keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Microbiota

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031238/the-effect-of-supragingival-biofilm-re-development-on-the-subgingival-microbiota-in-chronic-periodontitis
#1
Fátima Aparecida Rocha Resende Hartenbach, Carina Maciel Silva-Boghossian, Ana Paula Vieira Colombo
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we hypothesized that in the absence of oral hygiene, re-growth of the climax microbial communities of supra and subgingival biofilm happens in a faster and more intense fashion in individuals with chronic periodontitis (CP) compared to periodontally healthy controls (PH). DESIGN: Thirty patients (PH=15 and CP=15) received professional supragingival prophylaxis, and were asked to refrain from oral hygiene for 7days. Supra and subgingival biofilm samples and GCF were collected from randomly selected quadrants at baseline (before prophylaxis), immediately after prophylaxis, 2h, 6h, 24h, and 7days after prophylaxis...
October 10, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029220/effect-of-host-traits-and-land-use-changes-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-the-namibian-black-backed-jackal-canis-mesomelas
#2
Sebastian Menke, Matthias Meier, John K E Mfune, Joerg Melzheimer, Bettina Wachter, Simone Sommer
Host traits and environmental factors drive the natural variation in gut microbiota and disruption in homeostasis can cause infections and chronic diseases. African wildlife is increasingly facing human-induced agricultural habitats, which also amplifies the contact probability with livestock with unknown consequences for wildlife gut microbiotas and the risk of transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria. We applied high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and microsatellite genotyping to investigate the impact of host traits and habitat use on the gut microbiotas of black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas)...
September 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029078/prebiotic-potential-of-pectin-and-pectic-oligosaccharides-to-promote-anti-inflammatory-commensal-bacteria-in-the-human-colon
#3
Wing Sun Faith Chung, Marjolein Meijerink, Birgitte Zeuner, Jesper Holck, Petra Louis, Anne Meyer, Jerry M Wells, Harry J Flint, Sylvia H Duncan
Dietary plant cell wall carbohydrates are important in modulating the composition and metabolism of the complex gut microbiota, which can impact on health. Pectin is a major component of plant cell walls. Based on studies in model systems and available bacterial isolates and genomes, the capacity to utilize pectins for growth is widespread among colonic Bacteroidetes but relatively uncommon among Firmicutes. One Firmicutes species promoted by pectin is Eubacterium eligens. E. eligens DSM3376 utilizes apple pectin and encodes a broad repertoire of pectinolytic enzymes, including a highly abundant pectate lyase of around 200 kDa that is expressed constitutively...
October 3, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029060/metagenomics-novel-enzymes-from-nonculturable-microbes
#4
Francesca Berini, Carmine Casciello, Giorgia Letizia Marcone, Flavia Marinelli
In the transition to the post-petroleum economy, there is a growing demand for novel enzymes with high process performances to replace traditional chemistry with a more 'green' approach. To date, microorganisms encompass the richest source of industrial biocatalysts, but the Earth-living microbiota remains largely untapped by using traditional isolation and cultivation methods. Metagenomics, which is culture-independent, represents a powerful tool for discovering novel enzymes from unculturable microorganisms...
October 4, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028844/a-polyphenol-enriched-diet-and-ascaris-suum-infection-modulate-mucosal-immune-responses-and-gut-microbiota-composition-in-pigs
#5
Andrew R Williams, Lukasz Krych, Hajar Fauzan Ahmad, Peter Nejsum, Kerstin Skovgaard, Dennis S Nielsen, Stig M Thamsborg
Polyphenols are a class of bioactive plant secondary metabolites that are thought to have beneficial effects on gut health, such as modulation of mucosal immune and inflammatory responses and regulation of parasite burdens. Here, we examined the interactions between a polyphenol-rich diet supplement and infection with the enteric nematode Ascaris suum in pigs. Pigs were fed either a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with grape pomace (GP), an industrial by-product rich in polyphenols such as oligomeric proanthocyanidins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028668/the-mycobiome-in-hiv
#6
Christopher L Hager, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are a limited number of studies investigating the association between the microbiome and HIV. Although the majority of these published investigations have focused on the role of the bacterial community (bacteriome) in this setting, a handful of studies have also characterized the role of the mycobiome in HIV-infected individuals. This review will summarize the most recent reports pertaining to the role of the fungal community in HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: Differences in the composition of the oral and respiratory mycobiome in HIV-infected individuals compared with uninfected individuals have been reported...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028448/characterization-of-the-stool-microbiome-in-hispanic-preschool-children-by-weight-status-and-time
#7
Emily B Hollister, Byron A Foster, Mahmoud Dahdouli, Jesica Ramirez, Zhao Lai
BACKGROUND: Variations in gut microbiota composition and diversity have been associated with childhood adiposity, although most studies describing this have been cross-sectional in nature. Our objective was to evaluate associations between body weight and the gut microbiota over time in obese preschool-age children. METHODS: Obese, preschool-age, Hispanic children provided stool samples at baseline and following a 6-month behavioral intervention. Normal-weight (NW) children also provided stool samples...
October 13, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028424/unique-tailoring-of-th17-at-the-gingival-oral-mucosal-barrier
#8
J E Konkel, N M Moutsopoulos
Our recent work highlights unique requirements for the induction of Th17 cells at the oral/gingival mucosal barrier. Unlike other barrier sites, such as the skin and gastrointestinal tract, we found that Th17 cells can develop at the gingiva independently of commensal microbiota colonization. Instead, we identified that damage, which occurs physiologically due to mastication, promotes induction of Th17 cells and tones homeostatic immunity at the gingiva.
October 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028001/soil-protist-communities-form-a-dynamic-hub-in-the-soil-microbiome
#9
Wu Xiong, Alexandre Jousset, Sai Guo, Ida Karlsson, Qingyun Zhao, Huasong Wu, George A Kowalchuk, Qirong Shen, Rong Li, Stefan Geisen
Soil microbes are essential for soil fertility. However, most studies focus on bacterial and/or fungal communities, while the top-down drivers of this microbiome composition, protists, remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how soil amendments affect protist communities and inferred potential interactions with bacteria and fungi. Specific fertilization treatments impacted both the structure and function of protist communities. Organic fertilizer amendment strongly reduced the relative abundance of plant pathogenic protists and increased bacterivorous and omnivorous protists...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027995/microbiota-fmt-transiently-improves-insulin-sensitivity
#10
Claire Greenhill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027814/short-chain-fatty-acids-a-link-between-prebiotics-and-microbiota-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
Marta Esgalhado, Julie A Kemp, Nagila Rt Damasceno, Denis Fouque, Denise Mafra
Under physiologic conditions, the human gut microbiota performs several activities essential to the body health. In contrast, their imbalances exacerbate some actions which can promote a cascade of metabolic abnormalities, and vice versa. Numerous diseases, including chronic kidney disease, are associated with gut microbiota imbalance, and among several strategies to re-establish gut symbiosis, prebiotics seem to represent an effective nonpharmacological approach. Prebiotics fermentation by gut microbiota produce short-chain fatty acids, which improve the gut barrier integrity and function, and modulate the glucose and lipid metabolism as well as the inflammatory response and immune system...
October 13, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027375/vibrio-vulnificus-new-insights-into-a-deadly-opportunistic-pathogen
#12
Craig Baker-Austin, James D Oliver
Vibrio vulnificus is a Gram-negative aquatic bacterium first isolated by the United States (US) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1964. This bacterium is part of the normal microbiota of estuarine waters and occurs in high numbers in molluscan shellfish around the world, particularly in warmer months. Infections in humans are derived from consumption of seafood produce and from water exposure. V. vulnificus is a striking and enigmatic human pathogen, yet many aspects related to its biology, genomics, virulence capabilities and epidemiology remain elusive and poorly understood...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027368/expression-of-fluorescent-proteins-in-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-to-study-host-microbe-and-microbe-microbe-interactions
#13
Irina Spacova, Elke Lievens, Tine Verhoeven, Hans Steenackers, Jos Vanderleyden, Sarah Lebeer, Mariya I Petrova
Probiotic Lactobacillus strains are widely used to benefit human and animal health, although the exact mechanisms behind their interactions with the host and the microbiota are largely unknown. Fluorescent tagging of live probiotic cells is an important tool to unravel their modes of action. In this study, the implementation of different heterologously expressed fluorescent proteins for the labelling of the model probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosusGG (gastrointestinal) and Lactobacillus rhamnosusGR-1 (vaginal) was explored...
October 13, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026921/role-of-gut-microbiota-in-aging-related-health-decline-insights-from-invertebrate-models
#14
REVIEW
Rebecca I Clark, David W Walker
Studies in mammals, including humans, have reported age-related changes in microbiota dynamics. A major challenge, however, is to dissect the cause and effect relationships involved. Invertebrate model organisms such as the fruit fly Drosophila and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have been invaluable in studies of the biological mechanisms of aging. Indeed, studies in flies and worms have resulted in the identification of a number of interventions that can slow aging and prolong life span. In this review, we discuss recent work using invertebrate models to provide insight into the interplay between microbiota dynamics, intestinal homeostasis during aging and life span determination...
October 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026883/increased-weight-gain-by-c-section-functional-significance-of-the-primordial-microbiome
#15
Keith A Martinez, Joseph C Devlin, Corey R Lacher, Yue Yin, Yi Cai, Jincheng Wang, Maria G Dominguez-Bello
Epidemiological evidence supports a direct association between early microbiota impact-including C-section-and obesity. We performed antibiotic-free, fostered C-sections and determined the impact on the early microbiota and body weight during development. Mice in the C-section group gained more body mass after weaning, with a stronger phenotype in females. C-section-born mice lacked the dynamic developmental gut microbiota changes observed in control mice. The results demonstrate a causal relationship between C-section and increased body weight, supporting the involvement of maternal vaginal bacteria in normal metabolic development...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026604/transglucosidase-improves-the-bowel-movements-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-a-preliminary-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#16
Akihiro Shimozato, Makoto Sasaki, Naotaka Ogasawara, Yasushi Funaki, Masahide Ebi, Chiho Goto, Satoshi Koikeda, Takashi Joh, Kunio Kasugai
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have highlighted the relationship between gut microbiota and bowel movements. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate transglucosidase treatment efficacy for bowel movements in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to clarify the relationship between bowel movements, dietary habits, gut microbiota and fecal short-chain fatty acids. METHODS: In this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 66 patients received placebo or transglucosidase (300 or 900 mg/day) orally, for 12 weeks...
October 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026601/complications-effectiveness-and-long-term-follow-up-of-fecal-microbiota-transfer-by-nasoduodenal-tube-for-treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#17
Yvette H van Beurden, Pieter F de Groot, Els van Nood, Max Nieuwdorp, Josbert J Keller, Abraham Goorhuis
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but data on procedure-related complications and long-term outcome are scarce. METHODS: All patients treated with FMT for recurrent CDI at the Academic Medical Center between July 2010 and January 2016 were included. FMT was performed according to the FECAL trial protocol: administration of fresh donor feces (related or unrelated donor) through a duodenal tube after pre-treatment with vancomycin and bowel lavage...
October 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026445/viral-communities-of-the-human-gut-metagenomic-analysis-of-composition-and-dynamics
#18
REVIEW
Varun Aggarwala, Guanxiang Liang, Frederic D Bushman
BACKGROUND: The numerically most abundant biological entities on Earth are viruses. Vast populations prey on the cellular microbiota in all habitats, including the human gut. MAIN BODY: Here we review approaches for studying the human virome, and some recent results on movement of viral sequences between bacterial cells and eukaryotic hosts. We first overview biochemical and bioinformatic methods, emphasizing that specific choices in the methods used can have strong effects on the results obtained...
2017: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026146/multiple-approaches-detect-the-presence-of-fungi-in-human-breastmilk-samples-from-healthy-mothers
#19
Alba Boix-Amorós, Cecilia Martinez-Costa, Amparo Querol, Maria Carmen Collado, Alex Mira
Human breastmilk contains a variety of bacteria that are transmitted to the infant and have been suggested to contribute to gut microbiota development and immune maturation. However, the characterization of fungal organisms in milk from healthy mothers is currently unknown although their presence has been reported in the infant gut and also in milk from other mammals. Breastmilk samples from healthy lactating mothers (n = 65) within 1 month after birth were analyzed. Fungal presence was assessed by different techniques, including microscopy, growth and identification of cultured isolates, fungal load estimation by qPCR, and fungal composition using 28S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025837/effects-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-and-bifidobacterium-lactis-bb12-on-beta-cell-function-in-children-with-newly-diagnosed-type-1-diabetes-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Lidia Groele, Hania Szajewska, Agnieszka Szypowska
INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence has demonstrated that, among other factors, dysbiosis (imbalances in the composition and function of the gut microbiota) may be relevant in the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Thus, gut microbiota may be a target for improving outcomes in subjects with T1D. The aim of the study is to examine the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 on beta-cell function in children with newly diagnosed T1D. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A total of 96 children aged 8 to 17 years with newly diagnosed T1D, confirmed by clinical history and the presence of at least one positive autoantibody, will be enrolled in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in which they will receive L...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Open
keyword
keyword
194
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"