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Alzheimers and diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902695/text-mining-genotype-phenotype-relationships-from-biomedical-literature-for-database-curation-and-precision-medicine
#1
Ayush Singhal, Michael Simmons, Zhiyong Lu
The practice of precision medicine will ultimately require databases of genes and mutations for healthcare providers to reference in order to understand the clinical implications of each patient's genetic makeup. Although the highest quality databases require manual curation, text mining tools can facilitate the curation process, increasing accuracy, coverage, and productivity. However, to date there are no available text mining tools that offer high-accuracy performance for extracting such triplets from biomedical literature...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899872/type-2-diabetes-cognition-and-dementia-in-older-adults-toward-a-precision-health-approach
#2
Brenna Cholerton, Laura D Baker, Thomas J Montine, Suzanne Craft
IN BRIEF There has been a concurrent dramatic rise in type 2 diabetes and dementia in the United States, and type 2 diabetes shares common genetic and environmental risk factors and underlying pathology with both vascular and Alzheimer's dementias. Given the ability to identify this at-risk population and a variety of potential targeted treatments, type 2 diabetes represents a promising focus for a precision health approach to reduce the impact of cognitive decline and dementia in older adults.
November 2016: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893966/vaccination-via-chloroplast-genetics-affordable-protein-drugs-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-inherited-or-infectious-human-diseases
#3
Henry Daniell, Hui-Ting Chan, Elise K Pasoreck
Plastid-made biopharmaceuticals treat major metabolic or genetic disorders, including Alzheimer's, diabetes, hypertension, hemophilia, and retinopathy. Booster vaccines made in chloroplasts prevent global infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, malaria, cholera, and polio, and biological threats, such as anthrax and plague. Recent advances in this field include commercial-scale production of human therapeutic proteins in FDA-approved cGMP facilities, development of tags to deliver protein drugs to targeted human cells or tissues, methods to deliver precise doses, and long-term stability of protein drugs at ambient temperature, maintaining their efficacy...
November 23, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885860/pioglitazone-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Daniela Galimberti, Elio Scarpini
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Pharmacological treatment of AD includes Anticholinesterase Inhibitors (AChEIs) for mild-moderate AD, and memantine for severe AD. These drugs provide mainly symptomatic short-term benefits without clearly influencing the progression of the disease. Pioglitazone (AD4833) is an insulin sensitizer of the thiazolidinedione class of nuclear Peroxisome-Proliferator Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists. It binds to PPARγ, affecting gene transcription and reducing inflammation...
November 25, 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884163/chronic-adiponectin-deficiency-leads-to-alzheimer-s-disease-like-cognitive-impairments-and-pathologies-through-ampk-inactivation-and-cerebral-insulin-resistance-in-aged-mice
#5
Roy Chun-Laam Ng, On-Yin Cheng, Min Jian, Jason Shing-Cheong Kwan, Philip Wing-Lok Ho, Kenneth King-Yip Cheng, Patrick Ka Kit Yeung, Lena Lei Zhou, Ruby Lai-Chong Hoo, Sookja Kim Chung, Aimin Xu, Karen Siu-Ling Lam, Koon Ho Chan
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is the major pathogenesis underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and these patients have doubled risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence suggests that insulin resistance plays an important role in AD pathogenesis, possibly due to abnormal GSK3β activation, causing intra- and extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation. Adiponectin (APN) is an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory effects. Reduced circulatory APN level is associated with insulin resistance and T2DM...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882091/exendin-4-antagonizes-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-attenuation-of-spatial-learning-and-memory-ability
#6
Xiaohui Wang, Li Wang, Ruirui Jiang, Yunyun Xu, Xueling Zhao, Yang Li
β-amyloid protein (Aβ) accumulation in cerebral centers involved in cognition and memory is a pivotal pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The onset process of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has a number of similarities compared with AD. Thus, it is hypothesized that the pharmacological therapy employed for the treatment of T2DM may help to prevent and ameliorate the symptoms of AD. This study demonstrated that Exendin-4, which is a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue which is used as a therapeutic drug for T2DM, markedly antagonized Aβ fragment-induced attenuation of spatial learning and memory ability, as indicated by a Morris water maze experiment...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882038/alzheimer-and-vascular-dementia-in-the-elderly-patients
#7
Naresh Kumar Seetlani, Narindar Kumar, Khalid Imran, Asif Ali, Nadia Shams, Taha Sheikh
OBJECTIVES: To find out the frequency of Alzheimer's and Vascular dementia in the elderly patients. METHODS: This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Medicine, Ziauddin Hospital Karachi from 1(st) October 2013 to 31(st) March 2014. Patients with symptoms of dementia for more than 6 months duration, and Mini Mental State Examination score <24 were included in this study. Patients who fell in category of dementia were assessed for duration of symptoms...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881773/novel-roles-for-the-insulin-regulated-glucose-transporter-4-in-hippocampally-dependent-memory
#8
Jiah Pearson-Leary, Ewan C McNay
: The insulin-regulated glucose transporter-4 (GluT4) is critical for insulin- and contractile-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. GluT4 is also expressed in some hippocampal neurons, but its functional role in the brain is unclear. Several established molecular modulators of memory processing regulate hippocampal GluT4 trafficking and hippocampal memory formation is limited by both glucose metabolism and insulin signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that hippocampal GluT4 might be involved in memory processes...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873087/key-questions-for-translation-of-ffa-receptors-from-pharmacology-to-medicines
#9
Arthur T Suckow, Celia P Briscoe
The identification of fatty acids as ligands for the G-protein coupled free fatty acid (FFA) receptor family over 10 years ago led to intensive chemistry efforts to find small-molecule ligands for this class of receptors. Identification of potent, selective modulators of the FFA receptors and their utility in medicine has proven challenging, in part due to their complex pharmacology. Nevertheless, ligands have been identified that are sufficient for exploring the therapeutic potential of this class of receptors in rodents and, in the case of FFA1, FFA2, FFA4, and GPR84, also in humans...
November 22, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871675/glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-the-central-peripheral-nervous-system-crosstalk-in-diabetes
#10
REVIEW
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Ralph A DeFronzo, Amalia Gastaldelli, Jens J Holst
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is released in response to meals and exerts important roles in the maintenance of normal glucose homeostasis. GLP-1 is also important in the regulation of neurologic and cognitive functions. These actions are mediated via neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract that project to multiple regions expressing GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs). Treatment with GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1-RAs) reduces ischemia-induced hyperactivity, oxidative stress, neuronal damage and apoptosis, cerebral infarct volume, and neurologic damage, after cerebral ischemia, in experimental models...
October 27, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868071/mean-daily-dosage-of-aspirin-and-the-risk-of-incident-alzheimer-s-dementia-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-nationwide-retrospective-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#11
Cheng-Wei Chang, Jorng-Tzong Horng, Chi-Chang Hsu, Jui-Ming Chen
Background. Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients are known to have higher risk of developing dementia while aspirin use has been shown to prevent incident dementia. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential benefits of aspirin use on dementia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify the appropriate dosage of aspirin that provides the most benefit. Method. A Taiwan nationwide, population-based retrospective 8-year study was employed to analyze the association between the use of aspirin and incidence of dementia including Alzheimer's disease and non-Alzheimer's dementia using multivariate Cox-proportional hazards regression model and adjusting for several potential confounders...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863851/long-term-exposition-to-a-high-fat-diet-favors-the-appearance-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-depositions-in-the-brain-of-c57bl-6j-mice-a-potential-model-of-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Oriol Busquets, Miren Ettcheto, Mercè Pallàs, Carlos Beas-Zarate, Ester Verdaguer, Carme Auladell, Jaume Folch, Antoni Camins
AIMS: The sporadic and late-onset form of Alzheimer's disease (AD) constitutes the most common form of dementia. This non-familiar form could be a consequence of metabolic syndrome, characterized by obesity and the development of a brain-specific insulin resistance known as type III diabetes. This work demonstrates the development of a significant AD-like neuropathology due to these metabolic alterations. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice strain were divided into two groups, one fed with a diet rich in palmitic acid (high-fat diet, HFD) since their weaning until 16 months of age, and another group used as a control with a regular diet...
November 15, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862681/differences-in-analgesic-use-in-community-dwelling-persons-with-and-without-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
A Hamina, H Taipale, A Tanskanen, A-M Tolppanen, J Tiihonen, S Hartikainen
BACKGROUND: There are conflicting findings about analgesic use among persons with cognitive impairment compared to cognitively intact older persons. The objective of our study was to investigate the prevalence of analgesic use in community-dwelling persons with and without Alzheimer's disease (AD), within six months after AD diagnosis and to find out factors associated with the use of analgesics and specific analgesic groups. METHOD: We utilized data from register based MEDALZ (Medication use and Alzheimer's disease) cohort consisting of all community-dwelling persons diagnosed with AD during 2005-2011 in Finland and their matched comparison persons without AD...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862654/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-medial-temporal-lobe-atrophy-and-cognitive-status-in-patients-with-ischaemic-stroke-and-transient-ischaemic-attack
#14
F Arba, T Quinn, G J Hankey, M Ali, K R Lees, D Inzitari
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Small vessel disease (SVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two common causes of cognitive impairment and dementia, traditionally considered as distinct processes. The relationship between radiological features suggestive of AD and SVD was explored, and the association of each of these features with cognitive status at 1 year was investigated in patients with stroke or transient ischaemic attack. METHODS: Anonymized data were accessed from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA)...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855167/assessment-of-olfactory-function-in-mapt-associated-neurodegenerative-disease-reveals-odor-identification-irreproducibility-as-a-non-disease-specific-general-characteristic-of-olfactory-dysfunction
#15
Katerina Markopoulou, Bruce A Chase, Piotr Robowski, Audrey Strongosky, Ewa Narożańska, Emilia J Sitek, Mariusz Berdynski, Maria Barcikowska, Matt C Baker, Rosa Rademakers, Jarosław Sławek, Christine Klein, Katja Hückelheim, Meike Kasten, Zbigniew K Wszolek
Olfactory dysfunction is associated with normal aging, multiple neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Lewy body disease and Alzheimer's disease, and other diseases such as diabetes, sleep apnea and the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis. The wide spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders associated with olfactory dysfunction suggests different, potentially overlapping, underlying pathophysiologies. Studying olfactory dysfunction in presymptomatic carriers of mutations known to cause familial parkinsonism provides unique opportunities to understand the role of genetic factors, delineate the salient characteristics of the onset of olfactory dysfunction, and understand when it starts relative to motor and cognitive symptoms...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846718/-rab-proteins-intracellular-transport-and-cancer
#16
R Černochová, M Nekulová, J Holčaková
BACKGROUND: Rab proteins are small monomeric enzymes which belong to the large Ras protein superfamily and allow hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to guanosine (GDP). Up to now more than 60 proteins have been described that act primarily as regulators of intracellular transport. Rab GTPases are mostly located at the intracellular membranes, where they provide connections to motor proteins and to the cytoskeleton and control various steps of the traffic pathways including the formation and movement of vesicles or membrane fusion controlling secretion, endocytosis, recycling and degradation of proteins...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845333/habitual-coffee-consumption-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-ischemic-heart-disease-depression-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#17
Man Ki Kwok, Gabriel M Leung, C Mary Schooling
Observationally, coffee is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), depression and Alzheimer's disease, but not ischemic heart disease (IHD). Coffee features as possibly protective in the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Short-term trials suggest coffee has neutral effect on most glycemic traits, but raises lipids and adiponectin. To clarify we compared T2DM, depression, Alzheimer's disease, and IHD and its risk factors by genetically predicted coffee consumption using two-sample Mendelian randomization applied to large extensively genotyped case-control and cross-sectional studies...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844077/fe-oxy-adducts-of-heme-a%C3%AE-and-heme-hiapp-complexes-intermediates-in-ros-generation
#18
Manas Seal, Soumya Mukherjee, Somdatta Ghosh Dey
Iron (Fe) is the most abundant transition metal ion in the human body and its role, in the form of heme, has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2Dm). Heme binds both amyloid beta (Aβ) and human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) to form heme-Aβ and heme-hIAPP complexes, respectively, and form reactive oxygen species (ROS) like H2O2, O2˙(-)etc., which are known to cause oxidative damage. However the intermediates involved during ROS formation have not yet been isolated...
November 15, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837397/from-arb-to-arni-in-cardiovascular-control
#19
REVIEW
Estrellita Uijl, Lodi C W Roksnoer, Ewout J Hoorn, A H Jan Danser
Coexistence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease synergistically aggravates the risk of cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality. These high-risk, multi-morbid patient populations benefit less from currently available anti-hypertensive treatment. Simultaneous angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade and neprilysin inhibition ('ARNI') with valsartan/sacubitril (LCZ696) might potentiate the beneficial effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibition by reinforcing its endogenous counterbalance, the natriuretic peptide system...
December 2016: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829662/high-glucose-upregulates-bace1-mediated-a%C3%AE-production-through-ros-dependent-hif-1%C3%AE-and-lxr%C3%AE-abca1-regulated-lipid-raft-reorganization-in-sk-n-mc-cells
#20
Hyun Jik Lee, Jung Min Ryu, Young Hyun Jung, Sei-Jung Lee, Jeong Yeon Kim, Sang Hun Lee, In Koo Hwang, Je Kyung Seong, Ho Jae Han
There is an accumulation of evidence indicating that the risk of Alzheimer's disease is associated with diabetes mellitus, an indicator of high glucose concentrations in blood plasma. This study investigated the effect of high glucose on BACE1 expression and amyloidogenesis in vivo, and we present details of the mechanism associated with those effects. Our results, using ZLC and ZDF rat models, showed that ZDF rats have high levels of amyloid-beta (Aβ), phosphorylated tau, BACE1, and APP-C99. In vitro result with mouse hippocampal neuron and SK-N-MC, high glucose stimulated Aβ secretion and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
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