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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088090/degradation-in-forensic-trace-dna-samples-explored-by-massively-parallel-sequencing
#1
Eirik Nataas Hanssen, Robert Lyle, Thore Egeland, Peter Gill
Routine forensic analysis using STRs will fail if the DNA is too degraded. The DNA degradation process in biological stain material is not well understood. In this study we sequenced old semen and blood stains by massively parallel sequencing. The sequence data coverage was used to measure degradation across the genome. The results supported the contention that degradation is uniform across the genome, showing no evidence of regions with increased or decreased resistance towards degradation. Thus the lack of genetic regions robust to degradation removes the possibility of using such regions to further optimize analysis performance for degraded DNA...
January 3, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088044/dried-haematic-microsamples-and-lc-ms-ms-for-the-analysis-of-natural-and-synthetic-cannabinoids
#2
Michele Protti, James Rudge, Angelo Eliseo Sberna, Gilberto Gerra, Laura Mercolini
Synthetic cannabinoids are new psychoactive substances (NPS) with similar effects when compared to natural ones found in Cannabis derivatives. They have rapidly integrated into the illicit market, often sold as alternatives under international control. The need to identify and quantify an unprecedented and growing number of new compounds represents a unique challenge for toxicological, forensic and anti-doping analysis. Dried blood spots have been used within the bioanalytical framework in place of plasma or serum, in order to reduce invasiveness, lower sample size, simplify handling, storage and shipping of samples and to facilitate home-based and on-field applications...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087994/commentary-on-mauf-s-jentzsch-t-laberke-pj-thali-mj-bartsch-c-why-we-need-postmortem-analysis-of-cardiac-implantable-electronic-devices-j-forensic-sci-2016-61-4-988-92
#3
Ellen Moffatt, Zian H Tseng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087155/population-genetic-data-of-38-insertion-deletion-markers-in-six-populations-of-the-northern-fringe-of-the-iberian-peninsula
#4
Sergio Cardoso, Rubén Sevillano, David Gamarra, Ana Santurtún, Begoña Martínez-Jarreta, Marian M de Pancorbo
Insertion-deletions have been reported very useful markers for forensic purposes. To further deepen in this matter, 38 non-coding bi-allelic autosomal indels were analyzed in 575 individuals representing six populations from the northern fringe of the Iberian Peninsula. Autochthonous populations from the Basque Country, northern Navarre, the Pas Valley in Cantabria and Aragon were analyzed, together with non-autochthonous populations from the Basque Country and northern Navarre. At the intra-population level, all loci analyzed were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except for marker rs33917182 in autochthonous Basques...
January 3, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086968/microbiota-fingerprints-lose-individually-identifying-features-over-time
#5
David Wilkins, Marcus H Y Leung, Patrick K H Lee
BACKGROUND: Humans host individually unique skin microbiota, suggesting that microbiota traces transferred from skin to surfaces could serve as forensic markers analogous to fingerprints. While it is known that individuals leave identifiable microbiota traces on surfaces, it is not clear for how long these traces persist. Moreover, as skin and surface microbiota change with time, even persistent traces may lose their forensic potential as they would cease to resemble the microbiota of the person who left them...
January 9, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081518/development-of-a-biometric-method-to-estimate-age-on-hand-radiographs
#6
Floriane Remy, Gabriela Hossu, Romain Cendre, Emilien Micard, Laurence Mainard-Simard, Jacques Felblinger, Laurent Martrille, Loïc Lalys
Age estimation of living individuals aged less than 13, 18 or 21 years, which are some relevant legal ages in most European countries, is currently problematic in the forensic context. Thus, numerous methods are available for legal authorities, although their efficiency can be discussed. For those reasons, we aimed to propose a new method, based on the biometric analysis of hand bones. 451 hand radiographs of French individuals under the age of 21 were retrospectively analyzed. This total sample was divided into three subgroups bounded by the relevant legal ages previously mentioned: 0-13, 13-18 and 18-21 years...
December 23, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080105/cross-cultural-feigning-assessment-a-systematic-review-of-feigning-instruments-used-with-linguistically-ethnically-and-culturally-diverse-samples
#7
Alicia Nijdam-Jones, Barry Rosenfeld
The cross-cultural validity of feigning instruments and cut-scores is a critical concern for forensic mental health clinicians. This systematic review evaluated feigning classification accuracy and effect sizes across instruments and languages by summarizing 45 published peer-reviewed articles and unpublished doctoral dissertations conducted in Europe, Asia, and North America using linguistically, ethnically, and culturally diverse samples. The most common psychiatric symptom measures used with linguistically, ethnically, and culturally diverse samples included the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology, the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)...
January 12, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080046/application-of-2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic-acid-as-a-forensic-marker-of-cyanide-exposure
#8
Monika Rużycka, Joanna Giebułtowicz, Marcin Fudalej, Paweł Krajewski, Piotr Wroczyński
Cyanides are infamous for their highly poisonous properties. Accidental cyanide poisoning occurs frequently, but occasionally, intentional poisonings also occur. Inhalation of fumes generated by fire may also cause cyanide poisoning. There are many limitations in direct analysis of cyanide. 2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), a cyanide metabolite, seems to be the only surrogate that is being used in the detection of cyanide because of its stability and its cyanide-dependent quality in biological matrix...
January 12, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079674/borderline-intellectual-functioning-an-update
#9
Stephen Greenspan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a descriptive v-code that is often used, especially in forensic settings, as if it were a full-fledged disorder. Various historical and other aspects of this classification are reviewed, and commentary is made on the question of whether to upgrade BIF to a regular psychiatric category, or to eliminate it by folding it into an already recently expanded category of intellectual developmental disorder (IDD). RECENT FINDINGS: Full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) is an outmoded concept that is decreasingly being used...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078776/performance-of-the-forenseq-tm-dna-signature-prep-kit-on-highly-degraded-samples
#10
Paolo Fattorini, Carlo Previderé, Ilaria Carboni, Giorgio Marrubini, Solange Sorçaburu-Cigliero, Pierangela Grignani, Barbara Bertoglio, Paolo Vatta, Ugo Ricci
Next generation sequencing (NGS) is the emerging technology in forensic genomics laboratories. It offers higher resolution to address most problems of human identification, greater efficiency and potential ability to interrogate very challenging forensic casework samples. In the present study, a trial set of DNA samples was artificially degraded, by progressive aqueous hydrolysis, and analyzed together with the corresponding unmodified DNA sample and control sample 2800M, to test the performance and reliability of the ForenSeq(TM) DNA Signature Prep kit using the MiSeq Sequencer (Illumina)...
January 12, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078446/detection-of-rage-expression-and-its-application-to-diabetic-wound-age-estimation
#11
Xin-Yi Ji, Yang Chen, Guang-Hua Ye, Miao-Wu Dong, Ke-Zhi Lin, Jun-Ge Han, Xiang-Ping Feng, Xing-Biao Li, Lin-Sheng Yu, Yan-Yan Fan
With the prevalence of diabetes, it is becoming important to analyze the diabetic wound age in forensic practice. The present study investigated the time-dependent expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) during diabetic wound healing in mice and its applicability to wound age determination by immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. After an incision was created in genetically diabetic db/db mice and control mice, mice were killed at posttraumatic intervals ranging from 6 h to 14 days, followed by the sampling of wound margin...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078445/energy-dependent-expansion-of-177-caliber-hollow-point-air-gun-projectiles
#12
Ronald Werner, Benno Schultz, Britta Bockholdt, Axel Ekkernkamp, Matthias Frank
Amongst hundreds of different projectiles for air guns available on the market, hollow-point air gun pellets are of special interest. These pellets are characterized by a tip or a hollowed-out shape in their tip which, when fired, makes the projectiles expand to an increased diameter upon entering the target medium. This results in an increase in release of energy which, in turn, has the potential to cause more serious injuries than non-hollow-point projectiles. To the best of the authors' knowledge, reliable data on the terminal ballistic features of hollow-point air gun projectiles compared to standard diabolo pellets have not yet been published in the forensic literature...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078444/mps-analysis-of-the-mtdna-hypervariable-regions-on-the-miseq-with-improved-enrichment
#13
Mitchell M Holland, Laura A Wilson, Sarah Copeland, Gloria Dimick, Charity A Holland, Robert Bever, Jennifer A McElhoe
The non-coding displacement (D) loop of the human mitochondrial (mt) genome contains two hypervariable regions known as HVR1 and HVR2 that are most often analyzed by forensic DNA laboratories. The massively parallel sequencing (MPS) protocol from Illumina (Human mtDNA D-Loop Hypervariable Region protocol) utilizes four sets of established PCR primer pairs for the initial amplification (enrichment) step that span the hypervariable regions. Transposase adapted (TA) sequences are attached to the 5'-end of each primer, allowing for effective library preparation prior to analysis on the MiSeq, and AmpliTaq Gold DNA polymerase is the enzyme recommended for amplification...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074886/post-mortem-whole-exome-analysis-in-a-large-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-cohort-with-a-focus-on-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-genetic-diseases
#14
Jacqueline Neubauer, Maria Rita Lecca, Giancarlo Russo, Christine Bartsch, Argelia Medeiros-Domingo, Wolfgang Berger, Cordula Haas
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is described as the sudden and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant younger than one year of age. Genetic studies indicate that up to 35% of SIDS cases might be explained by familial or genetic diseases such as cardiomyopathies, ion channelopathies or metabolic disorders that remained undetected during conventional forensic autopsy procedures. Post-mortem genetic testing by using massive parallel sequencing (MPS) approaches represents an efficient and rapid tool to further investigate unexplained death cases and might help to elucidate pathogenic genetic variants and mechanisms in cases without a conclusive cause of death...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074670/metabolism-of-psilocybin-and-psilocin-clinical-and-forensic-toxicological-relevance
#15
Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
Psilocybin and psilocin are controlled substances in many countries. These are the two main hallucinogenic compounds of the "magic mushrooms" and both act as agonists or partial agonists at 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A subtype receptors. During the last few years, psilocybin and psilocin have gained therapeutic relevance but considerable physiological variability between individuals that can influence dose-response and toxicological profile has been reported. This review aims to discuss metabolism of psilocybin and psilocin, by presenting all major and minor psychoactive metabolites...
January 11, 2017: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073088/characterization-of-the-iberian-y-chromosome-haplogroup-r-df27-in-northern-spain
#16
Patricia Villaescusa, María José Illescas, Laura Valverde, Miriam Baeta, Carolina Nuñez, Begoña Martínez-Jarreta, Maria Teresa Zarrabeitia, Francesc Calafell, Marian M de Pancorbo
The European paternal lineage R-DF27 has been proposed as a haplogroup of Iberian origin due to its maximum frequencies in the Iberian Peninsula. In this study, the distribution and structure of DF27 were characterized in 591 unrelated male individuals from four key populations of the north area of the Iberian Peninsula through the analysis of 12 Y-SNPs that define DF27 main sublineages. Additionally, Y-SNP allele frequencies were also gathered from the reference populations in the 1000 Genomes Project to compare and obtain a better landscape of the distribution of DF27...
December 29, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073087/a-nearest-neighbour-approach-by-genetic-distance-to-the-assignment-of-individual-trees-to-geographic-origin
#17
Bernd Degen, Céline Blanc-Jolivet, Katrin Stierand, Elizabeth Gillet
During the past decade, the use of DNA for forensic applications has been extensively implemented for plant and animal species, as well as in humans. Tracing back the geographical origin of an individual usually requires genetic assignment analysis. These approaches are based on reference samples that are grouped into populations or other aggregates and intend to identify the most likely group of origin. Often this grouping does not have a biological but rather a historical or political justification, such as "country of origin"...
December 29, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072704/sudden-death-due-to-the-atrioventricular-node-contusion-three-cases-report
#18
Wenhe Li, Lin Zhang, Yue Liang, Fang Tong, Yiwu Zhou
INTRODUCTION: Atrioventricular node (AVN) contusion usually results in cardiogenic shock and arrhythmia and is a rare but fatal condition. The condition is difficult to diagnose and easily overlooked because it develops rapidly and is asymptomatic. We here report 3 cases that demonstrate blunt chest impact and hemorrhages of the posterior atrioventricular junction, eventually result in death. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Autopsy and histological examination were performed on all cases...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071963/impaired-verbal-learning-in-forensic-inpatients-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder
#19
Lasha Corbett, Kenny A Karyadi, Dominique Kinney, Stephen R Nitch, Stacey Marie Bayan, Mark Williams
The present study aimed to: (a) examine verbal learning performances among forensic inpatients diagnosed with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder (SSD); and (b) compare verbal learning performances among forensic SSD inpatients, SSD outpatients, and a small control sample. Participants included forensic SSD inpatients (n = 71), SSD outpatients (n = 305; see Stone et al.), and a control sample from the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) manual (n = 78; see Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober). Five verbal learning outcomes were measured using the CVLT-II...
January 10, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071601/applications-of-nuclear-physics
#20
A C Hayes
Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion...
February 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
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