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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922089/elderly-patients-have-an-altered-gut-brain-axis-regardless-of-the-presence-of-cirrhosis
#1
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Vishwadeep Ahluwalia, Joel L Steinberg, Sarah Hobgood, Peter A Boling, Michael Godschalk, Saima Habib, Melanie B White, Andrew Fagan, Edith A Gavis, Dinesh Ganapathy, Phillip B Hylemon, Karen E Stewart, Raffi Keradman, Eric J Liu, Jessica Wang, Patrick M Gillevet, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, F Gerard Moeller, James B Wade
Cognitive difficulties manifested by the growing elderly population with cirrhosis could be amnestic (memory-related) or non-amnestic (memory-unrelated). The underlying neuro-biological and gut-brain changes are unclear in this population. We aimed to define gut-brain axis alterations in elderly cirrhotics compared to non-cirrhotic individuals based on presence of cirrhosis and on neuropsychological performance. Age-matched outpatients with/without cirrhosis underwent cognitive testing (amnestic/non-amnestic domains), quality of life (HRQOL), multi-modal MRI (fMRI go/no-go task, volumetry and MR spectroscopy), blood (inflammatory cytokines) and stool collection (for microbiota)...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922070/deep-sequencing-of-the-16s-ribosomal-rna-of-the-neonatal-oral-microbiome-a-comparison-of-breast-fed-and-formula-fed-infants
#2
S S Al-Shehri, E L Sweeney, D M Cowley, H G Liley, P D Ranasinghe, B G Charles, P N Shaw, D Vagenas, J A Duley, C L Knox
In utero and upon delivery, neonates are exposed to a wide array of microorganisms from various sources, including maternal bacteria. Prior studies have proposed that the mode of feeding shapes the gut microbiota and, subsequently the child's health. However, the effect of the mode of feeding and its influence on the development of the neonatal oral microbiota in early infancy has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to compare the oral microbiota of healthy infants that were exclusively breast-fed or formula-fed using 16S-rRNA gene sequencing...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921366/masked-trichothecene-and-zearalenone-mycotoxins-withstand-digestion-and-absorption-in-the-upper-gi-tract-but-are-efficiently-hydrolyzed-by-human-gut-microbiota-in-vitro
#3
Silvia W Gratz, Reshma Dinesh, Tomoya Yoshinari, Grietje Holtrop, Anthony J Richardson, Gary Duncan, Susan MacDonald, Antony Lloyd, Jonathan Tarbin
SCOPE: Cereal grains are commonly contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins and their plant-derived masked metabolites. The fate of masked mycotoxins in the human gut is poorly understood. Here we assess the metabolism and transport of glucoside metabolites of common trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin) and zearalenone compounds (zearalenone, α- and β-zearalenol) in the human gut in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: Masked mycotoxins were incubated with artificial digestive juices and absorption was assessed in differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cells...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921309/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-induced-interleukin-33-expression-in-intestinal-epithelia-contributes-to-mucosal-homeostasis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
M Sun, C He, W Wu, G Zhou, F Liu, Y Cong, Z Liu
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), an important barrier to gut microbiota, are subject to low oxygen tension, particularly during intestinal inflammation. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is expressed highly in the inflamed mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and functions as a key regulator in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. However, how IEC-derived HIF-1α regulates intestinal immune responses in IBD is still not understood completely. We report here that the expression of HIF-1α and IL-33 was increased significantly in the inflamed mucosa of IBD patients as well as mice with colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)...
November 7, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921083/integrated-role-of-bifidobacterium-animalis-subsp-lactis-supplementation-in-gut-microbiota-immunity-and-metabolism-of-infant-rhesus-monkeys
#5
Xuan He, Carolyn M Slupsky, James W Dekker, Neill W Haggarty, Bo Lönnerdal
To investigate the impact of probiotic supplementation of infant formula on immune parameters, intestinal microbiota, and metabolism, five individually housed infant rhesus monkeys exclusively fed standard infant formula supplemented with probiotics (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019) from birth until 3 months of age were compared with five standard formula-fed and five breast-fed monkeys. Anthropometric measurements, serum insulin, immune parameters, fecal microbiota, and metabolic profiles of serum, urine, and feces were evaluated...
November 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921044/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-cause-or-effect-of-metabolic-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Christoph Grander, Felix Grabherr, Alexander R Moschen, Herbert Tilg
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease throughout the world. Pathophysiological insights into this disease have recently illustrated that various factors such as insulin resistance, innate immunity, metabolic inflammation, and the microbiota are of relevance. NAFLD, metabolic syndrome (MS), and type 2 diabetes (T2D) share many pathophysiological aspects, and inflammatory processes in the adipose tissue, gut, and liver have evolved to be of exceptional importance. Most of NAFLD patients are obese and encounter a high risk of developing MS and T2D...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921008/age-related-differences-in-the-luminal-and-mucosa-associated-gut-microbiome-of-broiler-chickens-and-shifts-associated-with-campylobacter-jejuni-infection
#7
Wageha A Awad, Evelyne Mann, Monika Dzieciol, Claudia Hess, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Martin Wagner, Michael Hess
Despite the importance of gut microbiota for broiler performance and health little is known about the composition of this ecosystem, its development and response towards bacterial infections. Therefore, the current study was conducted to address the composition and structure of the microbial community in broiler chickens in a longitudinal study from day 1 to day 28 of age in the gut content and on the mucosa. Additionally, the consequences of a Campylobacter (C.) jejuni infection on the microbial community were assessed...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920981/infective-endocarditis-and-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-diagnosed-simultaneously
#8
Fujiko Morita, Yuji Hirai, Kiyozumi Suzuki, Yuki Uehara, Kazunori Mitsuhashi, Atsushi Amano, Toshio Naito
Poor dentition and/or dental infection due to insufficient oral care are presumed to be risk factors for infective endocarditis (IE). We present a case of endocarditis caused by Granulicatella adiacens and Sjögren's syndrome (SS) with oral complications diagnosed simultaneously. A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with fever, general fatigue, arthralgia, and back pain. She was diagnosed with primary SS according to the criteria of the American-European Consensus Group. Transthoracic echocardiography carried out to examine her persistent fever revealed vegetation formation (14 × 5 mm) on the aortic valve and her blood cultures were positive for G...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920774/effects-of-tween-80-on-growth-and-biofilm-formation-in-laboratory-media
#9
Christina K Nielsen, Jørgen Kjems, Tina Mygind, Torben Snabe, Rikke L Meyer
Tween 80 is a widely used non-ionic emulsifier that is added to cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and foods. Because of its widespread use we need to understand how it affects bacteria on our skin, in our gut, and in food products. The aim of this study is to investigate how Tween 80 affects the growth and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Pseudomonas fluorescens, which are common causes of spoilage and foodborne illnesses. Addition of 0.1% Tween 80 to laboratory growth media increased the growth rate of planktonic S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920760/prevalence-of-the-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-coagulase-positive-and-negative-staphylococcus-in-chicken-meat-retailed-to-consumers
#10
Kamelia Osman, Jihan Badr, Khalid S Al-Maary, Ihab M I Moussa, Ashgan M Hessain, Zeinab M S Amin Girah, Usama H Abo-Shama, Ahmed Orabi, Aalaa Saad
The use of antibiotics in farm management (growing crops and raising animals) has become a major area of concern. Its implications is the consequent emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and accordingly their access into the human food chain with passage of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) to the normal human intestinal microbiota and hence to other pathogenic bacteria causative human disease. Therefore, we pursued in this study to unravel the frequency and the quinolone resistance determining region, mecA and cfr genes of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920756/salmonella-typhimurium-and-multidirectional-communication-in-the-gut
#11
REVIEW
Elena V Gart, Jan S Suchodolski, Thomas H Welsh, Robert C Alaniz, Ronald D Randel, Sara D Lawhon
The mammalian digestive tract is home to trillions of microbes, including bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi, and viruses. In monogastric mammals the stomach and small intestine harbor diverse bacterial populations but are typically less populated than the colon. The gut bacterial community (microbiota hereafter) varies widely among different host species and individuals within a species. It is influenced by season of the year, age of the host, stress and disease. Ideally, the host and microbiota benefit each other...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920621/toxins-toxicity-and-endotoxemia-a-historical-and-clinical-perspective-for-chiropractors
#12
REVIEW
David R Seaman
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this commentary is to review the notion of toxicity in the context of chiropractic practice. DISCUSSION: The belief that body toxicity is the cause of disease has been promoted for thousands of years. Prior to the emergence of the chiropractic profession, the medical profession embraced the notion that the body becomes "toxic," requiring detoxification interventions or surgery. The legacy of body toxicity within the chiropractic approach to patient care began with Daniel David Palmer...
December 2016: Journal of Chiropractic Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920543/intestinal-permeability-in-a-patient-with-liver-cirrhosis
#13
REVIEW
Jonathan Manuel Aguirre Valadez, Liliana Rivera-Espinosa, Osvely Méndez-Guerrero, Juan Luis Chávez-Pacheco, Ignacio García Juárez, Aldo Torre
Liver cirrhosis is a worldwide public health problem, and patients with this disease are at high risk of developing complications, bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric nodes, and systemic circulation, resulting in the development of severe complications related to high mortality rate. The intestinal barrier is a structure with a physical and biochemical activity to maintain balance between the external environment, including bacteria and their products, and the internal environment...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920199/the-active-bacterial-assemblages-of-the-upper-gi-tract-in-individuals-with-and-without-helicobacter-infection
#14
Christian Schulz, Kerstin Schütte, Nadine Koch, Ramiro Vilchez-Vargas, Melissa L Wos-Oxley, Andrew P A Oxley, Marius Vital, Peter Malfertheiner, Dietmar H Pieper
OBJECTIVE: Patients infected with Helicobacter pylori develop chronic gastritis with a subgroup progressing to further complications. The role of microbiota from the oral cavity swallowed with saliva and either transiting the stomach or persisting in the gastric mucosa is uncertain. It is also not known whether the bacterial community differs in luminal and mucosal niches. A key question is whether H. pylori influences the bacterial communities of gastroduodenal niches. DESIGN: Saliva, gastric and duodenal aspirates as well as gastric and duodenal biopsies were collected during oesophagogastroduodenoscopy from 24 patients (m:9, f:15, mean age 52...
December 5, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919253/cystic-fibrosis-lung-environment-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#15
Anjali Y Bhagirath, Yanqi Li, Deepti Somayajula, Maryam Dadashi, Sara Badr, Kangmin Duan
BACKGROUND: The airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are highly complex, subject to various environmental conditions as well as a distinct microbiota. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is recognized as one of the most important pulmonary pathogens and the predominant cause of morbidity and mortality in CF. A multifarious interplay between the host, pathogens, microbiota, and the environment shapes the course of the disease. There have been several excellent reviews detailing CF pathology, Pseudomonas and the role of environment in CF but only a few reviews connect these entities with regards to influence on the overall course of the disease...
December 5, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919249/-the-microbiome-and-the-pathophysiology-of-asthma
#16
REVIEW
Ashley Sullivan, Eoin Hunt, John MacSharry, Desmond M Murphy
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease whose prevalence is increasing in the western world. Recently research has begun to focus on the role the microbiome plays in asthma pathogenesis in the hope of further understanding this respiratory disorder. Considered sterile until recently, the lungs have revealed themselves to contain a unique microbiota. A shift towards molecular methods for the quantification and sequencing of microbial DNA has revealed that the airways harbour a unique microbiota with apparent, reproducible differences present between healthy and diseased lungs...
December 5, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918452/light-dark-shifting-promotes-alcohol-induced-colon-carcinogenesis-possible-role-of-intestinal-inflammatory-milieu-and-microbiota
#17
Faraz Bishehsari, Abdulrahman Saadalla, Khashayarsha Khazaie, Phillip A Engen, Robin M Voigt, Brandon B Shetuni, Christopher Forsyth, Maliha Shaikh, Martha Hotz Vitaterna, Fred Turek, Ali Keshavarzian
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with the modern lifestyle. Chronic alcohol consumption-a frequent habit of majority of modern societies-increases the risk of CRC. Our group showed that chronic alcohol consumption increases polyposis in a mouse mode of CRC. Here we assess the effect of circadian disruption-another modern life style habit-in promoting alcohol-associated CRC. METHOD: TS4Cre × adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)(lox468) mice underwent (a) an alcohol-containing diet while maintained on a normal 12 h light:12 h dark cycle; or (b) an alcohol-containing diet in conjunction with circadian disruption by once-weekly 12 h phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918315/the-gut-microbiota-as-a-key-regulator-of-visceral-pain
#18
Siobhain M O' Mahony, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Visceral pain is a significant and prevalent feature of several disorders including the functional gastrointestinal disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Treatment strategies are limited and often unsatisfactory which has opened up new research avenues into the aetiology of visceral pain. This research has led to an increased appreciation of the role of the brain gut axis in modulating viscera pain responses. More recently, the interactions between the gut microbiota and the central nervous system have emerged indicating that visceral pain related disorders may be prospective candidates for symptom relief via microbial manipulation...
November 29, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918230/mechanisms-of-cross-talk-between-the-diet-the-intestinal-microbiome-and-the-undernourished-host
#19
Helene Velly, Robert A Britton, Geoffrey A Preidis
Undernutrition remains one of the most pressing global health challenges today, contributing to nearly half of all deaths in children under five years of age. Although insufficient dietary intake and environmental enteric dysfunction are often inciting factors, evidence now suggests that unhealthy gut microbial populations perpetuate the vicious cycle of pathophysiology that results in persistent growth impairment in children. The metagenomics era has facilitated new research identifying an altered microbiome in undernourished hosts and has provided insight into a number of mechanisms by which these alterations may affect growth...
December 5, 2016: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917879/colonic-luminal-microbiota-and-bacterial-metabolite-composition-in-pregnant-huanjiang-mini-pigs-effects-of-food-composition-at-different-times-of-pregnancy
#20
Xiang-Feng Kong, Yu-Jiao Ji, Hua-Wei Li, Qian Zhu, F Blachier, Mei-Mei Geng, Wen Chen, Yu-Long Yin
The gut harbours diverse and complex microbiota, which influence body health including nutrient metabolism, immune development, and protection from pathogens. Pregnancy is associated with immune and metabolic changes that might be related to microbiota compositional dynamics. We therefore investigated the colonic luminal bacteria community in Huanjiang mini-pigs fed diets with different nutrient levels from the first to third trimester of pregnancy. The concentrations of intestinal metabolites including short-chain fat acids, NH3-N, indole, skatole, and bioamines were also determined...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
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