performance of autism spectrum disorder adults and healthy controls in briefly presented search tasks, where the search display was replaced by a noise mask at a stimulus-mask asynchrony of 160 ms to interfere with a serial search process while bottom-up visual processing remains intact...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899710/quantifying-and-exploring-camouflaging-in-men-and-women-with-autism
#11
Meng-Chuan Lai, Michael V Lombardo, Amber Nv Ruigrok, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Bonnie Auyeung, Peter Szatmari, Francesca Happé, Simon Baron-Cohen
Autobiographical descriptions and clinician observations suggest that some individuals with autism, particularly females, 'camouflage' their social communication difficulties, which may require considerable cognitive effort and lead to increased stress, anxiety and depression. Using data from 60 age- and IQ-matched men and women with autism (without intellectual disability), we operationalized camouflaging in adults with autism for the first time as the quantitative discrepancy between the person's 'external' behavioural presentation in social-interpersonal contexts (measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) and the person's 'internal' status (dispositional traits measured by the Autism Spectrum Quotient and social cognitive capability measured by the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test)...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899707/the-influence-of-presentation-modality-on-the-social-comprehension-of-naturalistic-scenes-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Haley M Gedek, Peter C Pantelis, Daniel P Kennedy
The comprehension of dynamically unfolding social situations is made possible by the seamless integration of multimodal information merged with rich intuitions about the thoughts and behaviors of others. We examined how high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder and neurotypical controls made a complex social judgment (i.e. rating the social awkwardness of scenes from a television sitcom) across three conditions that manipulated presentation modality-visual alone, transcribed text alone, or visual and auditory together...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899267/tracking-health-care-service-use-and-the-experiences-of-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-without-intellectual-disability-a-longitudinal-study-of-service-rates-barriers-and-satisfaction
#13
Vanessa Vogan, Johanna K Lake, Ami Tint, Jonathan A Weiss, Yona Lunsky
BACKGROUND: Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) encounter many difficulties finding and accessing health care services. Despite this, few studies have considered the health service use patterns of adults with ASD without intellectual disability (ID). OBJECTIVES: The current study examines a diverse range of medical and mental health services and supports, as well as adults' personal experiences accessing and using these services, barriers to service use, and reported unmet service needs...
November 22, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893495/integration-of-eeg-into-psychiatric-practice-a-step-toward-precision-medicine-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Ronald J Swatzyna, Jay D Tarnow, Robert P Turner, Alexandra J Roark, Erin K MacInerney, Gerald P Kozlowski
INTRODUCTION: Data from an EEG is not commonly used by psychiatrists to plan treatment and medication. However, EEG abnormalities such as isolated epileptiform discharges (IEDs) are found to be more prevalent in psychiatric patients, particularly those diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Most medications prescribed for ASD lower seizure threshold and increase side-effects. Therefore, it may be prudent to order an EEG for ASD cases, especially those categorized as refractory...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891819/autism-and-emotional-face-viewing
#15
Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Daniel Hovey, Nicole Zürcher, Loyse Hippolyte, Eric Lemonnier, Christopher Gillberg, Nouchine Hadjikhani
Atypical patterns of face-scanning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may contribute to difficulties in social interactions, but there is little agreement regarding what exactly characterizes face-viewing in ASD. In addition, little research has examined how face-viewing is modulated by the emotional expression of the stimuli, in individuals with or without ASD. We used eye-tracking to explore viewing patterns during perception of dynamic emotional facial expressions in relatively large groups of individuals with (n = 57) and without ASD (n = 58) and examined diagnostic- and age-related effects, after subgrouping children and adolescents (≤18 years), on the one hand, and adults (>18 years), on the other...
November 28, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887681/bone-accrual-in-males-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Ann M Neumeyer, Natalia Cano Sokoloff, Erin McDonnell, Eric A Macklin, Christopher J McDougle, Madhusmita Misra
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that bone accrual over a 4-year period is reduced in boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with typically developing controls. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-five boys with ASD and 24 controls were assessed for bone outcomes. Fourteen boys with ASD and 11 controls were assessed both at baseline and after 4 years. The mean subject age was 11.0 ± 1.6 years at study initiation and 14.9 ± 1.6 years at follow-up. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the spine, hip, and whole body using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and normalized for age, race, and sex (BMD z-scores)...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878739/divergence-of-age-related-differences-in-social-communication-improvements-for-typically-developing-youth-but-declines-for-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Gregory L Wallace, Katerina Dudley, Laura Anthony, Cara E Pugliese, Bako Orionzi, Liv Clasen, Nancy Raitano Lee, Jay N Giedd, Alex Martin, Armin Raznahan, Lauren Kenworthy
Although social-communication difficulties and repetitive behaviors are hallmark features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and persist across the lifespan, very few studies have compared age-related differences in these behaviors between youth with ASD and same-age typically developing (TD) peers. We examined this issue using SRS-2 (Social Responsiveness Scale-Second Edition) measures of social-communicative functioning and repetitive behaviors in a stratified cross-sectional sample of 324 youth with ASD in the absence of intellectual disability, and 438 TD youth (aged 4-29 years)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878738/size-constancy-is-preserved-but-afterimages-are-prolonged-in-typical-individuals-with-higher-degrees-of-self-reported-autistic-traits
#18
Irene Sperandio, Katy L Unwin, Oriane Landry, Philippe A Chouinard
Deficits in perceptual constancies from early infancy have been proposed to contribute to autism and exacerbate its symptoms (Hellendoorn et al., Frontiers in Psychology 6:1-16, 2015). Here, we examined size constancy in adults from the general population (N = 106) with different levels of self-reported autistic traits using an approach based on negative afterimages. The afterimage strength, as indexed by duration and vividness, was also quantified. In opposition to the Hellendoorn and colleagues' model, we were unable to demonstrate any kind of relationship between abilities in size constancy and autistic traits...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875247/comorbidity-prevalence-healthcare-utilization-and-expenditures-of-medicaid-enrolled-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#19
Rini Vohra, Suresh Madhavan, Usha Sambamoorthi
A retrospective data analysis using 2000-2008 three state Medicaid Analytic eXtract was conducted to examine the prevalence and association of comorbidities (psychiatric and non-psychiatric) with healthcare utilization and expenditures of fee-for-service enrolled adults (22-64 years) with and without autism spectrum disorders (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision-clinical modification code: 299.xx). Autism spectrum disorder cases were 1:3 matched to no autism spectrum disorder controls by age, gender, and race using propensity scores...
October 20, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874275/executive-functioning-in-men-and-women-with-an-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Michelle Kiep, Annelies A Spek
Executive functioning (EF) is thought to be linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) specific symptoms. The majority of research has focused on children and adolescents with ASD and, therefore, little is known about EF in adults. Furthermore, little is known about gender differences. Ninety-nine men and forty women with ASD were compared with and 35 neurotypical men 25 neurotypical women. Participants were matched on age, total intelligence, and verbal ability. The following instruments were used to measure executive functioning: digit span and letter and number sequencing of the WAIS-III, Tower of Hanoi, WCST, and Verbal fluency...
November 22, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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