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Jin-Jae Lee, Sae-Hoon Kim, Min-Jung Lee, Byung-Keun Kim, Woo-Jung Song, Heung-Woo Park, Sang-Heon Cho, Soo-Jong Hong, Yoon-Seok Chang, Bong-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Microbes in the airway has been shown to be associated with the pathogenesis of asthma. The upper airway microbiome influences the dysbiosis of the lower airway microbiome. However, to date, the influence of upper airway microbiome for adult and elderly asthma has not been fully elucidated. Here, the metagenome of upper airway microbiome of young adults and elderly was analyzed to identify their association with adult asthma. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from young-adult and elderly asthma patients and non-asthmatic subjects...
September 22, 2018: Allergy
Christina L Hayes, Jasmine Dong, Heather J Galipeau, Jennifer Jury, Justin McCarville, Xianxi Huang, Xuan-Yu Wang, Avee Naidoo, Arivarasu N Anbazhagan, Josie Libertucci, Conor Sheridan, Pradeep K Dudeja, Dawn M E Bowdish, Michael G Surette, Elena F Verdu
The intestinal barrier encompasses structural, permeability and immune aspects of the gut mucosa that, when disrupted, may contribute to chronic inflammation. Although gnotobiotic studies have demonstrated the effects of microbiota on mucosal and systemic immunity, as well as intestinal barrier architecture and innate immune characteristics, its impact on barrier function remains unclear. We compared germ-free and conventional mice, as well as mice colonized with human fecal microbiota that were followed for 21 days post-colonization...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Annette Carola Anderson, Michael Rothballer, Markus Jörg Altenburger, Johan Peter Woelber, Lamprini Karygianni, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Elmar Hellwig, Ali Al-Ahmad
Caries is associated with shifts of microbiota in dental biofilms and primarily driven by frequent sucrose consumption. Data on environmentally induced in vivo microbiota shifts are scarce therefore we investigated the influence of frequent sucrose consumption on the oral biofilm. Splint systems containing enamel slabs were worn for 3 × 7 days with 7-day intervals to obtain oral biofilm samples. After a three-month dietary change of sucking 10 g of sucrose per day in addition to the regular diet, biofilm was obtained again at the end of the second phase...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yongbo Kang, Yu Li, Yuhui Du, Liqiong Guo, Minghui Chen, Xinwei Huang, Fang Yang, Jingan Hong, Xiangyang Kong
BACKGROUND: Changes in the intestinal flora composition is referred to as dysbiosis, which is related to obesity development, thus supporting the potential roles of nutrients acting on intestinal flora to exert salutary effects on energetic metabolism of host. Dietary fiber has been known to affect the composition of intestinal flora. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional effects of konjac flour (KF) on obesity control in respect to improving inflammation, metabolism, and intestinal barrier function, and the possible association of the effects with intestinal flora composition changes...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Richard Agans, Alex Gordon, Denise Lynette Kramer, Sergio Perez-Burillo, José A Rufián-Henares, Oleg Paliy
While a substantial amount of dietary fats escape absorption in the human small intestine and reach the colon, the ability of resident microbiota to utilize these dietary fats for growth has not been investigated in detail. In this study we used an in vitro multi-vessel simulator system of the human colon to reveal that human gut microbiota is able to utilize typically consumed dietary fatty acids to sustain growth. Gut microbiota adapted quickly to a macronutrient switch from a balanced Western diet type medium to its variant lacking carbohydrates and proteins...
September 21, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
He Gao, Jia-Jia Wen, Jie-Lun Hu, Qi-Xing Nie, Hai-Hong Chen, Tao Xiong, Shao-Ping Nie, Ming-Yong Xie
The influence of Lactobacillus plantarum-fermentation on the structure and anti-diabetic effects of Momordica charantia polysaccharides were evaluated. High-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats were administrated with polysaccharides from fermented and non-fermented Momordica charantia (FP and NFP) for 4 weeks. Fermentation affected the physicochemical characterization, monosaccharide composition, molecular weight, and viscosity of Momordica charantia polysaccharides. Treatment with FP significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress in diabetic rats compared with NFP...
December 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Guangli Feng, Bernadine M Flanagan, Barbara A Williams, Deirdre Mikkelsen, Wenwen Yu, Michael J Gidley
Arabinoxylan (AX) and xyloglucan (XG) are important components of primary cell walls of cereal grains and vegetables/fruits, respectively. Despite the established health benefits of these non-starch polysaccharides, the mechanisms of their utilisation by the gut microbiota are poorly understood. In this study, the mechanisms of solubilised wheat AX and tamarind XG degradation were investigated under in vitro fermentation conditions using a porcine faecal inoculum. Through structural analysis of the polymers, we demonstrate that depolymerisation by microbial surface accessible endo-degrading enzymes occurs prior to active fermentation of AX or XG...
December 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Benjamin H Mullish, Mohammed Nabil Quraishi, Jonathan P Segal, Horace R T Williams, Simon D Goldenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Alexandria Turner, Martin Veysey, Simon Keely, Christopher Scarlett, Mark Lucock, Emma L Beckett
The type 2 family of taste receptors (T2Rs) detect and respond to bitter tastants. These receptors are expressed throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, with location dependant roles. In the oral cavity, T2Rs are involved in the conscious perception of bitter tastants, while in the lower GI tract they have roles in chemoreception and regulation of GI function. Through these diverse roles, these receptors may be involved in modulating appetite and diet, with consequences for weight regulation and obesity...
September 20, 2018: Nutrients
Ilona Csoti, Christian Dresel, Björn Hauptmann, Thomas Müller, Christoph Redecker, Tobias Warnecke, Ulrich Wüllner
Epidemiological studies suggest an association of certain foods with the risk of Parkinson's disease. Also, a number of studies revaeled positive effects on disease progression by caffeine, higher uric acid and total cholesterol levels - especially in men. However, it is not yet clear whether a specific dietary concept or the effects of the intestinal microbiota on the human metabolism could play a role in the course of the disease. Given the lack of prospective nutrition studies, only general recommendations can be given: a "balanced" seasonal regional diet with emphasis on vegetables, fruits, nuts, fish, low amount of red meat, and non-processed foods with a low level of simple carbohydrates may be helpful...
September 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Danyue Zhao, Bo Yuan, Eileen Carry, Giulio M Pasinetti, Lap Ho, Jeremiah Faith, Ilaria Mogno, Jim Simon, Qingli Wu
Accumulating evidence indicates that the health impact of dietary phenolic compounds, including the principal grape-derived polyphenols, (+)‑catechin and (-)‑epicatechin, is exerted by not only the parent compounds but also their phenolic metabolites generated by the gut microbiota. In this work, a new high-throughput, sensitive and reproducible analytical method was developed employing ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) for the simultaneous analysis of 16 microbial-generated phenolic acid metabolites (PAMs) along with their precursors, catechin and epicatechin...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Andreas Kyburz, Angela Fallegger, Xiaozhou Zhang, Aleksandra Altobelli, Mariela Artola-Boran, Timothy Borbet, Sabine Urban, Petra Paul, Christian Münz, Stefan Floess, Jochen Huehn, Timothy L Cover, Martin J Blaser, Christian Taube, Anne Müller
BACKGROUND: The trans-maternal exposure to tobacco, microbes, nutrients and other environmental factors shapes the fetal immune system through epigenetic processes. The gastric microbe Helicobacter pylori represents an ancestral constituent of the human microbiota that causes gastric disorders on the one hand, and is inversely associated with allergies and chronic inflammatory conditions on the other. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigate the consequences of trans-maternal exposure to H...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Nathan K Archer, Jay-Hyun Jo, Steven K Lee, Dongwon Kim, Barbara Smith, Roger V Ortines, Yu Wang, Mark C Marchitto, Advaitaa Ravipati, Shuting S Cai, Carly A Dillen, Haiyun Liu, Robert J Miller, Alyssa G Ashbaugh, Angad S Uppal, Michiko Oyoshi, Nidhi Malhotra, Sabine Hoff, Luis A Garza, Heidi H Kong, Julia A Segre, Raif S Geha, Lloyd S Miller
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with epidermal barrier defects, dysbiosis and skin injury from scratching. In particular, the barrier defective epidermis of AD patients with loss-of-function filaggrin mutations has increased IL-1α and IL-1β levels but the mechanisms by which IL-1α and/or IL-1β are induced and whether they contribute to the aberrant skin inflammation in AD is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the mechanisms by which skin injury, dysbiosis and increased epidermal IL-1α and IL-1β contribute to the development of skin inflammation in a mouse model of injury-induced skin inflammation in filaggrin-deficient mice...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Orianne Dumas, Kohei Hasegawa, Jonathan M Mansbach, Ashley F Sullivan, Pedro A Piedra, Carlos A Camargo
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of bronchiolitis heterogeneity may help clarify its relationship with the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma. OBJECTIVES: To identify severe bronchiolitis profiles by a clustering approach, and to investigate for the first time their association with allergy/inflammatory biomarkers; nasopharyngeal microbiota; and development of recurrent wheezing by age 3 years. METHODS: We analyzed data from a prospective, 17-center U...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Natalia Shulzhenko, Xiaoxi Dong, Dariia Vyshenska, Renee L Greer, Manoj Gurung, Stephany Vasquez-Perez, Ekaterina Peremyslova, Stanislav Sosnovtsev, Martha Quezado, Michael Yao, Kim Montgomery-Recht, Warren Strober, Ivan J Fuss, Andrey Morgun
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most common symptomatic primary antibody deficiency, is accompanied in some patients by a duodenal inflammation and malabsorption syndrome known as CVID enteropathy (E-CVID). The goal of this study was to investigate the immunological abnormalities in CVID patients that lead to enteropathy as well as the contribution of intestinal microbiota to this process. We found that, in contrast to noE-CVID patients (without enteropathy), E-CVID patients have exceedingly low levels of IgA in duodenal tissues...
September 18, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Anupam Rej, Amanda Avery, Alexander Charles Ford, Anne Holdoway, Matthew Kurien, Yvonne McKenzie, Julie Thompson, Nick Trott, Kevin Whelan, Marianne Williams, David Surendran Sanders
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Diet appears to play a pivotal role in symptom generation in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). First line dietary therapy for IBS has focused on advice concerning healthy eating and lifestyle management. Research recently has focused on the role of a diet low in fermentable oligo-, di-, and mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAPs), gluten free (GFD) and wheat free (WFD) diets for the relief of symptoms in IBS. METHODS: A round table discussion with gastroenterologists and dietitians with a specialist interest in dietary therapies in IBS was held in Sheffield, United Kingdom in May 2017...
September 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Chiara Nadai, Wilson José Fernandes Lemos, Francesco Favaron, Alessio Giacomini, Viviana Corich
The reduction of chemical fungicides in agriculture has led to the use of microorganisms as biocontrol agents. Starmerella bacillaris is a non-Saccharomyces yeast associated with overripe and botrytized grape berries microbiota. Its use has been proposed for wine fermentation because of yeast fructophilic character and high glycerol production. Recently, S. bacillaris has been demonstrated to possess antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea on the grape. Penicillium expansum is the pathogen responsible for the blue mold rot, the most important postharvest disease of apples...
2018: PloS One
Youngji Cho, Galeb Abu-Ali, Hiroki Tashiro, Traci A Brown, Ross Osgood, David I Kasahara, Curtis Huttenhower, Stephanie A Shore
We have previously reported that the mouse gut microbiome contributes to pulmonary responses to ozone, a common asthma trigger, and that short chain fatty acids, end products of bacterial fermentation, likely contribute to this role of the microbiome. A growing body of evidence indicates sex-related differences in gut microbiota and that these differences can have important functional consequences. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were sex-related differences in the impact of the gut microbiota on pulmonary responses to ozone...
September 21, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Hannah N Kuhar, Bobby A Tajudeen, Mahboobeh Mahdavinia, Ashley Heilingoetter, Ashwin Ganti, Paolo Gattuso, Ritu Ghai, Pete S Batra
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory disease process with several different phenotypes. Recent data has shown that CRS phenotypes maintain distinct nasal microbiota that may predict surgical outcomes. Nasal microbiota and structured histopathologic reporting have the potential to further differentiate subtypes and provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of CRS. METHODS: Sinus swabs collected during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) were studied by polymerase chain reaction analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA...
September 21, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Morgane Guégan, Guillaume Minard, Florence-Hélène Tran, Van Tran Van, Audrey Dubost, Claire Valiente Moro
Recent studies have highlighted the potential role of microbiota in the biology of the Aedes albopictus mosquito vector. This species is highly anthropogenic and exhibits marked ecological plasticity, with a resulting high potential to colonize a wide range of habitats-including anthropized areas-under various climatic conditions. We put forward the hypothesis that climate and anthropogenic activities, such as the use of antibiotics in agriculture and human medicine, might affect the mosquito-associated bacterial community...
September 18, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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