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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319470/symptomatic-acute-on-chronic-subdural-hematoma-a-clinicopathological-study
#1
Rudy J Castellani, Gruschenka Mojica-Sanchez, Gary Schwartzbauer, David S Hersh
The pathophysiology of acute-on-chronic subdural hematoma (ACSDH) is complex and incompletely understood. Evidence to date indicates that the overall process is initiated by rotational force with movement of the brain inside the skull, which exerts tensile strain and rupture of bridging veins, leading in turn to acute hemorrhage in the subdural potential space. This is followed by the proliferation of mesenchymal elements with angiogenesis and inflammation, which in turn becomes a substrate for repeated hemorrhage and expansion of the lesion...
March 18, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317115/increased-lung-weights-in-drug-related-fatalities
#2
Heather I-Hsuan Chen, Joyce deJong
This study is of autopsy data for potential validation as to whether increased weights of the lungs support toxic effects of drugs as the cause of death. This retrospective study compared data from 133 deaths resulting from the toxic effects of drugs with previously reported normal lung weights (Toxicol Mech Methods, 22, 2012, 159; Am J Forensic Med Pathol 33, 2012, 368). The lung weights and their standard errors were used in a two-sample independent t-test comparing the average drug-related death weight to the average control weights...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315820/evaluating-differential-nuclear-dna-yield-rates-and-osteocyte-numbers-among-human-bone-tissue-types-a-synchrotron-radiation-micro-ct-approach
#3
Janna M Andronowski, Amy Z Mundorff, Isaac V Pratt, Jon M Davoren, David M L Cooper
Molecular human identification has conventionally focused on DNA sampling from dense, weight-bearing cortical bone tissue, typically from femora or tibiae. A comparison of skeletal elements from three contemporary individuals demonstrated that elements with high quantities of cancellous bone yielded nuclear DNA at the highest rates, suggesting that preferentially sampling cortical bone may be suboptimal (Mundorff & Davoren, 2014). Despite these findings, the reason for the differential DNA yields between cortical and cancellous bone tissues remains unknown...
March 6, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315050/forensic-use-of-y-chromosome-dna-a-general-overview
#4
REVIEW
Manfred Kayser
The male-specific part of the human Y chromosome is widely used in forensic DNA analysis, particularly in cases where standard autosomal DNA profiling is not informative. A Y-chromosomal gene fragment is applied for inferring the biological sex of a crime scene trace donor. Haplotypes composed of Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms (Y-STRs) are used to characterise paternal lineages of unknown male trace donors, especially suitable when males and females have contributed to the same trace, such as in sexual assault cases...
March 17, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314903/diatoms-in-drowning-cases-in-forensic-veterinary-context-a-preliminary-study
#5
Nadia Fucci, Carlo P Campobasso, L Mastrogiuseppe, C Puccinelli, S Marcheggiani, L Mancini, L Marino, V L Pascali
In this preliminary study, a digestive method used in forensic context to extract diatoms has been applied in organs taken from ten wildlife animals belonging three species of mammals (a deer, a roe and five otters) and one species of birds (two magpies). Only four carcasses were recovered from aquatic environments (bath trough for animals, bathtub irrigation, river) and only in three cases out of ten that the cause of death was ruled out as drowning. In seven cases, the death was due to other causes: gunshot injuries for one otter, blunt trauma for a magpie, and traumatic injuries followed by motor vehicle collision in other four otters and a roe...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314517/reliability-of-age-estimation-from-iliac-auricular-surface-in-a-subactual-chilean-sample
#6
María José Herrera, Rodrigo Retamal
The aim of this study was to test the reliability of Osborne et al. (2004) [8] age estimation based on the iliac auricular surface of the ilium. We selected 172 skeletons with documented sex and age-at-death and established six uniformly distributed age intervals for analysis. ANOVA was employed to assess the association of the documented age with sex and the auricular surface classification. We employed Bonferroni post-hoc tests to find any statistical differences across documented ages within each phase of Osborne's criteria...
February 14, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314239/likelihood-ratio-and-posterior-odds-in-forensic-genetics-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#7
Amke Caliebe, Susan Walsh, Fan Liu, Manfred Kayser, Michael Krawczak
It has become widely accepted in forensics that, owing to a lack of sensible priors, the evidential value of matching DNA profiles in trace donor identification or kinship analysis is most sensibly communicated in the form of a likelihood ratio (LR). This restraint does not abate the fact that the posterior odds (PO) would be the preferred basis for returning a verdict. A completely different situation holds for Forensic DNA Phenotyping (FDP), which is aimed at predicting externally visible characteristics (EVCs) of a trace donor from DNA left behind at the crime scene...
March 6, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303414/identification-of-muscidae-diptera-of-medico-legal-importance-by-means-of-wing-measurements
#8
Andrzej Grzywacz, Jakub Ogiela, Adam Tofilski
Cadavers attract numerous species and genera of Muscidae, both regular elements of carrion insect assemblages, and accidental visitors. Identification of adult Muscidae may be considered difficult, particularly by non-experts. Since species identification is a vital first step in the analysis of entomological material in any forensic entomology orientated experiment and real cases, various alternative methods of species identification have been proposed. We investigated possibility of semiautomated identification by means of wing measurements as an alternative for classic morphology and DNA-based approaches...
March 16, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302730/distinguishing-intake-of-new-synthetic-cannabinoids-adb-pinaca-and-5f-adb-pinaca-with-human-hepatocyte-metabolites-and-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#9
Jeremy Carlier, Xingxing Diao, Karl B Scheidweiler, Marilyn A Huestis
BACKGROUND: ADB-PINACA and its 5-fluoropentyl analog 5F-ADB-PINACA are among the most potent synthetic cannabinoids tested to date, with several severe intoxication cases. ADB-PINACA and 5F-ADB-PINACA have a different legal status, depending on the country. Synthetic cannabinoid metabolites predominate in urine, making detection of specific metabolites the most reliable way for proving intake in clinical and forensic specimens. However, there are currently no data on ADB-PINACA and 5F-PINACA metabolism...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301022/use-of-an-alternate-light-source-to-detect-tooth-and-bone
#10
Geraldo Elias Miranda, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff Melani, Luiz Francisquini, Eduardo Daruge
The aim of this study was to identify the combination of wavelength and filter that best detects tooth and bone, and to determine which biological materials (enamel, dental root or bone) have highest fluorescence intensity when exposed to an alternate light source (ALS). Tooth and bone samples were lighted with ALS and photographed. Adobe Photoshop™ and ImageJ™ softwares were used for image analysis. Data obtained by measuring the photograph pixels were subjected to analysis of variance. The mean values of significant effects were compared by the Tukey test...
January 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300493/mother-child-incest-psychosis-and-the-dynamics-of-relatedness
#11
Joan Haliburn
Sexual abuse perpetrated by a parent particularly the mother creates turmoil in the child who has to depend on the very person who betrays their trust. A review of the literature confirms that there are only a few case studies of mother-child incest reported in the psychoanalytic literature; the incidence of such incest, however, is unknown. Considerably, more information is available in the forensic and child abuse literatures along with an increase in research; yet, there is a paucity of data. Child sexual abuse by women as highly prevalent is described in early societies, and that there is a bias in peoples' minds about the capacity of females to sexually abuse children is raised by many writers...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298379/forensic-investigation-into-a-death-post-traumatic-amnesia-in-a-worker-with-a-work-related-head-injury-sustained-in-a-coal-fired-thermal-power-plant-in-india
#12
Venkiteswaran Muralidhar
This is the first reported case of a work-related head injury in a coal-fired thermal power plant in India. This case highlights the trend of not reporting work injuries due to fears of reprisal from the management team that may include the termination of employment. Post-traumatic amnesia in a worker presenting with head trauma must be recognised by coworkers, so the cause of injury can be elicited early and the victim gets timely medical help. There are few published studies on work-related traumatic brain injury, and they provide no information on either anatomical localisation or signs and symptoms...
March 15, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298188/enrichment-activities-in-the-medical-school-psychiatry-programme-could-this-be-a-key-to-engaging-medical-students-in-psychiatry-a-study-from-a-high-secure-forensic-psychiatric-uk-hospital
#13
Anna-Marie Mortlock, Ignazio Puzzo, Sophie Taylor, Veena Kumari, Susan Young, Samrat Sengupta, Mrigendra Das
BACKGROUND: The majority of research studies on medical student attitudes toward psychiatry focus on influencing factors and the medical school experience. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a one-day visit to a high secure forensic psychiatric unit on medical students' attitudes towards psychiatry and also assesses career intentions and the factors influencing these. METHOD: Change in attitudes and career intention were measured by administering a questionnaire, which included the 30-item Attitudes Toward Psychiatry (ATP-30) survey, at the start (time 1) and end (time 2) of the one-day visit...
March 16, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296341/distribution-pattern-of-ethyl-glucuronide-and-caffeine-concentrations-over-the-scalp-of-a-single-person-in-a-forensic-context
#14
Ulf Meier, Thomas Briellmann, Eva Scheurer, Franz Dussy
The distribution of analyte concentrations in hair across the scalp has not been thoroughly investigated. Differences in concentrations depending on sampling location are problematic, especially when measuring a second strand to confirm the result of the first measurement. Aiming at a better understanding of the concentration differences, the distribution of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and caffeine concentrations in hair across the entire head of one test subject was investigated by dividing the scalp completely into regions of ca...
March 11, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295603/rapid-abo-genotyping-by-high-speed-droplet-allele-specific-pcr-using-crude-samples
#15
Chiaki Taira, Kazuyuki Matsuda, Naoya Takeichi, Satomi Furukawa, Mitsutoshi Sugano, Takeshi Uehara, Nobuo Okumura, Takayuki Honda
BACKGROUND: ABO genotyping has common tools for personal identification of forensic and transplantation field. We developed a new method based on a droplet allele-specific PCR (droplet-AS-PCR) that enabled rapid PCR amplification. We attempted rapid ABO genotyping using crude DNA isolated from dried blood and buccal cells. METHODS: We designed allele-specific primers for three SNPs (at nucleotides 261, 526, and 803) in exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene. We pretreated dried blood and buccal cells with proteinase K, and obtained crude DNAs without DNA purification...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295575/definition-and-assessment-of-disability-in-mental-disorders-under-the-perspective-of-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-icf
#16
Michael Linden
This article provides an overview of definitions and assessment instruments of disability, an important topic in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic illnesses, and in expert appraisals in social and forensic medicine. Health problems are manifested not only in symptoms, but also regularly in impairment or disability in everyday life, which is especially true for mental disorders. According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) of the World Health Organization, disability can be understood as chronic suffering from symptoms of illness, or limitations of executing capacities, or inability to participate in selected areas of life...
March 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295494/seeds-in-the-appendix-a-fruitful-exploration
#17
Michela Campora, Chiara Trambaiolo Antonelli, Federica Grillo, Alberto Bragoni, Laura Cornara, Paola Migliora, Simona Pigozzi, Luca Mastracci
Our contribution aims at clarifying and underlining a possible finding which can pose an interesting twist in routine appendix diagnostics: seeds in the appendiceal lumen, their histological aspects and their differential diagnosis with parasites. We work in a training centre with a large referral practice for gastrointestinal pathology and often the most banal cases are those which pose problems to junior or non-expert pathologists. This short study aims at providing simple iconographic tables, which are not at the moment available either in publications or on the web, with the most frequent seeds encountered in our routine practice or sent for second opinion...
March 10, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295357/an-analysis-of-systematic-elemental-changes-in-decomposing-bone
#18
Steven J Walden, Jacqui Mulville, Jeffrey P Rowlands, Sam L Evans
The aim of this pilot study was to investigate compositional changes in bone during decomposition. Elemental concentrations of barium, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus in porcine bone (as an experimental analog for human bone) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The samples were taken from porcine bone subjected to shallow burial and surface depositions at 28-day intervals for a period of 140 days. Results indicated that ICP-OES elemental profiling has potential to be developed as a forensic test for determining whether a bone sample originates from the early stages of soft tissue putrefaction...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293949/coomassie-brilliant-blue-g-250-dye-new-application-for-forensic-fingerprint-analysis
#19
Erica Brunelle, Anh Minh Le, Crystal Huynh, Kelly Wingfield, Lenka Halámková, Juliana Agudelo, Jan Halámek
The Bradford reagent, comprised of the Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 dye, methanol and phosphoric acid, has been traditionally used for quantifying proteins. Use of this reagent in the Bradford assay relies on the binding of the Coomassie Blue G-250 dye to proteins. However, the ability of the dye to react with a small group of amino acids - arginine, histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan - makes it a viable chemical assay for fingerprint analysis in order to identify the biological sex of the fingerprint originator...
March 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292561/dried-blood-spots-combined-to-an-uplc-ms-ms-method-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-forensic-toxicology
#20
Susana Sadler Simões, Antonio Castañera Ajenjo, Mário João Dias
A method for the simultaneous determination of 11 illicit drugs, using the dried blood spot (DBS) sampling technique combined with the UPLC-MS/MS technology was developed to study its applicability within the forensic toxicology. The DBS samples, prepared from a blood volume of 50μL and using the Whatman® BFC 180 bloodstain cards, were extracted with a methanol/acetonitrile mixture. The chromatographic separation was performed using an Acquity UPLC(®) HSS T3 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.8μm) and an acetonitrile/2mM ammonium formate (0...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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