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Alzheimers and diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812049/importance-of-adiponectin-activity-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Masaaki Waragai, Gilbert Ho, Yoshiki Takamatsu, Kazunari Sekiyama, Shuei Sugama, Takato Takenouchi, Eliezer Masliah, Makoto Hashimoto
A recent study suggested that insulin resistance may play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this regard, it is of note that upregulation of plasma adiponectin (APN), a benign adipokine that sensitizes the insulin receptor signaling pathway and suppresses inflammation, has recently been associated with the severities of amyloid deposits and cognitive deficits in the elderly, suggesting that APN may enhance the risk of AD. These results are unanticipated because AD has been linked to type II diabetes and other metabolic disorders in which hypoadiponectinemia has been firmly established, and because APN ameliorated neuropathological features in a mouse model of neurodegeneration...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811618/assessment-of-the-role-of-ageing-and-non-ageing-factors-in-death-from-non-communicable-diseases-based-on-a-cumulative-frequency-model
#2
Liu Hui
To quantify the effects of ageing and non-ageing factors, a characterization of the effects of ageing, genetic, and exogenous variables on 12 major non-communicable diseases was evaluated using a model assessing cumulative frequency of death and survival by age group from dead and surviving populations based on mortality statistics. Indices (0-1) of the roles of ageing (ARD), genetics (GRD) and exogenous (ERD) variables in deaths due to disease were established, and the sum of ARD, GRD and ERD was 1 (value of each indices was <1)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811268/antecedent-adhd-dementia-and-metabolic-dysregulation-a-u-s-based-cohort-analysis
#3
Keith Fluegge, Kyle Fluegge
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological and genetic studies have reported a link between antecedent ADHD and dementia. The underpinning mechanisms of these associations are not known and have generated considerable speculation. METHODS: We have extracted hospitalization discharge data on dementia and ADHD (representing a severe phenotype) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUPnet) and utilized a Poisson regression with two-ways fixed effects to investigate this association...
August 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810002/retinal-oximetry-discovers-novel-biomarkers-in-retinal-and-brain-diseases
#4
Einar Stefánsson, Olof Birna Olafsdottir, Anna Bryndis Einarsdottir, Thorunn Scheving Eliasdottir, Thor Eysteinsson, Wouter Vehmeijer, Evelien Vandewalle, Toke Bek, Sveinn Hakon Hardarson
Purpose: Biomarkers for several eye and brain diseases are reviewed, where retinal oximetry may help confirm diagnosis or measure severity of disease. These include diabetic retinopathy, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma, and Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Retinal oximetry is based on spectrophotometric fundus imaging and measures oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and venules in a noninvasive, quick, safe manner. Retinal oximetry detects changes in oxygen metabolism, including those that result from ischemia or atrophy...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808140/amyloid-%C3%AE-and-islet-amyloid-pathologies-link-alzheimer-disease-and-type-2-diabetes-in-a-transgenic-model
#5
Nadeeja Wijesekara, Rosemary Ahrens, Miheer Sabale, Ling Wu, Kathy Ha, Giuseppe Verdile, Paul E Fraser
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) present a significant risk to each other. AD and T2D are characterized by deposition of cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) and pancreatic human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), respectively. We investigated the role of amyloidogenic proteins in the interplay between these diseases. A novel double transgenic mouse model combining T2D and AD was generated and characterized. AD-related amyloid transgenic mice coexpressing hIAPP displayed peripheral insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and glucose intolerance...
August 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806610/risk-factors-of-transition-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-disease-and-death-a-cohort-study
#6
Haihong Xue, Qianqian Sun, Long Liu, Liye Zhou, Ruifeng Liang, Runlian He, Hongmei Yu
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of risk factors is essential for developing strategies that prevent or minimise transitions from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and death. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for progression to AD and death among Chinese individuals with cognitive impairment. METHODS: We conducted a multisite, population-based cohort study on 437 community-dwelling elderly MCI residents in Taiyuan, China from 2010 to 2014...
July 18, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802070/memantine-for-the-treatment-of-general-neuropathic-pain-a-narrative-review
#7
REVIEW
Gisèle Pickering, Véronique Morel
Neuropathic pain (NP) is difficult to treat and is associated with a decline in quality of life. NP aetiologies are numerous and a number of pathologies display neuropathic characteristics. Of the various N-Methyl-D-Aspartate antagonists that are alternatives to recommended in first-line NP treatment, memantine has the safest side-effect profile and has long been approved in Alzheimer's disease. The review covers memantine studies in post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic pain, postoperative pain, complex regional pain syndrome, chronic phantom limb pain, opioid refractory pain, and fibromyalgia...
August 12, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800334/baseline-predictors-of-antipsychotic-treatment-continuation-and-response-at-week-8-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-with-psychosis-or-aggressive-symptoms-an-analysis-of-the-catie-ad-study
#8
Tomoyuki Nagata, Shinichiro Nakajima, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Eric Plitman, Kazuhiko Nakayama, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Masaru Mimura
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate predictors of atypical antipsychotic (AAP) treatment continuation and response by week 8 in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) who have psychotic/aggressive symptoms using the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness-Alzheimer's Disease (CATIE-AD) dataset. METHODS: Clinical data was utilized from 421 AD outpatients with psychotic/aggressive symptoms who needed interventional treatment...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799796/immune-modulation-by-curcumin-the-role-of-interleukin-10
#9
Hamid Mollazadeh, Arrigo F G Cicero, Christopher N Blesso, Matteo Pirro, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Cytokines are small secreted proteins released by different types of cells with specific effects on cellular signaling and communication via binding to their receptors on the cell surface. IL-10 is known to be a pleiotropic and potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine that is produced by both innate and adaptive immunity cells including dendritic cells, macrophages, mast cells, natural killer cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, B cells, CD8(+) T cells, and TH1, TH2, and TH17 and regulatory T cells...
August 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796009/different-exposures-to-risk-factors-do-not-explain-the-inverse-relationship-of-occurrence-between-cancer-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-an-italian-nested-case-control-study
#10
Federica Prinelli, Fulvio Adorni, Maria Lea Correa Leite, Carla Pettenati, Antonio Russo, Simona Di Santo, Massimo Musicco
Several studies reported that cancer is less frequent in persons with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases (AD/PD) and vice-versa. We evaluated whether a different distribution of known nongenetic risk factors for cancer and AD/PD, might explain their inverse relationship of occurrence. We nested 2 case-control studies in a subsample of a large cohort of 1,000,000 resident in Lombardy Region in Italy (n=1515), followed-up for cancer and AD/PD occurrence since 1991 until 2012. Conditional logistic regression was performed to determine the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of AD/PD in subjects with and without cancer and the risk of cancer in those with and without AD/PD...
August 8, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777829/identification-of-an-early-transcriptomic-signature-of-insulin-resistance-and-related-diseases-in-lymphomonocytes-of-healthy-subjects
#11
Alice Matone, Eleonora Derlindati, Luca Marchetti, Valentina Spigoni, Alessandra Dei Cas, Barbara Montanini, Diego Ardigò, Ivana Zavaroni, Corrado Priami, Riccardo C Bonadonna
Insulin resistance is considered to be a pathogenetic mechanism in several and diverse diseases (e.g. type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis) often antedating them in apparently healthy subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate with a microarray based approach whether IR per se is characterized by a specific pattern of gene expression. For this purpose we analyzed the transcriptomic profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in two groups (10 subjects each) of healthy individuals, with extreme insulin resistance or sensitivity, matched for BMI, age and gender, selected within the MultiKnowledge Study cohort (n = 148)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771808/camp-pka-signaling-pathway-contributes-to-neuronal-apoptosis-via-regulating-ide-expression-in-a-mixed-model-of-type-2-diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Huajie Li, Song Yang, Jian Wu, Lei Ji, Linfeng Zhu, Liping Cao, Jinzhong Huang, Qingqing Jiang, Jiang Wei, Meng Liu, Keshi Mao, Ning Wei, Wei Xie, Zhilong Yang
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) may play a relevant role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, the underlying mechanism was not clear yet. We developed an animal model presenting both AD and T2D, morris water maze (MWM) test and recognition task were performed to trace the cognitive function. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were determined to trace the metabolism evolution. TUNEL assay and apoptosis-related protein levels were analyzed for the detection of neuronal apoptosis...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771679/longitudinal-cognitive-profiles-in-diabetes-results-from-the-national-alzheimer-s-coordinating-center-s-uniform-data
#13
Mary Sano, Carolyn W Zhu, Hillel Grossman, Corbett Schimming
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a risk factor for the development of cognitive impairment and possibly for accelerated progression to Alzheimer disease (AD) and other dementias, though the trajectory of cognitive decline in general and in specfic cognitive domains by diabetes is unclear. METHODS: Using the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center's Uniform Data Det (NACC-UDS) to identify cohorts of elders with normal cognition (N = 7,663) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI, N = 4,114), we compared overall cognitive composite and domain specific sub-scores and their progression over time between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770024/metformin-and-its-sulfenamide-prodrugs-inhibit-human-cholinesterase-activity
#14
Magdalena Markowicz-Piasecka, Joanna Sikora, Łukasz Mateusiak, Elżbieta Mikiciuk-Olasik, Kristiina M Huttunen
The results of epidemiological and pathophysiological studies suggest that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may predispose to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The two conditions present similar glucose levels, insulin resistance, and biochemical etiologies such as inflammation and oxidative stress. The diabetic state also contributes to increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, which is one of the factors leading to neurodegeneration in AD. The aim of this study was to assess in vitro the effects of metformin, phenformin, and metformin sulfenamide prodrugs on the activity of human AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and establish the type of inhibition...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768713/a-meta-analysis-and-review-examining-a-possible-role-for-oxidative-stress-and-singlet-oxygen-in-diverse-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Athinoula L Petrou, Athina Terzidaki
From kinetic data (k, T) we calculated the thermodynamic parameters for various processes (nucleation, elongation, fibrillization, etc.) of proteinaceous diseases that are related to the β-amyloid protein (Alzheimer's), to tau protein (Alzheimer's, Pick's), to α-synuclein (Parkinson's), prion, amylin (type II diabetes), and to α-crystallin (cataract). Our calculations led to ΔG(≠) values that vary in the range 92.8-127 kJ mol(-1) at 310 K. A value of ∼10-30 kJ mol(-1) is the activation energy for the diffusion of reactants, depending on the reaction and the medium...
August 2, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767442/hydrogen-sulfide-ameliorates-cognitive-dysfunction-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-involving-suppression-in-hippocampal-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#16
Wei Zou, Juan Yuan, Zhuo-Jun Tang, Hai-Jun Wei, Wei-Wen Zhu, Ping Zhang, Hong-Feng Gu, Chun-Yan Wang, Xiao-Qing Tang
Diabetes induces impairment in cognitive function. There is substantial evidence that hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in diabetic cognitive impairment. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) attenuates the learning and memory decline in experimental Alzheimer's disease and inhibits the hippocampal ER stress in homocysteine-exposed rats. Therefore, this aim of the present work was to investigate whether H2S ameliorates the diabetic cognitive dysfunction involving inhibition of hippocampal ER stress...
July 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766040/the-diabetic-brain-and-cognition
#17
REVIEW
Peter Riederer, Amos D Korczyn, Sameh S Ali, Ovidiu Bajenaru, Mun Seong Choi, Michael Chopp, Vesna Dermanovic-Dobrota, Edna Grünblatt, Kurt A Jellinger, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Warda Kamal, Jerzy Leszek, Tanja Maria Sheldrick-Michel, Gohar Mushtaq, Bernard Meglic, Rachel Natovich, Zvezdan Pirtosek, Martin Rakusa, Melita Salkovic-Petrisic, Reinhold Schmidt, Angelika Schmitt, G Ramachandra Sridhar, László Vécsei, Zyta Beata Wojszel, Hakan Yaman, Zheng G Zhang, Tali Cukierman-Yaffe
The prevalence of both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) is increasing with the aging of the population. Studies from the last several years have shown that people with diabetes have an increased risk for dementia and cognitive impairment. Therefore, the authors of this consensus review tried to elaborate on the role of diabetes, especially diabetes type 2 (T2DM) in both AD and VaD. Based on the clinical and experimental work of scientists from 18 countries participating in the International Congress on Vascular Disorders and on literature search using PUBMED, it can be concluded that T2DM is a risk factor for both, AD and VaD, based on a pathology of glucose utilization...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764741/the-role-of-melatonin-in-the-onset-and-progression-of-type-3-diabetes
#18
REVIEW
Juhyun Song, Daniel J Whitcomb, Byeong C Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined by the excessive accumulation of toxic peptides, such as beta amyloid (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). The risk factors associated with AD include genetic mutations, aging, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. To date, several studies that have demonstrated an association between AD and diabetes have revealed that the common risk factors include insulin resistance, sleep disturbances, blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and altered glucose homeostasis...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755170/identification-and-validation-of-uterine-stimulant-methylergometrine-as-a-potential-inhibitor-of-caspase-1-activation
#19
Guillermo García-Laínez, Mónica Sancho, Vanessa García-Bayarri, Mar Orzáez
Inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes of the innate immune system. Upon an inflammatory insult, such as infection or intracellular damage, a nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) sensor protein and the adaptor protein ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain) are assembled to activate protease procaspase-1. This protease processes pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 cytokines, which are released to induce the inflammatory response...
July 28, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753984/dietary-modulation-of-oxidative-stress-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Arjun Thapa, Nick J Carroll
Cells generate unpaired electrons, typically via oxygen- or nitrogen-based by-products during normal cellular respiration and under stressed situations. These pro-oxidant molecules are highly unstable and may oxidize surrounding cellular macromolecules. Under normal conditions, the reactive oxygen or nitrogen species can be beneficial to cell survival and function by destroying and degrading pathogens or antigens. However, excessive generation and accumulation of the reactive pro-oxidant species over time can damage proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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