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Lijuan Sun, Kevin Wei Jie Tan, Joseph Zhien Lim, Faidon Magkos, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
PURPOSE: The magnitude of postprandial lipemia is influenced not only by the amount but also the type of fat and carbohydrate consumed. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in postprandial glucose and lipid responses after a mixed meal containing low- or high-glycemic-index (GI) carbohydrate and three different types of fat varying in the degree of saturation in healthy subjects. METHODS: A randomized, controlled, single-blinded crossover study was conducted in 20 healthy Chinese men...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Jiadong Yu, Yubin Zhao, Huan Zhang, Binbin Hua, Xufeng Yuan, Wanbin Zhu, Xiaofen Wang, Zongjun Cui
A two-phase digestion system for treating agricultural waste is beneficial for methane production. This study explored the effect of solid content, temperature, and mixing mode on the process of hydrolysis and acidification using rice straw and cow dung launched in non-airtight acidogenic system. The results showed that the substrate could be hydrolyzed efficiently in the initial stage, the hydrolysis coefficient (k) of maximum cellulose and hemicellulose can be increased by 217.9% and 290.5%, respectively, compared with those of middle and last stages...
October 18, 2016: Waste Management
Jean-Emmanuel Hugonnet, Dominique Mengin-Lecreulx, Alejandro Monton, Tanneke den Blaauwen, Etienne Carbonnelle, Carole Veckerlé, Yves Brun, Michael van Nieuwenhze, Christiane Bouchier, Kuyek Tu, Louis B Rice, Michel Arthur
The target of β-lactam antibiotics is the D,D-transpeptidase activity of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) for synthesis of 4→3 cross-links in the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls. Unusual 3→3 cross-links formed by L,D-transpeptidases were first detected in Escherichia coli more than four decades ago, however no phenotype has previously been associated with their synthesis. Here we show that production of the L,D-transpeptidase YcbB in combination with elevated synthesis of the (p)ppGpp alarmone by RelA lead to full bypass of the D,D-transpeptidase activity of PBPs and to broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance...
October 21, 2016: ELife
Delphine Mieulet, Sylvie Jolivet, Maud Rivard, Laurence Cromer, Aurore Vernet, Pauline Mayonove, Lucie Pereira, Gaëtan Droc, Brigitte Courtois, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Raphael Mercier
Introduction of clonal reproduction through seeds (apomixis) in crops has the potential to revolutionize agriculture by allowing self-propagation of any elite variety, in particular F1 hybrids. In the sexual model plant Arabidopsis thaliana synthetic clonal reproduction through seeds can be artificially implemented by (i) combining three mutations to turn meiosis into mitosis (MiMe) and (ii) crossing the obtained clonal gametes with a line expressing modified CENH3 and whose genome is eliminated in the zygote...
October 21, 2016: Cell Research
I Nakachi, B A Helfrich, M A Spillman, E A Mickler, C J Olson, J L Rice, C D Coldren, L E Heasley, M W Geraci, R S Stearman
Src kinase is recognized as a key target for molecular cancer therapy. However, methods to efficiently select patients responsive to Src inhibitors are lacking. We explored the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cell lines to the Src kinase inhibitor saracatinib to identify predictive markers of drug sensitivity using gene microarrays. Pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) was selected as a potential biomarker as mRNA levels were correlated with saracatinib resistance, as well as higher PTTG1 protein expression...
October 20, 2016: Clinical and Translational Science
Fatemeh Mohammad Pour Ghazi, Seyed Latif Mousavi Gargari
Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 is the main causative agent of cholera diseases defined by life threatening rice watery diarrhea. Cholera routine vaccination has failed in controlling epidemics in developing countries because of their hard and expensive production. In this study, our aim was to investigate phage displayed mimotopes that could mimic V. cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Although LPS of Vibrio, as an endotoxin, can stimulate the immune system, thereby making it a suitable candidate for cholera vaccine, its toxicity remains as a main problem...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Juan L Reig-Valiente, Juan Viruel, Ester Sales, Luis Marqués, Javier Terol, Marta Gut, Sophia Derdak, Manuel Talón, Concha Domingo
BACKGROUND: After its domestication, rice cultivation expanded from tropical regions towards northern latitudes with temperate climate in a progressive process to overcome limiting photoperiod and temperature conditions. This process has originated a wide range of diversity that can be regarded as a valuable resource for crop improvement. In general, current rice breeding programs have to deal with a lack of both germplasm accessions specifically adapted to local agro-environmental conditions and adapted donors carrying desired agronomical traits...
December 2016: Rice
Diego M Almeida, Glenn B Gregorio, M Margarida Oliveira, Nelson J M Saibo
This manuscript reports the identification and characterization of five transcription factors binding to the promoter of OsNHX1 in a salt stress tolerant rice genotype (Hasawi). Although NHX1 encoding genes are known to be highly regulated at the transcription level by different abiotic stresses, namely salt and drought stress, until now only one transcription factor (TF) binding to its promoter has been reported. In order to unveil the TFs regulating NHX1 gene expression, which is known to be highly induced under salt stress, we have used a Y1H system to screen a salt induced rice cDNA expression library from Hasawi...
October 20, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Mun Su Rhee, Neha Sawhney, Young Sik Kim, Hyun Jee Rhee, Jason C Hurlbert, Franz J St John, Guang Nong, John D Rice, James F Preston
Paenibacillus sp. JDR-2 (Pjdr2) has been studied as a model for development of bacterial biocatalysts for efficient processing of xylans, methylglucuronoxylan, and methylglucuronoarabinoxylan, the predominant hemicellulosic polysaccharides found in dicots and monocots, respectively. Pjdr2 produces a cell-associated GH10 endoxylanase (Xyn10A1) that catalyzes depolymerization of xylans to xylobiose, xylotriose, and methylglucuronoxylotriose with methylglucuronate-linked α-1,2 to the nonreducing terminal xylose...
October 21, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Lidiane Raquel Verola Mataveli, Márcia Liane Buzzo, Luciana Juncioni de Arauz, Maria de Fátima Henriques Carvalho, Edna Emy Kumagai Arakaki, Richard Matsuzaki, Paulo Tiglea
This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89...
2016: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Jingzhong Xie, Naxin Huo, Shenghui Zhou, Yi Wang, Guanghao Guo, Karin R Deal, Shuhong Ouyang, Yong Liang, Zhenzhong Wang, Lichan Xiao, Tingting Zhu, Tiezhu Hu, Vijay Tiwari, Jianwei Zhang, Hongxia Li, Zhongfu Ni, Yingyin Yao, Huiru Peng, Shengli Zhang, Olin D Anderson, Patrick E McGuire, Jan Dvorak, Ming-Cheng Luo, Zhiyong Liu, Yong Q Gu, Qixin Sun
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) is an allohexaploid species derived from two rounds of interspecific hybridizations. A high-quality genome sequence assembly of diploid Aegilops tauschii, the donor of the wheat D genome, will provide a useful platform to study polyploid wheat evolution. A combined approach of BAC pooling and next-generation sequencing technology was employed to sequence the minimum tiling path (MTP) of 3176 BAC clones from the short arm of Ae. tauschii chromosome 3 (At3DS). The final assembly of 135 super-scaffolds with an N50 of 4...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
Yong Fang, Zi Xu, Yi Shi, Fei Pei, Wenjian Yang, Ning Ma, Benard Muinde Kimatu, Kunlun Liu, Weifen Qiu, Qiuhui Hu
This study aimed to investigate the protection mechanism of Se-containing protein hydrolysates (SPH) from Se-enriched rice on Pb(2+)-induced apoptosis in PC12 and RAW264.7 cells. Results showed that SPHs could alleviate Pb(2+)-induced morphological changes of apoptosis and the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential in both cell types. Besides this, SPHs could significantly reduce the activation of caspase-3, -8, -9 induced by Pb(2+), reverse the Pb(2+)-induced upregulation of Bax and release of cytochrome C, and downregulate Bcl-2 in cells...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Wyller Max Ferreira Silva, Bárbara Biduski, Karina Oliveira Lima, Vânia Zanella Pinto, Jéssica Fernanda Hoffmann, Nathan Levien Vanier, Alvaro Renato Guerra Dias
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the heat-moisture treatment (HMT) applied to paddy rice grains on the physicochemical properties, in vitro starch digestibility, and molecular weight distribution of proteins in rice flour. The paddy rice grains were adjusted to 13%, 16%, and 18% moisture and autoclaved at 121°C for 30 and 60min. The HMT promoted a reduction of the amylose content, the swelling power, and the solubility of the rice flour. Changes in the relative crystallinity and molecular weight of the proteins extracted with a sodium phosphate buffer containing 2...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Jingni Wu, Yiming Wang, Sook-Young Park, Sang Gon Kim, Ju Soon Yoo, Sangryeol Park, Ravi Gupta, Kyu Young Kang, Sun Tae Kim
Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most devastating fungal diseases of rice and results in a huge loss of rice productivity worldwide. During the infection process, M. oryzae secretes a large number of glycosyl hydrolase proteins into the host apoplast to digest the cell wall and facilitate fungal ingression into host tissues. In this study, we identified a novel arabinofuranosidase-B (MoAbfB) protein that is secreted by M. oryzae during fungal infection. Deletion of MoAbfB from M...
2016: PloS One
Yohannes W Woldeamanuel, Peter R Kamerman, Demetri G A Veliotes, Tudor J Phillips, David Asboe, Marta Boffito, Andrew S C Rice
HIV-associated sensory peripheral neuropathy (HIV-SN) afflicts approximately 50% of patients on antiretroviral therapy, and is associated with significant neuropathic pain. Simple accurate diagnostic instruments are required for clinical research and daily practice in both high- and low-resource setting. A 4-item clinical tool (CHANT: Clinical HIV-associated Neuropathy Tool) assessing symptoms (pain and numbness) and signs (ankle reflexes and vibration sense) was developed by selecting and combining the most accurate measurands from a deep phenotyping study of HIV positive people (Pain In Neuropathy Study-HIV-PINS)...
2016: PloS One
Xianbo Liu, Xiangjin Wei, Zhonghua Sheng, Guiai Jiao, Shaoqing Tang, Ju Luo, Peisong Hu
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins have been shown to affect growth and development in plants. To further elucidate their role in these processes in rice, we isolated and characterized a rice mutant which exhibits dwarfism, reduced seed setting rate, defective floral organ, and small grains. Map-based cloning revealed that abnormal phenotypes were attributed to a mutation of the Fertilization Independent Endosperm 2 (OsFIE2) protein, which belongs to the PcG protein family. So we named the mutant as osfie2-1. Histological analysis revealed that the number of longitudinal cells in the internodes decreased in osfie2-1, and that lateral cell layer of the internodes was markedly thinner than wild-type...
2016: PloS One
Yuan Wu, Yun Wang, Xue-Fei Mi, Jun-Xiang Shan, Xin-Min Li, Jian-Long Xu, Hong-Xuan Lin
Cytokinins and gibberellins (GAs) play antagonistic roles in regulating reproductive meristem activity. Cytokinins have positive effects on meristem activity and maintenance. During inflorescence meristem development, cytokinin biosynthesis is activated via a KNOX-mediated pathway. Increased cytokinin activity leads to higher grain number, whereas GAs negatively affect meristem activity. The GA biosynthesis genes GA20oxs are negatively regulated by KNOX proteins. KNOX proteins function as modulators, balancing cytokinin and GA activity in the meristem...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Johanna Jakobsdottir, Sven J van der Lee, Joshua C Bis, Vincent Chouraki, David Li-Kroeger, Shinya Yamamoto, Megan L Grove, Adam Naj, Maria Vronskaya, Jose L Salazar, Anita L DeStefano, Jennifer A Brody, Albert V Smith, Najaf Amin, Rebecca Sims, Carla A Ibrahim-Verbaas, Seung-Hoan Choi, Claudia L Satizabal, Oscar L Lopez, Alexa Beiser, M Arfan Ikram, Melissa E Garcia, Caroline Hayward, Tibor V Varga, Samuli Ripatti, Paul W Franks, Göran Hallmans, Olov Rolandsson, Jan-Håkon Jansson, David J Porteous, Veikko Salomaa, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Kenneth M Rice, Hugo J Bellen, Daniel Levy, Andre G Uitterlinden, Valur Emilsson, Jerome I Rotter, Thor Aspelund, Christopher J O'Donnell, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Lenore J Launer, Albert Hofman, Li-San Wang, Julie Williams, Gerard D Schellenberg, Eric Boerwinkle, Bruce M Psaty, Sudha Seshadri, Joshua M Shulman, Vilmundur Gudnason, Cornelia M van Duijn
We performed an exome-wide association analysis in 1393 late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) cases and 8141 controls from the CHARGE consortium. We found that a rare variant (P155L) in TM2D3 was enriched in Icelanders (~0.5% versus <0.05% in other European populations). In 433 LOAD cases and 3903 controls from the Icelandic AGES sub-study, P155L was associated with increased risk and earlier onset of LOAD [odds ratio (95% CI) = 7.5 (3.5-15.9), p = 6.6x10-9]. Mutation in the Drosophila TM2D3 homolog, almondex, causes a phenotype similar to loss of Notch/Presenilin signaling...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Qingsong Liu, Eric Hallerman, Yufa Peng, Yunhe Li
Rice and maize are important cereal crops that serve as staple foods, feed, and industrial material in China. Multiple factors constrain the production of both crops, among which insect pests are an important one. Lepidopteran pests cause enormous yield losses for the crops annually. In order to control these pests, China plays an active role in development and application of genetic engineering (GE) to crops, and dozens of GE rice and GE maize lines expressing insecticidal proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been developed...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jinlong Cui, Yongfu Cui, Shaohui Li, Hongliang Sun, Zhongsheng Wen, Juncai Sun
Micro-sized porous SiOx@C composites used as anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are synthesized from rice husks (RHs) through low-temperature (700 °C) aluminothermic reduction. The resulting SiOx@C composite shows mesoporous irregular particle morphology with a high specific surface area of 597.06 m2/g under the optimized reduction time. This porous SiOx@C composite is constructed by SiOx nanoparticles uniformly dispersed in the C matrix. When tested as anode material for LIBs, it displays considerable specific capacity (1230 mAh/g at a current density of 0...
October 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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