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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915375/identification-of-enzymes-responsible-for-extracellular-alginate-depolymerization-and-alginate-metabolism-in-vibrio-algivorus
#1
Hidetaka Doi, Yuriko Tokura, Yukiko Mori, Kenichi Mori, Yoko Asakura, Yoshihiro Usuda, Hiroo Fukuda, Akito Chinen
Alginate is a marine non-food-competing polysaccharide that has potential applications in biorefinery. Owing to its large size (molecular weight >300,000 Da), alginate cannot pass through the bacterial cell membrane. Therefore, bacteria that utilize alginate are presumed to have an enzyme that degrades extracellular alginate. Recently, Vibrio algivorus sp. SA2(T) was identified as a novel alginate-decomposing and alginate-utilizing species. However, little is known about the mechanism of alginate degradation and metabolism in this species...
December 3, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915245/the-yeast-tum1-affects-production-of-hydrogen-sulfide-from-cysteine-treatment-during-fermentation
#2
Chien-Wei Huang, Michelle Walker, Bruno Fedrizzi, Miguel Roncoroni, Richard Gardner, Vladimir Jiranek
The undesirable rotten-egg odour of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced by yeast shortly after yeast inoculation of grape musts, might be an important source of desirable varietal thiols, which contribute to tropical aromas in varieties such as Sauvignon Blanc. In this study, we observed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produce an early burst of H2S from cysteine. Both Δmet2 and Δmet17 strains produce a larger burst, likely because they are unable to utilise the H2S in the sulfate assimilation pathway. For the first time, we show that TUM1 is partly responsible for the early production of H2S from cysteine...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915059/a-process-for-polyhydroxyalkanoate-pha-production-from-municipal-wastewater-treatment-with-biological-carbon-and-nitrogen-removal-demonstrated-at-pilot-scale
#3
Simon Bengtsson, Anton Karlsson, Tomas Alexandersson, Luca Quadri, Markus Hjort, Peter Johansson, Fernando Morgan-Sagastume, Simon Anterrieu, Monica Arcos-Hernandez, Lamija Karabegovic, Per Magnusson, Alan Werker
A process was developed for biological treatment of municipal wastewater for carbon and nitrogen removal while producing added-value polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The process comprised steps for pre-denitrification, nitrification and post-denitrification and included integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) with biofilm carrier media to support nitrification. In a pilot-scale demonstration (500-800L), wastewater treatment performance, in line with European standards, were achieved for total chemical oxygen demand (83% removal) and total nitrogen (80% removal) while producing a biomass that was able to accumulate up to 49% PHA of volatile suspended solids with acetic acid or fermented organic residues as substrates...
November 30, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914782/co-metabolism-of-substrates-by-bacillus-thuringiensis-regulates-polyhydroxyalkanoate-co-polymer-composition
#4
Subhasree Ray, Vipin Chandra Kalia
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by Bacillus thuringiensis EGU45 was studied by co-metabolism of crude glycerol (CG) (1%, v/v), glucose (0.05-0.5%, w/v) and propionic acid (0.05-0.5%, v/v) under batch (shake flask) culture conditions. Glycerol+PA combination resulted in 15-100mg/L PHA co-polymers with a HV content of 33-81mol%. The addition of NH4Cl (0.5%, w/v) to CG+PA enhanced PHA production by 1.55-fold, with a HV content of 58-70mol%. The time period of incubation of PA to the feed: CG+glucose was optimized to be 3h after initiation of fermentation...
November 23, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914260/the-extent-of-fermentative-transformation-of-phenolic-compounds-in-the-bioanode-controls-exoelectrogenic-activity-in-a-microbial-electrolysis-cell
#5
Xiaofei Zeng, Maya A Collins, Abhijeet P Borole, Spyros G Pavlostathis
Phenolic compounds in hydrolysate/pyrolysate and wastewater streams produced during the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production present a significant challenge in downstream processes. Bioelectrochemical systems are increasingly recognized as an alternative technology to handle biomass-derived streams and to promote water reuse in biofuel production. Thus, a thorough understanding of the fate of phenolic compounds in bioanodes is urgently needed. The present study investigated the biotransformation of three structurally similar phenolic compounds (syringic acid, SA; vanillic acid, VA; 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, HBA), and their individual contribution to exoelectrogenesis in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) bioanode...
November 27, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914209/methodological-flaws-introduce-strong-bias-into-molecular-analysis-of-microbial-populations
#6
Niclas Krakat, Reshma Anjum, Burak Demirel, Patrick Schröder
AIMS: Here we report how different cell disruption methods, PCR primers and in-silico analyses can seriously bias results from microbial population studies, with consequences for the credibility and reproducibility of the findings. Our results emphasize the pitfalls of commonly used experimental methods that can seriously weaken the interpretation of results. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four different cell lysis methods, three commonly used primer pairs and various computer-based analyses were applied to investigate the microbial diversity of a fermentation sample composed of chicken dung...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914022/alkaline-protease-production-from-brevibacterium-luteolum-mtcc-5982-under-solid-state-fermentation-and-its-application-for-sulfide-free-unhairing-of-cowhides
#7
R Renganath Rao, M Vimudha, N R Kamini, M K Gowthaman, B Chandrasekran, P Saravanan
Enzyme-based unhairing in replacement of conventional lime sulfide system has been attempted as an alternative for tackling pollution. The exorbitant cost of enzyme and the need for stringent process control need to be addressed yet. This study developed a mechanism for regulated release of protease from cheaper agro-wastes, which overcomes the necessity for stringent process control along with total cost reduction. The maximum protease activity of 1193.77 U/g was obtained after 96 h of incubation with 15% inoculum of the actinomycete strain Brevibacterium luteolum (MTCC 5982) under solid-state fermentation (SSF)...
December 2, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914020/characterization-of-xylanase-and-cellulase-produced-by-a-newly-isolated-aspergillus-fumigatus-n2-and-its-efficient-saccharification-of-barley-straw
#8
Chaoyang Lin, Zhicheng Shen, Wensheng Qin
Aspergillus fumigatus N2 was isolated from decaying wood. This strain produces extracellular xylanases and cellulases. The highest xylanase (91.9 U/mL) and CMCase (5.61 U/mL) activity was produced when 1% barley straw was used as the carbon source. The optimum pH and temperature for xylanase activity were 6.0 and 65 °C, respectively. CMCase revealed maximum activity at pH 4.0 and in the range of 65 °C. The FPase was optimally active at pH 5.0 and 60 °C. The zymograms produced by the SDS-PAGE resolution of the crude enzymes indicated that multiple enzymes were secreted into the fermentation supernatant...
December 2, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913884/plasmid-pvax1-nh36-purification-by-membrane-and-bead-perfusion-chromatography
#9
Diana Ivonne Franco-Medrano, Patricia Guerrero-Germán, Rosa María Montesinos-Cisneros, Jaime Ortega-López, Armando Tejeda-Mansir
The demand for plasmid DNA (pDNA) has increased in response to the rapid advances in vaccines applications to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by virus, bacteria or parasites, such as Leishmania species. The immunization protocols require large amounts of supercoiled plasmid DNA (sc-pDNA) challenging the development of efficient and profitable processes for capturing and purified pDNA molecules from large volumes of lysates. A typical bioprocess involves four steps: fermentation, primary recovery, intermediate recovery and final purification...
December 2, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913852/differential-effect-of-early-antibiotic-intervention-on-bacterial-fermentation-patterns-and-mucosal-gene-expression-in-the-colon-of-pigs-under-diets-with-different-protein-levels
#10
Chuanjian Zhang, Miao Yu, Yuxiang Yang, Chunlong Mu, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu
The study aimed to evaluate the effects of early antibiotic intervention (EAI) on bacterial fermentation patterns and mucosal immune markers in the colon of pigs with different protein level diets. Eighteen litters of piglets at day (d) 7 were fed creep feed without or with growth promoting antibiotics until d 42. At d 42, pigs within each group were further randomly assigned to a normal- or low-crude protein (CP) diet. At d 77 and d 120, five pigs per group were slaughtered for analyzing colonic bacteria, metabolites, and mucosal gene expressions...
December 3, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913851/impact-of-oxygenation-on-the-performance-of-three-non-saccharomyces-yeasts-in-co-fermentation-with-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#11
Kirti Shekhawat, Florian F Bauer, Mathabatha E Setati
The sequential or co-inoculation of grape must with non-Saccharomyces yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains has recently become a common practice in winemaking. The procedure intends to enhance unique aroma and flavor profiles of wine. The extent of the impact of non-Saccharomyces strains depends on their ability to produce biomass and to remain metabolically active for a sufficiently long period. However, mixed-culture wine fermentations tend to become rapidly dominated by S. cerevisiae, reducing or eliminating the non-Saccharomyces yeast contribution...
December 2, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913829/glutamate-fermentation-2-mechanism-of-l-glutamate-overproduction-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#12
Takashi Hirasawa, Masaaki Wachi
The nonpathogenic coryneform bacterium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, was isolated as an L-glutamate-overproducing microorganism by Japanese researchers and is currently utilized in various amino acid fermentation processes. L-Glutamate production by C. glutamicum is induced by limitation of biotin and addition of fatty acid ester surfactants and β-lactam antibiotics. These treatments affect the cell surface structures of C. glutamicum. After the discovery of C. glutamicum, many researchers have investigated the underlying mechanism of L-glutamate overproduction with respect to the cell surface structures of this organism...
December 3, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913828/engineering-and-evolution-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-to-produce-biofuels-and-chemicals
#13
Timothy L Turner, Heejin Kim, In Iok Kong, Jing-Jing Liu, Guo-Chang Zhang, Yong-Su Jin
To mitigate global climate change caused partly by the use of fossil fuels, the production of fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has been attempted. The conversion of various sugars from renewable biomass into biofuels by engineered baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is one major direction which has grown dramatically in recent years. As well as shifting away from fossil fuels, the production of commodity chemicals by engineered S. cerevisiae has also increased significantly. The traditional approaches of biochemical and metabolic engineering to develop economic bioconversion processes in laboratory and industrial settings have been accelerated by rapid advancements in the areas of yeast genomics, synthetic biology, and systems biology...
December 3, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913414/distinct-anaerobic-bacterial-consumers-of-cellobiose-derived-carbon-in-boreal-fens-differing-in-ch4-vs-co2-production-ratio
#14
Heli Juottonen, Alexander Eiler, Christina Biasi, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Kim Yrjälä, Hannu Fritze
: Northern peatlands in general have high methane (CH4) emissions, but individual peatlands show considerable variation as CH4 sources. Particularly in nutrient poor peatlands, CH4 production can be low and exceeded by carbon dioxide (CO2) production from unresolved anaerobic processes. To clarify the role anaerobic bacterial degraders play in this variation, we compared consumers of cellobiose-derived carbon in two fens differing in nutrient status and the ratio of CH4 and CO2 produced...
December 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913170/effects-of-the-feeding-ratio-of-food-waste-on-fed-batch-aerobic-composting-and-its-microbial-community
#15
Xiaojun Wang, Songqing Pan, Zhaoji Zhang, Xiangyu Lin, Yuzhen Zhang, Shaohua Chen
To determine the suitable feeding ratio for fed-batch aerobic composting, four fermenters were operated by adding 0%, 5%, 10% or 15% of food waste every day. The results showed that the 5% and 10% treatments were able to maintain continuous thermophilic conditions, while the 15% treatment performed badly in regard to composting temperature, which was probably due to the negative effects of excessive moisture on microbial activity. As composting proceeded, both the 5% and the 10% treatments reached maturity and achieved weight losses of approximately 65%...
November 22, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913168/fermentative-production-of-high-titer-citric-acid-from-corn-stover-feedstock-after-dry-dilute-acid-pretreatment-and-biodetoxification
#16
Ping-Ping Zhou, Jiao Meng, Jie Bao
The aim of this work is to study the citric acid fermentation by a robust strain Aspergillus niger SIIM M288 using corn stover feedstock after dry dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment and biodetoxification. Citric acid at 100.04g/L with the yield of 94.11% was obtained, which are comparable to the starch or sucrose based citric acid fermentation. No free wastewater was generated in the overall process from the pretreatment to citric acid fermentation. Abundant divalent metal ions as well as high titer of potassium, phosphate, and nitrogen were found in corn stover hydrolysate...
November 15, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913093/genome-of-the-carbapenemase-producing-clinical-isolate-elizabethkingia-miricola-em_chuv-and-comparative-genomics-with-elizabethkingia-meningoseptica-and-elizabethkingia-anophelis-evidence-for-intrinsic-multidrug-resistance-trait-of-emerging-pathogens
#17
Onya Opota, Seydina M Diene, Claire Bertelli, Guy Prod'hom, Philippe Eckert, Gilbert Greub
Elizabethkingia miricola is a Gram-negative non-fermenting rod emerging as a life-threatening human pathogen. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) carbapenemase-producing clinical isolate E. miricola EM_CHUV was recovered in the setting of severe nosocomial pneumonia. In this study, the genome of E. miricola EM_CHUV was sequenced and a functional analysis was performed, including a comparative genomic study with Elizabethkingia meningoseptica and Elizabethkingia anophelis. The resistome of EM_CHUV revealed the presence of a high number of resistance genes, including the presence of the blaGOB-13 and blaB-9 carbapenemase-encoding genes...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912750/fermented-barley-and-soybean-bs-mixture-enhances-intestinal-barrier-function-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-dss-induced-colitis-mouse-model
#18
Jong Kyu Woo, Seungho Choi, Ju-Hee Kang, Dae Eung Kim, Byung-Serk Hurh, Jong-Eun Jeon, Sun Yeou Kim, Seung Hyun Oh
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic or relapsing immune system activation and inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. The lack of safety and efficacy of standard therapies, the use of food supplements for managing IBD is increasing, and many studies have reported that various food supplements provide many beneficial effects for the IBD. METHODS: This study aimed to evaluate the anti-colitis effects of dietary supplementation with a fermented barley and soybean mixture (BS) on intestinal inflammation using a murine model of IBD...
December 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911928/%C3%AE-glucans-and-resistant-starch-alter-the-fermentation-of-recalcitrant-fibers-in-growing-pigs
#19
Sonja de Vries, Walter J J Gerrits, Mirjam A Kabel, Thava Vasanthan, Ruurd T Zijlstra
Interactions among dietary ingredients are often assumed non-existent when evaluating the nutritive value and health effects of dietary fiber. Specific fibers can distinctly affect digestive processes; therefore, digestibility and fermentability of the complete diet may depend on fiber types present. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of readily fermentable fibers (β-glucans and resistant starch) on the degradation of feed ingredients containing more persistent, recalcitrant, fibers. Six semi-synthetic diets with recalcitrant fibers from rapeseed meal (pectic polysaccharides, xyloglucans, and cellulose) or corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS; (glucurono)arabinoxylans and cellulose) with or without inclusion of β-glucans (6%) or retrograded tapioca (40%) substituted for corn starch were formulated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911258/clostridium-guangxiense-sp-nov-and-clostridium-neuense-sp-nov-two-phylogenetically-closely-related-hydrogen-producing-species-isolated-from-lake-sediment
#20
Xin Zhao, Danyang Li, Shuhong Xu, Zhanghao Guo, Yan Zhang, Lin Man, Binhui Jiang, Xiaomin Hu
Two novel anaerobic, mesophilic, bio-hydrogen producing bacteria, designated strains ZGM211T and G1T, were isolated from lake sediment. 16S rRNA and ATP synthase beta subunit (atpD) gene sequences phylogenetic analysis of strains ZGM211T and G1T revealed an affiliation to the genus Clostridium sensu stricto (cluster I of the clostridia), with Clostridium acetobutylicum as the closest characterized species, showing the same sequence similarity of 96.4% to the type strain (98.9% between the two isolates). Cells of the two strains were rod-shaped...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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