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Alzheimers and hypertension

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338921/faster-progression-from-mci-to-probable-ad-for-carriers-of-a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-associated-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
Hugo Girard, Olivier Potvin, Scott Nugent, Caroline Dallaire-Théroux, Stephen Cunnane, Simon Duchesne
Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), as opposed to its autosomal dominant form, is likely caused by a complex interaction of genetic, environmental, and health lifestyle factors. Twin studies indicate that sporadic AD heritability could be between 58% and 79%, around half of which is explained by the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE4). We hypothesized that genes associated with known risk factors for AD, namely hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, would contribute significantly to the remaining heritability...
December 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318587/new-perspectives-on-the-role-of-melatonin-in-human-sleep-circadian-rhythms-and-their-regulation
#2
REVIEW
N Zisapel
In mammals a central circadian clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus, tunes the innate circadian physiological rhythms to the ambient 24h light-dark cycle to invigorate and optimize the internal temporal order. The SCN-activated, light- inhibited production of melatonin conveys the message of darkness to the clock and induces night state in physiological function, e.g., sleep/wake blood pressure and metabolism. Clinically meaningful effects of melatonin treatment have been demonstrated in placebo-controlled trials in humans, particularly in disorders associated with diminished or misaligned melatonin rhythms, e...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301387/pharmacogenetics-of-vascular-risk-factors-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Ramón Cacabelos, Arun Meyyazhagan, Juan C Carril, Pablo Cacabelos, Óscar Teijido
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a polygenic/complex disorder in which genomic, epigenomic, cerebrovascular, metabolic, and environmental factors converge to define a progressive neurodegenerative phenotype. Pharmacogenetics is a major determinant of therapeutic outcome in AD. Different categories of genes are potentially involved in the pharmacogenetic network responsible for drug efficacy and safety, including pathogenic, mechanistic, metabolic, transporter, and pleiotropic genes. However, most drugs exert pleiotropic effects that are promiscuously regulated for different gene products...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281341/functional-foods-and-nutraceuticals-as-dietary-intervention-in-chronic-diseases-novel-perspectives-for-health-promotion-and-disease-prevention
#4
Stephen Adeniyi Adefegha
Functional foods describe the importance of foods in promoting health and preventing diseases aside their primary role of providing the body with the required amount of essential nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fats, and oils needed for its healthy survival. This review explains the interaction of functional food bioactive compounds including polyphenols (phenolic acids [hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acids], flavonoids [flavonols, flavones, flavanols, flavanones, isoflavones, proanthocyanidins], stilbenes, and lignans), terpenoids, carotenoids, alkaloids, omega-3 and polyunsaturated fatty acids, among others with critical enzymes (α- amylase, α- glucosidase, angiotensin-I converting enzyme [ACE], acetylcholinesterase [AChE], and arginase) linked to some degenerative diseases (type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases [hypertension], neurodegenerative diseases [Alzheimer's disease] and erectile dysfunction)...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276677/cross-sectional-variations-of-white-and-grey-matter-in-older-hypertensive-patients-with-subjective-memory-complaints
#5
Ahmed Chetouani, Mohammad B Chawki, Gabriela Hossu, Anna Kearney-Schwartz, Florence Chauveau-Beuret, Serge Bracard, Veronique Roch, Vincent Lebon, Pierre-Yves Marie, Athanase Benetos, Laure Joly, Antoine Verger
Mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dementia involve a grey matter disease, quantifiable by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), but also white matter damage, evidenced by diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI), which may play an additional pathogenic role. This study aimed to determine whether such DTI and PET variations are also interrelated in a high-risk population of older hypertensive patients with only subjective memory complaints (SMC). Sixty older hypertensive patients (75 ± 5 years) with SMC were referred to DTI and FDG-PET brain imaging, executive and memory tests, as well as peripheral and central blood pressure (BP) measurements...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226871/increased-serum-acylated-ghrelin-levels-in%C3%A2-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#6
Xi Cao, Min Zhu, Yan He, Wenzheng Chu, Yifeng Du, Heng Du
Ghrelin is a stomach-derived circulating hormone. In addition to its function as an orexigenic stimulant, the role of ghrelin in the consolidation of learning and memory has been implicated in recent years. However, the status of circulating acylated ghrelin (AG, that is, the functional form of ghrelin) in the symptomatic predementia stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has rarely been investigated. In the current study, we examined the serum levels of acylated and total ghrelin in 22 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 30 cognitively normal controls...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226862/the-rationale-and-design-of-the-reducing-pathology-in-alzheimer-s-disease-through-angiotensin-targeting-radar-trial
#7
Patrick G Kehoe, Peter S Blair, Beth Howden, David L Thomas, Ian B Malone, Jeremy Horwood, Clare Clement, Lucy E Selman, Hannah Baber, Athene Lane, Elizabeth Coulthard, Anthony Peter Passmore, Nick C Fox, Ian B Wilkinson, Yoav Ben-Shlomo
BACKGROUND: Anti-hypertensives that modify the renin angiotensin system may reduce Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and reduce the rate of disease progression. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a phase II, two arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of losartan to test the efficacy of Reducing pathology in Alzheimer's Disease through Angiotensin TaRgeting (RADAR). METHODS: Men and women aged at least 55 years with mild-to-moderate AD will be randomly allocated 100 mg encapsulated generic losartan or placebo once daily for 12 months after successful completion of a 2-week open-label phase and 2-week placebo washout to establish drug tolerability...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210129/effect-of-resveratrol-and-pterostilbene-on-aging-and-longevity
#8
REVIEW
Yi-Rong Li, Shiming Li, Chi-Chien Lin
Over the past years, several studies have found that foods rich in polyphenols protect against age-related disease, such as atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cancer, arthritis, cataracts, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes (T2D), hypertension and Alzheimer's disease. Resveratrol and pterostilbene, the polyphenol found in grape and blueberries, have beneficial effects as anti-aging compounds through modulating the hallmarks of aging, including oxidative damage, inflammation, telomere attrition and cell senescence...
December 6, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209923/plasma-microparticles-in-alzheimer-s-disease-the-role-of-vascular-dysfunction
#9
Soheila Hosseinzadeh, Maryam Noroozian, Esmaeil Mortaz, Kazem Mousavizadeh
Cerebrovascular lesions, a potent stimulus for endothelial cell activation, trigger cognitive and degenerative changes and contribute to pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Circulating microparticles (MPs) are actively involved in the pathogenesis of AD and cerebrovascular diseases, which share common vascular risk factors. We examined the plasma changes of endothelial MPs (EMPs) and platelet MPs (PMPs) in AD patients with vascular risk factors. The plasma Annexin V+ CD 41a- CD144+ EMPs and Annexin V+ CD41a+ CD144- PMPs of 37 patients with AD, with or without vascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, stroke, coronary artery disease, and smoking), and 10 age-matched controls were quantified by flow cytometry...
December 5, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207114/elderly-apolipoprotein-e%C3%A2-%C3%A2-mice-with-advanced-atherosclerotic-lesions-in-the-aorta-do-not-develop-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathologies
#10
Reut Shnerb Ganor, Dror Harats, Ginette Schiby, Kinneret Rosenblatt, Irit Lubitz, Aviv Shaish, Ophira Salomon
Atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western societies. These diseases share common risk factors, which are exhibited in old age, including hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and apolipoprotein (Apo) ε4 allele. We previously demonstrated that factor XI (FXI) deficiency in mice reduced the atherosclerotic plaque area in coronary sinuses and the aortic arch. This led us to investigate whether FXI deficiency in elderly ApoE knockout (KO) mice would decrease pathological alterations compatible with atherosclerosis and AD...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201555/background-and-distribution-of-lobar-microbleeds-in-cognitive-dysfunction
#11
Hirofumi Matsuyama, Yuichiro Ii, Masayuki Maeda, Maki Umino, Yukito Ueda, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Hirotaka Kida, Masayuki Satoh, Akihiro Shindo, Akira Taniguchi, Ryosuke Takahashi, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Objectives: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are often observed in memory clinic patients. It has been generally accepted that deep CMBs (D-CMBs) result from hypertensive vasculopathy (HV), whereas strictly lobar CMBs (SL-CMBs) result from cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) which frequently coexists with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mixed CMBs (M-CMBs) have been partially attributed to HV and also partially attributed to CAA. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differences between SL-CMBs and M-CMBs in terms of clinical features and regional distribution...
November 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195510/cerebrovascular-pathology-in-down-syndrome-and-alzheimer-disease
#12
Elizabeth Head, Michael J Phelan, Eric Doran, Ronald C Kim, Wayne W Poon, Frederick A Schmitt, Ira T Lott
People with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for developing Alzheimer disease (AD) with age. Typically, by age 40 years, most people with DS have sufficient neuropathology for an AD diagnosis. Interestingly, atherosclerosis and hypertension are atypical in DS with age, suggesting the lack of these vascular risk factors may be associated with reduced cerebrovascular pathology. However, because the extra copy of APP leads to increased beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) accumulation in DS, we hypothesized that there would be more extensive and widespread cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) with age in DS relative to sporadic AD...
December 1, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188888/late-life-body-mass-index-rapid-weight-loss-apolipoprotein-e-%C3%AE%C2%B54-and-the-risk-of-cognitive-decline-and-incident-dementia
#13
S P Bell, D Liu, L R Samuels, A S Shah, K A Gifford, T J Hohman, A L Jefferson
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of late-life body mass index (BMI) and rapid weight loss on incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) Uniform Data Set, including 34 past and current National Institute on Aging-funded AD Centers across the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 6940 older adults (n=5061 normal cognition [NC]; n=1879 MCI)...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188858/modest-overweight-and-healthy-dietary-habits-reduce-risk-of-dementia-a-nationwide-survey-in-taiwan
#14
C-Y Lee, Y Sun, H-J Lee, T-F Chen, P-N Wang, K-N Lin, L-Y Tang, C-C Lin, M-J Chiu
BACKGROUND: Evidence of the associations of dietary habits and body mass index with dementia is inconsistent and limited in East Asian countries. OBJECTIVE: We aim to explore the associations of dietary habits and body mass index with the odds of dementia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: A nationwide, population-based, door-to-door, in-person survey. PARTICIPANTS: Selected by computerized random sampling from all 19 counties in Taiwan...
2017: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165383/a-mini-review-of-the-nadph-oxidases-in-vascular-dementia-correlation-with-noxs-and-risk-factors-for-vad
#15
REVIEW
Dong-Hee Choi, Jongmin Lee
Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the factors that cause dementia conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia (VaD). In the pathogenesis of VaD, OS is associated with risk factors that include increased age, hypertension, and stroke. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (NOXs) are a molecular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). According to recent studies, inhibition of NOX activity can reduce cognitive impairment in animal models of VaD. In this article, we review the evidence linking cognitive impairment with NOX-dependent OS, including the vascular NOX and non-vascular NOX systems, in VaD...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154484/memantine-loaded-pegylated-biodegradable-nanoparticles-for-the-treatment-of-glaucoma
#16
Elena Sánchez-López, Maria Antonia Egea, Benjamin Michael Davis, Li Guo, Marta Espina, Amelia Maria Silva, Ana Cristina Calpena, Eliana Maria Barbosa Souto, Nivedita Ravindran, Miren Ettcheto, Antonio Camins, Maria Luisa García, Maria Francesca Cordeiro
Glaucoma is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease associated with retinal ganglion cells (RGC) loss. Increasing reports of similarities in glaucoma and other neurodegenerative conditions have led to speculation that therapies for brain neurodegenerative disorders may also have potential as glaucoma therapies. Memantine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist approved for Alzheimer's disease treatment. Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity is implicated in glaucoma and NMDA receptor antagonism is advocated as a potential strategy for RGC preservation...
November 20, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106439/increased-diastolic-blood-pressure-is-associated-with-mri-biomarkers-of-dementia-related-brain-pathology-in-normative-ageing
#17
Christopher J McNeil, Phyo Kyaw Myint, Anca-Larisa Sandu, John F Potter, Roger Staff, Lawrence J Whalley, Alison D Murray
Background: hypertension is a risk for brain ageing, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected biomarkers of brain ageing include white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), a marker of cerebrovascular disease, and hippocampal volume, a marker of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Objective: to examine relationships between blood pressure (BP) components and brain pathology in older adults. Subjects: two hundred and twenty-seven members of the Aberdeen 1936 Birth Cohort between ages 64 and 68 years...
January 1, 2018: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105128/do-adapted-vignettes-improve-medical-decision-making-capacity-for%C3%A2-individuals-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Liv Thalén, Katarina Heimann Mühlenbock, Ove Almkvist, Maria Eriksdotter, Erik Sundström, Ing-Mari Tallberg
Medical decision-making capacity (MDC) is known to decline in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The vignette method uses hypothetical information as a prerequisite for measuring the capacity to make well-informed decisions to clinical trials. Our aim was to investigate if adapted vignettes can help individuals with mild AD to assimilate information, make decisions and express them in an understandable way, compared to corresponding decisions based on linguistically more demanding vignettes, as measured by the Swedish Linguistic Instrument for Medical Decision-making (LIMD)...
December 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091778/risk-factors-for-amyloid-positivity-in-older-people-reporting-significant-memory-concern
#19
Jie Zhang, Wenjun Zhou, Ryan M Cassidy, Hang Su, Yindan Su, Xiangyang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to identify risk factors for the presence of amyloid accumulation in the brains of patients reporting subjective cognitive decline (SCD). Identifying such risk factors will help better identify patients who ought to receive neuroimaging studies to confirm plaque presence and begin intervention, as well as enhancing the study of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Ninety-nine SCD participants (72.2±5.6years, 57...
October 6, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081698/population-based-study-of-risk-polymorphisms-associated-with-vascular-disorders-and-dementia
#20
Óscar Teijido, Juan Carlos Carril, Ramón Cacabelos
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders are among the major causes of mortality in the developed countries. Population studies evaluate the genetic risk, i.e. the probability of an individual carrying a specific disease-associated polymorphism. Identification of risk polymorphisms is essential for an accurate diagnosis or prognosis of a number of pathologies. AIMS: The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of risk polymorphisms associated with lipid metabolism, hypertension, thrombosis, and dementia, in a large population of Spanish individuals affected by a variety of brain and vascular disorders as well as metabolic syndrome...
October 2017: Current Genomics
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