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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110279/walking-the-c4-pathway-past-present-and-future
#1
REVIEW
Robert T Furbank
The year 2016 marks 50 years since the publication of the seminal paper by Hatch and Slack describing the biochemical pathway we now know as C4 photosynthesis. This review provides insight into the initial discovery of this pathway, the clues which led Hatch and Slack and others to these definitive experiments, some of the intrigue which surrounds the international activities which led up to the discovery, and personal insights into the future of this research field. While the biochemical understanding of the basic pathways came quickly, the role of the bundle sheath intermediate CO2 pool was not understood for a number of years, and the nature of C4 as a biochemical CO2 pump then linked the unique Kranz anatomy of C4 plants to their biochemical specialization...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110231/effect-of-residence-time-on-two-step-liquefaction-of-rice-straw-in-a-co2-atmosphere-differences-between-subcritical-water-and-supercritical-ethanol
#2
Tianhua Yang, Jian Wang, Bingshuo Li, Xingping Kai, Rundong Li
This study investigated the influence of temperature and residence time on liquefaction of rice straw in subcritical CO2-subcritical water (subCO2-subH2O) and in subcritical CO2-supercritical ethanol (subCO2-scEtOH), considering the final reaction temperatures (270-345°C) and residence times (15 and 30min). Residence time was identified as a crucial parameter in the subCO2-subH2O liquefaction, whereas residence time had a marginal influence on subCO2-scEtOH liquefaction. When reaction conditions were 320°C and 15min, solvents have weak impact on the quality of bio-oil, HHV 28...
January 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110091/genome-wide-association-analyses-reveal-the-genetic-basis-of-stigma-exsertion-in-rice
#3
Hao Zhou, Pingbo Li, Weibo Xie, Saddam Hussain, Yibo Li, Duo Xia, Hu Zhao, Shengyuan Sun, Junxiao Chen, Hong Ye, Jun Hou, Da Zhao, Guanjun Gao, Qinglu Zhang, Gongwei Wang, Xingming Lian, Jinghua Xiao, Sibin Yu, Xianghua Li, Yuqing He
Stigma exsertion, a key determinant of the rice mating system, greatly contributes to the application of heterosis in rice. As few QTLs have been fine mapped or cloned, the genetic architecture of stigma exsertion is quite unclear. We performed genome-wide association study of stigma exsertion and related traits using 6.5 million SNPs characterized in 533 diverse accessions of Oryza sativa. We identified 23 loci significantly associated with stigma exsertion and related traits, three of which were co-located with three major grain size genes GS3, GW5 and GW2...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109299/in-utero-exposure-to-germinated-brown-rice-and-its-oryzanol-rich-extract-attenuated-high-fat-diet-induced-insulin-resistance-in-f1-generation-of-rats
#4
Hadiza Altine Adamu, Mustapha Umar Imam, Der-Jiun Ooi, Norhaizan Mohd Esa, Rozita Rosli, Maznah Ismail
BACKGROUND: The development of insulin resistance is multifactorial, with maternal pre- and postnatal nutrition having significant influences. In this regard, high fat diet (HFD) feeding in pregnancy has been shown to increase risks of metabolic diseases. Thus, we investigated the effects of supplementation of HFD with germinated brown rice (GBR) and GBR-derived gamma oryzanol-rich extract (OE) on insulin resistance and its epigenetic implications in pregnant rats and their offsprings...
January 21, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108552/predicted-residual-error-sum-of-squares-of-mixed-models-an-application-to-genomic-prediction
#5
Shizhong Xu
Genomic prediction is a statistical method to predict phenotypes of polygenic traits using high throughput genomic data. Most diseases and behaviors in human and animals are polygenic traits. The majority of agronomic traits in crops are also polygenic. Accurate prediction of these traits can help medical professionals diagnose acute diseases and breeders to increase food products, and therefore, significantly contribute to human health and global food security. The best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) is an important tool to analyze high throughput genomic data for prediction...
January 20, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108420/neutrophil-derived-microparticles-increase-mortality-and-the-counter-inflammatory-response-in-a-murine-model-of-sepsis
#6
Bobby L Johnson, Emily F Midura, Priya S Prakash, Teresa C Rice, Natalia Kunz, Kathrin Kalies, Charles C Caldwell
Although advances in medical care have significantly improved sepsis survival, sepsis remains the leading cause of death in the ICU. This is likely due to a lack of complete understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to dysfunctional immunity. Neutrophil derived microparticles (NDMPs) have been shown to be the predominant microparticle present at infectious and inflamed foci in human models, however their effect on the immune response to inflammation and infection is sepsis has not been fully elucidated...
January 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107910/nanobody-based-enzyme-immunoassay-for-ochratoxin-a-in-cereal-with-high-resistance-to-matrix-interference
#7
Xing Liu, Zongwen Tang, Zhenhua Duan, Zhenyun He, Mei Shu, Xianxian Wang, Shirley J Gee, Bruce D Hammock, Yang Xu
A sensitive indirect competitive nanobody-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Nb-ELISA) for ochratoxin A (OTA) with high resistance to cereal matrix interference was developed. Nanobodies against OTA (Nb15, Nb28, Nb32, Nb36) were expressed in E. coli cells and their thermal stabilities were compared with that of an OTA-specific monoclonal antibody 6H8. All nanobodies could still retain their antigen-binding activity after exposure to temperature 95°C for 5min or to 90°C for 75min. Nb28 that exhibited the highest sensitivity in ELISA was selected for further research...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107733/glycine-increases-cold-tolerance-in-rice-via-the-regulation-of-n-uptake-physiological-characteristics-and-photosynthesis
#8
Cao Xiaochuang, Zhong Chu, Zhu Lianfeng, Zhang Junhua, Sajid Hussain, Wu Lianghuan, Jin Qianyu
To investigate the response of rice growth and photosynthesis to different nitrogen (N) sources under cold stress, hydroponic cultivation of rice was done in greenhouse, with glycine, ammonium, and nitrate as the sole N sources. The results demonstrate that exposure to low temperature reduced the rice biomass and leaf chlorophyll content, but their values in the glycine-treated plants were significantly higher than in the ammonium- and nitrate-treated plants. This might be attributed to the higher N uptake rate and root area and activity in the glycine-treated plants...
January 12, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107441/fine-mapping-and-candidate-gene-analysis-of-the-tiller-suppression-gene-ts1-in-rice
#9
Lei Liu, Fen Meng, Yonggang He, Menghao Zhu, Yanhao Shen, Zhihong Zhang
Tiller number is one of the key factors that influences rice plant type and yield components. In this study, an EMS-induced rice tiller suppression mutant ts1 was characterized. Morphological and histological observations revealed that, in the ts1 plants, the tiller buds were abnormally formed and therefore cannot outgrow into tillers. With an F2 population derived from a cross between ts1 and an indica cultivar Wushansimiao, a major gene, tiller suppression 1 (ts1) was fine-mapped to a 108.5 kb genomic region between markers ID8378 and SSR6884 on the short arm of rice chromosome 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107426/identification-of-micrornas-in-response-to-drought-in-common-wild-rice-oryza-rufipogon-griff-shoots-and-roots
#10
Jing-Wen Zhang, Yan Long, Man-de Xue, Xing-Guo Xiao, Xin-Wu Pei
BACKGROUND: Drought is the most important factor that limits rice production in drought-prone environments. Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) contains abundant drought-resistant genes, which provide an opportunity to explore these excellent resources as contributors to improve rice resistance, productivity, and quality. RESULTS: In this study, we constructed four small RNA libraries, called CL and CR from PEG6000-free samples and DL and DR from PEG6000-treated samples, where 'R' indicates the root tissue and 'L' indicates the shoot tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107001/systemic-stress-and-recovery-patterns-of-rice-roots-in-response-to-graphene-oxide-nanosheets
#11
Qixing Zhou, Xiangang Hu
The interactions between nanomaterials and plants have attracted increasing attention. However, the systemic stress and recovery patterns of plants in response to nanomaterials and the connections between the molecular responses and phenotypes remain unclear. Herein, rice was exposed to graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets at 0.01-1 mg/L for 7 days under hydroponic exposure, followed by a 7-day post-exposure (GO-free). The significant upregulation (p<0.05) of phenylalanine metabolism, secondary metabolism and heme peroxidase reflected the stress and recovery patterns of rice roots exposed to GO...
January 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106791/dietary-patterns-in-relation-to-cardiovascular-disease-incidence-and-risk-markers-in-a-middle-aged-british-male-population-data-from-the-caerphilly-prospective-study
#12
Elly Mertens, Oonagh Markey, Johanna M Geleijnse, David Ian Givens, Julie A Lovegrove
Dietary behaviour is an important modifiable factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. The study aimed to identify dietary patterns (DPs) and explore their association with CVD incidence and risk markers. A follow-up of 1838 middle-aged men, aged 47-67 years recruited into the Caerphilly Prospective Cohort Study at phase 2 (1984-1988) was undertaken. Principal component analysis identified three DPs at baseline, which explained 24.8% of the total variance of food intake. DP1, characterised by higher intakes of white bread, butter, lard, chips and sugar-sweetened beverages and lower intake of wholegrain bread, was associated with higher CVD (HR 1...
January 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106722/using-network-extracted-ontologies-to-identify-novel-genes-with-roles-in-appressorium-development-in-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#13
Ryan M Ames
Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast disease, the most important infection of rice worldwide. Half the world's population depends on rice for its primary caloric intake and, as such, rice blast poses a serious threat to food security. The stages of M. oryzae infection are well defined, with the formation of an appressorium, a cell type that allows penetration of the plant cuticle, particularly well studied. However, many of the key pathways and genes involved in this disease stage are yet to be identified...
January 17, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106309/transposable-elements-tes-contribute-to-stress-related-long-intergenic-noncoding-rnas-in-plants
#14
Dong Wang, Zhipeng Qu, Lan Yang, Qingzhu Zhang, Zhi-Hong Liu, Trung Do, David L Adelson, Zhen-Yu Wang, Iain Searle, Jian-Kang Zhu
Noncoding RNAs have been extensively described in plant and animal transcriptomes by using high-throughput sequencing technology. Of these non-coding RNAs, a growing number of long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been described in multicellular organisms, however the origins and functions of many lincRNAs remain to be explored. In many eukaryotic genomes, transposable elements (TEs) are widely distributed and often account for large fractions of plant and animal genomes yet the contribution of TEs to lincRNAs is largely unknown...
January 20, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106279/a-rapid-electrochemical-monitoring-platform-for-sensitive-determination-of-thiamethoxam-based-on-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-graphene-composite
#15
XingChen Zhai, Hua Zhang, Min Zhang, Xin Yang, Cheng Gu, GuoPeng Zhou, Haitian Zhao, Zhenyu Wang, Aijun Dong, Jing Wang
A rapid monitoring platform for sensitive voltammetric detection of thiamethoxam (TMX) residues was reported in the present study. The β-cyclodextrin-reduced graphene oxide composite (β-CD-rGO) was used as a reinforcing material in electrochemical determination of TMX. Compared with bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE), the reduction peak currents of TMX at rGO/GCE and β-CD-rGO/GCE were increased by 70 and 124 folds, respectively. The experimental conditions influencing voltammetric determination of TMX, such as the amount of β-CD-rGO, solution pH, temperature and time on accumulation, were optimized...
January 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106116/overexpression-of-mosm1-encoding-for-an-immunity-inducing-protein-from-magnaporthe-oryzae-in-rice-confers-broad-spectrum-resistance-against-fungal-and-bacterial-diseases
#16
Yongbo Hong, Yayun Yang, Huijuan Zhang, Lei Huang, Dayong Li, Fengming Song
Potential of MoSM1, encoding for a cerato-platanin protein from Magnaporthe oryzae, in improvement of rice disease resistance was examined. Transient expression of MoSM1 in rice leaves initiated hypersensitive response and upregulated expression of defense genes. When transiently expressed in tobacco leaves, MoSM1 targeted to plasma membrane. The MoSM1-overexpressing (MoSM1-OE) transgenic rice lines showed an improved resistance, as revealed by the reduced disease severity and decreased in planta pathogen growth, against 2 strains belonging to two different races of M...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105594/screening-of-inorganic-and-organic-contaminants-in-floodwater-in-paddy-fields-of-hue-and-thanh-hoa-in-vietnam
#17
Ha Thu Trinh, Helle Marcussen, Hans Christian B Hansen, Giang Truong Le, Hanh Thi Duong, Nguyen Thuy Ta, Trung Quang Nguyen, Soren Hansen, Bjarne W Strobel
In the rainy season, rice growing areas in Vietnam often become flooded by up to 1.5 m water. The floodwater brings contaminants from cultivated areas, farms and villages to the rice fields resulting in widespread contamination. In 2012 and 2013, the inorganic and organic contaminants in floodwater was investigated in Thanh Hoa and Hue. Water samples were taken at 16 locations in canals, paddy fields and rivers before and during the flood. In total, 940 organic micro-pollutants in the water samples were determined simultaneously by GC-MS method with automatic identification and quantification system (AIQS), while ICP-MS was used for determination of ten trace elements in the samples...
January 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104330/evaluation-of-individual-and-combined-management-practices-to-reduce-the-off-site-transport-of-pesticides-from-golf-course-turf
#18
Pamela J Rice, Brian P Horgan, Jennifer L Hamlin
The detection of pesticides, associated with turfgrass management, in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds has raised concerns regarding their source, potential environmental effects and a need for strategies to reduce their inputs. In previous research we discovered that hollow tine core cultivation (HTCC) was more effective than other management practices for reducing the off-site transport of pesticides with runoff from creeping bentgrass turf managed as a golf course fairway. This was primarily the result of enhanced infiltration and reduced runoff volumes associated with turf managed with hollow tines...
January 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103409/zea-mays-fe-deficiency-related-4-zmfdr4-functions-as-an-iron-transporter-in-the-plastids-of-monocots
#19
Xiu-Yue Zhang, Xi Zhang, Qi Zhang, Xiao-Xi Pan, Luo-Chen Yan, Xiao-Juan Ma, Wei-Zhong Zhao, Xiao-Ting Qi, Li-Ping Yin
Iron (Fe)-homeostasis in the plastids is closely associated with Fe transport proteins that prevent Fe from occurring in its toxic free ionic forms. However, the number of known protein families related to Fe transport in the plastids (about 5) and the function of iron in non-green plastids is limited. In the present study, we report the functional characterization of Zea mays Fe deficiency-related 4 (ZmFDR4), which was isolated from a differentially expressed clone of a cDNA library of Fe deficiency-induced maize roots...
January 19, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103393/the-correlation-between-in-vitro-antioxidant-activity-and-immunomodulatory-activity-of-enzymatic-hydrolysates-from-selenium-enriched-rice-protein
#20
Yong Fang, Xi Chen, Peizhu Luo, Fei Pei, Benard Muinde Kimatu, Kunlun Liu, Mengjia Du, Weifen Qiu, Qiuhui Hu
The antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of selenium-enriched rice protein hydrolysates (Se-PH) were evaluated by a cellular antioxidant activity test and macrophage proliferation and phagocytosis assays, respectively. The results showed that trypsin hydrolysate provided the highest proliferation rate of 60.91% at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Moreover, a remarkable rise in the phagocytosis rates for trypsin hydrolysate (64.1%) and pepsin-trypsin hydrolysate (54.5%) was observed when the sample concentrations were increased to 50 μg/mL...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Food Science
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