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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778930/measurement-properties-of-tools-used-to-assess-suicidality-in-autistic-and-general-population-adults-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
S A Cassidy, L Bradley, E Bowen, S Wigham, J Rodgers
Adults diagnosed with autism are at significantly increased risk of suicidal thoughts, suicidal behaviours and dying by suicide. However, it is unclear whether any validated tools are currently available to effectively assess suicidality in autistic adults in research and clinical practice. This is crucial for understanding and preventing premature death by suicide in this vulnerable group. This two stage systematic review therefore aimed to identify tools used to assess suicidality in autistic and general population adults, evaluate these tools for their appropriateness and measurement properties, and make recommendations for appropriate selection of suicidality assessment tools in research and clinical practice...
May 5, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772450/understanding-one-s-body-and-movements-from-the-perspective-of-young-adults-with-autism-a-mixed-methods-study
#2
Ingrid Bertilsson, Amanda Lundvik Gyllensten, Arve Opheim, Gunvor Gard, Catharina Sjödahl Hammarlund
BACKGROUND: There are but a few studies of how persons with autism perceive their bodies and movements. Difficulties in perceiving the surrounding world along with disturbed motor coordination and executive functions may affect physical and psychological development. AIMS: To explore the experiences of body and movements in young adults with autism and how two physiotherapeutic instruments may capture these experiences. PROCEDURES: Eleven young adults (16-22 years) with autism were interviewed and assessed using Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT2) and Body Awareness Scale Movement Quality and Experience (BAS MQ-E)...
May 14, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772261/maternal-immune-activation-with-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-a-produces-unique-behavioral-changes-in-c57bl-6-mouse-offspring
#3
Ruthy Glass, Sara Norton, Nicholas Fox, Alexander W Kusnecov
Stimulation of the immune system during pregnancy, known as maternal immune activation (MIA), can cause long-lasting neurobiological and behavioral changes in the offspring. This phenomenon has been implicated in the etiology of developmental psychiatric disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. Much of this evidence is predicated on animal models using bacterial agents such as LPS and/or viral mimics such as Poly I:C, both of which act through toll-like receptors. However, fewer studies have examined the role of direct activation of maternal T-cells during pregnancy using microbial agents...
May 14, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766483/-autism-or-personality-disorder-in-older-adults-guidelines-for-the-differential-diagnosis
#4
A C Videler, E C J Delescen, M A Ouwens
Autism spectrum disorders and personality disorders are common, also in the elderly. Differential diagnosis is complex, especially if an undiagnosed autism spectrum disorder or personality disorder is suspected. We discuss two cases and conclude the article with suggestions for the differential diagnosis.
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763658/event-related-potential-analysis-techniques-for-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Priyalakshmi Sheela, Subha D Puthankattil
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) comprise all pervasive neurodevelopmental diseases marked by deficits in social and communication skills, delayed cognitive development, restricted and repetitive behaviors. The core symptoms begin in early childhood, may continue life-long resulting in poor performance in adult stage. Event-related potential (ERP) is basically a time-locked electroencephalogram signal elicited by various stimuli, related to sensory and cognitive processes. The various ERP based techniques used for the study of ASD are considered in this review...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748924/the-interoception-sensory-questionnaire-isq-a-scale-to-measure-interoceptive-challenges-in-adults
#6
L Fiene, M J Ireland, C Brownlow
Increasing attention is being paid to how adults on the autism spectrum perceive and interpret the interoceptive sense. This 20-item Interoception Sensory Questionnaire represents a single factor scale that can be interpreted as representing confusion about interoceptive bodily states unless these states are extreme (Alexisomia), and has been designed to discriminate across populations (total sample 511 participants). Findings showed that 74% of adults with autism reported interoceptive confusion. Another finding of the study was that as autistic traits increased, interoceptive confusion increased, with adults with diagnosed autism scoring highest on the construct...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746896/insights-into-cerebellar-development-and-connectivity
#7
REVIEW
Jaclyn Beckinghausen, Roy V Sillitoe
The cerebellum has a well-established role in controlling motor functions such coordination, balance, posture, and skilled learning. There is mounting evidence that it might also play a critical role in non-motor functions such as cognition and emotion. It is therefore not surprising that cerebellar deficits are associated with a wide array of diseases including ataxia, dystonia tremor, schizophrenia, dyslexia, and autism spectrum disorder. What is intriguing is that a seemingly uniform circuit that is often described as being "simple" should carry out all of these behaviors...
May 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744705/correction-to-adults-with-autism-tend-to-underestimate-the-hidden-environmental-structure-evidence-from-a-visual-associative-learning-task
#8
Laurie-Anne Sapey-Triomphe, Sandrine Sonié, Marie-Anne Hénaff, Jérémie Mattout, Christina Schmitz
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the article title.
May 10, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742462/the-link-between-interoceptive-processing-and-anxiety-in-children-diagnosed-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-extending-adult-findings-into-a-developmental-sample
#9
E R Palser, A Fotopoulou, E Pellicano, J M Kilner
Anxiety is a major associated feature of autism spectrum disorders. The incidence of anxiety symptoms in this population has been associated with altered interoceptive processing. Here, we investigated whether recent findings of impaired interoceptive accuracy (quantified using heartbeat detection tasks) and exaggerated interoceptive sensibility (subjective sensitivity to internal sensations on self-report questionnaires) in autistic adults, can be extended into a school-age sample of children and adolescents (n = 75)...
May 6, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742331/youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-the-emergency-department
#10
Sarah Lytle, Andrew Hunt, Sonal Moratschek, Marcie Hall-Mennes, Martha Sajatovic
OBJECTIVE: This comprehensive literature review summarizes reports on emergency department (ED) use by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). DATA SOURCES: We conducted a systematic search of the PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases (1985-2016), limited to studies published in English. The following search terms were used: autism, autistic, Asperger, emergency department/room/physician/doctor/treatment/medicine, childhood developmental disorders (pervasive), and emergencies...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741976/self-reported-autism-spectrum-disorder-symptoms-among-adults-referred-to-a-gender-identity-clinic
#11
Lieke E W Vermaat, Anna I R van der Miesen, Annelou L C de Vries, Thomas D Steensma, Arne Popma, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to (1) investigate autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in a sample of adults referred for gender dysphoria (GD) compared to typically developing (TD) populations, (2) see whether males assigned at birth with GD (MaBGD s) and females assigned at birth with GD (FaBGD s) differ in ASD symptom levels, (3) study the role of sexual orientation, and (4) investigate ASD symptoms' correlation with GD symptoms. METHODS: The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was used to measure ASD symptoms, and the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale (UGDS) was used to measure the intensity of GD...
May 9, 2018: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739396/how-well-do-services-for-young-people-with-long-term-conditions-deliver-features-proposed-to-improve-transition
#12
A Colver, R Pearse, R M Watson, M Fay, T Rapley, K D Mann, A Le Couteur, J R Parr, H McConachie
BACKGROUND: For young people with long-term conditions, transition from child to adult-oriented health services is a critical period which, if not managed well, may lead to poor outcomes. There are features of transition services which guidance and research suggest improve outcomes. We studied nine such features, calling them 'proposed beneficial features': age-banded clinic; meet adult team before transfer; promotion of health self-efficacy; written transition plan; appropriate parent involvement; key worker; coordinated team; holistic life-skills training; transition manager for clinical team...
May 8, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738885/regulation-of-seizure-induced-mecp2-ser421-phosphorylation-in-the-developing-brain
#13
Evan C Rosenberg, Jocelyn J Lippman-Bell, Marcus Handy, Samantha S Soldan, Sanjay Rakhade, Cristina Hilario-Gomez, Kaitlyn Folweiler, Leah Jacobs, Frances E Jensen
Neonatal seizures disrupt normal synaptic maturation and often lead to later-life epilepsy and cognitive deficits. During early life, the brain exhibits heightened synaptic plasticity, in part due to a developmental overabundance of CaV 1.2 L-type voltage gated calcium (Ca2+ ) channels (LT-VGCCs) and Ca2+ -permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs) lacking GluA2 subunits. We hypothesized that early-life seizures overactivate these channels, in turn dysregulating Ca2+ -dependent signaling pathways including that of methyl-CPG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), a transcription factor implicated in the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) Rett Syndrome...
May 5, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738079/patients-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-do-not-score-higher-on-the-autism-spectrum-quotient-than-healthy-controls-comparison-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Indre Bileviciute-Ljungar, Daniel Maroti, Susanne Bejerot
Clinically, there is an overlap of several symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including fatigue; brain "fog"; cognitive impairments; increased sensitivity to sound, light, and odour; increased pain and tenderness; and impaired emotional contact. Adults with CFS (n = 59) or ASD (n = 50) and healthy controls (HC; n = 53) were assessed with the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in a cross-sectional study. Non-parametric analysis was used to compare AQ scores among the groups...
May 8, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736964/novel-pls3-variants-in-x-linked-osteoporosis-exploring-bone-material-properties
#15
Meena Balasubramanian, Nadja Fratzl-Zelman, Rory O'Sullivan, Mary Bull, Nicola Fa Peel, Rebecca C Pollitt, Rebecca Jones, Elizabeth Milne, Kath Smith, Paul Roschger, Klaus Klaushofer, Nicholas J Bishop
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis (IJO) refers to significantly lower than expected bone mass manifesting in childhood with no identifiable aetiology. IJO classically presents in early pubertal period with multiple fractures including metaphyseal and vertebral crush fractures, and low bone-mass. METHODS: Here we describe two patients and provide information on their clinical phenotype, genotype and bone material analysis in one of the patients. RESULTS: Patient 1: 40-year old adult male diagnosed with IJO in childhood who re-presented with a hip fracture as an adult...
May 7, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736809/prevalence-of-the-wish-to-be-of-the-opposite-gender-in-adolescents-and-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Anna I R van der Miesen, Hannah Hurley, Anneloes M Bal, Annelou L C de Vries
Several studies have suggested an overrepresentation of (symptoms of) autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among individuals with gender dysphoria. Three studies have taken the inverse approach in children with ASD and showed increased parent report of the wish to be of the opposite gender in this group. This study compared the self-reported wish to be of the opposite gender (one item of the Youth Self-Report [YSR] and the Adult Self-Report [ASR]) of 573 adolescents (469 assigned boys and 104 assigned girls) and 807 adults (616 assigned males and 191 assigned females) with ASD to 1016 adolescents and 846 adults from the general population...
May 7, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735992/enhanced-pupillary-light-reflex-in-infancy-is-associated-with-autism-diagnosis-in-toddlerhood
#17
Pär Nyström, Teodora Gliga, Elisabeth Nilsson Jobs, Gustaf Gredebäck, Tony Charman, Mark H Johnson, Sven Bölte, Terje Falck-Ytter
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition affecting around 1% of the population. We previously discovered that infant siblings of children with ASD had stronger pupillary light reflexes compared to low-risk infants, a result which contrasts sharply with the weak pupillary light reflex typically seen in both children and adults with ASD. Here, we show that on average the relative constriction of the pupillary light reflex is larger in 9-10-month-old high risk infant siblings who receive an ASD diagnosis at 36 months, compared both to those who do not and to low-risk controls...
May 7, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734508/using-machine-learning-to-identify-patterns-of-lifetime-health-problems-in-decedents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Lauren Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Arezoo Movaghar, Jan S Greenberg, David Page, Leann S DaWalt, Murray H Brilliant, Marsha R Mailick
Very little is known about the health problems experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) throughout their life course. We retrospectively analyzed diagnostic codes associated with de-identified electronic health records using a machine learning algorithm to characterize diagnostic patterns in decedents with ASD and matched decedent community controls. Participants were 91 decedents with ASD and 6,186 sex and birth year matched decedent community controls who had died since 1979, the majority of whom were middle aged or older adults at the time of their death...
May 7, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734506/predictors-of-quality-of-life-for-autistic-adults
#19
David Mason, Helen McConachie, Deborah Garland, Alex Petrou, Jacqui Rodgers, Jeremy R Parr
Research with adults on the autism spectrum is as yet limited in scope and quality. The present study describes quality of life (QoL) of a large sample of autistic adults in the UK and investigates characteristics that may be predictive of QoL. A total of 370 autistic adults from the Adult Autism Spectrum Cohort-UK (ASC-UK) completed the WHOQoL-BREF, and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS, autism symptom severity), along with the ASC-UK registration questionnaire giving information on mental health and their life situation...
May 7, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734504/typical-use-of-inverse-dynamics-in-perceiving-motion-in-autistic-adults-exploring-computational-principles-of-perception-and-action
#20
Shinya Takamuku, Paul A G Forbes, Antonia F de C Hamilton, Hiroaki Gomi
There is increasing evidence for motor difficulties in many people with autism spectrum condition (ASC). These difficulties could be linked to differences in the use of internal models which represent relations between motions and forces/efforts. The use of these internal models may be dependent on the cerebellum which has been shown to be abnormal in autism. Several studies have examined internal computations of forward dynamics (motion from force information) in autism, but few have tested the inverse dynamics computation, that is, the determination of force-related information from motion information...
May 7, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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