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Lindsay V Slater, Joseph M Hart
The squat is an assessment of lower extremity alignment during movement, however there is little information regarding altered joint kinetics during poorly performed squats. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in joint kinetics and power from altered knee alignment during a squat. Thirty participants completed squats while displacing the knee medially, anteriorly, and with neutral alignment (control). Sagittal and frontal plane torques at the ankle, knee, and hip were altered in the descending and ascending phase of the squat in both the medial and anterior malaligned squat compared to the control squat...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Alexander A Theologis, Gregory M Mundis, Stacie Nguyen, David O Okonkwo, Praveen V Mummaneni, Justin S Smith, Christopher I Shaffrey, Richard Fessler, Shay Bess, Frank Schwab, Bassel G Diebo, Douglas Burton, Robert Hart, Vedat Deviren, Christopher Ames
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of supplementing long thoracolumbar posterior instrumented fusion (posterior spinal fusion, PSF) with lateral interbody fusion (LIF) of the lumbar/thoracolumbar coronal curve apex in adult spinal deformity (ASD). METHODS Two multicenter databases were evaluated. Adults who had undergone multilevel LIF of the coronal curve apex in addition to PSF with L5-S1 interbody fusion (LS+Apex group) were matched by number of posterior levels fused with patients who had undergone PSF with L5-S1 interbody fusion without LIF (LS-Only group)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Krzysztof Narkiewicz, Laura E K Ratcliffe, Emma C Hart, Linford J B Briant, Marzena Chrostowska, Jacek Wolf, Anna Szyndler, Dagmara Hering, Ana P Abdala, Nathan Manghat, Amy E Burchell, Claire Durant, Melvin D Lobo, Paul A Sobotka, Nikunj K Patel, James C Leiter, Zoar J Engelman, Angus K Nightingale, Julian F R Paton
Animal and human data indicate pathological afferent signaling emanating from the carotid body that drives sympathetically mediated elevations in blood pressure in conditions of hypertension. This first-in-man, proof-of-principle study tested the safety and feasibility of unilateral carotid body resection in 15 patients with drug-resistant hypertension. The procedure proved to be safe and feasible. Overall, no change in blood pressure was found. However, 8 patients showed significant reductions in ambulatory blood pressure coinciding with decreases in sympathetic activity...
August 2016: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
Peter D Hart
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical inactivity (PIA) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in rural adults and examine the extent to which sex differences exist in this relationship. Methods: A total of 5617 adults 18 years of age and older who indicated residing in a rural county was included in this analysis. PIA status was assessed by questions regarding recreational physical activity during the previous month. Five HRQOL measures (physical health, mental health, inactivity health, general health, & unhealthy days) were used as primary outcome variables...
2016: Health Promotion Perspectives
Edmund M Hart, Pauline Barmby, David LeBauer, François Michonneau, Sarah Mount, Patrick Mulrooney, Timothée Poisot, Kara H Woo, Naupaka B Zimmerman, Jeffrey W Hollister
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Tawandra L Rowell-Cunsolo, Nabila El-Bassel, Carl L Hart
Black Americans are incarcerated at disproportionate rates, largely due to racial differences in the application of drug laws. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence rates among Black Americans are also disproportionately high. Moreover, availability of and access to HIV prevention services in correctional settings are limited. Recognizing that Blacks are at an elevated risk of contracting HIV, and that incarceration worsens health outcomes, this paper addresses the importance of implementing comprehensive prison-based HIV programs and prevention interventions to improve the health of this vulnerable population...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Wing Ting To, Jan Ost, John Hart, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste
Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of a corresponding external sound source. Research has suggested that functional abnormalities in tinnitus patients involve auditory as well as non-auditory brain areas. Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) to the auditory cortex, has demonstrated modulation of brain activity to transiently suppress tinnitus symptoms...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Amy E Burchell, Jonathan C L Rodrigues, Max Charalambos, Laura E K Ratcliffe, Emma C Hart, Julian F R Paton, Andreas Baumbach, Nathan E Manghat, Angus K Nightingale
European guidelines recommend that patients with hypertension be assessed for asymptomatic organ damage and secondary causes. The authors propose that a single magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan can provide comprehensive first-line imaging of patients assessed via a specialist hypertension clinic. A total of 200 patients (56% male, aged 51±15 years, office BP 168±30/96±16 mm Hg) underwent MRI of the heart, kidneys, renal arteries, adrenals and aorta. Comparisons were made with other imaging modalities where available...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Roald A Øien, Logan Hart, Synnve Schjølberg, Carla A Wall, Elizabeth S Kim, Anders Nordahl-Hansen, Martin R Eisemann, Katarzyna Chawarska, Fred R Volkmar, Frederick Shic
Sex differences in typical development can provide context for understanding ASD. Baron-Cohen (Trends Cogn Sci 6(6):248-254, 2002) suggested ASD could be considered an extreme expression of normal male, compared to female, phenotypic profiles. In this paper, sex-specific M-CHAT scores from N = 53,728 18-month-old toddlers, including n = 185 (32 females) with ASD, were examined. Results suggest a nuanced view of the "extreme male brain theory of autism". At an item level, almost every male versus female disadvantage in the broader population was consistent with M-CHAT vulnerabilities in ASD...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Nathan S Hart, Melinda Fitzgerald
Red-near-infrared light has been used for a range of therapeutic purposes. However, clinical trials of near-infrared laser light for treatment of stroke were abandoned after failing interim futility analyses. Lack of efficacy has been attributed to sub-optimal treatment parameters and low penetrance of light to affected brain regions. Here, we assess penetrance of wavelengths from 450-880 nm in human post-mortem samples, and demonstrate that human skin, skull bone and brain transmits therapeutically relevant quantities of light from external sources at wavelengths above 600nm...
September 2016: Discovery Medicine
William S Currie, Sarah Kiger, Joan I Nassauer, Meghan Hutchins, Lauren L Marshall, Daniel G Brown, Rick L Riolo, Derek T Robinson, Stephanie K Hart
Exurban residential land (one housing unit per 0.2-16.2 ha) is growing in importance as a human-dominated land use. Carbon storage in the soils and vegetation of exurban land is poorly known, as are the effects on C storage of choices made by developers and residents. We studied C storage in exurban yards in southeastern Michigan, USA, across a range of parcel sizes and different types of neighborhoods. We divided each residential parcel into ecological zones (EZ) characterized by vegetation, soil, and human behavior such as mowing, irrigation, and raking...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Hannah B Vander Zanden, Alan B Bolten, Anton D Tucker, Kristen M Hart, Margaret M Lamont, Ikuko Fujisaki, Kimberly J Reich, David S Addison, Katherine L Mansfield, Katrina F Phillips, Mariela Pajuelo, Karen A Bjorndal
Assessments of large-scale disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, are problematic because while measurements of post-disturbance conditions are common, measurements of pre-disturbance baselines are only rarely available. Without adequate observations of pre-disaster organismal and environmental conditions, it is impossible to assess the impact of such catastrophes on animal populations and ecological communities. Here, we use long-term biological tissue records to provide pre-disaster data for a vulnerable marine organism...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Wioletta Pijacka, Bethan Clifford, Dawid Walas, Chantal Tilburgs, Jaap A Joles, Sarah McMullen, Simon C Langley-Evans
OBJECTIVE: It is well established that autonomic nervous system and sympatho-vagal balance plays an important role in maintaining arterial blood pressure (ABP) (Salman IM., 2016) and that autonomic regulation of ABP differs between males and females (Hart EC et al., 2014). We hypothesised that sex hormones affect blood pressure via the autonomic nervous system and that the late development of hypertension in females is due to protective effects of ovarian steroids in females rather than due to detrimental effects of testosterone in males...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ashley M Stokes, Charles P Hart, C Chad Quarles
High-grade gliomas are often characterized by hypoxia, which is associated with both poor long-term prognosis and therapy resistance. The adverse role hypoxia plays in treatment resistance and disease progression has led to the development of hypoxia imaging methods and hypoxia-targeted treatments. Here, we determined the tumor hypoxia and vascular perfusion characteristics of 2 rat orthotopic glioma models using 18-fluoromisonidozole positron emission tomography. In addition, we determined tumor response to the hypoxia-activated prodrug evofosfamide (TH-302) in these rat glioma models...
September 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
Lara Hart, Rashmi Nedadur, Jaime Reardon, Natalie Sirizzotti, Caroline Poonai, Kathy N Speechley, Jay Loftus, Michael Miller, Marina Salvadori, Amanda Spadafora, Naveen Poonai
OBJECTIVES: Fever is a common reason for an emergency department visit and misconceptions abound. We assessed the effectiveness of an interactive Web-based module (WBM), read-only Web site (ROW), and written and verbal information (standard of care [SOC]) to educate caregivers about fever in their children. METHODS: Caregivers in the emergency department were randomized to a WBM, ROW, or SOC. Primary outcome was the gain score on a novel questionnaire testing knowledge surrounding measurement and management of fever...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Tatjana Harting, Mandy Stubbendorff, Saskia Willenbrock, Siegfried Wagner, Patrik Schadzek, Anaclet Ngezahayo, Hugo Murua Escobar, Ingo Nolte
The Warburg effect describes the ability of cancer cells to produce energy via aerobic glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation of pyruvate. This deviation in mitochondrial metabolism inhibits apoptosis, allowing increased proliferation under conditions of reduced oxygen levels. Dichloroacetate (DCA) was successfully used in several human cancer cell lines to reactivate oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. The aim of this study was the characterization and response of canine cancer cell lines after DCA exposure...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
D Kojo Hamilton, Christopher Kong, Jayme Hiratzka, Alec G Contag, Tamir Ailon, Breton Line, Alan Daniels, Justin S Smith, Peter Passias, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Daniel Sciubba, Douglas Burton, Christopher Shaffrey, Eric Klineberg, Gregory Mundis, Han-Jo Kim, Virginie Lafage, Renaud Lafage, Justin Scheer, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei, Shay Bess, Robert Hart
STUDY DESIGN: This is a multicenter retrospective review of prospectively collected cases. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between patient satisfaction, HRQoL scores, complications, and radiographic measures at 2 years post-operative follow-up. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: For patients receiving operative management for adult spine deformity (ASD), the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures, radiographic parameters, post-operative complications, and self-reported satisfaction remains unclear...
September 29, 2016: Spine
Sairam Parthasarathy, Mary A Carskadon, Girardin Jean-Louis, Judith Owens, Adam Bramoweth, Daniel Combs, Lauren Hale, Elizabeth Harrison, Chantelle N Hart, Brant P Hasler, Sarah M Honaker, Elisabeth Hertenstein, Samuel Kuna, Clete Kushida, Jessica C Levenson, Caitlin Murray, Allan I Pack, Vivek Pillai, Kristi Pruiksma, Azizi Seixas, Patrick Strollo, Saurabh S Thosar, Natasha Williams, Daniel Buysse
A wealth of scientific knowledge is being generated in sleep and circadian science. In order for us to realize the return on investment for such scientific knowledge and to improve the health of the nation, we need to disseminate and implement research findings into practice. An implementation gap - termed a "quality chasm" by the Institutes of Medicine - separates the scientific knowledge we possess and the implementation of such knowledge into preventative interventions or healthcare treatments. It is frequently reported that a time lag of 17 years transpires before medical research reaches clinical practice...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Reza Ashrafi, Marianne Yon, Lucy Pickavance, Joseph Yanni Gerges, Gershan Davis, John Wilding, Kun Jian, Henggui Zhang, George Hart, Mark Boyett
Introduction. Obesity is increasingly common and is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to see whether in obesity there is proarrhythmic gene expression of ventricular ion channels and related molecules. Methods and Results. Rats were fed on a high-fat diet and compared to control rats on a normal diet (n = 8). After 8 weeks, rats on the high-fat diet showed significantly greater weight gain and higher adiposity. Left ventricle samples were removed at 8 weeks and mRNA expression of ion channels and other molecules was measured using qPCR...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Samuel J Fogarty, Graeme Hart, Jim Nicklin, Bala Venkatesh, Nicholas Boyne, David C Wong, Jason L Stone, Andrew J Rainbird
Intracardiac leiomyomatosis is a rare complication that occurs when a uterine leiomyoma (fibroid) undergoes vascular invasion and propagates within the inferior vena cava to reach the right atrium. This article describes a case of intracardiac leiomyomatosis in a middle-aged woman, exploring the presentation, diagnosis and surgical management of this condition. In this case the presenting complaints were syncope and atrial fibrillation, illustrating the importance of performing a transthoracic echocardiogram in patients presenting with their first episode of atrial fibrillation...
September 17, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
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