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Alzheimers and vascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341686/incidental-findings-on-brain-mri-of-cognitively-normal-first-degree-descendants-of-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-cross-sectional-analysis-from-the-alfa-alzheimer-and-families-project
#1
Anna Brugulat-Serrat, Santiago Rojas, Nuria Bargalló, Gerardo Conesa, Carolina Minguillón, Karine Fauria, Nina Gramunt, José Luis Molinuevo, Juan Domingo Gispert
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of brain MRI incidental findings (IF) in a cohort of cognitively normal first-degree descendants of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: All scans were obtained with a 3.0 T scanner. Scans were evaluated by a single neuroradiologist and IF recorded and categorised. The presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) was determined with the Fazekas scale and reported as relevant if ≥2...
March 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336337/mismatch-negativity-as-a-potential-neurobiological-marker-of-early-stage-alzheimer-disease-and-vascular-dementia
#2
Shixiang Jiang, Chang Yan, Zhengxue Qiao, Haiqian Yao, Shiquan Jiang, Xiaohui Qiu, Xiuxian Yang, Deyu Fang, Yanjie Yang, Limei Zhang, Lina Wang, Liming Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) are serious, irreversible forms of cognitive impairment, which means that an early diagnosis is essential to slow down their progression. One potential neurophysiological biomarker of these diseases is the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potentials (ERP) component, which reflects an automatic detection mechanism at the pre-attentive stages of information processing. We evaluated the auditory MMN response in individuals from two patient groups: those in the prodromal stages of AD (P-AD) and those in the prodromal stages of VD (P-VD)...
March 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335021/mri-visible-perivascular-space-location-is-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-independently-of-amyloid-burden
#3
Gargi Banerjee, Hee Jin Kim, Zoe Fox, H Rolf Jäger, Duncan Wilson, Andreas Charidimou, Han Kyu Na, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo, David J Werring
Perivascular spaces that are visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are a neuroimaging marker of cerebral small vessel disease. Their location may relate to the type of underlying small vessel pathology: those in the white matter centrum semi-ovale have been associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy, while those in the basal ganglia have been associated with deep perforating artery arteriolosclerosis. As cerebral amyloid angiopathy is an almost invariable pathological finding in Alzheimer's disease, we hypothesized that MRI-visible perivascular spaces in the centrum semi-ovale would be associated with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, whereas those in the basal ganglia would be associated with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment...
February 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325166/color-perception-differentiates-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-from-vascular-dementia-vad-patients
#4
N A Arnaoutoglou, M Arnaoutoglou, P Nemtsas, V Costa, S J Baloyannis, K P Ebmeier
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Vascular Dementia (VaD) are the most common causes of dementia in older people. Both diseases appear to have similar clinical symptoms, such as deficits in attention and executive function, but specific cognitive domains are affected. Current cohort studies have shown a close relationship between αβ deposits and age-related macular degeneration (Johnson et al., 2002; Ratnayaka et al., 2015). Additionally, a close link between the thinning of the retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) and AD patients has been described, while it has been proposed that AD patients suffer from a non-specific type of color blindness (Pache et al...
March 22, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324341/beta-amyloid-deposition-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-with-differing-levels-of-treatment-resistance-a-pilot-study
#5
Peng Li, Ing-Tsung Hsiao, Chia-Yih Liu, Chia-Hsiang Chen, She-Yao Huang, Tzu-Chen Yen, Kuan-Yi Wu, Kun-Ju Lin
BACKGROUND: Lack of treatment response in patients with late-life depression is common. The role of brain beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in treatment outcome in subjects with late-life depression remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate brain Aβ deposition in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with differing treatment outcomes in vivo using (18)F-florbetapir imaging. This study included 62 MDD patients and 18 healthy control subjects (HCs).We first employed the Maudsley staging method (MSM) to categorize MDD patients into two groups according to treatment response: mild treatment resistance (n = 29) and moderate-to-severe treatment resistance (n = 33)...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323826/apoe-related-risk-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-for-prevention-trials-an-analysis-of-four-cohorts
#6
Jing Qian, Frank J Wolters, Alexa Beiser, Mary Haan, M Arfan Ikram, Jason Karlawish, Jessica B Langbaum, John M Neuhaus, Eric M Reiman, J Scott Roberts, Sudha Seshadri, Pierre N Tariot, Beth McCarty Woods, Rebecca A Betensky, Deborah Blacker
BACKGROUND: With the onset of prevention trials for individuals at high risk for Alzheimer disease, there is increasing need for accurate risk prediction to inform study design and enrollment, but available risk estimates are limited. We developed risk estimates for the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia among cognitively unimpaired individuals by APOE-e4 dose for the genetic disclosure process of the Alzheimer's Prevention Initiative Generation Study, a prevention trial in cognitively unimpaired APOE-e4/e4 homozygote individuals...
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323163/cerebrospinal-and-interstitial-fluid-transport-via-the-glymphatic-pathway-modeled-by-optimal-mass-transport
#7
Vadim Ratner, Yi Gao, Hedok Lee, Rena Elkin, Maiken Nedergaard, Helene Benveniste, Allen Tannenbaum
The glymphatic pathway is a system which facilitates continuous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange and plays a key role in removing waste products from the rodent brain. Dysfunction of the glymphatic pathway may be implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Intriguingly, the glymphatic system is most active during deep wave sleep general anesthesia. By using paramagnetic tracers administered into CSF of rodents, we previously showed the utility of MRI in characterizing a macroscopic whole brain view of glymphatic transport but we have yet to define and visualize the specific flow patterns...
March 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322283/susceptibility-to-neurofibrillary-tangles-role-of-the-ptprd-locus-and-limited-pleiotropy-with-other-neuropathologies
#8
L B Chibnik, C C White, S Mukherjee, T Raj, L Yu, E B Larson, T J Montine, C D Keene, J Sonnen, J A Schneider, P K Crane, J M Shulman, D A Bennett, P L De Jager
Tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative conditions, are defined by a pathological hallmark: neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). NFT accumulation is thought to be closely linked to cognitive decline in AD. Here, we perform a genome-wide association study for NFT pathologic burden and report the association of the PTPRD locus (rs560380, P=3.8 × 10(-8)) in 909 prospective autopsies. The association is replicated in an independent data set of 369 autopsies. The association of PTPRD with NFT is not dependent on the accumulation of amyloid pathology...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320113/alzheimer-s-disease-elevated-pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-is-mostly-of-systemic-origin
#9
Veronika Lang, Marietta Zille, Carmen Infante-Duarte, Sven Jarius, Holger Jahn, Friedemann Paul, Klemens Ruprecht, Ana Luisa Pina
Pigment-epithelium derived factor (PEDF) is a neurotrophic factor with neuroprotective, anti-tumorigenic, and anti-angiogenic effects. Elevated levels of PEDF have previously been proposed as a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker for Alzheimer's disease. However, the origin of PEDF in CSF, i.e. whether it is derived from the brain or from the systemic circulation, and the specificity of this finding hitherto remained unclear. Here, we analyzed levels of PEDF in paired CSF and serum samples by ELISA in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=12), frontotemporal dementia (FTD, n=6), vascular dementia (n=4), bacterial meningitis (n=8), multiple sclerosis (n=32), pseudotumor cerebri (n=36), and diverse non-inflammatory neurological diseases (n=19)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316570/isometric-exercise-training-for-managing-vascular-risk-factors-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Nicole C L Hess, Neil A Smart
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia diagnosed amongst the elderly. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition often indicative of the earliest symptomatology of AD with 10%-15% of MCI patients reportedly progressing to a diagnosis of AD. Individuals with a history of vascular risk factors (VRF's) are considered high risk candidates for developing cognitive impairment in later life. Evidence suggests that vascular injury resulting from untreated VRF's promotes progression from MCI to AD and exacerbates the severity of dementia in AD, and neuroimaging studies have found that the neurodegenerative processes associated with AD are heavily driven by VRF's that promote cerebral hypoperfusion...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316055/a-comparison-of-accelerated-and-non-accelerated-mri-scans-for-brain-volume-and-boundary-shift-integral-measures-of-volume-change-evidence-from-the-adni-dataset
#11
Emily N Manning, Kelvin K Leung, Jennifer M Nicholas, Ian B Malone, M Jorge Cardoso, Jonathan M Schott, Nick C Fox, Josephine Barnes
The aim of this study was to assess whether the use of accelerated MRI scans in place of non-accelerated scans influenced brain volume and atrophy rate measures in controls and subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. We used data from 861 subjects at baseline, 573 subjects at 6 months and 384 subjects at 12 months from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We calculated whole-brain, ventricular and hippocampal atrophy rates using the k-means boundary shift integral (BSI)...
March 18, 2017: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303161/a-systematic-review-of-intervention-studies-examining-nutritional-and-herbal-therapies-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-using-neuroimaging-methods-study-characteristics-and-intervention-efficacy
#12
REVIEW
Genevieve Z Steiner, Danielle C Mathersul, Freya MacMillan, David A Camfield, Nerida L Klupp, Sai W Seto, Yong Huang, Mark I Hohenberg, Dennis H Chang
Neuroimaging facilitates the assessment of complementary medicines (CMs) by providing a noninvasive insight into their mechanisms of action in the human brain. This is important for identifying the potential treatment options for target disease cohorts with complex pathophysiologies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate study characteristics, intervention efficacy, and the structural and functional neuroimaging methods used in research assessing nutritional and herbal medicines for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303140/netosis-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Enrica Caterina Pietronigro, Vittorina Della Bianca, Elena Zenaro, Gabriela Constantin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive deterioration of cognitive functions. Its neuropathological features include amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation, the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, and the loss of neurons and synapses. Neuroinflammation is a well-established feature of AD pathogenesis, and a better understanding of its mechanisms could facilitate the development of new therapeutic approaches. Recent studies in transgenic mouse models of AD have shown that neutrophils adhere to blood vessels and migrate inside the parenchyma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302047/neuroinflammation-as-a-common-mechanism-associated-with-the-modifiable-risk-factors-for-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases
#14
Jordan Alexander McKenzie, Lindsay J Spielman, Caitlin B Pointer, Jessica R Lowry, Ekta Bajwa, Carolyn W Lee, Andis Klegeris
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are among the most common causes of dementia, which increasingly contribute to morbidity and mortality worldwide. A common hallmark in the pathogenesis of these two diseases is neuroinflammation, which is initially triggered by the presence of pathological structures associated with these disorders. Chronic neuroinflammation is sustained by persistent and aberrant microglial activation in the brain, which results in damage and death of neighboring cells, including neurons and glial cells...
March 15, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298143/p450-eicosanoids-and-ros-interplay-in-brain-injury-and-neuroprotection
#15
Xuehong Liu, Catherine M Davis, Nabil J Alkayed
<b>Significance</b>. Eicosanoids are endogenous lipid mediators that play important roles in brain function and disease. Acute brain injury such as that occurs in stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases the formation of eicosanoids, which in return exacerbate or diminish injury. In chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD), eicosanoid synthetic and metabolizing enzymes are altered, disrupting the balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic eicosanoids...
March 16, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290247/modulation-of-retinal-arteriolar-central-reflection-by-apoe-genotype
#16
Shaun Frost, Alauddin Bhuiyan, David Offerman, James D Doecke, S Lance Macaulay, Hamid R Sohrabi, David Ames, Colin Masters, Ralph N Martins, Yogesan Kanagasingam, Aibl Research Group
This study investigated the retinal arteriolar central reflex (CR, the central reflection observed in photographs of retinal vessels), which may provide information about micro-vascular health in the retina and also the brain, due to the homology between these vascular networks. The study also describes a novel computer based semi-automated technique that accurately quantifies retinal arteriolar CR and vessel width, and calculates the CR to vessel width ratio (CRR) from digital retinal photographs. Digital retinal photographs were collected from participants in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle study of ageing (AIBL), including 25 participants diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (age 72...
March 9, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288370/the-role-of-gpcrs-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-avenues-for-therapeutic-intervention
#17
REVIEW
Yunhong Huang, Nicholas Todd, Amantha Thathiah
Neurodegenerative diseases represent a large group of neurological disorders with heterogeneous clinical and pathological profiles. The majority of current therapeutic strategies provide temporary symptomatic relief but do not target the underlying disease pathobiology and thus do not affect disease progression. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are among the most successful targets for therapeutic development of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Many current clinical therapeutic agents act by targeting this class of receptors and downstream signaling pathways...
March 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286328/two-distinct-classes-of-degenerative-change-are-independently-linked-to-clinical-progression-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#18
Jean-Philippe Coutu, Emily R Lindemer, Ender Konukoglu, David H Salat
We previously demonstrated 2 statistically distinct factors of degeneration in Alzheimer's disease: one strongly related to white matter damage and age interpreted as "age- and vascular-related", and the other related to cortical atrophy thought to represent "neurodegenerative changes associated with Alzheimer's disease". Those factors are now replicated in a distinct cross-sectional data set of 364 participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and their interpretation is improved using correlations with CSF biomarkers...
February 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282807/radiological-pathological-correlation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-systematic-review-of-antemortem-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings
#19
Caroline Dallaire-Théroux, Brandy L Callahan, Olivier Potvin, Stéphan Saikali, Simon Duchesne
BACKGROUND: The standard method of ascertaining Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains postmortem assessment of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary degeneration. Vascular pathology, Lewy bodies, TDP-43, and hippocampal sclerosis are frequent comorbidities. There is therefore a need for biomarkers that can assess these etiologies and provide a diagnosis in vivo. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review of published radiological-pathological correlation studies to determine the relationship between antemortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropathological findings in AD...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282806/abnormalities-of-cerebral-deep-medullary-veins-on-7-tesla-mri-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-early-alzheimer-s-disease-a-pilot-study
#20
Willem H Bouvy, Hugo J Kuijf, Jaco J M Zwanenburg, Huiberdina L Koek, L Jaap Kappelle, Peter R Luijten, M Kamran Ikram, Geert Jan Biessels
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) contributes to cognitive impairment and dementia. SVD may affect veins, but veins are difficult to detect with 1.5 and 3T MRI. We compared deep medullary veins (DMVs) visualized on 7T-MRI between patients with early Alzheimer's sisease (eAD; n = 17) or amnestic MCI (aMCI; n = 12) and controls (n = 40). The number and density of DMVs was similar in patients and controls, but tortuosity was higher in eAD (Cohen's d = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.1-1.2, p = 0.02) and aMCI (Cohen's d = 0...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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