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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943186/making-visible-the-invisible-aboriginal-forensic-mental-health
#1
Michael Wright, Sophie Davison, Edward Petch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942377/quantifying-pteridines-in-the-heads-of-blow-flies-diptera-calliphoridae-application-for-forensic-entomology
#2
J A Cammack, M H Reiskind, L M Guisewite, S S Denning, D W Watson
In forensic cases involving entomological evidence, establishing the postcolonization interval (post-CI) is a critical component of the investigation. Traditional methods of estimating the post-CI rely on estimating the age of immature blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) collected from remains. However, in cases of delayed discovery (e.g., when remains are located indoors), these insects may have completed their development and be present in the environment as adults. Adult fly collections are often ignored in cases of advanced decomposition because of a presumed little relevance to the investigation; herein we present information on how these insects can be of value...
September 12, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942376/a-psychosocial-approach-in-humanitarian-forensic-action-the-latin-american-perspective
#3
Ute Hofmeister, Susana Navarro
Forensic humanitarian action is aimed at alleviating suffering and maintaining human dignity, with the victims and their families at the core. International recommendations emphasize the importance of psychological support and psychosocial work as an integral part of forensic investigations into missing persons. Psychosocial action does not simply refer to emotional support but is based on the idea of the individual being the holder of rights, encouraging decision taking, affirming actions, and elaborating personal and collective histories...
September 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942263/child-protection-and-the-development-of-child-abuse-pediatrics-in-new-york-city
#4
Vincent J Palusci
The history of child abuse pediatrics reflects the development of medicine as a profession influenced by social movements reacting to poverty, economic exploitation, and child maltreatment. As physicians began to specialize in caring for children, egregious cases led them to recognize children were affected by special medical problems and diseases which were compounded by poor conditions and abuse and neglect. They developed the fields of pediatrics and child abuse pediatrics to advocate for their needs in courts and communities...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942081/environmental-exposure-to-organophosphorus-nerve-agents
#5
REVIEW
Slavica Vucinic, Biljana Antonijevic, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Loukia Vassilopoulou, Anca Oana Docea, Alexander E Nosyrev, Boris N Izotov, Horst Thiermann, Nikolaos Drakoulis, Dragica Brkic
Exposure to organophosphorus nerve agents, the most deadly chemical warfare agents, is possible in a variety of situations, such as destruction of chemical warfare agents, terrorist attacks, armed conflicts or accidents in research laboratories and storage facilities. Hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical munitions were disposed of at the sea in the post World War II period, with European, Russian, Japanese and US coasts being the most affected. Sulfur mustard, Lewisite and nerve agents appear to be the most frequently chemical warfare agents disposed of at the sea...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942078/tau-protein-mapt-as-a-possible-biochemical-marker-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-postmortem-examination
#6
Mieszko Olczak, Justyna Niderla-Bielińska, Magdalena Kwiatkowska, Dorota Samojłowicz, Sylwia Tarka, Teresa Wierzba-Bobrowicz
MAPT is a neuronal protein that plays an important role in axonal stabilization, neuronal development, and neuronal polarity. MAPT release into the CSF and blood has been interpreted as indicative of axonal injury as its elevated levels were observed in olympic boxers even after a mild head trauma suggesting minor CNS injuries. In our study we wanted to check the potential relevance of MAPT examination for forensic purposes. The study was carried out using cases of head injury group and cases of sudden death (cardiopulmonary failure, no injuries of the head - control group) provided by forensic pathologists at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw...
September 15, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940782/ptca-1h-pyrrole-2-3-5-tricarboxylic-acid-as-a-marker-for-oxidative-hair-treatment
#7
Silvana Petzel-Witt, Sylvia I Meier, Manfred Schubert-Zsilavecz, Stefan W Toennes
Hair analysis for the assessment of alcohol or drug abstinence became a routine procedure in forensic toxicology. Hair coloration leading to loss of incorporated xenobiotics and to false negative results turned out to be a major problem. Currently only colored extracts provide hints of manipulations but not bleaching. A liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric (LC-MSMS) method was developed and validated to determine 1H-pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA), a major oxidation product of melanin. PTCA was determined in natural hair samples (n=21) after treatment with 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) for 30 or 40 min with concentrations up to 12% for 40 min...
September 20, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940541/ebstein-anomaly-and-sudden-childhood-death
#8
Amanda Freeman, Roger W Byard
A 13-year-old girl is reported who died suddenly and unexpectedly in her sleep from previously undiagnosed Ebstein anomaly. At autopsy, there was dilatation of the right atrium with marked dilatation of the right auricle and apical displacement of the tricuspid valve into the right ventricular cavity with atrialization of the upper portion of the right ventricle. There were also prominent dysplastic changes in both the septal and posterior leaflets of the tricuspid valve with thickening of the valve and fusion of leaflets to the wall of the ventricle...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940356/controversial-suicide-case-using-a-submachine-gun-with-a-sound-suppressor-the-need-of-team-work-of-forensic-chemistry-and-firearm-examiners
#9
Zuzanna Brożek-Mucha, Krzysztof Zdeb
Evidence materials in a presumed suicide case were studied by a firearm examiner and a forensic chemist. The victim's body with double gunshot wounding in his forehead, a machine gun in the sustained fire mode with a silencer, and four cartridge cases were found. Examinations of the evidence, the case file studies, and experiments dedicated to the case were carried out. Relationships between the placement of cartridge cases and the gun were established using a fast camera. The distributions of gunshot residues on the evidence materials and within the comparative gunshot patterns were studied by means of optical and electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and infrared spectroscopy...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940320/a-randomized-clinical-trial-examining-the-effect-of-video-based-prevention-of-alcohol-and-marijuana-use-among-recent-sexual-assault-victims
#10
Kate Walsh, Amanda K Gilmore, Patricia Frazier, Linda Ledray, Ron Acierno, Kenneth J Ruggiero, Dean G Kilpatrick, Heidi S Resnick
BACKGROUND: This study examined whether a brief video intervention (Prevention of Postrape Stress; PPRS) delivered in the emergency department to recent sexual assault (SA) victims reduced alcohol and marijuana use at three points over the course of a six-month follow-up compared to treatment as usual (TAU) and an active control condition (Pleasant Imagery and Relaxation Information; PIRI). Prior assault history, minority status, and pre-SA substance use also were examined as moderators of intervention efficacy...
September 20, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940226/the-effect-of-leprotic-infection-on-the-risk-of-death-in-medieval-rural-denmark
#11
K Saige Kelmelis, Michael Holton Price, Jim Wood
INTRODUCTION: Paleopathological studies of leprosy in Danish skeletal collections show that many individuals suffered from this stigmatized disease during the Middle Ages. This study examines the risk of death associated with leprotic infection in individuals from the Danish rural cemetery of Øm Kloster (AD 1172-1536). Specifically, we modeled the influence of leprotic infection on age-specific mortality accounting also for sex and social status (lay person / monastic). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 311 adult individuals from the Øm Kloster skeletal collection housed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Southern Denmark (ADBOU)...
September 22, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939736/u-s-case-law-and-legal-precedent-affirming-the-due-process-rights-of-immigrants-fleeing-persecution
#12
Shawn S Sidhu, Ramnarine Boodoo
The political discourse on domestic immigration policy has shifted rapidly in recent years, mirrored by similar shifts in the geopolitical climate worldwide. However, a nuanced assessment of the legal basis backing such rhetoric is sorely lacking. This article examines the historical, legal, and case law precedent as it pertains specifically to immigrants who are fleeing persecution and residing within the United States. Due process rights emerged from the Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Constitutional Amendments and have been expanded to include this population through several sequential United States Supreme Court Cases...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939735/the-elusive-standard-of-care
#13
Brian K Cooke, Elizabeth Worsham, Gary M Reisfield
In medical negligence cases, the forensic expert must explain to a trier of fact what a defendant physician should have done, or not done, in a specific set of circumstances and whether the physician's conduct constitutes a breach of duty. The parameters of the duty are delineated by the standard of care. Many facets of the standard of care have been well explored in the literature, but gaps remain in a complete understanding of this concept. We examine the standard of care, its origins, and who determines the prevailing standard, beginning with an overview of the historical roots of the standard of care and, using case law, tracing its evolution from the 19th century through the early 21st century...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939729/offenders-with-substance-abuse-who-receive-mandatory-psychiatric-treatment
#14
Pei-Chuan Wu, Yu-Ching Chou, Hui-Wen Yeh, San-Yuan Huang, Li-Hsiang Cheng, Yu-Chen Kao, Hsin-An Chang, Nian-Sheng Tzeng
We examined the mandatory treatment referral rates before and after Taiwan's Penal Code revision of 2006 and factors associated with the mandatory treatment in Taiwan of criminals who engage in substance abuse. The 3,467 offenders who underwent forensic psychiatric assessments, based on Taiwan's court sentence dataset, included 3,163 offenders with substance-abuse-related crimes, but only 412 (13%) received mandatory treatment. There were no changes in mandatory treatment referral rates before and after the revision...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939725/evaluation-of-the-capacity-to-marry
#15
Anna Glezer, Jeffrey J Devido
Clinical and forensic evaluators are often faced with the task of answering unique questions about capacity and competency. One seldom-discussed question is that of an individual's capacity to marry. This article uses a case example as a framework for discussing the challenges of evaluating an individual's capacity to marry. We will set the background with legal history and then provide guidance for making this type of assessment.
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939496/morphology-of-immature-stages-of-blow-fly-lucilia-sinensis-aubertin-diptera-calliphoridae-a-potential-species-of-forensic-importance
#16
Sangob Sanit, Kom Sukontason, Hiromu Kurahashi, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Anchalee Wannasan, Rungroj Kraisittipanit, Kabkaew L Sukontason
Lucilia sinensis Aubertin (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a blow fly species of potential forensic importance since adults are attracted to, and colonize, decomposing vertebrate remains. Blow fly larvae associated with human corpses can be useful evidence in forensic investigations; however, their use is dependent in most cases on proper species identification and availability of developmental data. For identification, morphological information on each life stage is traditionally used. We used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine the ultrastructure of eggs, all instars, and puparia, of L...
September 19, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938228/sex-determination-from-chest-measurements-in-a-sample-of-egyptian-adults-using-multislice-computed-tomography
#17
Ragaa T Darwish, Manal H Abdel-Aziz, Abdel-Aziz M El Nekiedy, Zahraa K Sobh
BACKGROUND: In forensic sciences to determine one's sex is quite important during the identity defining stage. The reliability of sex determination depends on the completeness of the remains and the degree of sexual dimorphism inherent in the population. Computed Tomography is the imaging modality of choice for two- and three-dimensional documentation and analysis of many autopsy findings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present work was to assess the reliability of Three-dimensional Multislice Computed Tomography (3D MSCT) to determine sexual dimorphism from certain chest measurements; sternum and fourth rib using the 3D MSCT and to develop equations for sex determination from these bones among adult Egyptians sample...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938154/massively-parallel-sequencing-of-forensic-strs-and-snps-using-the-illumina-%C3%A2-forenseq%C3%A2-dna-signature-prep-kit-on-the-miseq-fgx%C3%A2-forensic-genomics-system
#18
Fei Guo, Jiao Yu, Lu Zhang, Jun Li
The ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit (ForenSeq Kit) is designed to detect more than 200 forensically relevant markers in a single reaction on the MiSeq FGx™ Forensic Genomics System (MiSeq FGx System), including Amelogenin, 27 autosomal short tandem repeats (A-STRs), 7 X chromosomal STRs (X-STRs), 24 Y chromosomal STRs (Y-STRs) and 94 identity-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (iSNPs) with the option to contain 22 phenotypic-informative SNPs (pSNPs) and 56 ancestry-informative SNPs (aSNPs). In this study, we evaluated the MiSeq FGx System on three major parts: methodological optimization (DNA extraction, sample quantification, library normalization, diluted libraries concentration, and sample-to-cell arrangement), massively parallel sequencing (MPS) performance (depth of coverage, sequence coverage ratio, and allele coverage ratio), and ForenSeq Kit characteristics (repeatability and concordance, sensitivity, mixture, stability and case-type samples)...
September 8, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938153/massively-parallel-sequencing-of-32-forensic-markers-using-the-precision-id-globalfiler%C3%A2-ngs-str-panel-and-the-ion-pgm%C3%A2-system
#19
Zheng Wang, Di Zhou, Hui Wang, Zhenjun Jia, Jing Liu, Xiaoqin Qian, Chengtao Li, Yiping Hou
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies have proved capable of sequencing the majority of the key forensic STR markers. By MPS, not only the repeat-length size but also sequence variations could be detected. Recently, Thermo Fisher Scientific has designed an advanced MPS 32-plex panel, named the Precision ID GlobalFiler™ NGS STR Panel, where the primer set has been designed specifically for the purpose of MPS technologies and the data analysis are supported by a new version HID STR Genotyper Plugin (V4...
September 8, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938152/comparison-of-manual-and-automated-ampliseq%C3%A2-workflows-in-the-typing-of-a-somali-population-with-the-precision-id-identity-panel
#20
Suzanne van der Heijden, Susanne Juel de Oliveira, Marie-Louise Kampmann, Claus Børsting, Niels Morling
The Precision ID Identity Panel was used to type 109 Somali individuals in order to obtain allele frequencies for the Somali population. These frequencies were used to establish a Somali HID-SNP database, which will be used for the biostatistic calculations in family and immigration cases. Genotypes obtained with the Precision ID Identity Panel were found to be almost in complete concordance with genotypes obtained with the SNPforID PCR-SBE-CE assay. In seven SNP loci, silent alleles were identified, of which most were previously described in the literature...
September 14, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
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