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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924206/ephrin-a2-regulates-excitatory-neuron-differentiation-and-interneuron-migration-in-the-developing-neocortex
#1
Jihane Homman-Ludiye, William C Kwan, Mitchell J de Souza, Jennifer Rodger, James A Bourne
The development of the neocortex requires co-ordination between proliferation and differentiation, as well as the precise orchestration of neuronal migration. Eph/ephrin signaling is crucial in guiding neurons and their projections during embryonic development. In adult ephrin-A2 knockout mice we consistently observed focal patches of disorganized neocortical laminar architecture, ranging in severity from reduced neuronal density to a complete lack of neurons. Loss of ephrin-A2 in the pre-optic area of the diencephalon reduced the migration of neocortex-bound interneurons from this region...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922575/the-hospital-anxiety-and-depression-scale-factor-structure-and-psychometric-properties-in-older-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Mirko Uljarević, Amanda L Richdale, Helen McConachie, Darren Hedley, Ru Ying Cai, Hannah Merrick, Jeremy R Parr, Ann Le Couteur
Despite the high frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and a significant impact of these comorbidities on both individuals with ASD and their families, research on the validity of anxiety and depression measures in the ASD population is currently lacking. The aim of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS; Zigmond & Snaith, ] in a sample of older adolescents and young adults with ASD. One hundred and fifty one participants (UK Transition longitudinal study: N = 106; 75 males, Mage  = 16...
September 18, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922069/glutamatergic-agents-in-the-treatment-of-compulsivity-and-impulsivity-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#3
Konstantin Mechler, Alexander Häge, Nina Schweinfurth, Jeffrey C Glennon, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Declan Murphy, Sarah Durston, Steven Williams, Jan K Buitelaar, Tobias Banaschewski, Ralf W Dittmann, The Tactics Consortium
OBJECTIVE: Research has implicated glutamatergic projections between the various frontal subregions in the pathogenesis of compulsivity and impulsivity. Reducing striatal glutamate release, or antagonising the action of glutamate at its receptors, may therefore represent viable treatment strategies. Several glutamatergic agents with regulatory approval for other indications are available and may be of potential benefit in the treatment of compulsivity/impulsivity in psychiatric disorders in paediatric patients...
September 18, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921735/three-shades-of-grey-detecting-brain-abnormalities-in-children-with-autism-by-using-source-voxel-and-surface-based-morphometry
#4
Edoardo Pappaianni, Roma Siugzdaite, Sofie Vettori, Paola Venuti, Remo Job, Alessandro Grecucci
Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interactions, communication and stereotyped behavior. Recent evidence from neuroimaging supports the hypothesis that ASD deficits in adults may be related to abnormalities in a specific frontal-temporal network (Autism-specific Structural Network, ASN). To see whether these results extend to younger children and to better characterize these abnormalities, we applied three morphometric methods on brain grey matter of children with and without ASD...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921306/brief-report-feasibility-and-preliminary-efficacy-of-individual-mindfulness-therapy-for-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Caitlin M Conner, Susan W White
Intervention research on adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is sparse. Many adults with ASD experience impaired emotion regulation (ER), which is thought to contribute to higher rates of psychiatric comorbidities among adults with ASD and indirect effects upon adaptive functioning, interpersonal relationships, and vocational status. The purpose of this study was to investigate feasibility and initial efficacy of an adapted mindfulness-based individual therapy targeting ER difficulties for adults with ASD...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921058/the-influence-of-task-demands-verbal-ability-and-executive-functions-on-item-and-source-memory-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Sara Semino, Melanie Ring, Dermot M Bowler, Sebastian B Gaigg
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is generally associated with difficulties in contextual source memory but not single item memory. There are surprising inconsistencies in the literature, however, that the current study seeks to address by examining item and source memory in age and ability matched groups of 22 ASD and 21 comparison adults. Results show that group differences in source memory are moderated by task demands but not by individual differences in verbal ability, executive function or item memory. By contrast, unexpected group differences in item memory could largely be explained by individual differences in source memory...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918862/meta-analysis-of-sensorimotor-gating-in-patients-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#7
Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Pei-Ying S Chan, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Chia-Yih Liu
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle response is a well-established neurophysiological marker of sensorimotor gating ability in psychiatric patients including those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). PPI has been utilized as an indicator of the central inhibitory function and is potentially linked to the clinical features of this disease. However, it remains inconclusive whether ASD patients exhibit PPI deficits compared with healthy controls. The present meta-analysis aimed to explore the pooled effect sizes of PPI in ASD patients...
September 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915839/risk-of-mortality-among-children-adolescents-and-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-or-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-their-first-degree-relatives-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#8
Ferrán Catalá-López, Brian Hutton, Matthew J Page, Manuel Ridao, Jane A Driver, Adolfo Alonso-Arroyo, Jaume Forés-Martos, Diego Macías Saint-Gerons, Eduard Vieta, Alfonso Valencia, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorders that may persist into adulthood. ASD and ADHD tend to run in families and may have a significant negative impact on the health and longevity of those with the disorder and their relatives. The aim of this study will be to analyze the risk of mortality among children, adolescents, and adults with ASD or ADHD and their first-degree relatives. METHODS/DESIGN: We will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies...
September 15, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915148/adult-fmr1-knockout-mice-present-with-deficiencies-in-hippocampal-interleukin-6-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-expression
#9
Samantha L Hodges, Suzanne O Nolan, Joseph H Taube, Joaquin N Lugo
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a single genetic mutation in the FMR1 gene. Mutations in the FMR1 gene are the largest monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and thus both disorders share many of the same cognitive and behavioral impairments. There is increasing evidence suggesting that dysregulated immune responses play a role in the pathophysiology of ASD; however, the association between FXS and altered immunity requires further investigation. This study examined whether Fmr1 knockout (KO) and wild-type mice on a FVB/NJ background strain had altered cytokine expression at baseline levels in the hippocampus...
September 14, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914977/autism-theory-of-mind-and-the-reactive-attitudes
#10
Kenneth A Richman, Raya Bidshahri
Whether to treat autism as exculpatory in any given circumstance appears to be influenced both by models of autism and by theories of moral responsibility. This article looks at one particular combination of theories: autism as theory of mind challenges and moral responsibility as requiring appropriate experience of the reactive attitudes. In pursuing this particular combination of ideas, we do not intend to endorse them. Our goal is, instead, to explore the implications of this combination of especially prominent ideas about autism and about moral responsibility...
September 15, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914086/preliminary-efficacy-of-a-daily-living-skills-intervention-for-adolescents-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Amie Duncan, Lisa A Ruble, Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Carrie Thomas, Lori J Stark
Daily living skills deficits are strongly associated with poor adult outcomes for individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, and yet, there are no group interventions targeting daily living skills. Seven adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and their parents participated in a feasibility pilot of a 12-week manualized group treatment targeting specific daily living skills (i.e. morning routine, cooking, laundry, and money management). Outcomes included the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland-II) age equivalence scores and four goal attainment scaling scores...
September 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914085/development-of-a-patient-centered-conceptual-model-of-the-impact-of-living-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Fiona McDougall, Thomas Willgoss, Steve Hwang, Federico Bolognani, Lorraine Murtagh, Evdokia Anagnostou, Diana Rofail
The aim of this study was to generate a patient-centered conceptual model of the impact of living with autism spectrum disorder, which can be used to support the selection of outcome measures for clinical trials. Following an initial literature review to identify preliminary concepts and inform an interview guide, in-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (IQ ⩾ 70) (n = 10), as well as parents of children, adolescents, and adults with autism spectrum disorder (IQ ⩾ 70) (n = 26)...
September 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903621/virtual-environments-as-an-assessment-modality-with-pediatric-asd-populations-a-brief-report
#13
Tyler C Duffield, Thomas D Parsons, Allisen Landry, Shaza Karam, Tiffany Otero, Sarah Mastel, Trevor A Hall
Virtual environments (VEs) have demonstrated promise as a neuropsychological assessment modality and may be well suited for the evaluation of children suspected of having an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some recent studies indicate their potential for enhancing reliability, ecologically validity, and sensitivity over traditional neuropsychological evaluation measures. Although research using VEs with ASD is increasing to the degree that several reviews of the literature have been conducted, the reviews to date lack rigor and are not necessarily specific to cognitive or neuropsychological assessment as many focus on intervention...
September 13, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901633/response-to-mortazavi-s-comment
#14
Bellieni Carlo Valerio, Giuseppe Buonocore
Mortazavi's comment (1) on our letter (2) on whether electromagnetic fields (EMF) in incubators are a risk factor for autism contains several points that need to be corrected. First, we did not base our observations just on our previous papers as Mortazavi maintains. In fact, our observations were also based on several more papers about EMF in incubators, including the paper by Calvente et al, which was published in 2017 (3). Second, it is incorrect to write that a very simple intervention, such as changing the infants' sleep position, namely the position of the head and feet, can lead to a significant drop, as big as several orders of magnitude, in the infant's brain exposure (1), because in most incubators EMF levels are similar at all points of the mattress...
September 13, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901542/effects-of-response-contingent-stimulus-pairing-on-vocalizations-of-nonverbal-children-with-autism
#15
Tracy L Lepper, Anna Ingeborg Petursdottir
Research on stimulus-stimulus pairing to induce novel vocalizations in nonverbal children has typically employed response-independent pairing (RIP) procedures to condition speech sounds as reinforcers. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a response-contingent pairing (RCP) procedure on the vocalizations of three nonverbal boys diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. During RCP, adult-delivered sounds that were either paired with a preferred item (target sounds) or not (nontarget sounds) were presented contingent on a button-press response...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900771/health-concerns-and-health-service-utilization-in-a-population-cohort-of-young-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Jonathan A Weiss, Barry Isaacs, Heidi Diepstra, Andrew S Wilton, Hilary K Brown, Caitlin McGarry, Yona Lunsky
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have many health needs that place demands on the health service sector. This study used administrative data to compare health profiles in young adults 18-24 years of age with ASD to peers with and without other developmental disability. Young adults with ASD were more likely to have almost all the examined clinical health issues and health service use indicators compared to peers without developmental disability. They were more likely to have at least one psychiatric diagnosis, and visit the family physician, pediatrician, psychiatrist, and emergency department for psychiatric reasons, compared to peers with other developmental disability...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894969/categorical-speech-perception-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-conditions
#17
Mary E Stewart, Alexandra M Petrou, Mitsuhiko Ota
This study tested whether individuals with autism spectrum conditions (n = 23) show enhanced discrimination of acoustic differences that signal a linguistic contrast (i.e., /g/ versus /k/ as in 'goat' and 'coat') and whether they process such differences in a less categorical fashion as compared with 23 IQ-matched typically developed adults. Tasks administered were nonverbal IQ, verbal IQ, 5 language measures, a speech perception task, and the ADOS. The speech perception task measured the discrimination of paired exemplars along the /g/-/k/ continuum...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894950/autism-spectrum-disorder-an-early-and-frequent-feature-in-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis
#18
Bianca M L Stelten, Olivier Bonnot, Hidde H Huidekoper, Francjan J van Spronsen, Peter M van Hasselt, Leo A J Kluijtmans, Ron A Wevers, Aad Verrips
BACKGROUND: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is an autosomal recessively inherited inborn error of metabolism (IEM) due to mutations in the CYP27A1 gene. The clinical picture ranges from being nearly asymptomatic in early childhood, up to severe disability at adult age. Infantile-onset diarrhea and juvenile-onset cataract are the earliest symptoms in childhood. In the current study, we evaluated the presence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a large cohort of CTX patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective patient file study in 77 genetically confirmed Dutch CTX patients to determine the frequency of ASD...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894610/maturation-refinement-and-serotonergic-modulation-of-cerebellar-cortical-circuits-in-normal-development-and-in-murine-models-of-autism
#19
REVIEW
Eriola Hoxha, Pellegrino Lippiello, Bibiana Scelfo, Filippo Tempia, Mirella Ghirardi, Maria Concetta Miniaci
The formation of the complex cerebellar cortical circuits follows different phases, with initial synaptogenesis and subsequent processes of refinement guided by a variety of mechanisms. The regularity of the cellular and synaptic organization of the cerebellar cortex allowed detailed studies of the structural plasticity mechanisms underlying the formation of new synapses and retraction of redundant ones. For the attainment of the monoinnervation of the Purkinje cell by a single climbing fiber, several signals are involved, including electrical activity, contact signals, homosynaptic and heterosynaptic interaction, calcium transients, postsynaptic receptors, and transduction pathways...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890778/yawning-detection-sensitivity-and-yawning-contagion
#20
Meingold H M Chan, Chia-Huei Tseng
Contagious yawning-the urge to yawn when thinking about, listening to, or viewing yawning-is a well-documented phenomenon in humans and animals. The reduced yawn contagion observed in the autistic population suggested that it might be empathy related; however, it is unknown whether such a connection applies to nonclinical populations. We examined influences from both empathy (i.e., autistic traits) and nonempathy factors (i.e., individuals' perceptual detection sensitivity to yawning, happy, and angry faces) on 41 nonclinical adults...
July 2017: I-Perception
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