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Alzheimers and vascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459731/involvement-of-impaired-autophagy-and-mitophagy-in-neuro-2a-cell-damage-under-hypoxic-and-or-high-glucose-conditions
#1
Yufei Song, Yu Du, Wenying Zou, Yan Luo, Xiaojie Zhang, Jianliang Fu
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) plays an insidious role in the development of cognitive impairment. Considerable evidence suggests that Diabetes Mellitus (DM) as a vascular risk factor may exacerbate CCH and is closely related to cognitive decline. Dysregulation of autophagy is known to be associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. To elucidate the role of autophagy in CCH- and/or DM-related pathogenesis, mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells were exposed to hypoxia and/or high glucose for 48 h, mimicking CCH complicated with DM pathologies...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459625/molecular-subtypes-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Giuseppe Di Fede, Marcella Catania, Emanuela Maderna, Roberta Ghidoni, Luisa Benussi, Elisa Tonoli, Giorgio Giaccone, Fabio Moda, Anna Paterlini, Ilaria Campagnani, Stefano Sorrentino, Laura Colombo, Adriana Kubis, Edoardo Bistaffa, Bernardino Ghetti, Fabrizio Tagliavini
Protein misfolding and aggregation is a central feature of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which assemblies of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides accumulate in the brain in the form of parenchymal and/or vascular amyloid. A widely accepted concept is that AD is characterized by distinct clinical and neuropathological phenotypes. Recent studies revealed that Aβ assemblies might have structural differences among AD brains and that such pleomorphic assemblies can correlate with distinct disease phenotypes...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453968/lipoprotein-lipase-biosynthesis-regulatory-factors-and-its-role-in-atherosclerosis-and-other-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Ping-Ping He, Ting Jiang, Xin-Ping OuYang, Ya-Qin Liang, Jie-Qiong Zou, Yan Wang, Qian-Qian Shen, Li Liao, Xi-Long Zheng
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of the triglyceride (TG) core of circulating TG-rich lipoproteins including chylomicrons (CM), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). A variety of parenchymal cells can synthesize and secrete LPL. Recent studies have demonstrated that complicated processes are involved in LPL biosynthesis, secretion and transport. The enzyme activity of LPL is regulated by many factors, such as apolipoproteins, angiopoietins, hormones and miRNAs...
February 14, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453935/evaluation-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-phosphorylated-tau-231-as-a-biomarker-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-vascular-dementia
#4
Spomenka Kiđemet-Piskač, Mirjana Babić Leko, Antonela Blažeković, Lea Langer Horvat, Nataša Klepac, Zdenko Sonicki, Danijela Kolenc, Patrick R Hof, Marina Boban, Ninoslav Mimica, Fran Borovečki, Goran Šimić
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of either Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD) is still largely based on clinical guidelines and exclusion of other diseases that may lead to dementia. AIMS: In this study, we assessed whether the use of sensitive and specific biomarkers such as phosphorylated tau proteins could contribute to an earlier and more accurate diagnosis of AD and VaD, as well as to their differentiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 198 patients, of which 152 had AD, 28 VaD, and 18 were healthy controls (HC), were included in the analyses...
February 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453933/myt1l-induced-direct-reprogramming-of-pericytes-into-cholinergic-neurons
#5
Xing-Guang Liang, Chao Tan, Cheng-Kun Wang, Rong-Rong Tao, Yu-Jie Huang, Kui-Fen Ma, Kohji Fukunaga, Ming-Zhu Huang, Feng Han
OBJECTIVE: The cholinergic deficit is thought to underlie progressed cognitive decline in Alzheimer Disease. The lineage reprogramming of somatic cells into cholinergic neurons may provide strategies toward cell-based therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we found that a combination of neuronal transcription factors, including Ascl1, Myt1l, Brn2, Tlx3, and miR124 (5Fs) were capable of directly converting human brain vascular pericytes (HBVPs) into cholinergic neuronal cells...
February 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452906/extracranial-arterial-wall-volume-is-increased-and-shows-relationships-with-vascular-mri-measures-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Stephen Ball, Sarah Al-Bachari, Laura M Parkes, Hedley C A Emsley, Charles N McCollum
OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, often complicated by dementia. Cardiovascular risk factors and spontaneous cerebral emboli (SCE) are strongly associated with Alzheimer's (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). We measured SCE in the middle cerebral artery and arterial wall volume in the extracranial arteries in patients with IPD and controls, and explored the relationships with structural and physiological MRI brain neurovascular measures...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446769/vascular-cognitive-impairment
#7
REVIEW
Wiesje M van der Flier, Ingmar Skoog, Julie A Schneider, Leonardo Pantoni, Vincent Mok, Christopher L H Chen, Philip Scheltens
The term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) was introduced around the start of the new millennium and refers to the contribution of vascular pathology to any severity of cognitive impairment, ranging from subjective cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Although vascular pathology is common in elderly individuals with cognitive decline, pure vascular dementia (that is, dementia caused solely by vascular pathology) is uncommon. Indeed, most patients with vascular dementia also have other types of pathology, the most common of which is Alzheimer disease (specifically, the diffuse accumulation of amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of tau)...
February 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444850/neurovascular-dysfunction-in-dementia-human-cellular-models-and-molecular-mechanisms
#8
REVIEW
Isobel Parkes, Satyan Chintawar, M Zameel Cader
From the earliest stages of development, when cerebral angiogenesis and neurogenesis are entwined, to the end of life, the interplay between vascular and neural systems of the brain is critical in health and disease. Cerebral microvascular endothelial cells constitute the blood-brain barrier and in concert with pericytes or smooth muscle cells, glia and neurons, integrate into a functional neurovascular unit (NVU). This multicellular NVU maintains homoeostasis of the brain's microenvironment by restricting the entry of systemic pathogens and neurotoxins as well as meeting the metabolic demands of neural activity...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439353/evaluating-peripersonal-space-through-the-functional-transcranial-doppler-are-we-paving-the-way-for-early-detecting-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-dementia-conversion
#9
Angela Marra, Antonino Naro, Antonino Chillura, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppa Maresca, Rosaria De Luca, Alfredo Manuli, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
BACKGROUND: Identifying the patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who may develop dementia (MDC) is challenging. The study of peripersonal space (PPS) by using functional transcranial Doppler (fTCD) could be used for this purpose. OBJECTIVE: To identify changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during motor tasks targeting PPS, which can predict MDC. METHODS: We evaluated the changes in CBF in 22 patients with MCI and 23 with dementia [Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD)] during a motor task (passive mobilization, motor imagery, and movement observation) in which the hand of the subject moved forward and backward the face...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439352/linking-atrial-fibrillation-with-alzheimer-s-disease-epidemiological-pathological-and-mechanistic-evidence
#10
Masafumi Ihara, Kazuo Washida
Many studies have shown a relationship between atrial fibrillation (AF) and vascular dementia. AF is a major risk factor for stroke, and stroke is the greatest risk factor for vascular dementia. However, the relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia, and AF remains unclear. At least four epidemiological studies have reported AF significantly raises the risk of AD 1.5- to 2.5-fold. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, resulting from persistent AF, could explain the link as hypoperfusion may mechanistically exacerbate amyloid-β (Aβ) neuropathology, such as senile plaques and amyloid angiopathy, by upregulating Aβ-producing enzymes and lowering Aβ clearance efficiency...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433387/pharmacological-effects-of-scutellarin-an-active-component-of-genus-scutellaria-and-erigeron-a-systematic-review
#11
Sebastian Chledzik, Jakub Strawa, Katarzyna Matuszek, Jolanta Nazaruk
Flavonoid compound scutellarin (Scu) is quite frequently met in the plant kingdom, particularly in the genus Scutellaria (Lamiaceae) and Erigeron (Asteraceae). The extract of the herb of Erigeron breviscapus, containing this component in high amount, has been used for many years in traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years, studies have made great progress on the usefulness of Scu for treating various diseases by testing its mechanism of action. They support the traditional use of Scu rich plant in heart and cerebral ischemia...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432519/the-role-of-biomarkers-and-imaging-in-the-clinical-diagnosis-of-dementia
#12
Antony J Bayer
Recognition of dementia relies on a good clinical history, supported by formal cognitive testing, but identifying the subtype of dementia may be wrong in 20% or more of cases. Accuracy may be improved by use of imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. Structural neuroimaging is recommended for most patients, not just to identify potentially reversible surgical pathology, but also to detect vascular changes and patterns of cerebral atrophy. Functional imaging can help to confirm neurodegeneration and to distinguish dementia subtypes when structural imaging has been inconclusive...
February 8, 2018: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431005/reduced-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-connectivity-is-related-to-hypoperfusion-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Jens Göttler, Christine Preibisch, Isabelle Riederer, Lorenzo Pasquini, Panagiotis Alexopoulos, Karl Peter Bohn, Igor Yakushev, Ebba Beller, Stephan Kaczmarz, Claus Zimmer, Timo Grimmer, Alexander Drzezga, Christian Sorg
Functional connectivity of blood oxygenation level dependent signal fluctuations (BOLD-FC) is decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and suggested to reflect reduced coherence in neural population activity; however, as both neuronal and vascular-hemodynamic processes underlie BOLD signals, impaired perfusion might also contribute to reduced BOLD-FC; 42 AD patients and 27 controls underwent simultaneous PET/MR imaging. Resting-state functional MRI assessed BOLD co-activity to quantify BOLD-FC, pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL) assessed cerebral blood flow (CBF) as proxy for vascular hemodynamics, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET assessed glucose metabolism (GluMet) to index neuronal activity...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430652/the-many-faces-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#14
Hélène Girouard, Lisa M Munter
This Preface introduces the articles of the special issue on "Vascular Dementia" in which several recognized experts provide an overview of this research field. The brain is a highly vascularized organ and consequently, vascular dysfunction and related pathways affect cognitive performance and memory. Vascular dementia or vascular cognitive impairment is the second most common type of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, and both disorders often occur in parallel. With this special issue, we hope to provide insight and a stimulating discussion for the future development of this research field...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430248/decreased-muscle-strength-and-quality-in-diabetes-related-dementia
#15
Akito Tsugawa, Yusuke Ogawa, Naoto Takenoshita, Yoshitsugu Kaneko, Hirokuni Hatanaka, Eriko Jaime, Raita Fukasawa, Haruo Hanyu
Background/Aims: Diabetes-related dementia (DrD), a dementia subgroup associated with specific diabetes mellitus (DM)-related metabolic abnormalities, is clinically and pathophysiologically different from Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia. We determined whether skeletal muscle strength, quality, and mass decrease in individuals with DrD. Methods: We evaluated grip and knee extension strength, muscle mass, and gait speed in 106 patients with probable AD and without type 2 DM (AD[-DM] group), 74 patients with probable AD and with DM (AD[+DM] group), and 36 patients with DrD (DrD group)...
September 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424096/low-education-and-lack-of-spousal-relationship-are-associated-with-dementia-in-older-adults-with-diabetes-mellitus-in-nigeria
#16
Abdulkareem J Yusuf, Olusegun Baiyewu, Adamu G Bakari, Sani B Garko, Mohammed E-B Jibril, Aishatu M Suleiman, Haruna M Muktar, Micheal A Amedu
BACKGROUND: The relationship between dementia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in older adults is well established in the literature. However, there have been few studies on this relationship in older adults living in low- and middle-income countries, and most demographic projections predict that older adult population will increase substantially in these regions by 2050. METHODS: In this study, older adults with T2DM attending a tertiary health facility were examined and compared with community-dwelling older adults without T2DM...
February 8, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424027/relationship-of-type-2-diabetes-to-human-brain-pathology
#17
Jeremy J Pruzin, Peter T Nelson, Erin L Abner, Zoe Arvanitakis
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are both highly prevalent diseases worldwide, and each is associated with high-morbidity and high-mortality. Numerous clinical studies have consistently shown that T2D confers a two-fold increased risk for a dementia, including dementia attributable to AD. Yet, the mechanisms underlying this relationship, especially non-vascular mechanisms, remain debated. Cerebral vascular disease (CVD) is likely to be playing a role. But increased AD neuropathologic changes (ADNC), specifically neuritic amyloid plaques (AP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), are also posited mechanisms...
February 8, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422410/tissue-engineering-3d-neurovascular-units-a-biomaterials-and-bioprinting-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Geoffrey Potjewyd, Samuel Moxon, Tao Wang, Marco Domingos, Nigel M Hooper
Neurovascular dysfunction is a central process in the pathogenesis of stroke and most neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. The multicellular neurovascular unit (NVU) combines the neural, vascular and extracellular matrix (ECM) components in an important interface whose correct functioning is critical to maintain brain health. Tissue engineering is now offering new tools and insights to advance our understanding of NVU function. Here, we review how the use of novel biomaterials to mimic the mechanical and functional cues of the ECM, coupled with precisely layered deposition of the different cells of the NVU through 3D bioprinting, is revolutionising the study of neurovascular function and dysfunction...
February 5, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417704/cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-alzheimer-s-dementia-and-vascular-dementia-the-role-of-the-clock-drawing-test
#19
Cettina Allone, Viviana Lo Buono, Francesco Corallo, Lilla Bonanno, Rosanna Palmeri, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Angela Marra, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
AIM: Cognitive impairment is present in several neurodegenerative disorders. The clock-drawing test (CDT) represents a useful screening instrument for assessing the evolution of cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of the CDT in monitoring and differentiating the evolution of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's dementia (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: This study involved 139 patients, including 39 patients with PD and mild cognitive impairment, 16 demented PD patients, 21 VaD patients with mild cognitive impairment, 17 patients with VaD, 33 patients with mild cognitive impairment due to AD, and 13 patients with probable AD...
February 7, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417476/qi-fu-yin-a-ming-dynasty-prescription-for-the-treatment-of-dementia
#20
REVIEW
Wei-Yi Ong, Ya-Jun Wu, Tahira Farooqui, Akhlaq A Farooqui
The Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory that "kidneys give rise to marrow, and the brain is the sea of marrow" has been a guide for the clinical application of kidney, qi and blood tonics for prevention and treatment of dementia and improvement in memory. As low resistance end-organs, both the brain and the kidneys are subjected to blood flow of high volumes throughout the cardiac cycle. Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia are two common causes of dementia, and it is increasingly recognized that many older adults with dementia have both AD and vascular pathologies...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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