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Alzheimers and vascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667565/longitudinal-associations-between-different-dementia-diagnoses-and-medication-use-jointly-accounting-for-dropout
#1
George O Agogo, Christine M Ramsey, Danijela Gnjidic, Daniela C Moga, Heather Allore
ABSTRACTBackground:Longitudinal studies of older adults are characterized by high dropout rates, multimorbid conditions, and multiple medication use, especially proximal to death. We studied the association between multiple medication use and incident dementia diagnoses including Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD), and Lewy-body dementia (LBD), simultaneously accounting for dropout. METHODS: Using the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center data with three years of follow-up, a set of covariate-adjusted models that ignore dropout was fit to complete-case data, and to the whole-cohort data...
April 18, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663818/alternative-hypotheses-related-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
V Cubinkova, B Valachova, I Uhrinova, V Brezovakova, T Smolek, S Jadhav, N Zilka
Alzheimer's disease represents the most common form of dementia and belongs to the group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive loss of neurons in the central nervous system. In the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease several etiologic and pathogenic factors exist, which lead to the dysfunction of neurotransmitter systems and consequent cognitive decline. Last three decades have delivered a crucial progress leading to better understanding of Alzheimer's disease, however, the exact mechanisms of pathology remain unclear...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659479/oral-dysbiotic-communities-and-their-implications-in-systemic-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Preethi Sudhakara, Abishek Gupta, Anshumouli Bhardwaj, Aruni Wilson
The human body supports the growth of a wide array of microbial communities in various niches such as the oral cavity, gastro-intestinal and urogenital tracts, and on the surface of the skin. These host associated microbial communities include yet-un-cultivable bacteria and are influenced by various factors. Together, these communities of bacteria are referred to as the human microbiome. Human oral microbiome consists of both symbionts and pathobionts. Deviation from symbiosis among the bacterial community leads to “dysbiosis”, a state of community disturbance...
April 16, 2018: Dentistry journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656011/apoe-genotype-modifies-the-association-between-central-arterial-stiffening-and-cognition-in-older-adults
#4
Francis E Cambronero, Dandan Liu, Jacquelyn E Neal, Elizabeth E Moore, Katherine A Gifford, James G Terry, Sangeeta Nair, Kimberly R Pechman, Katie E Osborn, Timothy J Hohman, Susan P Bell, J David Sweatt, Thomas J Wang, Joshua A Beckman, John Jeffrey Carr, Angela L Jefferson
Arterial stiffening is associated with cognitive impairment and prodromal Alzheimer's disease. This study tested the interaction between arterial stiffening and an Alzheimer's disease genetic risk factor (apolipoprotein E [APOE] genotype) on cognition among older adults. Vanderbilt Memory & Aging Project participants with normal cognition (n = 162, 72 ± 7 years, 29% APOE-ε4 carrier) and mild cognitive impairment (n = 121, 73 ± 8 years, 42% APOE-ε4 carrier) completed neuropsychological assessment and cardiac MRI to assess aortic stiffening using pulse wave velocity (PWV, m/s)...
February 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649983/ncx-db-a-unified-resource-for-integrative-analysis-of-the-sodium-calcium-exchanger-super-family
#5
Katrin Bode, Damien M O'Halloran
Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers are low-affinity high-capacity transporters that mediate Ca2+ extrusion by coupling Ca2+ efflux to the influx of Na+ ions. The Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers form a super-family comprised of three branches each differing in ion-substrate selectivity: Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers (NCX), Na+ /Ca2+ /K+ exchangers, and Ca2+ /cation exchangers. Their primary function is to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis and play a particularly important role in excitable cells that experience transient Ca2+ fluxes. Research into the role and activity of Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers has focused extensively on the cardio-vascular system, however, growing evidence suggests that Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers play a key role in neuronal processes such as memory formation, learning, oligodendrocyte differentiation, neuroprotection during brain ischemia and axon guidance...
April 13, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649504/tau-pathology-and-neurochemical-changes-associated-with-memory-dysfunction-in-an-optimised-murine-model-of-global-cerebral-ischaemia-a-potential-model-for-vascular-dementia
#6
Sabah Khan, Nadira Y Yuldasheva, Trevor F C Batten, Alasdair R Pickles, Katherine A B Kellett, Sikha Saha
Cerebral ischemia is known to be a major cause of death and the later development of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. However, ischemia induced cellular damage that initiates these diseases remain poorly understood. This is primarily due to lack of clinically relevant models that are highly reproducible. Here, we have optimised a murine model of global cerebral ischaemia with multiple markers to determine brain pathology, neurochemistry and correlated memory deficits in these animals. Cerebral ischaemia in mice was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion...
April 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643479/use-of-statins-and-the-risk-of-dementia-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Che-Sheng Chu, Ping-Tao Tseng, Brendon Stubbs, Tien-Yu Chen, Chia-Hung Tang, Dian-Jeng Li, Wei-Cheng Yang, Yen-Wen Chen, Ching-Kuan Wu, Nicola Veronese, Andre F Carvalho, Brisa S Fernandes, Nathan Herrmann, Pao-Yen Lin
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether the use of statins could be associated with the risk of all-caused dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Major electronic databases were searched until December 27th , 2017 for studies investigating use of statins and incident cognitive decline in adults. Random-effects meta-analyses calculating relative risks (RRs) were conducted to synthesize effect sizes of individual studies...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629537/different-associations-of-plasma-biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mild-cognitive-impairment-vascular-dementia-and-ischemic-stroke
#8
Jingwei Shang, Toru Yamashita, Yusuke Fukui, Dongjing Song, Xianghong Li, Yun Zhai, Yumiko Nakano, Ryuta Morihara, Nozomi Hishikawa, Yasuyuki Ohta, Koji Abe
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cognitive and cerebrovascular diseases are common in the elderly, but differences in the plasma levels and associations of plasma biomarkers in these diseases remain elusive. METHODS: The present study investigated differences in plasma fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], adiponectin, reptin, plasma markers of inflammation [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and serum amyloid A (serum AA)], and plasma lipids [high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)] in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=266), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=44), vascular dementia (VaD) (n=33), and ischemic stroke (IS) (n=200) in comparison to normal controls (n=130)...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628037/-the-community-pharmacy-in-the-early-detection-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-warning-signs
#9
María Teresa Climent, Ana Molinero
Cognitive dysfunction and dementia in the elderly population constitute a significant health problem due to their magnitude and seriousness. Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are at increased risk of developing some form of dementia, including Alzheimer disease. Epidemiological studies support the existence of preventable risks for cognitive impairment: vascular factors and lifestyle-related factors. The aim is to detect possible cases of cognitive impairment in people aged over 55 years in the community pharmacy area...
June 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626315/new-views-and-possibilities-of-antidiabetic-drugs-in-treating-and-or-preventing-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Kai Long Zhong, Fang Chen, Hao Hong, Xuan Ke, Yang Ge Lv, Su Su Tang, Yu Bing Zhu
Mounting evidence suggests that diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Biological, clinical and epidemiological data support a close link between DM and AD. Increasingly, studies have found that several antidiabetic agents can promote neurogenesis, and clinically ameliorate cognitive and memory impairments in different clinical settings. Data has shown that these antidiabetic drugs positively affect mitochondrial and synaptic function, neuroinflammation, and brain metabolism...
April 6, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625180/a%C3%AE-oligomer-uptake-and-the-resulting-inflammatory-response-in-adult-human-astrocytes-are-precluded-by-an-anti-a%C3%AE-single-chain-variable-fragment-in-combination-with-an-apoe-mimetic-peptide
#11
Laia Montoliu-Gaya, Sandra D Mulder, Maaike A C Herrebout, Johannes C Baayen, Sandra Villegas, Robert Veerhuis
An imbalance between production and clearance of soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) initiates the pathological process in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ-specific antibodies seemed promising as therapeutic option in AD mouse models. In patients, however, vascular side-effects and Aβ-antibody complex-induced microglial and/or perivascular macrophage inflammatory responses were encountered. To prevent inflammatory reactions, we designed a single chain variable fragment (scFv-h3D6), based on monoclonal antibody bapineuzumab (mAb-h3D6), but lacking the Fc region...
April 3, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621759/peripheral-retinal-imaging-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-a-pilot-study
#12
Lajos Csincsik, Thomas J MacGillivray, Erin Flynn, Enrico Pellegrini, Giorgos Papanastasiou, Neda Barzegar-Befroei, Adrienne Csutak, Alan C Bird, Craig W Ritchie, Tunde Peto, Imre Lengyel
PURPOSE: To examine whether ultra-widefield (UWF) retinal imaging can identify biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its progression. METHODS: Images were taken using a UWF scanning laser ophthalmoscope (Optos P200C AF) to determine phenotypic variations in 59 patients with AD and 48 healthy controls at baseline (BL). All living participants were invited for a follow-up (FU) after 2 years and imaged again (if still able to participate). All participants had blood taken for genotyping at BL...
April 5, 2018: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621480/identifying-dementia-cases-with-routinely-collected-health-data-a-systematic-review
#13
Tim Wilkinson, Amanda Ly, Christian Schnier, Kristiina Rannikmäe, Kathryn Bush, Carol Brayne, Terence J Quinn, Cathie L M Sudlow
INTRODUCTION: Prospective, population-based studies can be rich resources for dementia research. Follow-up in many such studies is through linkage to routinely collected, coded health-care data sets. We evaluated the accuracy of these data sets for dementia case identification. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the literature for studies comparing dementia coding in routinely collected data sets to any expert-led reference standard. We recorded study characteristics and two accuracy measures-positive predictive value (PPV) and sensitivity...
April 2, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620941/cerebrovascular-%C3%AE-amyloid-deposition-and-associated-microhemorrhages-in-a-tg2576-alzheimer-mouse-model-are-reduced-with-a-dha-enriched-diet
#14
Justine Hur, Véronique Mateo, Nicolas Amalric, Mégane Babiak, Gilbert Béréziat, Claire Kanony-Truc, Thierry Clerc, Régis Blaise, Isabelle Limon
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a major contributor to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Like AD, CAA is often accompanied by marked inflammation, aggravating associated vasculopathies. No evidence-based prevention or treatment strategies are available. Here, we evaluate the possible beneficial effect of a diet enriched with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is known to attenuate inflammation in CAA. Tg2576 mice, a transgenic model of AD/CAA, were fed a DHA-enriched diet starting at 2 mo of age and ending at 10, 14, or 18 mo of age...
April 5, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619930/neurological-and-psychiatric-comorbidity-in-patients-with-heart-failure-risk-and-prognosis
#15
Kasper Adelborg
Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality with a prevalence of 1%-2% of the adult population. The prognosis is poor with a 5-year mortality rate of 50%, which partly can be attributed to the presence of concomitant comorbidity, including neurological and psychiatric comorbidities. However, the prognostic impact of depression and the role of heart failure as a risk factor for dementia and stroke are not fully understood.
 Denmark is well-known for its unique health registries...
April 2018: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619929/depression-stroke-and-dementia-in-patients-with-myocardial-infarction
#16
Jens Sundbøll
The connection between the heart and mind has been studied since Sir William Harvey observed more than 350 years ago that negative emotions adversely affect the heart. Today, we know that diseases of the mind can affect the heart and, conversely, that heart diseases can cause both physical and mental diseases of the brain. To explore this relation further, we examined how previous depression affects survival in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) (study II), and how the occurrence of MI affects the risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke (study III) and dementia (study IV)...
April 2018: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615961/hypertension-and-diagnosis-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-cohort-studies
#17
Liyan Hou, Qiujuan Li, Liping Jiang, Hongyan Qiu, Chengyan Geng, Jau-Shyong Hong, Huihua Li, Qingshan Wang
Background: Hypertension has been associated with cognitive dysfunction in the general population and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there are contradictory data regarding the potential association between hypertension and diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after AD. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to synthesize data from cohort studies to explore the potential association between preexisting hypertension and subsequent PD diagnosis...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615467/late-neuroprogenitors-contribute-to-normal-retinal-vascular-development-in-a-hif2a-dependent-manner
#18
Enrico Cristante, Sidath E Liyanage, Robert D Sampson, Aikaterini Kalargyrou, Giulia De Rossi, Matteo Rizzi, Justin Hoke, Joana Ribeiro, Ryea N Maswood, Yanai Duran, Takaaki Matsuki, Nozie Aghaizu, Ulrich F Luhmann, Alexander J Smith, Robin R Ali, James W B Bainbridge
In the adult central nervous system, endothelial and neuronal cells engage in tight cross-talk as key components of the so-called neurovascular unit. Impairment of their critical relationship adversely affects tissue homeostasis, as observed in neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. In development, the influence of neuroprogenitor cells on angiogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we show that these cells interact intimately with the growing retinal vascular network, and we identify a novel regulatory mechanism of vasculature development mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 2a ( Hif2a )...
April 3, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614682/non-genetic-risk-factors-for-degenerative-and-vascular-young-onset-dementia-results-from-the-inspired-and-kgow-studies
#19
Monica Cations, Brian Draper, Lee-Fay Low, Kylie Radford, Julian Trollor, Henry Brodaty, Perminder Sachdev, Peter Gonski, Gerald Anthony Broe, Adrienne Withall
BACKGROUND: Several brain reserve, vascular risk, and other modifiable factors have been associated with late-onset dementia, but their association with young onset dementia (YOD) has not been adequately explored. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of cognitive reserve enhancing factors, cardiovascular risk factors (including smoking), depression, alcohol use, and traumatic brain injury (TBI) with non-autosomal dominant degenerative and/or vascular YOD. METHODS: Data for this matched case-control study were taken from two larger studies conducted in NSW, Australia...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614675/the-vascular-hypothesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-key-to-preclinical-prediction-of-dementia-using-neuroimaging
#20
Jack de la Torre
The vascular hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (VHAD) was proposed 24 years ago from observations made in our laboratory using aging rats subjected to chronic brain hypoperfusion. In recent years, VHAD has become a mother-lode to numerous neuroimaging studies targeting cerebral hemodynamic changes, particularly brain hypoperfusion in elderly patients at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is a growing consensus among neuroradiologists that brain hypoperfusion is likely involved in the pathogenesis of AD and that disturbed cerebral blood flow (CBF) can serve as a key biomarker for predicting conversion of mild cognitive impairment to AD...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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