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Alzheimers and vascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748997/-role-of-mediterranean-diet-on-the-prevention-of-alzheimer-disease
#1
Arnoldo Miranda, Carolina Gómez-Gaete, Sigrid Mennickent
Type 2 diabetes and obesity are possible risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease and these can be modified by physical activity and changes in dietary patterns, such as switching to a Mediterranean diet. This diet includes fruits, vegetables, olive oil, fish and moderate wine intake. These foods provide vitamins, polyphenols and unsaturated fatty acids. This diet should be able to reduce oxidative stress. The inflammatory response is also reduced by unsaturated fatty acids, resulting in a lower expression and a lower production of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
April 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744113/apolipoprotein-%C3%AE%C2%B57-allele-in-memory-complaints-insights-through-protein-structure-prediction
#2
Young Chul Youn, Yong Kwan Lim, Su-Hyun Han, Vo Van Giau, Mi-Kyung Lee, Kwang-Yeol Park, SangYun Kim, Eva Bagyinszky, Seong Soo A An, Hye Ryoun Kim
PURPOSE: APOE ε7 gene is a rare mutant form of APOE ε3. The mutation occurs in the lipid-binding domain of APOE. Based on the protein's structure, APOE ε7 is expected to function in lipid and β-amyloid metabolism, similar to APOE ε4. However, unlike that for APOE ε4, the mechanisms responsible for Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases associated with APOE ε7 expression have not been elucidated. The present study aims to investigate the association between APOE ε7 expression and cognitive impairment...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743670/xuefu-zhuyu-decoction-ameliorates-obesity-hepatic-steatosis-neuroinflammation-amyloid-deposition-and-cognition-impairment-in-metabolically-stressed-appswe-ps1de9-mice
#3
Chi-Wen Yeh, Hui-Kang Liu, Lie-Chwen Lin, Kou-Tong Liou, Yung-Cheng Huang, Chien-Hung Lin, Tsai-Teng Tzeng, Feng-Shiun Shie, Huey-Jen Tsay, Young-Ji Shiao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Metabolic syndrome and vascular dysfunction was suggested to be the risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Xuefu Zhuyu decoction (XZD) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat metabolic syndrome and cardiac-cerebral vascular disease. The effects of XZD on ameliorating metabolic syndrome, amyloid-related pathologies and cognitive impairment in an animal model of AD with metabolic stress was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The animal model of AD with metabolic stress was created by administrating high-fat diet and a low-dose injection of streptozotocin prior to the appearance of senile plaques in APP/PS1 transgenic mice...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741167/microvascular-ultrastructural-changes-precede-cognitive-impairment-in-the-murine-appswe-ps1de9-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Patricia Kelly, Paul Denver, Simon C Satchell, Maximilian Ackermann, Moritz A Konerding, Christopher A Mitchell
Cerebral and systemic organ microvascular pathologies coexist with human Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. In this study, we hypothesised that both cerebral and systemic microvascular pathologies exist in 4- to 5-month-old male APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice prior to the onset of cognitive impairment. To assess this we examined recognition memory in both wild-type and APP/PS1 mice using the object recognition task (ORT; n = 11 per group) and counted thioflavin-S-positive plaques in brain (n = 6 per group)...
July 25, 2017: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734089/dementia-risk-and-prevention-by-targeting-modifiable-vascular-risk-factors
#5
REVIEW
Sana Tariq, Philip A Barber
The incidence of dementia is expected to double in the next 20 years and will contribute to heavy social and economic burden. Dementia is caused by neuronal loss that leads to brain atrophy years before symptoms manifest. Currently, no cure exists and extensive efforts are being made to mitigate cognitive impairment in late life in order to reduce the burden on patients, caregivers, and society. The most common type of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) often co-exists in the brain and shares common, modifiable risk factors, which are targeted in numerous secondary prevention trials...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731431/association-between-cholesterol-exposure-and-neuropathological-findings-the-act-study
#6
Brianne M Bettcher, M Colin Ard, Bruce R Reed, Andreana Benitez, Amanda Simmons, Eric B Larson, Josh A Sonnen, Thomas J Montine, Ge Li, C Dirk Keene, Paul K Crane, Dan Mungas
We characterized the relationship between late life cholesterol exposure and neuropathological outcomes in a community-based, older adult cohort. Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) is a cohort study that enrolls consenting, randomly selected, non-demented people aged ≥65 from a healthcare delivery system. We used late life HDL and total cholesterol lab values from Group Health computerized records, and calculated HDL and non-HDL levels. We evaluated neuropathological outcomes of Alzheimer's disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, vascular brain injury, and Lewy body disease...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722749/rho-associated-protein-kinases-as-therapeutic-targets-for-both-vascular-and-parenchymal-pathologies-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Aaron Y Lai, JoAnne McLaurin
The causes of late-onset Alzheimer's disease are unclear and likely multifactorial. Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCKs) are ubiquitously expressed signaling messengers that mediate a wide array of cellular processes. Interestingly, they play an important role in several vascular and brain pathologies implicated in Alzheimer's etiology, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, blood-brain barrier disruption, oxidative stress, deposition of vascular and parenchymal amyloid-beta peptides, tau hyperphosphorylation, and cognitive decline...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719891/serum-interleukin-10-levels-correlate-with-cerebrospinal-fluid-amyloid-beta-deposition-in-alzheimer-disease-patients
#8
Lucio D'Anna, Samir Abu-Rumeileh, Martina Fabris, Cinzia Pistis, Antonio Baldi, Nova Sanvilli, Francesco Curcio, Gian Luigi Gigli, Sebastiano D'Anna, Mariarosaria Valente
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In Alzheimer disease (AD) inflammation becomes evident throughout the course of the disease. However, the association between inflammation, cognitive impairment, and cerebrospinal biomarkers (Aβ42, t-tau, p-tau181, and Aβ42/p-tau181 ratio) is poorly understood. METHODS: A large panel of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor) was analyzed using a multiplex immunoassay in 27 patients with a diagnosis of AD dementia and in 18 control subjects...
July 19, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719854/clinically-silent-alzheimer-s-and-vascular-pathologies-influence-brain-networks-supporting-executive-function-in-healthy-older-adults
#9
Brian T Gold, Christopher A Brown, Jonathan G Hakun, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, Charles D Smith
Aging is associated with declines in executive function. We examined how executive functional brain systems are influenced by clinically silent Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and cerebral white-matter hyperintensities (WMHs). Twenty-nine younger adults and 34 cognitively normal older adults completed a working memory paradigm while functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed. Older adults further underwent lumbar cerebrospinal fluid draw for the assessment of AD pathology and FLAIR imaging for the assessment of WMHs...
June 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714354/is-cerebral-microbleed-prevalence-relevant-as-a-biomarker-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-mild-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Ana Gb Rabelo, Camila Vl Teixeira, Thamires Nc Magalhães, Ana Flávia Mk Carletti-Cassani, Augusto Cs Amato Filho, Helena Pg Joaquim, Leda L Talib, Orestes Forlenza, Patrícia Ao Ribeiro, Rodrigo Secolin, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Fernando Cendes, Marcio Lf Balthazar
Introduction The search for a reliable neuroimaging biomarker in Alzheimer's disease is a matter of intense research. The presence of cerebral microbleeds seems to be a potential biomarker. However, it is not clear if the presence of microbleeds has clinical usefulness to differentiate mild Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment from normal aging. We aimed to verify if microbleed prevalence differs among three groups: mild Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease, and normal controls...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712011/fgf21-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-cognitive-impairment-via-metabolic-regulation-and-anti-inflammation-of-obese-mice
#11
Qingzhi Wang, Jing Yuan, Zhanyang Yu, Li Lin, Yinghua Jiang, Zeyuan Cao, Pengwei Zhuang, Michael J Whalen, Bo Song, Xiao-Jie Wang, Xiaokun Li, Eng H Lo, Yuming Xu, Xiaoying Wang
Accumulating studies suggest that overnutrition-associated obesity may lead to development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndromes (MetS). MetS and its components are important risk factors of mild cognitive impairment, age-related cognitive decline, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. It has been recently proposed that development of a disease-course modification strategy toward early and effective risk factor management would be clinically significant in reducing the risk of metabolic disorder-initiated cognitive decline...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711595/a%C3%AE-truncated-species-implications-for-brain-clearance-mechanisms-and-amyloid-plaque-deposition
#12
Erwin Cabrera, Paul Mathews, Emiliya Mezhericher, Thomas G Beach, Jingjing Deng, Thomas A Neubert, Agueda Rostagno, Jorge Ghiso
Extensive parenchymal and vascular Aβ deposits are pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Besides classic full-length peptides, biochemical analyses of brain deposits have revealed high degree of Aβ heterogeneity likely resulting from the action of multiple proteolytic enzymes. In spite of the numerous studies focusing in Aβ, the relevance of N- and C-terminal truncated species for AD pathogenesis remains largely understudied. In the present work, using novel antibodies specifically recognizing Aβ species N-terminally truncated at position 4 or C-terminally truncated at position 34, we provide a clear assessment of the differential topographic localization of these species in AD brains and transgenic models...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708131/a-clinicopathological-approach-to-the-diagnosis-of-dementia
#13
REVIEW
Fanny M Elahi, Bruce L Miller
The most definitive classification systems for dementia are based on the underlying pathology which, in turn, is categorized largely according to the observed accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates in neurons and glia. These aggregates perturb molecular processes, cellular functions and, ultimately, cell survival, with ensuing disruption of large-scale neural networks subserving cognitive, behavioural and sensorimotor functions. The functional domains affected and the evolution of deficits in these domains over time serve as footprints that the clinician can trace back with various levels of certainty to the underlying neuropathology...
July 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704393/whole-exome-sequence-based-association-analyses-of-plasma-amyloid-%C3%AE-in-african-and-european-americans-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-neurocognitive-study
#14
Jeannette Simino, Zhiying Wang, Jan Bressler, Vincent Chouraki, Qiong Yang, Steven G Younkin, Sudha Seshadri, Myriam Fornage, Eric Boerwinkle, Thomas H Mosley
OBJECTIVE: We performed single-variant and gene-based association analyses of plasma amyloid-β (aβ) concentrations using whole exome sequence from 1,414 African and European Americans. Our goal was to identify genes that influence plasma aβ42 concentrations and aβ42:aβ40 ratios in late middle age (mean = 59 years), old age (mean = 77 years), or change over time (mean = 18 years). METHODS: Plasma aβ measures were linearly regressed onto age, gender, APOE ε4 carrier status, and time elapsed between visits (fold-changes only) separately by race...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704261/no-independent-association-between-pulse-wave-velocity-and-dementia-a-population-based-prospective-study
#15
Erik D Nilsson, Sölve Elmståhl, Lennart Minthon, Mats Pihlsgård, Peter M Nilsson, Oskar Hansson, Katarina Nägga
OBJECTIVE: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CFPWV), a marker of aortic stiffness, has been associated with cognitive test results and markers of cerebral small vessel disease, but its association with dementia has not been studied in detail. Our aim was to assess the association of CFPWV with prevalent and incident dementia in a large population-based study. METHODS: In total, CFPWV was measured in 3056 participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer study 2007-2012 (age range 61-85 years)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700383/the-use-of-the-clinical-dementia-rating-scale-sum-of-boxes-scores-in-detecting-and-staging-cognitive-impairment-dementia-in-brazilian-patients-with-low-educational-attainment
#16
Andrea P V Lima, Raphael Castilhos, Marcia L F Chaves
The aim of this study was to evaluate the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale sum of the boxes (CDR-SB) diagnostic validity in detecting and staging cognitive impairment/dementia in a sample of Brazilian patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), Alzheimer disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VD), of low educational attainment. Data were obtained from the Dementia Clinic of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre database and included 407 participants (115 healthy elderly, 41 aMCI, 165 AD, and 86 VD)...
July 11, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697567/antibodies-to-signaling-molecules-and%C3%A2-receptors-in-alzheimer-s-disease-are%C3%A2-associated-with-psychomotor-slowing-depression-and-poor-visuospatial-function
#17
Lasse M Giil, Christian A Vedeler, Einar K Kristoffersen, Jan Erik Nordrehaug, Harald Heidecke, Ralf Dechend, Kai Schulze-Forster, Dominik N Muller, Victoria S von Goetze, Otavio Cabral-Marques, Gabriela Riemekasten, Petra Vogelsang, Staale Nygaard, Anders Lund, Dag Aarsland
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with several antibodies as well as signaling molecules and receptors. These may be detrimental in the presence of a disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the levels of antibodies toward 33 signaling molecules involved in neurotransmitter, vascular, and immune functions were associated with AD and, within the AD group; cognitive function and mood. METHODS: Antibodies in sera from patients with mild AD [(n = 91) defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination ≥ 20 or a Clinical Dementia Rating Scale≤1] and healthy controls (n = 102) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693862/behavioural-inflexibility-in-a-comorbid-rat-model-of-striatal-ischemic-injury-and-mutant-happ-overexpression
#18
Alexander Levit, Aaron M Regis, Jessica R Garabon, Seung-Hun Oh, Sagar J Desai, Nagalingam Rajakumar, Vladimir Hachinski, Yuksel Agca, Cansu Agca, Shawn N Whitehead, Brian L Allman
Alzheimer disease (AD) and stroke coexist and interact; yet how they interact is not sufficiently understood. Both AD and basal ganglia stroke can impair behavioural flexibility, which can be reliably modeled in rats using an established operant based set-shifting test. Transgenic Fischer 344-APP21 rats (TgF344) overexpress pathogenic human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) but do not spontaneously develop overt pathology, hence TgF344 rats can be used to model the effect of vascular injury in the prodromal stages of Alzheimer disease...
July 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681740/cognition-in-advanced-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-a-pilot-study-from-south-india
#19
Robert Mathew, Sauda Pavithran
BACKGROUND: Literature on cognition in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is sparse and more so on cognition in advanced NPH. OBJECTIVE: To study the cognitive profile in a hospital-based cohort of cognitively-advanced NPH. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. The patients included those availing dementia care service from three different tertiary care centres during a period of 5 years from 2010 to 2014. Patients were considered to have cognitively-advanced NPH if the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination(ACE) score was 50 or less...
July 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677497/platelets-their-potential-contribution-to-the-generation-of-beta-amyloid-plaques-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Christian Humpel
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is a severe neurodegenerative brain disorder, showing severe beta-amyloid depositions in the brain (plaques) and in vessels (cerebral amyloid angiopathy, CAA), tau pathology, neurodegeneration (and loss of acetylcholine), inflammation with reactive astrocytes and microglia and cerebrovascular damage, all resulting in memory loss. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this review I present a hypothesis that chronic vascular lesions and bleedings cause platelet overactivation and repair...
July 5, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
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