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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098913/diets-link-metabolic-syndrome-and-colorectal-cancer-development-review
#1
Jirakrit Saetang, Surasak Sangkhathat
Diets have been believed to be an important factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and colorectal cancer (CRC). In recent years, many studies have shown an intimate relationship between mucosal immunity, metabolism and diets, which has led to a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and CRC development. Although the precise effects of diets on oncogenesis have not been compl-etely elucidated, microbiota changes and inflammation are believed to be important factors that influence the development of CRC...
January 18, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098630/collapse-of-the-microbiome-emergence-of-the-pathobiome-and-the-immunopathology-of-sepsis
#2
John C Alverdy, Monika A Krezalek
The definition of sepsis has been recently modified to accommodate emerging knowledge in the field, while at the same time being recognized as challenging, if not impossible, to define. Here, we seek to clarify the current understanding of sepsis as one that has been typically framed as a disorder of inflammation to one in which the competing interests of the microbiota, pathobiota, and host immune cells lead to loss of resilience and nonresolving organ dysfunction. Here, we challenge the existence of the idea of noninfectious sepsis given that critically ill humans never exist in a germ-free state...
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098248/microbial-succession-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-dairy-cows-from-2-weeks-to-first-lactation
#3
Kimberly A Dill-McFarland, Jacob D Breaker, Garret Suen
Development of the dairy calf gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and its associated microbiota are essential for survival and milk production, as this community is responsible for converting plant-based feeds into accessible nutrients. However, little is known regarding the establishment of microbes in the calf GIT. Here, we measured fecal-associated bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities of dairy cows from 2 weeks to the middle of first lactation (>2 years) as well as rumen-associated communities from weaning (8 weeks) to first lactation...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098228/unique-bacteria-community-composition-and-co-occurrence-in-the-milk-of-different-ruminants
#4
Zhipeng Li, André-Denis G Wright, Yifeng Yang, Huazhe Si, Guangyu Li
Lactation provides the singular source of nourishment to the offspring of mammals. This nutrition source also contains a diverse microbiota affecting the development and health of the newborn. Here, we examined the milk microbiota in water deer (Hydropotes inermis, the most primitive member of the family Cervidae), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, the oldest semi-domesticated cervid), and the dairy goat (Capra aegagrus, member of the family Bovidae), to determine if common milk microbiota species were present across all three ruminant species...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098206/protein-kinase-c-%C3%AE-signaling-is-required-for-dietary-prebiotic-induced-strengthening-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function
#5
Richard Y Wu, Majd Abdullah, Pekka Määttänen, Ana Victoria C Pilar, Erin Scruten, Kathene C Johnson-Henry, Scott Napper, Catherine O'Brien, Nicola L Jones, Philip M Sherman
Prebiotics are non-digestible oligosaccharides that promote the growth of beneficial gut microbes, but it is unclear whether they also have direct effects on the intestinal mucosal barrier. Here we demonstrate two commercial prebiotics, inulin and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide (scFOS), when applied onto intestinal epithelia in the absence of microbes, directly promote barrier integrity to prevent pathogen-induced barrier disruptions. We further show that these effects involve the induction of select tight junction (TJ) proteins through a protein kinase C (PKC) δ-dependent mechanism...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097647/microbiota-composition-and-pulmonary-surfactant-protein-expression-as-markers-of-death-by-drowning
#6
So-Yeon Lee, Seung-Kyun Woo, So-Min Lee, Eun-Ju Ha, Kyoung-Hee Lim, Kyung-Hwa Choi, Young-Hee Roh, Yong-Bin Eom
Pathological diagnosis of drowning remains a challenge for forensic science, because of a lack of pathognomonic findings. We analyzed microbiota and surfactant protein in the lungs for a novel diagnosis of drowning. All rats were divided into drowning, postmortem submersion, and control groups. The water, lungs, closed organs (kidney and liver), and cardiac blood in rats were assayed by targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of Miseq sequencing. Lung samples were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining for surfactant protein A...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097632/acquisition-and-adaptation-of-the-airway-microbiota-in-the-early-life-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#7
REVIEW
Sébastien Boutin, Alexander H Dalpke
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease in which bacterial infections of the airways play a major role in the long-term clinical outcome. In recent years, a number of next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based studies aimed at deciphering the structure and composition of the airways' microbiota. It was shown that the nasal cavity of CF patients displays dysbiosis early in life indicating a failure in the first establishment of a healthy microbiota. In contrast, within the conducting and lower airways, the establishment occurs normally first, but is sensitive to future dysbiosis including chronic infections with classical pathogens in later life...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097073/handling-stress-may-confound-murine-gut-microbiota-studies
#8
Cary R Allen-Blevins, Xiaomeng You, Katie Hinde, David A Sela
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates interactions between human milk composition, particularly sugars (human milk oligosaccharides or HMO), the gut microbiota of human infants, and behavioral effects. Some HMO secreted in human milk are unable to be endogenously digested by the human infant but are able to be metabolized by certain species of gut microbiota, including Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis), a species sensitive to host stress (Bailey & Coe, 2004). Exposure to gut bacteria like B...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096541/the-mucosal-immune-system-master-regulator-of-bidirectional-gut-brain-communications
#9
REVIEW
Nick Powell, Marjorie M Walker, Nicholas J Talley
Communication between the brain and gut is not one-way, but a bidirectional highway whereby reciprocal signals between the two organ systems are exchanged to coordinate function. The messengers of this complex dialogue include neural, metabolic, endocrine and immune mediators responsive to diverse environmental cues, including nutrients and components of the intestinal microbiota (microbiota-gut-brain axis). We are now starting to understand how perturbation of these systems affects transition between health and disease...
January 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096483/the-gut-microbiome-of-the-vector-lutzomyia-longipalpis-is-essential-for-survival-of-leishmania-infantum
#10
Patrick H Kelly, Sarah M Bahr, Tiago D Serafim, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Claudio Meneses, John R Kirby, Jesus G Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi, Mary E Wilson
: The vector-borne disease leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania species protozoa, is transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand flies. Development of Leishmania to infective metacyclic promastigotes in the insect gut, a process termed metacyclogenesis, is an essential prerequisite for transmission. Based on the hypothesis that vector gut microbiota influence the development of virulent parasites, we sequenced midgut microbiomes in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis with or without Leishmania infantum infection...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096373/pathogen-mediated-manipulation-of-arthropod-microbiota-to-promote-infection
#11
Nabil M Abraham, Lei Liu, Brandon Lyon Jutras, Akhilesh K Yadav, Sukanya Narasimhan, Vissagan Gopalakrishnan, Juliana M Ansari, Kimberly K Jefferson, Felipe Cava, Christine Jacobs-Wagner, Erol Fikrig
Arthropods transmit diverse infectious agents; however, the ways microbes influence their vector to enhance colonization are poorly understood. Ixodes scapularis ticks harbor numerous human pathogens, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. We now demonstrate that A. phagocytophilum modifies the I. scapularis microbiota to more efficiently infect the tick. A. phagocytophilum induces ticks to express Ixodes scapularis antifreeze glycoprotein (iafgp), which encodes a protein with several properties, including the ability to alter bacterial biofilm formation...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096237/the-human-microbiome-and-cancer
#12
Seesandra V Rajagopala, Sanjay Vashee, Lauren M Oldfield, Yo Suzuki, J Craig Venter, Amalio Telenti, Karen E Nelson
Recent scientific advances have significantly contributed to our understanding of the complex connection between the microbiome and cancer. Our bodies are continuously exposed to microbial cells, both resident and transient, as well as their by-products including toxic metabolites. Circulation of toxic metabolites may contribute to cancer onset or progression at locations distant from where a particular microbe resides. Moreover, microbes may migrate to other locations in the human body and become associated with tumor development...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096137/introduction-to-the-yogurt-in-nutrition-initiative-at-the-first-symposium-of-yogurt-in-mexico-the-balanced-diet-initiative
#13
REVIEW
Armando R Tovar, Guadalupe Herrera
In some European countries, yogurt consumption is common. However, such consumption is not common in Latin America, particularly in Mexico, partially because of the lack of a cultural tradition of consuming yogurt. Moreover, we also know that little information about the health benefits associated with yogurt consumption has been provided to the Mexican population. Thus, there is an immediate need to provide, at least to the nutrition community in the country, current scientific evidence about the health benefits of yogurt, with the aim that yogurt be included as part of the functional foods recommended to the population...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095925/the-effect-of-cigarette-smoking-on-the-oral-and-nasal-microbiota
#14
Guoqin Yu, Stephen Phillips, Mitchell H Gail, James J Goedert, Michael S Humphrys, Jacques Ravel, Yanfang Ren, Neil E Caporaso
BACKGROUND: The goal of the study was to investigate whether cigarette smoking alters oral and nasal microbial diversity, composition, and structure. Twenty-three current smokers and 20 never smokers were recruited. From each subject, nine samples including supra and subgingiva plaque scrapes, saliva, swabs from five soft oral tissue sites, and one nasal swab from both the anterior nares were collected. 16S rRNA V3-V4 region was sequenced for microbial profiles. RESULTS: We found that alpha diversity was lower in smokers than in nonsmokers in the buccal mucosa, but in other sample sites, microbial diversity and composition were not significantly different by smoking status...
January 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095919/ancient-bacteria-of-the-%C3%A3-tzi-s-microbiome-a-genomic-tale-from-the-copper-age
#15
Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Christian Milani, Leonardo Mancabelli, Francesca Turroni, Chiara Ferrario, Sabrina Duranti, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
BACKGROUND: Ancient microbiota information represents an important resource to evaluate bacterial evolution and to explore the biological spread of infectious diseases in history. The soft tissue of frozen mummified humans, such as the Tyrolean Iceman, has been shown to contain bacterial DNA that is suitable for population profiling of the prehistoric bacteria that colonized such ancient human hosts. RESULTS: Here, we performed a microbial cataloging of the distal gut microbiota of the Tyrolean Iceman, which highlights a predominant abundance of Clostridium and Pseudomonas species...
January 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095889/evolution-of-gut-microbiota-composition-from-birth-to-24-weeks-in-the-infantmet-cohort
#16
Cian J Hill, Denise B Lynch, Kiera Murphy, Marynka Ulaszewska, Ian B Jeffery, Carol Anne O'Shea, Claire Watkins, Eugene Dempsey, Fulvio Mattivi, Kieran Touhy, R Paul Ross, C Anthony Ryan, Paul W O' Toole, Catherine Stanton
BACKGROUND: The gut is the most extensively studied niche of the human microbiome. The aim of this study was to characterise the initial gut microbiota development of a cohort of breastfed infants (n = 192) from 1 to 24 weeks of age. METHODS: V4-V5 region 16S rRNA amplicon Illumina sequencing and, in parallel, bacteriological culture. The metabolomic profile of infant urine at 4 weeks of age was also examined by LC-MS. RESULTS: Full-term (FT), spontaneous vaginally delivered (SVD) infants' microbiota remained stable at both phylum and genus levels during the 24-week period examined...
January 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095877/deciphering-composition-and-function-of-the-root-microbiome-of-a-legume-plant
#17
Kyle Hartman, Marcel Ga van der Heijden, Valexia Roussely-Provent, Jean-Claude Walser, Klaus Schlaeppi
BACKGROUND: Diverse assemblages of microbes colonize plant roots and collectively function as a microbiome. Earlier work has characterized the root microbiomes of numerous plant species, but little information is available for legumes despite their key role in numerous ecosystems including agricultural systems. Legumes form a root nodule symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing Rhizobia bacteria and thereby account for large, natural nitrogen inputs into soils. Here, we describe the root bacteria microbiome of the legume Trifolium pratense combining culture-dependent and independent methods...
January 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095528/the-role-of-cutaneous-microbiota-harmony-in-maintaining-a-functional-skin-barrier
#18
Hilary E Baldwin, Neal D Bhatia, Adam Friedman, Richard Martin Eng, Sophie Seite
The skin is constantly exposed to various endogenous and exogenous factors that may impact its barrier function at the physical, mechanical, immunological, and microbial levels. These factors have the potential to initiate or exacerbate a variety of inflammatory skin conditions, especially those associated with barrier dysfunction. The barrier function of the skin depends upon a symbiotic relationship between resident microbial communities and host tissue. This symbiosis results from complex signals involved in both the innate and adaptive immune responses...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095303/gd-dtpa-induced-dynamic-metabonomic-changes-in-rat-biofluids
#19
Chuanling Wan, Youyang Zhan, Rong Xue, Yijie Wu, Xiaojing Li, Fengkui Pei
OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were (1) to detect the dynamic metabonomic changes induced by gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) and (2) to investigate the potential metabolic disturbances associated with the pathogenesis of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) at the early stage. METHODS: A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the urinary and serum metabolic changes induced by a single tail vein injection of Gd-DTPA (dosed at 2 and 5mmol/kg body weight) in rats...
January 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095208/tale-of-the-huanglongbing-disease-pyramid-in-the-context-of-the-citrus-phytobiome
#20
Nian Wang, Lukasz Stelinski, Kirsten Pelz-Stelinski, Jim H Graham, Yunzeng Zhang
The Huanglongbing (HLB) disease pyramid is composed of Liberibacters, psyllid vectors, citrus hosts and the environment. The epidemiological outcomes for Liberibacter-associated plant diseases are collectively determined by the inherent relationships between plant-Liberibacters and psyllids, and how various environment factors affect plant-Liberibacter-psyllid interactions. Citrus-Liberibacter-psyllid interactions occur in a complex microbiome system. In this review, we focus on the progress in understanding the HLB disease pyramid, and how the microbiome affects the HLB disease pyramid including the interaction between HLB and the citrus microbiome; the interaction between Liberibacters and psyllids; the interaction between Liberibacters and gut microbiota in psyllids, and the effect of HLB on selected above- and belowground citrus pathogens...
January 17, 2017: Phytopathology
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