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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938101/exposure-to-particulate-matter-air-pollution-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-two-large-cohorts-of-us-nurses
#1
N Palacios, K L Munger, K C Fitzgerald, J E Hart, T Chitnis, A Ascherio, F Laden
BACKGROUND: Air pollution is thought to raise the risk of neurological disease by promoting neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, glial activation and cerebrovascular damage. Multiple Sclerosis is a common auto-immune disorder, primarily affecting young women. We conducted, to a large prospective study of particulate matter (PM) exposure and multiple sclerosis (MS) risk in two prospective cohorts of women: the Nurses Health Study (NHS) and the Nurses Health Study II (NHS II). METHODS: Cumulative average exposure to different size fractions of PM up to the onset of MS was estimated using spatio-temporal models...
September 19, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937454/life-expectancy-and-metastatic-spine-scoring-systems-an-academic-institutional-experience
#2
Brian T Ragel, Gustavo A Mendez, Justin Reddington, David Ferachi, Charlotte D Kubicky, Travis C Philipp, Natalie L Zusman, Paul Klimo, Robert Hart, Jung Yoo, Alex C Ching
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective data collection study with application of metastatic spine scoring systems. OBJECTIVES: To apply the Tomita and revised Tokuhashi scoring systems to a surgical cohort at a single academic institution and analyze spine-related surgical morbidity and mortality rates. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Surgical management of metastatic spine patients requires tools that can accurately predict patient survival, as well as knowledge of morbidity and mortality rates...
October 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936929/holding-firm-power-push-back-and-opportunities-in-navigating-the-liminal-space-of-critical-qualitative-health-research
#3
Corinne Hart, Jennifer M Poole, Marcia E Facey, Janet A Parsons
Critical qualitative health researchers typically occupy and navigate liminal academic spaces and statuses, with one foot planted in the arts and social sciences and the other in biomedical science. We are at once marginalized and empowered, and this liminality presents both challenges and opportunities. In this article, we draw on our experiences of being (often the lone) critical qualitative health scholars on thesis advisory committees and dissertation examinations, as well as our experiences of publishing and securing funding, to illuminate how power and knowledge relations create conditions that shape the nature of our roles...
October 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936587/metabolite-ratios-as-potential-biomarkers-for-type-2-diabetes-a-direct-study
#4
Sophie Molnos, Simone Wahl, Mark Haid, E Marelise W Eekhoff, René Pool, Anna Floegel, Joris Deelen, Daniela Much, Cornelia Prehn, Michaela Breier, Harmen H Draisma, Nienke van Leeuwen, Annemarie M C Simonis-Bik, Anna Jonsson, Gonneke Willemsen, Wolfgang Bernigau, Rui Wang-Sattler, Karsten Suhre, Annette Peters, Barbara Thorand, Christian Herder, Wolfgang Rathmann, Michael Roden, Christian Gieger, Mark H H Kramer, Diana van Heemst, Helle K Pedersen, Valborg Gudmundsdottir, Matthias B Schulze, Tobias Pischon, Eco J C de Geus, Heiner Boeing, Dorret I Boomsma, Anette G Ziegler, P Eline Slagboom, Sandra Hummel, Marian Beekman, Harald Grallert, Søren Brunak, Mark I McCarthy, Ramneek Gupta, Ewan R Pearson, Jerzy Adamski, Leen M 't Hart
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Circulating metabolites have been shown to reflect metabolic changes during the development of type 2 diabetes. In this study we examined the association of metabolite levels and pairwise metabolite ratios with insulin responses after glucose, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and arginine stimulation. We then investigated if the identified metabolite ratios were associated with measures of OGTT-derived beta cell function and with prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes...
September 21, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935285/is-the-pelvic-examination-still-crucial-in-patients-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-with%C3%A2-vaginal-bleeding-or-abdominal-pain-when-an-intrauterine-pregnancy-is-identified-on-ultrasonography-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Judith A Linden, Benjamin Grimmnitz, Laura Hagopian, Alan H Breaud, Breanne K Langlois, Kerrie P Nelson, Lauren L Hart, James Feldman, Jeremy Brown, Marc Reid, Elise Desormeau, Patricia Mitchell
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We determine whether omitting the pelvic examination in emergency department (ED) evaluation of vaginal bleeding or lower abdominal pain in ultrasonographically confirmed early intrauterine pregnancy is equivalent to performing the examination. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, open-label, randomized, equivalence trial in pregnant patients presenting to the ED from February 2011 to November 2015. Patients were randomized to no pelvic examination versus pelvic examination...
September 18, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934902/pregnancy-related-outcomes-for-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#6
Rose McDonnell, Roger J Hart
The polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder that has profound implications for women throughout their reproductive years. A diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with reproductive challenges including a difficulty in conceiving as well as the pregnancy-related complications of miscarriage, hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes and prematurity. Consequently, polycystic ovary syndrome has profound implications for women and their offspring with regard to reproductive function in the short term and in the longer term the risk of chronic illness and congenital anomalies, and health care resources should be directed accordingly to mitigate against these risks...
September 1, 2017: Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931499/twitter-and-public-health-part-1-how-individual-public-health-professionals-use-twitter-for-professional-development
#7
Mark Hart, Nichole E Stetten, Sabrina Islam, Katherine Pizarro
BACKGROUND: The use of social networking sites is increasingly being adopted in public health, in part, because of the barriers to funding and reduced resources. Public health professionals are using social media platforms, specifically Twitter, as a way to facilitate professional development. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify public health professionals using Twitter and to analyze how they use this platform to enhance their formal and informal professional development within the context of public health...
September 20, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928747/modulation-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-its-animal-model-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-food-and-gut-microbiota
#8
REVIEW
Ward J van den Hoogen, Jon D Laman, Bert A 't Hart
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS), leading to demyelination, axonal damage, and symptoms such as fatigue and disability. Although the cause of MS is not known, the infiltration of peripherally activated immune cells into the CNS has a key pathogenic role. Accumulating evidence supports an important role of diet and gut microbiota in immune-mediated diseases. Preclinical as well as clinical studies suggest a role for gut microbiota and dietary components in MS...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927925/optical-properties-of-zirconia-ceramics-for-esthetic-dental-restorations-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Reza Shahmiri, Owen Christopher Standard, Judy N Hart, Charles Christopher Sorrell
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal has been used as a dental biomaterial for several decades because the fracture toughness and bend strength are increased by a stress-induced transformation-toughening mechanism. However, its esthetics are compromised by its poor translucency and grayish-white appearance. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present systematic review was to assess information on the mechanical, chemical, and optical requirements of monolithic zirconia dental restorations...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926403/pathways-from-sexual-stigma-to-incident-hiv-and-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-nigerian-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#10
Cristina Rodriguez-Hart, Rebecca G Nowak, Rashelle Musci, Danielle German, Ifeanyi Orazulike, Blessing Kayode, Hongjie Liu, Oye Gureje, Trevor A Crowell, Stefan Baral, Man Charurat
OBJECTIVES: Sexual stigma affecting men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria may be an important driver of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but potential mechanisms through which this occurs are not well understood. This study assessed the contributions of suicidal ideation and sexual risk behaviors to causal pathways between stigma and HIV/STIs. DESIGN: Data were collected from the TRUST/RV368 Study, a prospective cohort of 1,480 MSM from Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926296/randomised-controlled-trial-of-urokinase-versus-placebo-for-non-draining-malignant-pleural-effusion
#11
Eleanor K Mishra, Amelia O Clive, Genevieve H Wills, Helen E Davies, Andrew E Stanton, Mohamed Al-Aloul, Alan Hart-Thomas, Justin Pepperell, Matthew Evison, Tarek Saba, Richard Neil Harrison, Anur Guhan, Matthew E Callister, Ramamurthy Sathyamurthy, Sunita Rehal, John P Corcoran, Robert Hallifax, Ioannis Psallidas, Nicky Russell, Rachel Shaw, Melissa Dobson, John M Wrightson, Alex West, Y C Gary Lee, Andrew J Nunn, Robert F Miller, Nick A Maskell, Najib M Rahman
RATIONALE: Patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE) experience breathlessness, which is treated by drainage and pleurodesis. Incomplete drainage results in residual dyspnea and pleurodesis failure. Intrapleural fibrinolytics lyse septations within pleural fluid, improving drainage. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of intrapleural urokinase on dyspnea and pleurodesis success in patients with non-draining malignant effusion. METHODS: Prospective double blind randomised trial; patients with non-draining effusion were randomly allocated 1:1 to intrapleural urokinase (100,000 IU three doses 12 hourly) or matched placebo...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926002/polygenic-loading-for-major-depression-is-associated-with-specific-medical-comorbidity
#12
T H McCoy, V M Castro, L Snapper, K Hart, J L Januzzi, J C Huffman, R H Perlis
Major depressive disorder frequently co-occurs with medical disorders, raising the possibility of shared genetic liability. Recent identification of 15 novel genetic loci associated with depression allows direct investigation of this question. In cohorts of individuals participating in biobanks at two academic medical centers, we calculated polygenic loading for risk loci reported to be associated with depression. We then examined the association between such loading and 50 groups of clinical diagnoses, or topics, drawn from these patients' electronic health records, determined using a novel application of latent Dirichilet allocation...
September 19, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922883/proximal-junctional-kyphosis-prevention-strategies-a-video-technique-guide
#13
Michael M Safaee, Joseph A Osorio, Kushagra Verma, Shay Bess, Christopher I Shaffrey, Justin S Smith, Robert Hart, Vedat Deviren, Christopher P Ames
BACKGROUND: Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a well-recognized complication in patients undergoing posterior instrumented fusion procedures for adult spinal deformity. Strategies that reduce rates of PJK have the potential to improve the safety of these operations and decrease cost by eliminating the need for revision surgery. OBJECTIVE: To present a set of surgical techniques that can decrease rates of PJK in adults undergoing surgery for spinal deformity...
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920919/age-dependent-human-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation-induced-by-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-calcineurin-signaling
#14
Chunhua Dai, Yan Hang, Alena Shostak, Greg Poffenberger, Nathaniel Hart, Nripesh Prasad, Neil Phillips, Shawn E Levy, Dale L Greiner, Leonard D Shultz, Rita Bottino, Seung K Kim, Alvin C Powers
Inadequate pancreatic β cell function underlies type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Strategies to expand functional cells have focused on discovering and controlling mechanisms that limit the proliferation of human β cells. Here, we developed an engraftment strategy to examine age-associated human islet cell replication competence and reveal mechanisms underlying age-dependent decline of β cell proliferation in human islets. We found that exendin-4 (Ex-4), an agonist of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R), stimulates human β cell proliferation in juvenile but not adult islets...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919082/diabetes-mellitus-and-obesity-as-risk-factors-for-pancreatic-cancer
#15
Guido Eibl, Zobeida Cruz-Monserrate, Murray Korc, Maxim S Petrov, Mark O Goodarzi, William E Fisher, Aida Habtezion, Aurelia Lugea, Stephen J Pandol, Phil A Hart, Dana K Andersen
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is among the deadliest types of cancer. The worldwide estimates of its incidence and mortality in the general population are eight cases per 100,000 person-years and seven deaths per 100,000 person-years, and they are significantly higher in the United States than in the rest of the world. The incidence of this disease in the United States is more than 50,000 new cases in 2017. Indeed, total deaths due to PDAC are projected to increase dramatically to become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths before 2030...
September 11, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918155/the-binding-of-orally-dosed-hydrophobic-active-pharmaceutical-ingredients-to-casein-micelles-in-milk
#16
M Cheema, A N Hristov, F M Harte
Casein proteins (αS1-, αS2-, β- and κ-casein) account for 80% of the total protein content in bovine milk and form casein micelles ( D¯11 = 130 nm, approximately 10(15) micelles/mL). The affinity of native casein micelles with the 3 hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), meloxicam [351.4 g/mol; log P = 3.43; acid dissociation constant (pKa) = 4.08], flunixin (296.2 g/mol; log P = 4.1; pKa = 5.82), and thiabendazole (201.2 g/mol; log P = 2.92; pKa = 4.64), was evaluated in bovine milk collected from dosed Holstein cows...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917204/murine-il-4%C3%AE-2-splice-variant-down-regulates-il-4-activities-independently-of-il-4r%C3%AE-binding-and-stat-6-phosphorylation
#17
Gil R Diogo, Adam Sparrow, Matthew J Paul, Alastair Copland, Peter J Hart, Szymon Stelter, Craig van Dolleweerd, Pascal M W Drake, Derek C Macallan, Rajko Reljic
IL-4 is a pleiotropic cytokine that is highly Th2 polarizing. The ratio of IL-4 and its splice variant IL-4Δ2 observed in human health and disease suggests a role for both isoforms. In the present study, the biological function of murine IL-4Δ2 and the potential mechanism of action were studied. We report for the first time the generation of a functional, recombinant murine IL-4Δ2 form which is suggestive of its possible biological role in this species. Recombinant murine IL-4Δ2 inhibited IL-4 mediated cellular processes in macrophages and lymphocytes...
September 13, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915558/domain-analysis-reveals-striking-functional-differences-between-the-regulatory-subunits-of-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-pi3k-p85%C3%AE-and-p85%C3%AE
#18
Yoshihiro Ito, Peter K Vogt, Jonathan R Hart
Our understanding of isoform-specific activities of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is still rudimentary, and yet, deep knowledge of these non-redundant functions in the PI3K family is essential for effective and safe control of PI3K in disease. The two major isoforms of the regulatory subunits of PI3K are p85α and p85β, encoded by the genes PIK3R1 and PIK3R2, respectively. These isoforms show distinct functional differences that affect and control cellular PI3K activity and signaling [1-4]. In this study, we have further explored the differences between p85α and p85β by genetic truncations and substitutions...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915209/the-expanded-use-of-auto-augmentation-techniques-in-oncoplastic-breast-surgery
#19
Albert Losken, Alexandra M Hart, James Walter Dutton, Justine S Broecker, Toncred M Styblo, Grant W Carlson
BACKGROUND: Auto-augmentation techniques have been applied to oncoplastic reductions to assist with filling larger, more remote defects and women with smaller breasts. The purpose of this report is to describe the use of auto-augmentation techniques in OR and compare the results with traditional OR. METHODS: We queried a prospectively maintained database of all women who underwent partial mastectomy and OR between 1994 and October 2015. The auto-augmentation techniques were defined as 1) extended primary nipple auto-augmentation pedicle, and 2) primary nipple pedicle and secondary auto-augmentation pedicle...
September 13, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914216/-driving-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
M Jacobs, E P 't Hart, R A C Roos
OBJECTIVE: To summarise the available literature on driving with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to investigate the relationship between driving and cognitive functioning. DESIGN: Literature review. METHOD: A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed/MEDLINE was conducted to select the relevant literature on the driving competence of patients with Alzheimer's disease. RESULTS: A total of 31 studies were selected that investigated driving competence in AD using either an on-road driving assessment or a driving simulator...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
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