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Martina Trckova, Alena Lorencova, Vladimir Babak, Jiri Neca, Miroslav Ciganek
A three-week trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of leonardite and lignite, natural sources of humic substances, on selected indicators of health status of weaned piglets. A total of 45 weaned piglets were assigned to three dietary treatments: Control - basal diet without any medication; Leonardite or Lignite - diet supplemented with lignite or leonardite at a dose of 20 g/kg, respectively. Leonardite differed from lignite in the content of humic substances and minerals. Diarrhoea incidence and severity, growth performance, haematological and biochemical status, biomarkers of oxidative stress, serum fatty acid (FA) profile and faecal microbiota composition were monitored...
June 12, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
S Jiang, J Zeng, X Zhou, Y Li
Growing evidence suggests the existence of new antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Recent studies have revealed that quorum-quenching enzymes, such as MacQ, are involved in both antibiotic resistance and cell-cell communication. Furthermore, some small bacterial regulatory RNAs, classified into RNA attenuators and small RNAs, modulate the expression of resistance genes. For example, small RNA sprX, can shape bacterial resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics via specific downregulation of protein SpoVG. Moreover, some bacterial lipocalins capture antibiotics in the extracellular space, contributing to severe multidrug resistance...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Ge-Ah Kim, Nicholas J Ginga, Shuichi Takayama
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract regulates physiologic responses in complex ways beyond facilitating nutrient entry into the circulatory system. Because of the anatomic location of the GI tract, studying in vivo physiology of the human gut, including host cell interaction with the microbiota, is limited. GI organoids derived from human stem cells are gaining interest as they recapitulate in vivo cellular phenotypes and functions. An underdeveloped capability that would further enhance the utility of these miniature models of the GI tract is to use sensors to quantitatively characterize the organoid systems with high spatiotemporal resolution...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Rajani Thanissery, Daina Zeng, Raul G Doyle, Casey M Theriot
Antibiotics are considered to be the first line of treatment for mild to moderately severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in humans. However, antibiotics are also risk factors for CDI as they decrease colonization resistance against C. difficile by altering the gut microbiota and metabolome. Finding compounds that selectively inhibit different stages of the C. difficile life cycle, while sparing the indigenous gut microbiota is important for the development of alternatives to standard antibiotic treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kyla S Ost, June L Round
Mammalian immune systems evolved within a diverse world dominated by microbes, making interactions between these two life-forms inevitable. Adaptive immunity protects against microbes through antigen-specific responses. In classical studies, these responses were investigated in the context of pathogenicity; however, we now know that they have significant effects on our resident microbes. In turn, microbes employ an arsenal of mechanisms to influence development and specificity of host immunity. Understanding these complex reactions will be necessary to develop microbiota-based strategies to prevent or treat disease...
June 21, 2018: Annual Review of Microbiology
Angela Sessitsch, Günter Brader, Nikolaus Pfaffenbichler, Doris Gusenbauer, Birgit Mitter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Lina Castano-Duque, Anjel Helms, Jared Gregory Ali, Dawn S Luthe
In this study we examined global changes in protein expression in both roots and leaves of maize plants attacked by the root herbivore, Western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera). The changes in protein expression Are indicative of metabolic changes during WCR feeding that enable the plant to defend itself. This is one of the first studies to look above- and below-ground at global protein expression patterns of maize plants grown in soil and infested with a root herbivore. We used advanced proteomic and network analyses to identify metabolic pathways that contribute to global defenses deployed by the insect resistant maize genotype, Mp708, infested with WCR...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Valentina Kaden-Volynets, Marijana Basic, Ulrike Neumann, Dominik Pretz, Andreas Rings, André Bleich, Stephan C Bischoff
PURPOSE: Experimental liver steatosis induced by overfeeding is associated with enhanced gut permeability and endotoxin translocation to the liver. We examined the role of the gut microbiota for steatosis formation by performing the feeding experiments in mice raised under conventional and germ-free (GF) housing. METHODS: Adult wild-type and GF mice were fed a Western-style diet (WSD) or a control diet (CD), the latter combined with liquid fructose supplementation (F) or not, for 8 weeks...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Tomohisa Takagi, Yuji Naito, Ryo Inoue, Saori Kashiwagi, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Katsura Mizushima, Saeko Tsuchiya, Osamu Dohi, Naohisa Yoshida, Kazuhiro Kamada, Takeshi Ishikawa, Osamu Handa, Hideyuki Konishi, Kayo Okuda, Yoshimasa Tsujimoto, Hiromu Ohnogi, Yoshito Itoh
BACKGROUND: Human gut microbiota is involved in host health and disease development. Investigations of age-related and sex-related alterations in gut microbiota are limited, and the association between stool consistency and gut microbiota has not been fully investigated. We investigated gut microbiota differences related to age, sex, and stool consistency in healthy Japanese subjects. METHODS: Two-hundred and seventy-seven healthy Japanese subjects aged 20-89 years were enrolled...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
Marilou P Sison-Mangus, César M J A Metzger, Dieter Ebert
Host-associated microbiota have been claimed to play a role in hosts' responses to parasitic infections, often protecting the hosts from infection. We tested for such a role in the crustacean Daphnia and the parasitic bacterium Pasteuria ramosa, a widely used model system for host-parasite interactions. We first determined the infection phenotype (i.e., resistotype) of eight clonal D. magna genotypes against four strains of P. ramosa by attachment test, followed by 16 S rDNA amplicon sequencing to determine if their genotype or their parasite resistotype influences the composition of their microbiome...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alessandro Passera, Hamidreza Alizadeh, Mehdi Azadvar, Fabio Quaglino, Asma Alizadeh, Paola Casati, Piero A Bianco
Citrus Decline Disease was recently reported to affect several citrus species in Iran when grafted on a local rootstock variety, Bakraee. Preliminary studies found “ Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifoliae” and “ Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” as putative etiological agents, but were not ultimately able to determine which one, or if an association of both, were causing the disease. The current study has the aim of characterizing the microbiota of citrus plants that are either asymptomatic, showing early symptoms, or showing late symptoms through amplification of the V1⁻V3 region of 16S rRNA gene using an Illumina sequencer in order to (i) clarify the etiology of the disease, and (ii) describe the microbiota associated to different symptom stages...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Erin K Crowley, Caitriona M Long-Smith, Amy Murphy, Elaine Patterson, Kiera Murphy, Denise M O'Gorman, Catherine Stanton, Yvonne M Nolan
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that dietary supplementation with functional food ingredients play a role in systemic and brain health as well as in healthy ageing. Conversely, deficiencies in calcium and magnesium as a result of the increasing prevalence of a high fat/high sugar "Western diet" have been associated with health problems such as obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and cardiovascular diseases, as well as metabolic, immune, and psychiatric disorders. It is now recognized that modulating the diversity of gut microbiota, the population of intestinal bacteria, through dietary intervention can significantly impact upon gut health as well as systemic and brain health...
June 20, 2018: Marine Drugs
Nobuhito Taniki, Nobuhiro Nakamoto, Po-Sung Chu, Yohei Mikami, Takeru Amiya, Toshiaki Teratani, Takahiro Suzuki, Tomoya Tsukimi, Shinji Fukuda, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Shiba, Rei Miyake, Tadashi Katayama, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Takanori Kanai
The gut-liver axis is of clinical importance as a potential therapeutic target in a wide range of liver diseases; however, the mechanisms underlying interactions between microbial products and immune responses in the liver remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that IL-10-producing macrophages contribute to immune tolerance in the inflamed liver under intestinal barrier disruption in a murine tandem model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis and concanavalin A (Con A) hepatitis. Intestinal barrier disruption protected mice from subsequent liver injury, and the severity of colitis directly affected susceptibility to such injury...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
Jeong Yoon Lee, Ji Sun Lee, Emma C Materne, Rahul Rajala, Ashrafali M Ismail, Donald Seto, David W Dyer, Jaya Rajaiya, James Chodosh
Adenovirus infections in humans are common and sometimes lethal. Adenovirus-derived vectors are also commonly chosen for gene therapy in human clinical trials. We have shown in previous work that homologous recombination between adenoviral genomes of human adenovirus species D (HAdV-D), the largest and fastest growing HAdV species, is responsible for the rapid evolution of this species. Because adenovirus infection initiates in mucosal epithelia, particularly at the gastrointestinal, respiratory, genitourinary, and ocular surfaces, we sought to determine a possible role for mucosal microbiota in adenovirus genome diversity...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Amrita Bhattacharjee, Timothy W Hand
Oral vaccines (OVs), provide protection against pathogens that infect mucosal surfaces and their potency relies on their capacity to elicit T- and B-cell responses directed to these surfaces. Oral vaccination efficacy has been found to vary considerably with differences in geographical locations and socioeconomic status. Specifically, in children living in resource-poor countries, undernourishment and chronic gastrointestinal (GI) infection are associated with the failure of OVs, which is a tragic outcome for the children who would benefit most from mucosal-based protection from infection...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Michelle L Wright, Christina Fournier, Madelyn C Houser, Malú Tansey, Jonathan Glass, Vicki Stover Hertzberg
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) etiology and pathophysiology are not well understood. Recent data suggest that dysbiosis of gut microbiota may contribute to ALS etiology and progression. This review aims to explore evidence of associations between gut microbiota and ALS etiology and pathophysiology. Databases were searched for publications relevant to the gut microbiome in ALS. Three publications provided primary evidence of changes in microbiome profiles in ALS. An ALS mouse model revealed damaged tight junction structure and increased permeability in the intestine versus controls along with a shifted microbiome profile, including decreased levels of butyrate-producing bacteria...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Tianqi Li, Shanshan Sun, Jinyue Zhang, Kai Qu, Liu Yang, Changlu Ma, Xiangju Jin, Haibo Zhu, Yinghong Wang
ABSTRACT:Hyperlipidemia is one of the main causes of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and atherosclerosis. The adenosine derivative, 2', 3', 5'-tri-acetyl-N6-(3-hydroxylaniline) adenosine (IMM-H007) is an effective lipid-lowering compound that has important implications for the development of lipid-lowering drugs. Metabolomic analysis based on 1H-NMR was used to monitor dynamic changes in diverse biological media including serum, liver, urine, and feces in response to high-fat diet (HFD) and IMM-H007 treatments...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Tal Gefen, Naama Geva-Zatorsky
Studies have shown that gut commensals facilitate the differentiation of peripheral regulatory T cells (pTregs) via their metabolic products. In this issue of Immunity, Campbell et al. (2018) demonstrate a reciprocal effect of pTregs on the metabolic functions of specific gut commensals that affects their overall energy harvest capacity.
June 19, 2018: Immunity
P Horner, G Donders, M Cusini, M Gomberg, J S Jensen, M Unemo
At present, we have no evidence that we are doing more good than harm detecting and subsequently treating Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum colonisations/infections. Consequently, routine testing and treatment of asymptomatic or symptomatic men and women for M. hominis, U. urealyticum, and U. parvum is not recommended. Asymptomatic carriage of these bacteria is common and the majority of individuals do not develop disease. Although U. urealyticum has been associated with urethritis in men, it is probably not causal unless a high load is present (likely carriage in 40-80% of detected cases)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Karine B Schlemmer, Francielli P K de Jesus, Erico S Loreto, Julia B Farias, Sydney H Alves, Laerte Ferreiro, Janio M Santurio
The yeast Malassezia pachydermatis is a common commensal and occasional opportunistic pathogen of theskin microbiota of animals and humans. In this study, the susceptibility of M. pachydermatis isolates to fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITZ), ketoconazole (KTZ), clotrimazole (CLZ), and miconazole (MCZ) alone and in combination with terbinafine (TRB), nystatin (NYS), and caspofungin (CSP) was evaluated in vitro based on the M27-A3 technique and the checkerboard microdilution method using Sabouraud dextrose broth with 1% tween 80 (SDB)...
June 19, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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