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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535508/resistant-starch-regulates-gut-microbiota-structure-biochemistry-and-cell-signalling
#1
Xiaoping Yang, Kwame Oteng Darko, Yanjun Huang, Caimei He, Huansheng Yang, Shanping He, Jianzhong Li, Jian Li, Berthold Hocher, Yulong Yin
Starch is one of the most popular nutritional sources for both human and animals. Due to the variation of its nutritional traits and biochemical specificities, starch has been classified into rapidly digestible, slowly digestible and resistant starch. Resistant starch has its own unique chemical structure, and various forms of resistant starch are commercially available. It has been found being a multiple-functional regulator for treating metabolic dysfunction. Different functions of resistant starch such as modulation of the gut microbiota, gut peptides, circulating growth factors, circulating inflammatory mediators have been characterized by animal studies and clinical trials...
May 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535372/a-brain-region-specific-neural-pathway-regulating-germinal-matrix-angiogenesis
#2
Shang Ma, Devi Santhosh, Peeyush Kumar T, Zhen Huang
Intimate communication between neural and vascular cells is critical for normal brain development and function. Germinal matrix (GM), a key primordium for the brain reward circuitry, is unique among brain regions for its distinct pace of angiogenesis and selective vulnerability to hemorrhage during development. A major neonatal condition, GM hemorrhage can lead to cerebral palsy, hydrocephalus, and mental retardation. Here we identify a brain-region-specific neural progenitor-based signaling pathway dedicated to regulating GM vessel development...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534820/antioxidant-properties-of-probiotic-bacteria
#3
REVIEW
Yang Wang, Yanping Wu, Yuanyuan Wang, Han Xu, Xiaoqiang Mei, Dongyou Yu, Yibing Wang, Weifen Li
Oxidative stress defines a condition in which the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in the cell is disturbed, resulting in DNA hydroxylation, protein denaturation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, ultimately compromising cells' viability. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects, and the consumption of probiotics alone or in food shows that strain-specific probiotics can present antioxidant activity and reduce damages caused by oxidation. However, the oxidation-resistant ability of probiotics, especially the underling mechanisms, is not properly understood...
May 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534191/tgf-%C3%AE-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-key-regulator-of-immune-cells-epithelium-and-the-intestinal-microbiota
#4
REVIEW
Sozaburo Ihara, Yoshihiro Hirata, Kazuhiko Koike
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is defined as chronic intestinal inflammation, and includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Multiple factors are involved in the pathogenesis of IBD, and the condition is characterized by aberrant mucosal immune reactions to intestinal microbes in genetically susceptible hosts. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is an immune-suppressive cytokine produced by many cell types and activated by integrins. Active TGF-β binds to its receptor and regulates mucosal immune reactions through the TGF-β signaling pathway...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534105/bacterial-diversity-of-cosmopolitan-culex-pipiens-and-invasive-aedes-japonicus-from-germany
#5
Sina Zotzmann, Antje Steinbrink, Kathrin Schleich, Felix Frantzmann, Chinhda Xoumpholphakdy, Manuela Spaeth, Claire Valiente Moro, Patrick Mavingui, Sven Klimpel
Symbiotic bacteria have gained significant attention in recent years. For example, microbiota of some mosquito species seems to influence the development and transmission of pathogens. Furthermore, several attempts using bacteria as a paratransgenetic tool have been made in order to assist the control of mosquito-borne diseases. In this study, we examined the bacterial diversity of wild-caught adult Culex (Cx.) pipiens and laboratory-reared adult Aedes japonicus (Ae. japonicus) in Germany using a culture-independent method...
May 22, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533966/microbiome-patterns-across-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-the-rabbitfish-siganus-fuscescens
#6
Shaun Nielsen, Jackson Wilkes Walburn, Adriana Vergés, Torsten Thomas, Suhelen Egan
Most of our knowledge regarding the biodiversity of gut microbes comes from terrestrial organisms or marine species of economic value, with less emphasis on ecologically important species. Here we investigate the bacterial composition associated with the gut of Siganus fuscescens, a rabbitfish that plays an important ecological role in coastal ecosystems by consuming seaweeds. Members of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and delta-Proteobacteria were among the dominant taxa across samples taken from the contents and the walls (sites) of the midgut and hindgut (location)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533775/the-role-of-microbiota-and-immunobiotics-in-granulopoiesis-of-immunocompromised-hosts
#7
REVIEW
Susana Salva, Susana Alvarez
The number of granulocytes is maintained by a regulated balance between granulopoiesis in the bone marrow and clearance and destruction in peripheral tissues. Granulopoiesis plays a fundamental role in the innate immune response. Therefore, factors affecting the normal granulopoiesis lead to alterations in innate defenses and reduce the resistance against infections. In this study, we give a description on recent advances regarding the molecular and cellular events that regulate steady-state and emergency granulopoiesis, which are crucial processes for the generation of protective innate immune responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533770/from-vineyard-soil-to-wine-fermentation-microbiome-approximations-to-explain-the-terroir-concept
#8
REVIEW
Ignacio Belda, Iratxe Zarraonaindia, Matthew Perisin, Antonio Palacios, Alberto Acedo
Wine originally emerged as a serendipitous mix of chemistry and biology, where microorganisms played a decisive role. From these ancient fermentations to the current monitored industrial processes, winegrowers and winemakers have been continuously changing their practices according to scientific knowledge and advances. A new enology direction is emerging and aiming to blend the complexity of spontaneous fermentations with industrial safety of monitored fermentations. In this context, wines with distinctive autochthonous peculiarities have a great acceptance among consumers, causing important economic returns...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533691/microbiome-disruption-and-recovery-in-the-fish-gambusia-affinis-following-exposure-to-broad-spectrum-antibiotic
#9
Jeanette M Carlson, Annie B Leonard, Embriette R Hyde, Joseph F Petrosino, Todd P Primm
Antibiotics are a relatively common disturbance to the normal microbiota of humans and agricultural animals, sometimes resulting in severe side effects such as antibiotic-associated enterocolitis. Gambusia affinis was used as a vertebrate model for effects of a broad-spectrum antibiotic, rifampicin, on the skin and gut mucosal microbiomes. The fish were exposed to the antibiotic in the water column for 1 week, and then monitored during recovery. As observed via culture, viable counts from the skin microbiome dropped strongly yet returned to pretreatment levels by 1...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533660/genes-emotions-and-gut-microbiota-the-next-frontier-for-the-gastroenterologist
#10
REVIEW
Arturo Panduro, Ingrid Rivera-Iñiguez, Maricruz Sepulveda-Villegas, Sonia Roman
Most medical specialties including the field of gastroenterology are mainly aimed at treating diseases rather than preventing them. Genomic medicine studies the health/disease process based on the interaction of the human genes with the environment. The gastrointestinal (GI) system is an ideal model to analyze the interaction between our genes, emotions and the gut microbiota. Based on the current knowledge, this mini-review aims to provide an integrated synopsis of this interaction to achieve a better understanding of the GI disorders related to bad eating habits and stress-related disease...
May 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533370/insect-pathogenic-fungus-interacts-with-the-gut-microbiota-to-accelerate-mosquito-mortality
#11
Ge Wei, Yiling Lai, Guandong Wang, Huan Chen, Fang Li, Sibao Wang
The insect gut microbiota plays crucial roles in modulating the interactions between the host and intestinal pathogens. Unlike viruses, bacteria, and parasites, which need to be ingested to cause disease, entomopathogenic fungi infect insects through the cuticle and proliferate in the hemolymph. However, interactions between the gut microbiota and entomopathogenic fungi are unknown. Here we show that the pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana interacts with the gut microbiota to accelerate mosquito death. After topical fungal infection, mosquitoes with gut microbiota die significantly faster than mosquitoes without microbiota...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533304/modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-impacts-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-potential-role-for-bile-acids
#12
Aafke Wf Janssen, Tom Houben, Saeed Katiraei, Wieneke Dijk, Lily Boutens, Nieke van der Bolt, Zeneng Wang, J Mark Brown, Stanley L Hazen, Stéphane Mandard, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov, Folkert Kuipers, Ko Willems van Dijk, Jacques Vervoort, Rinke Stienstra, Guido Jej Hooiveld, Sander Kersten
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rapidly becoming the most common liver disease worldwide, yet the pathogenesis of NAFLD is only partially understood. Here, we investigated the role of the gut bacteria in NAFLD by stimulating the gut bacteria via feeding mice the fermentable dietary fiber guar gum and suppressing the gut bacteria via chronic oral administration of antibiotics. Guar gum feeding profoundly altered the gut microbiota composition, in parallel with reduced diet-induced obesity and improved glucose tolerance...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533241/arr-cb-a-rifampin-resistance-determinant-found-active-or-cryptic-in-clostridium-bolteae
#13
Jean-Christophe Marvaud, Thierry Lambert
Clostridium bolteae, which belongs to the Clostridium clostridioforme complex is a member of the human gut microbiota. Recent analysis of seven genomes of C. bolteae revealed the presence of an arr-like gene. Among these strains only 90A7 was found to be resistant to rifampin in the absence of alteration in RpoB. Cloning of arr-cb from 90A7 in Escherichia coli combined with directed mutagenesis demonstrated that Arr-cb is functional but that a Q127→R variant present in 90A9 and 90B3 was inactive. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that arr-cb was silent in the four remaining strains due to a defective transcription...
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533178/mucin-and-carbohydrate-stimulated-adhesion-and-subproteome-changes-of-the-probiotic-bacterium-lactobacillus-acidophilus-ncfm
#14
Hasan Ufuk Celebioglu, Sita Vaag Olesen, Kennie Prehn, Sampo J Lahtinen, Susanne Brix, Maher Abou Hachem, Birte Svensson
Adhesion to intestinal mucosa is a crucial property for probiotic bacteria. Adhesion is thought to increase host-bacterial interactions, thus potentially enabling health benefits to the host. Molecular events connected with adhesion and surface proteome changes were investigated for the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM cultured with established or emerging prebiotic carbohydrates as carbon source and in the presence of mucin, the glycoprotein of the epithelial mucus layer. Variation in adhesion to HT29-cells and mucin was associated with carbon source and mucin-induced subproteome abundancy differences...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532523/immune-responses-intestinal-microbiota-performance-and-blood-characteristics-of-japanese-quail-fed-on-diets-containing-camphor
#15
A Sedaghat, M A Karimi Torshizi
This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplemental camphor on the performance and immune functions of Japanese quail by feeding graded levels (0 (control), 250, 500, 750, 1000, 5000 or 10 000 ppm) of camphor during a 42-day feeding trial. In all, 280 1-day-old quail chicks were randomly assigned into 28 cages of 10 chicks each with separate feeders. The results clearly demonstrated that camphor did not have a significant effect on BW, BW gain, total experimental average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, internal organ relative weights and biochemical parameters such as uric acid, albumin, total protein and triglyceride; however, plasma cholesterol concentration was significantly different in a linear manner, in which 500 ppm of camphor resulted in a lower level of cholesterol...
May 23, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532414/association-between-body-mass-index-and-firmicutes-bacteroidetes-ratio-in-an-adult-ukrainian-population
#16
Alexander Koliada, Ganna Syzenko, Vladislav Moseiko, Liudmyla Budovska, Kostiantyn Puchkov, Vyacheslav Perederiy, Yuriy Gavalko, Andriy Dorofeyev, Maryana Romanenko, Sergiy Tkach, Lyudmila Sineok, Oleh Lushchak, Alexander Vaiserman
BACKGROUND: Metagenomic studies confirm that obesity is associated with a composition of gut microbiota. There are some controversies, however, about the composition of gut microbial communities in obese individuals in different populations. To examine the association between body mass index and microbiota composition in Ukrainian population, fecal concentrations of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio were analyzed in 61 adult individuals...
May 22, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532161/modelling-of-phytoextraction-efficiency-of-microbially-stimulated-salix-dasyclados-l-in-the-soils-with-different-speciation-of-heavy-metals
#17
Michał Złoch, Tomasz Kowalkowski, Jarosław Tyburski, Katarzyna Hrynkiewicz
Bioaugmentation of soils with selected microorganisms during phytoextraction can be the key solution, but the actual efficacy of this technology should be confirmed for different physicochemical soil parameters and heavy metal availability to guarantee the universality of this method. Equally important is development of the accurate prediction tool to manage phytoremediation process.The main objective of this study was to evaluate the role of three metalotolerant siderophore-producing Streptomyces sp. B1-B3 strains in the phytoremediation of heavy metals with the use of S...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531908/methods-and-reporting-studies-assessing-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-a-systematic-review
#18
Aïda Bafeta, Amelie Yavchitz, Carolina Riveros, Rui Batista, Philippe Ravaud
Background: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could be a novel treatment option for several chronic diseases associated with altered gut microbiota. Purpose: To examine the conduct and reporting of studies assessing FMT. Data Sources: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science from inception to 31 January 2017. Study Selection: Two reviewers independently examined titles and abstracts to identify all English-language reports of human clinical studies assessing the safety or efficacy of FMT...
May 23, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531905/treatment-with-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-the-need-for-complete-methodological-reporting-for-clinical-trials
#19
Vincent B Young
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531784/gut-microbiota-mediated-benefits-of-barley-kernel-products-on-metabolism-gut-hormones-and-inflammatory-markers-as-affected-by-co-ingestion-of-commercially-available-probiotics-a-randomized-controlled-study-in-healthy-subjects
#20
Anne Nilsson, Elin Johansson-Boll, Jonna Sandberg, Inger Björck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Barley kernel based products have been shown to induce benefits on blood glucose regulation, cardio-metabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones in a time perspective of 11-16 h after intake. The mechanisms have been assigned to gut fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if the modulatory effects of barley on markers of metabolic- and appetite regulation are affected by a dietary background including a mixture of commercially available probiotics...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
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