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Alzheimers and nutrition

Seu Ping Guiraud, Ivan Montoliu, Laeticia Da Silva, Loïc Dayon, Antonio Núñez Galindo, John Corthésy, Martin Kussmann, Francois-Pierre Martin
The methionine cycle is a key pathway contributing to the regulation of human health, with well-established involvement in cardiovascular diseases and cognitive function. Changes in one-carbon cycle metabolites have also been associated with mild cognitive decline, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. Today, there is no single analytical method to monitor both metabolites and co-factors of the methionine cycle. To address this limitation, we here report for the first time a new method for the simultaneous quantitation of 17 metabolites in the methionine cycle, which are homocysteic acid, taurine, serine, cysteine, glycine, homocysteine, riboflavin, methionine, pyridoxine, cystathionine, pyridoxamine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine, betaine, choline, dimethylglycine, and 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid...
October 18, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Annika van Hummel, Mian Bi, Stefania Ippati, Julia van der Hoven, Alexander Volkerling, Wei S Lee, Daniel C S Tan, Andre Bongers, Arne Ittner, Yazi D Ke, Lars M Ittner
Several mouse lines with knockout of the tau-encoding MAPT gene have been reported in the past; they received recent attention due to reports that tau reduction prevented Aβ-induced deficits in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. However, the effects of long-term depletion of tau in vivo remained controversial. Here, we used the tau-deficient GFP knockin line Mapttm1(EGFP)kit on a pure C57Bl/6 background and subjected a large cohort of males and females to a range of motor, memory and behavior tests and imaging analysis, at the advanced age of over 16 months...
2016: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Enrique Arriola Manchola, Javier Álaba Trueba
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative and inflammatory process leading to synapticdysfunction and neuronal death. A review about the pharmacological treatment alternatives is made: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI), a nutritional supplement (Souvenaid) and Ginkgo biloba. A special emphasis on Ginkgo biloba due to the controversy about its use and the approval by the European Medicines Agency is made.
June 2016: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
Ingun Ulstein, Thomas Bøhmer
Evidence supports an association between vitamin deficiencies and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). If vitamin deficiencies are causative for AD development, they should be detectable during very early stages of AD. Here we investigated nutritional factors among home-living patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia due to AD, compared to healthy controls. Our study included 73 patients with AD (25 with MCI, 48 with dementia) and 63 cognitively intact age-matched controls...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Zhao Yang, Hunter K Holt, Jin-Hu Fan, Li Ma, Ying Liu, Wen Chen, Peter Como, Lin Zhang, You-Lin Qiao
To explore the optimal cutoff score for initial detection of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) through the Chinese version of Mini-Mental State Examination (CMMSE) in rural areas in China, we conducted a cross-sectional study within the Linxian General Population Nutritional Follow-up study. 16,488 eligible cohort members participated in the survey and 881 completed the CMMSE. Among 881 participants, the median age (Interquartile range) was 69.00 (10.00), 634 (71.92%) were female, 657 (74.57%) were illiterate, 35 (3...
September 22, 2016: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Preetham Elumalai, Sreeja Lakshmi
Neurodegenerative disorders are often life threatening and hired as an economic burden to the health-care system. Nutritional interventions principally involving polyphenols were practiced to arrest or reverse the age-related health disorders. Flavonoids, a class of dietary polyphenols, are rising to superstardom in preventing brain disorders with their potent antioxidant defense mechanism. Quercetin is a ubiquitous flavonoid reported to have all-natural myriad of health benefits. Citrus fruits, apple, onion, parsley, berries, green tea, and red wine comprise the major dietary supplements of quercetin apart from some herbal remedies like Ginkgo biloba...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Julie M Robillard, Tanya L Feng
BACKGROUND: As the number of older adults turning to the Internet for health information increases, so does the potential for online information to have a substantial impact on the patient-physician relationship and on their health. Inaccurate information may weaken patient-physician relationships or result in increased physician visits and health-anxiety, while high quality information may allow Internet users to make better decisions about their health. OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality and content of available online resources about the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Mario Tombini, Maura Sicari, Giovanni Pellegrino, Francesca Ursini, Pasqualina Insardá, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is one of the most important conditions that negatively affects the health of elder people, particularly in patients with dementia. OBJECTIVE: To provide an assessment of nutritional status of patients affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) living at home and of their caregivers by means of Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and to explore the influence of different factors on nutrition. METHODS: 90 patients affected by AD living at home and 90 age- and sex-matched caregivers were enrolled...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Francesca Pistollato, Sandra Sumalla Cano, Iñaki Elio, Manuel Masias Vergara, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino
It has been hypothesized that alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota might be associated with the onset of certain human pathologies, such as Alzheimer disease, a neurodegenerative syndrome associated with cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β fibrils. It has been shown that bacteria populating the gut microbiota can release significant amounts of amyloids and lipopolysaccharides, which might play a role in the modulation of signaling pathways and the production of proinflammatory cytokines related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease...
October 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Dimitrios Athanasopoulos, George Karagiannis, Magda Tsolaki
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease with no effective cure so far. The current review focuses on the epigenetic mechanisms of AD and how nutrition can influence the course of this disease through regulation of gene expression, according to the latest scientific findings. The search strategy was the use of scientific databases such as PubMed and Scopus in order to find relative research or review articles published in the years 2012-2015. By showing the latest data of various nutritional compounds, this study aims to stimulate the scientific community to recognize the value of nutrition in this subject...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Cristiano A Köhler, Michael Maes, Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Berk, Marco Solmi, Krista L Lanctôt, André F Carvalho
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is a progressive disorder manifested by gradual memory loss and subsequent impairment in mental and behavioral functions. Though the primary risk factor for AD is advancing age, other factors such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, obesity, vascular factors and depression play a role in its pathogenesis. The human gastrointestinal tract has a diverse commensal microbial population, which has bidirectional interactions with the human host that are symbiotic in health, and in addition to nutrition, digestion, plays major roles in inflammation and immunity...
September 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Bimal Prasanna Mohanty, Satabdi Ganguly, Arabinda Mahanty, T V Sankar, R Anandan, Kajal Chakraborty, B N Paul, Debajit Sarma, J Syama Dayal, G Venkateshwarlu, Suseela Mathew, K K Asha, D Karunakaran, Tandrima Mitra, Soumen Chanda, Neetu Shahi, Puspita Das, Partha Das, Md Shahbaz Akhtar, P Vijayagopal, N Sridhar
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling...
2016: BioMed Research International
Xiangzheng Chen, Yangping Wu, Tinghan Yang, Mingtian Wei, Yuxi Wang, Xiangbing Deng, Congcong Shen, Wenting Li, Hang Zhang, Weiyong Xu, Lantu Gou, Yong Zeng, Yonghui Zhang, Ziqiang Wang, Jinliang Yang
BACKGROUND: Cachexia has a devastating impact on survival and quality of life for many cancer patients and contributes to nearly one-third of all cancer deaths; also, it is associated with poor responses to chemotherapy and survival. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of cancer-associated cachexia (CAC), coupled with effective therapeutic approaches, will improve management of progressive functional impairment in cancer patients. Salidroside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside in Rhodiola rosea L, has been reported to possess potential anti-fatigue, anti-ageing, and anti-Alzheimer's disease properties...
May 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Mélanie H Thomas, Sandra Pelleieux, Nicolas Vitale, Jean Luc Olivier
Alzheimer's disease and associated diseases constitute a major public health concern worldwide. Nutrition-based, preventive strategies could possibly be effective in delaying the occurrence of these diseases and lower their prevalence. Arachidonic acid is the second major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and several studies support its involvement in Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this review is to examine how dietary arachidonic acid contributes to Alzheimer's disease mechanisms and therefore to its prevention...
July 26, 2016: Biochimie
Zhong-Hao Zhang, Chen Chen, Qiu-Yan Wu, Rui Zheng, Qiong Liu, Jia-Zuan Ni, Peter R Hoffmann, Guo-Li Song
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the production of large amounts of beta-amyloid (Aβ) and the accumulation of extracellular senile plaques, which have been considered to be potential targets in the treatment of AD. Selenium (Se) is a nutritionally essential trace element with known antioxidant potential and Se status has been shown to decrease with age and has a close relationship with cognitive competence in AD. Selenomethionine (Se-Met), a major reserve form of Se in organisms, has been shown in our previous study to ameliorate the decline in cognitive function, increase oxidation resistance, and reduce tau hyperphosphorylation in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD...
August 1, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Natalia Wolak, Marcin Zawrotniak, Mariusz Gogol, Andrzej Kozik, Maria Rapala-Kozik
Vitamins are chemical compounds whose derivatives are involved in vital metabolic pathways of all living organisms. The complete endogenous biosynthesis of vitamins can be performed by many bacteria, yeast and plants, but humans need to acquire most of these essential nutrients with food. In recent years, new types of action of the well-recognized vitamins or their more sophisticated relationships have been reported. In this review we present the current knowledge of factors that can influence the yield and regulation of vitamin B1, B2, B3 and B9 biosynthesis in plants which can be important for human nutrition...
July 24, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Heike Asseburg, Carmina Schäfer, Madeleine Müller, Stephanie Hagl, Maximilian Pohland, Dirk Berressem, Marta Borchiellini, Christina Plank, Gunter P Eckert
Dementia contributes substantially to the burden of disability experienced at old age, and mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) was identified as common final pathway in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease. Due to its early appearance, MD is a promising target for nutritional prevention strategies and polyphenols as potential neurohormetic inducers may be strong neuroprotective candidates. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a polyphenol-rich grape skin extract (PGE) on age-related dysfunctions of brain mitochondria, memory, life span and potential hormetic pathways in C57BL/6J mice...
September 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
William B Grant
UNLABELLED: Rates of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are rising worldwide. The most important risk factors seem to be linked to diet. For example, when Japan made the nutrition transition from the traditional Japanese diet to the Western diet, AD rates rose from 1% in 1985 to 7% in 2008. Foods protective against AD include fruits, vegetables, grains, low-fat dairy products, legumes, and fish, whereas risk factors include meat, sweets, and high-fat dairy products. The evidence comes from ecological and observational studies as well as investigations of the mechanisms whereby dietary factors affect risk...
July 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Francesca Pistollato, Sandra Sumalla Cano, Iñaki Elio, Manuel Masias Vergara, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino
Accumulation of proteinaceous amyloid β plaques and tau oligomers may occur several years before the onset of Alzheimer disease (AD). Under normal circumstances, misfolded proteins get cleared by proteasome degradation, autophagy, and the recently discovered brain glymphatic system, an astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid bulk flow. It has been shown that the activity of the glymphatic system is higher during sleep and disengaged or low during wakefulness. As a consequence, poor sleep quality, which is associated with dementia, might negatively affect glymphatic system activity, thus contributing to amyloid accumulation...
July 2016: Advances in Nutrition
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