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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223812/could-saponins-be-used-to-enhance-bioremediation-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-aged-contaminated-soils
#1
Marie Davin, Amandine Starren, Magali Deleu, Georges Lognay, Gilles Colinet, Marie-Laure Fauconnier
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent organic compounds of major concern that tend to accumulate in the environment, threatening ecosystems and health. Brownfields represent an important tank for PAHs and require remediation. Researches to develop bioremediation and phytoremediation techniques are being conducted as alternatives to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the potential of saponins (natural surfactants) as extracting agents and as bioremediation enhancers on an aged-contaminated soil...
December 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223548/co-occurrence-of-early-gut-colonization-in-neonatal-piglets-with-microbiota-in-the-maternal-and-surrounding-delivery-environments
#2
Xue Chen, Jumei Xu, Erdou Ren, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu
The early development of gut microbiota plays a fundamental role in host health; so far, the main origins of the first colonization in newborn piglets are largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the early development of gut microbiota in newborn piglets during lactation and their co-occurrence with microbes in the maternal and surrounding environments by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The results showed that the microbial richness and diversity in piglets' feces (PF) significantly increased from birth to weaning (21 d)...
December 6, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223308/what-we-have-lost-mastitis-resistance-in-holstein-friesians-and-in-a-local-cattle-breed
#3
Giulio Curone, Joel Filipe, Paola Cremonesi, Erminio Trevisi, Massimo Amadori, Claudia Pollera, Bianca Castiglioni, Lauretta Turin, Vittorio Tedde, Daniele Vigo, Paolo Moroni, Andrea Minuti, Valerio Bronzo, M Filippa Addis, Federica Riva
In Holstein Friesian dairy cows, selective pressure for increased milk production has led to a higher propensity to disease, including mastitis, when compared to less selected and lower producing dairy breeds. The biology underpinning the higher resistance to disease of such "local breeds" is not fully understood. With the aim of investigating the factors associated to this phenomenon, we applied a multidisciplinary approach to compare innate immune response patterns, metabolic parameters, milk protein profiles and the milk microbiota in Holstein Friesian and Rendena cows reared in the same farm and under the same management conditions...
November 29, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223004/towards-utilization-of-the-human-genome-and-microbiome-for-personalized-nutrition
#4
REVIEW
Stavros Bashiardes, Anastasia Godneva, Eran Elinav, Eran Segal
Generalized dietary and lifestyle guidelines have been formulated and published for decades now from a variety of relevant agencies in an attempt to guide people towards healthy choices. As the pandemic rise in metabolic diseases continues to increase, it has become clear that the one-fit-for-all diet approach does not work and that there is a significant variation in inter-individual responses to diet and lifestyle interventions. Recent technological advances have given an unprecedented insight into the sources of this variation, pointing towards our genome and microbiome as potentially and previously under-explored culprits contributing to individually unique dietary responses...
December 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222175/chitin-protects-gut-epithelial-barrier-in-a-protochordate-model-of-dss-induced-colitis
#5
Assunta Liberti, Ivana Zucchetti, Daniela Melillo, Diana Skapura, Yoshimi Shibata, Rosaria De Santis, Maria Rosaria Pinto, Gary W Litman, Larry J Dishaw
The gastrointestinal tract of Ciona intestinalis, a solitary tunicate that siphon filters water, shares similarities with its mammalian counterpart. The Ciona gut exhibits other features that are unique to protochordates, including certain immune molecules, and other characteristics, e.g. chitin-rich mucus, which appears to be more widespread than considered previously. Exposure of Ciona to dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) induces a colitis-like phenotype similar to that seen in other systems and is characterized by alteration of epithelial morphology and infiltration of blood cells into lamina propria like regions...
December 8, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221800/gut-microbiome-and-antibiotics
#6
REVIEW
Tadasu Iizumi, Thomas Battaglia, Victoria Ruiz, Guillermo I Perez Perez
Despite that the human gastrointestinal tract is the most populated ecological niche by bacteria in the human body, much is still unknown about its characteristics. This site is highly susceptible to the effects of many external factors that may affect in the quality and the quantity of the microbiome. Specific factors such as diet, personal hygiene, pharmacological drugs and the use of antibiotics can produce a significant impact on the gut microbiota. The effect of these factors is more relevant early in life, when the gut microbiota has not yet fully established...
December 5, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221448/next-generation-sequencing-recent-applications-to-the-analysis-of-colorectal-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Filippo Del Vecchio, Valentina Mastroiaco, Antinisca Di Marco, Chiara Compagnoni, Daria Capece, Francesca Zazzeroni, Carlo Capalbo, Edoardo Alesse, Alessandra Tessitore
Since the establishment of the Sanger sequencing method, scientists around the world focused their efforts to progress in the field to produce the utmost technology. The introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) represents a revolutionary step and promises to lead to massive improvements in our understanding on the role of nucleic acids functions. Cancer research began to use this innovative and highly performing method, and interesting results started to appear in colorectal cancer (CRC) analysis. Several studies produced high-quality data in terms of mutation discovery, especially about actionable or less frequently mutated genes, epigenetics, transcriptomics...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221120/gut-microbial-profile-analysis-by-miseq-sequencing-of-pancreatic-carcinoma-patients-in-china
#8
Zhigang Ren, Jianwen Jiang, Haiyang Xie, Ang Li, Haifeng Lu, Shaoyan Xu, Lin Zhou, Hua Zhang, Guangying Cui, Xinhua Chen, Yuanxing Liu, Liming Wu, Nan Qin, Ranran Sun, Wei Wang, Lanjuan Li, Weilin Wang, Shusen Zheng
Pancreatic carcinoma (PC) is a lethal cancer. Gut microbiota is associated with some risk factors of PC, e.g. obesity and types II diabetes. However, the specific gut microbial profile in clinical PC in China has never been reported. This prospective study collected 85 PC and 57 matched healthy controls (HC) to analyze microbial characteristics by MiSeq sequencing. The results showed that gut microbial diversity was decreased in PC with an unique microbial profile, which partly attributed to its decrease of alpha diversity...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220800/exposure-to-traffic-related-air-pollution-and-the-composition-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-overweight-and-obese-adolescents
#9
Tanya L Alderete, Roshonda B Jones, Zhanghua Chen, Jeniffer S Kim, Rima Habre, Frederick Lurmann, Frank D Gilliland, Michael I Goran
BACKGROUND: Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure has been linked to type 2 diabetes and metabolic dysfunction in humans. Animal studies suggest that air pollutants may alter the composition of the gut microbiota, which may negatively impact metabolic health through changes in the composition and/or function of the gut microbiome. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to determine whether elevated TRAP exposure was correlated with gut bacterial taxa in overweight and obese adolescents from the Meta-AIR (Metabolic and Asthma Incidence Research) study...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220570/neuromicrobiology-how-microbes-influence-the-brain
#10
Cesar de la Fuente-Nunez, Beatriz Torres Meneguetti, Octávio Luiz Franco, Timothy K Lu
We review here recent discoveries in the exciting new field of neuromicrobiology. This field encompasses the interactions between the microbiome and the central nervous system. The microbiome has a tremendous impact on human health. In particular, the gut microbiota may play a key role in many essential processes in health and disease via the activity of the gut-brain axis, possibly contributing to autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, and anxiety disorder. Gut microbes may also be involved in nociception, complex host behaviors, and brain development...
December 8, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219279/use-of-photodynamic-inactivation-for-in-vitro-reduction-of-prevalent-bacteria-in-fournier-s-gangrene
#11
Nalisson Marques Pereira, Luciano Santos Feitosa, Ricardo Scarparo Navarro, Dora Inés Kozusny-Andreani, Naacia Marques Pereira Carvalho
Fournier's Gangrene (FG) is an infectious disease caused by several synergic microbes, with high morbidity and mortality rates; therefore, the search for new less invasive and mutilating treatments, with faster recovery, has been proposed. Surgical intervention, the use of several systemic and topic antibiotics, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are currently the best approach for the treatment of these patients. The use of Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) aims to lower morbidity and mortality, by reducing bacterial microbiota and speeding wound healing...
December 11, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219052/adverse-events-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-potential-mechanisms
#12
Andrea Corsonello, Fabrizia Lattanzio, Silvia Bustacchini, Sabrina Garasto, Annalisa Cozza, Roberto Schepisi, Federica Lenci, Filippo Luciani, Marcello Giuseppe Maggio, Andrea Ticinesi, Valeria Butto, Sara Tagliaferri, Francesco Corica
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at summarizing current evidence about mechanisms for potentially harmful effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). METHODS: A Pubmed search was performed, and 207 studies concerning the relationship between use of PPIs and cardiovascular diseases, kidney impairment, nutritional disorders, fractures, infections, functional decline, and mortality were selected and reviewed. RESULTS: PPIs may cause potentially harmful effects by several mechanisms, including endothelial dysfunction, hypomagnesemia, drug interactions, reduced absorption of selected nutrients, increased gastric microbiota and small intestine bacterial overgrowth, reduced immune response, tubular-interstitial inflammation, increased bone turnover, accumulation of amyloid in the brain...
December 7, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218997/causes-of-impaired-oral-vaccine-efficacy-in-developing-countries
#13
Edward Pk Parker, Sasirekha Ramani, Benjamin A Lopman, James A Church, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Andrew J Prendergast, Nicholas C Grassly
Oral vaccines are less immunogenic when given to infants in low-income compared with high-income countries, limiting their potential public health impact. Here, we review factors that might contribute to this phenomenon, including transplacental antibodies, breastfeeding, histo blood group antigens, enteric pathogens, malnutrition, microbiota dysbiosis and environmental enteropathy. We highlight several clear risk factors for vaccine failure, such as the inhibitory effect of enteroviruses on oral poliovirus vaccine...
December 8, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218079/vegf-c-mediated-enhancement-of-lymphatic-drainage-reduces-intestinal-inflammation-by-regulating-il-9-il-17-balance-and-improving-gut-microbiota-in-experimental-chronic-colitis
#14
Xiaolei Wang, Jin Zhao, Li Qin
BACKGROUND: Inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis (IAL) induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C/VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) pathway plays a crucial role in chronic intestinal inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of VEGF-C mediated enhancement of lymphatic drainage on the intestinal inflammation in experimental chronic colitis (CC) and the potential mechanism was explored. METHODS: Mouse CC model was established by three cycles of 2% DSS administration for 5 days following water administration for 5 days...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218037/wuji-wan-formula-ameliorates-diarrhea-and-disordered-colonic-motility-in-post-inflammation-irritable-bowel-syndrome-rats-by-modulating-the-gut-microbiota
#15
Ying Chen, Shuiming Xiao, Zipeng Gong, Xiaoxin Zhu, Qing Yang, Yujie Li, Shuangrong Gao, Yu Dong, Zhe Shi, Yajie Wang, Xiaogang Weng, Qi Li, Weiyan Cai, Weijie Qiang
Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota contribute to the treatment of post-inflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). Our previous studies have demonstrated that a Chinese formula, Wuji Wan, has the ability to mitigate abdominal pain and diarrhea in PI-IBS rats. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism and whether the gut microbiota mediate the effect of Wuji Wan on PI-IBS. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether Wuji Wan mitigated PI-IBS by modifying the gut microbiota...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218032/surface-proteins-of-lactococcus-lactis-bacterial-resources-for-muco-adhesion-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#16
REVIEW
Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Marie-Pierre Chapot-Chartier
Food and probiotic bacteria, in particular lactic acid bacteria, are ingested in large amounts by humans and are part of the transient microbiota which is increasingly considered to be able to impact the resident microbiota and thus possibly the host health. The lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis is extensively used in starter cultures to produce dairy fermented food. Also because of a generally recognized as safe status, L. lactis has been considered as a possible vehicle to deliver in vivo therapeutic molecules with anti-inflammatory properties in the gastrointestinal tract...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217369/influence-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-on-the-immunogenicity-of-oral-rotavirus-vaccine-given-to-infants-in-south-india
#17
Edward P K Parker, Ira Praharaj, Anna Zekavati, Robin P Lazarus, Sidhartha Giri, Darwin J Operario, Jie Liu, Eric Houpt, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Beate Kampmann, Jacob John, Gagandeep Kang, Nicholas C Grassly
Oral rotavirus vaccines have consistently proven to be less immunogenic among infants in developing countries. Discrepancies in the intestinal microbiota, including a greater burden of enteropathogens and an altered commensal community composition, may contribute to this trend by inhibiting the replication of vaccine viruses. To test this possibility, we performed a nested case-control study in Vellore, India, in which we compared the intestinal microbiota of infants who responded serologically or not after two doses of Rotarix delivered at 6 and 10 weeks of age as part of a clinical trial (CTRI/2012/05/002677)...
December 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217301/-gut-microbiota-what-impact-on-colorectal-carcinogenesis-and-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Antoine Bruneau, Minh-Tam Baylatry, Anne Christine Joly, Harry Sokol
The gut microbiota, composed of 1014 microorganisms, is now considered as a "hidden organ", regarding to its digestive, metabolic and immune functions, which are helpful to its host. For the last 15 years, advances in molecular biology have highlighted the association of gut microbiota dysbiosis with several diseases, including colorectal cancer. An increased abundance of some bacteria (including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli) is associated with cancer, whereas others seem to be protective (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii)...
December 4, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216202/composition-and-variation-of-respiratory-microbiota-in-healthy-military-personnel
#19
Jun Hang, Nela Zavaljevski, Yu Yang, Valmik Desai, Richard C Ruck, Louis R Macareo, Richard G Jarman, Jaques Reifman, Robert A Kuschner, Paul B Keiser
Certain occupational and geographical exposures have been associated with an increased risk of lung disease. As a baseline for future studies, we sought to characterize the upper respiratory microbiomes of healthy military personnel in a garrison environment. Nasal, oropharyngeal, and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 50 healthy active duty volunteers eight times over the course of one year (1107 swabs, completion rate = 92.25%) and subjected to pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of 16S rDNA. Respiratory bacterial taxa were characterized at the genus level, using QIIME 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215603/differential-location-and-distribution-of-hepatic-immune-cells
#20
REVIEW
Maria Alice Freitas-Lopes, Kassiana Mafra, Bruna A David, Raquel Carvalho-Gontijo, Gustavo B Menezes
The liver is one of the main organs in the body, performing several metabolic and immunological functions that are indispensable to the organism. The liver is strategically positioned in the abdominal cavity between the intestine and the systemic circulation. Due to its location, the liver is continually exposed to nutritional insults, microbiota products from the intestinal tract, and to toxic substances. Hepatocytes are the major functional constituents of the hepatic lobes, and perform most of the liver's secretory and synthesizing functions, although another important cell population sustains the vitality of the organ: the hepatic immune cells...
December 7, 2017: Cells
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