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Yubo Lang, Fei Guo, Qingshan Niu
StatsX (Statistics for X-STR) v2.0 is developed to facilitate the workflow for analysis of population data on X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (X-STR) marker. The interactive graphical and installable software can estimate allele/haplotype frequencies from female, male, and pooled samples and calculate forensic parameters by importing a single file. In addition, it is able to filter out the invalid raw data and export a series of pre-formatted Arlequin input files that are directly used for testing the significance of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), linkage disequilibrium (LD), and gender differentiation...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Geoffrey H Sperber
This paper reviews the surface ablation of early hominin teeth by attrition, abrasion, and erosive dental wear. The occurrence of these lesions is explored in a sample of South African fossil australopithecine dentitions revealing excessive wear. Interpretation of the nature of the dietary components causing such wear in the absence of carious erosion provides insight into the ecology of the Plio-pleistocene epoch (1-2 million years ago). Fossil teeth inform much of the living past by their retained evidence after death...
June 17, 2017: Dent J (Basel)
Mindy Elizabeth Hair, Adrianna I Mathis, Erica K Brunelle, Lenka Halámková, Jan Halámek
Sweat is a biological fluid present on the skin surface of every individual and is known to contain amino acids as well as other low molecular weight compounds. Each individual is inherently different from one another based on certain factors including, but not limited to, his/her genetic make-up, environment, and lifestyle. As such, the biochemical composition of each person greatly differs. The concentrations of the biochemical content within an individual's sweat are largely controlled by metabolic processes within the body that fluctuate regularly based on attributes such as age, gender, and activity levels...
March 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Stelliana Goutzamanis, Peter Higgs, Mike Richardson, Sarah MacLean
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Indigenous people seeking residential alcohol and other drug (AOD) rehabilitation in Victoria are most frequently referred to the Ngwala Willumbong Co-operative (Ngwala). This study aimed to describe socio-demographic changes in clients of Ngwala's residential rehabilitation services between 2015 and 2016. DESIGN AND METHODS: Self-assessment surveys completed upon screening for rehabilitation between May 2015 and November 2016 (n = 117) were analysed for socio-demographic data, AOD use and mental health status...
March 21, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Peter Fromberger, Sabrina Meyer, Kirsten Jordan, Jürgen L Müller
The decision about unsupervised privileges for sexual offenders against children (SOC) is one of the most difficult decisions for practitioners in forensic high-security hospitals. Facing the possible consequences of the decision for the society, a valid and reliable risk management of SOCs is essential. Some risk management approaches provide frameworks for the construction of relevant future risk situations. Due to ethical reasons, it is not possible to evaluate the validity of constructed risk situations in reality...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Lindsay Glicksberg, Sumandeep Rana, Sarah Kerrigan
PURPOSE: Synthetic cathinones are encountered in a variety of antemortem and postmortem forensic toxicology investigations. Earlier experimental studies using fortified urine have evaluated analyte, temperature and pH-dependent variables associated with their stability. The purpose of this study was to compare experimental findings with those obtained using authentic urine from cathinone users. METHODS: In this report we compare cathinone concentrations in 180 authentic unpreserved urine specimens, following known periods of refrigerated storage...
March 8, 2018: Forensic Science International
Jarunya Samsuwan, Tachapol Muangsub, Pattamawadee Yanatatsaneejit, Apiwat Mutirangura, Nakarin Kitkumthorn
According to the tissue-specific methylation database (doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2014.09.060), methylation at CpG locus cg03096975 in EML2 has been preliminarily proven to be specific to brain tissue. In this study, we enlarged sample size and developed a technique for identifying brain tissue in aged samples. Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis-for EML2 (COBRA-EML2) technique was established and validated in various organ samples obtained from 108 autopsies. In addition, this technique was also tested for its reliability, minimal DNA concentration detected, and use in aged samples and in samples obtained from specific brain compartments and spinal cord...
March 9, 2018: Forensic Science International
Robert E Barsley, Mark L Bernstein, Paula C Brumit, Robert B J Dorion, Gregory S Golden, James M Lewis, John D McDowell, Roger D Metcalf, David R Senn, David Sweet, Richard A Weems
Critics describe forensic dentists' management of bitemark evidence as junk science with poor sensitivity and specificity and state that linkages to a biter are unfounded. Those vocal critics, supported by certain media, characterize odontologists' previous errors as egregious and petition government agencies to render bitemark evidence inadmissible. Odontologists acknowledge that some practitioners have made past mistakes. However, it does not logically follow that the errors of a few identify a systemic failure of bitemark analysis...
March 20, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Chunmei Feng, Xin Wang, Xiaolong Wang, Hao Yu, Guohua Zhang
AIM: We investigated the frequencies of 15 autosomal STR loci in the Kazak population of the Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture with the aim of expanding the available population information in human genetic databases and for forensic DNA analysis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Genetic polymorphisms of 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci were analysed in 456 individuals of the Kazak population from Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, northwestern China. RESULTS: A total of 173 alleles at 15 autosomal STR loci were found; the allele frequencies ranged from 0...
March 20, 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Haoliang Fan, Xiao Wang, Zheng Ren, Guanglin He, Ren Long, Anwen Liang, Tao Song, Jianqiang Deng
In the present study, population data of 19 autosomal STR loci included in the Goldeneye™ DNA ID System 20A in 653 Li individuals was obtained and population genetic relationships among 13 populations were investigated. MDS and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Hainan Li population kept a close genetic relationship with the Chinese Han populations, especially for Southern Han populations (Guangdong Han, Sichuan Han, and Hunan Han). Our results indicated that the 19 autosomal STRs are highly discriminative and polymorphic in the Hainan Li population suitable for personal forensic identification and paternity testing...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
David L Duewer, Margaret C Kline, Erica L Romsos, Blaza Toman
The highly multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays used for forensic human identification perform best when used with an accurately determined quantity of input DNA. To help ensure the reliable performance of these assays, we are developing a certified reference material (CRM) for calibrating human genomic DNA working standards. To enable sharing information over time and place, CRMs must provide accurate and stable values that are metrologically traceable to a common reference. We have shown that droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) limiting dilution end-point measurements of the concentration of DNA copies per volume of sample can be traceably linked to the International System of Units (SI)...
March 19, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Muna Al-Asfi, Dennis McNevin, Bhavik Mehta, Daniel Power, Michelle E Gahan, Runa Daniel
AbstractThe ability to provide accurate DNA-based forensic intelligence requires analysis of multiple DNA markers to predict the biogeographical ancestry (BGA) and externally visible characteristics (EVCs) of the donor of biological evidence. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) enables the analysis of hundreds of DNA markers in multiple samples simultaneously, increasing the value of the intelligence provided to forensic investigators while reducing the depletion of evidential material resulting from multiple analyses...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Axel Bronstert, Ankit Agarwal, Berry Boessenkool, Irene Crisologo, Madlen Fischer, Maik Heistermann, Lisei Köhn-Reich, José Andrés López-Tarazón, Thomas Moran, Ugur Ozturk, Christian Reinhardt-Imjela, Dadiyorto Wendi
The flash-flood in Braunsbach in the north-eastern part of Baden-Wuerttemberg/Germany was a particularly strong and concise event which took place during the floods in southern Germany at the end of May/early June 2016. This article presents a detailed analysis of the hydro-meteorological forcing and the hydrological consequences of this event. A specific approach, the "forensic hydrological analysis" was followed in order to include and combine retrospectively a variety of data from different disciplines...
February 28, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nathan Scudder, Dennis McNevin, Sally F Kelty, Simon J Walsh, James Robertson
Forensic scientists around the world are adopting new technology platforms capable of efficiently analysing a larger proportion of the human genome. Undertaking this analysis could provide significant operational benefits, particularly in giving investigators more information about the donor of genetic material, a particularly useful investigative lead. Such information could include predicting externally visible characteristics such as eye and hair colour, as well as biogeographical ancestry. This article looks at the adoption of this new technology from a privacy perspective, using this to inform and critique the application of a Privacy Impact Assessment to this emerging technology...
March 8, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Jenifer K McIntyre, Jessica I Lundin, James R Cameron, Michelle I Chow, Jay W Davis, John P Incardona, Nathaniel L Scholz
Adult coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) prematurely die when they return from the ocean to spawn in urban watersheds throughout northwestern North America. The available evidence suggests the annual mortality events are caused by toxic stormwater runoff. The underlying pathophysiology of the urban spawner mortality syndrome is not known, and it is unclear whether closely related species of Pacific salmon are similarly at risk. The present study co-exposed adult coho and chum (O. keta) salmon to runoff from a high traffic volume urban arterial roadway...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Alex J Krotulski, Amanda L A Mohr, Donna M Papsun, Barry K Logan
The number of emerging novel stimulants modified based on beta-keto variations of amphetamine-like substances continues to rise. Dibutylone reports described in the medical and toxicological literature are limited, therefore little information is available in terms of quantitative confirmation or metabolism. During this study, authentic human specimens, including blood, urine, vitreous humor, oral fluid and liver were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed for the presence of dibutylone and butylone, with paired case history and demographic information...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Shihao Ran, Sebastian Berisha, Rupali Mankar, Wei-Chuan Shih, David Mayerich
Infrared (IR) spectroscopic microscopes provide the potential for label-free quantitative molecular imaging of biological samples, which can be used to aid in histology, forensics, and pharmaceutical analysis. Most IR imaging systems use broadband illumination combined with a spectrometer to separate the signal into spectral components. This technique is currently too slow for many biomedical applications such as clinical diagnosis, primarily due to the availability of bright mid-infrared sources and sensitive MCT detectors...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Paolo Fattorini, Giorgio Marrubini, Serena Bonin, Barbara Bertoglio, Pierangela Grignani, Elisa Recchia, Paola Pitacco, Francesca Procopio, Carolina Cantoni, Irena Zupanič Pajnič, Solange Sorçaburu-Cigliero, Carlo Previderè
Heat-mediated hydrolysis of DNA is a simple and inexpensive method for producing damaged samples in vitro. Despite heat-mediated DNA hydrolysis is being widely used in forensic and clinical validation procedures, the lack of standardized procedures makes it impossible to compare the intra and inter-laboratory outcomes of the damaging treatments. In this work, a systematic approach to heat induced DNA hydrolysis was performed at 70 °C for 0-18 h to test the role both of the hydrolysis buffer and of the experimental conditions...
March 15, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Guillermo Benítez, Martí March-Salas, Alberto Villa-Kamel, Ulises Cháves-Jiménez, Javier Hernández, Nuria Montes-Osuna, Joaquín Moreno-Chocano, Paloma Cariñanos
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The different species of the genus Datura have been used traditionally by some pre-Columbian civilizations, as well as in medieval rituals linked to magic and witchcraft in both Mexico and Europe. It is also noteworthy the use of different alkaloids obtained from the plants for medicinal purposes in the treatment of various groups of diseases, especially of the respiratory and muscularskeletal systems. AIM OF THE STUDY: A review of the ethnobotanical uses of the genus Datura in Mexico and Spain has been conducted...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
E Hanson, S Ingold, C Haas, J Ballantyne
The recovery of a DNA profile from the perpetrator or victim in criminal investigations can provide valuable 'source level' information for investigators. However, a DNA profile does not reveal the circumstances by which biological material was transferred. Some contextual information can be obtained by a determination of the tissue or fluid source of origin of the biological material as it is potentially indicative of some behavioral activity on behalf of the individual that resulted in its transfer from the body...
March 6, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
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