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Alzheimers and diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546110/hypoxia-driven-glycation-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#1
REVIEW
Mohammad Imran Khan, Suvasmita Rath, Vaqar Mustafa Adhami, Hasan Mukhtar
Tumor masses are deprived of oxygen and characterized by enhanced glucose uptake followed by glycolysis. Elevated glucose levels induce non-enzymatic glycosylation or glycation of proteins which leads to accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGE). These AGE molecules bind to their respective receptors called the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and initiate several aberrant signaling pathways leading to onset of diseases such as diabetes, Alzheimer's, atherosclerosis, heart failure and cancer...
May 22, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545778/current-pharmacological-developments-in-2-3-4-5-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-o-%C3%AE-d-glucoside-tsg
#2
REVIEW
Jingjing Wu, Wenfeng Hu, Yu Gong, Peng Wang, Lijuan Tong, Xiangfan Chen, Zhuo Chen, Xiaole Xu, Wenjuan Yao, Wei Zhang, Chao Huang
2,3,4',5-tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG), a resveratrol analog with glucoside, is purified from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine polygonum multiflorum. It has been extensively studied in last decade and known to exert strong anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, and free radical scavenging activities, and therefore has been listed as a potential agent for disease therapies. Recent studies extend well-beyond effects of TSG on the injury of neurons, cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, and report important functions of TSG in a lot of pathophysiological conditions...
May 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541558/drinking-water-contamination-from-perfluoroalkyl-substances-pfas-an-ecological-mortality-study-in-the-veneto-region-italy
#3
Marina Mastrantonio, Edoardo Bai, Raffaella Uccelli, Vincenzo Cordiano, Augusto Screpanti, Paolo Crosignani
: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), a heterogeneous group of highly stable man-made chemicals, have been widely used since 1960s and can be detected almost ubiquitously in all environmental matrices. In Italy, on January 2014, drinking water contamination in an area of the Veneto Region was detected mainly due to the drain of fluorinated chemicals by a manufacturing company operating since 1964. : The present ecological mortality study was aimed at comparing mortality for some causes of death selected on the basis of previous reported associations, during the period 1980-2013, in municipalities with PFAS contaminated and uncontaminated drinking water on the basis of the levels indicated by the Italian National Health Institute (ISS)...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540646/the-molecular-mechanism-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-therapy-in-alzheimer-s-disease-based-on-a-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-pathway
#4
Lin Li
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an important molecule that connects aging, lifespan, energy balance, glucose and lipid metabolism, and neurodegeneration. Rapamycin exerts effects in numerous biological activities via its target protein, playing a key role in energy balance, regulation of autophagy, extension of lifespan, immunosuppression, and protection against neurodegeneration. There are many similar pathophysiological processes and molecular pathways between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and pharmacologic agents used to treat T2DM, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs, seem to be beneficial for AD...
May 24, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539742/neutralization-of-inflammation-by-inhibiting-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-secretory-phospholipase-a2-by-ethanol-extract-of-boerhaavia-diffusa-l
#5
Aladahalli S Giresha, Siddanakoppalu N Pramod, A D Sathisha, K K Dharmappa
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a normal and necessary prerequisite to healing of the injured tissues. Inflammation contributes to all disease process including immunity, vascular pathology, trauma, sepsis, chemical, and metabolic injuries. The secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is a key enzyme in the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and asthma. The sPLA2 also contribute to neuroinflammatory disorders such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Crohn's disease...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538088/effects-of-the-insulin-sensitizer-metformin-in-alzheimer-disease-pilot-data-from-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#6
Aaron M Koenig, Dawn Mechanic-Hamilton, Sharon X Xie, Martha F Combs, Anne R Cappola, Long Xie, John A Detre, David A Wolk, Steven E Arnold
Epidemiological studies have identified a robust association between type II diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer disease (AD), and neurobiological studies have suggested the presence of central nervous system insulin resistance in individuals with AD. Given this association, we hypothesized that the central nervous system-penetrant insulin-sensitizing medication metformin would be beneficial as a disease-modifying and/or symptomatic therapy for AD, and conducted a placebo-controlled crossover study of its effects on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), neuroimaging, and cognitive biomarkers...
April 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534431/ameliorating-effect-of-anti-alzheimer-s-drugs-on-the-bidirectional-association-between-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Amira S Ahmed, Rehab M Elgharabawy, Amal H Al-Najjar
Mild to severe forms of nervous system damage were exhibited by approximately 60-70% of diabetics. It is important to understand the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the present work is to understand the bidirectional association between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, that was monitored by glycaemic status, lipid profile, amyloid beta 40 and 42 (Aβ40 and Aβ42), C-reactive protein, total creatine kinase, total lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer and magnesium measurements, to assess the association between theses biochemical markers and each other, to estimate the possibility of utilizing the amyloid beta as biochemical marker of T2D in Alzheimer's patients, and to evaluate the effect of piracetam and memantine drugs on diabetes mellitus...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534301/effects-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-in-diabetic-neuropathy-and-other-geriatric-disorders
#8
REVIEW
G Sergi, S Pizzato, F Piovesan, C Trevisan, N Veronese, E Manzato
A long history of diabetes mellitus and increasing age are associated with the onset of diabetic neuropathy, a painful and highly disabling complication with a prevalence peaking at 50% among elderly diabetic patients. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is a molecule derived from the acetylation of carnitine in the mitochondria that has an essential role in energy production. It has recently been proposed as a therapy to improve the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. ALC is widely distributed in mammalian tissues, including the brain, blood-brain barrier, brain neurons, and astrocytes...
May 22, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531131/the-role-of-interleukin-18-oxidative-stress-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Johanna O Ojala, Elina M Sutinen
The role of interleukins (ILs) and oxidative stress (OS) in precipitating neurodegenerative diseases including sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), requires further clarification. In addition to neuropathological hallmarks-extracellular neuritic amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) containing hyperphosphorylated tau and neuronal loss-chronic inflammation, as well as oxidative and excitotoxic damage, are present in the AD brain. The pathological sequelae and the interaction of these events during the course of AD need further investigation...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527712/insulin-fibrillation-the-influence-and-coordination-of-zn-2
#10
Christian Grundahl Frankær, Pernille Sønderby, Maria Blanner Bang, Ramona Valentina Mateiu, Minna Groenning, Jens Bukrinski, Pernille Harris
Protein amyloid fibrillation is obtaining much focus because it is connected with amyloid-related human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, or Parkinson's disease. The influence of metal ions on the fibrillation process and whether it is implemented in the amyloid fibrils has been debated for some years. We have therefore investigated the influence and binding geometry of zinc in fibrillated insulin using extended X-ray absorption fine-structure and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527214/associations-of-spatial-disparities-of%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease-mortality-rates-and%C3%A2-soil-selenium-sulfur-concentrations-and-risk-factors-in-the-united-states
#11
Hongbing Sun
BACKGROUND: Associations between environmental factors and spatial disparity of mortality rates of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the US are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To find associations between 41 trace elements, four common risk factors, and AD mortality rates in the48 contiguous states. METHODS: Isopleth maps of AD mortality rates of the 48 states and associated factors were examined. Correlations between state average AD mortality rates and concentrations of 41 soil elements, wine consumption, percentage of current smokers, obesity, and diagnosed diabetes of the 48 states between 1999 and 2014 were analyzed...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526935/diabetes-induced-abnormalities-of-mitochondrial-function-in-rat-brain-cortex-the-effect-of-n-3-fatty-acid-diet
#12
Maria Chomova, Maria Balazova, Jana Muchova
Diabetic encephalopathy, a proven complication of diabetes is associated with gradually developing end-organ damage in the CNS increasing the risk of stroke, cognitive dysfunction or Alzheimer's disease. This study investigated the response of rat cortical mitochondria to streptozotocin-induced diabetes and the potential for fish oil emulsion (FOE) to modulate mitochondrial function. Diabetes-induced deregulation of the respiratory chain function as a result of diminished complex I activity (CI) and cytochrome c oxidase hyperactivity was associated with attenuation of antioxidant defense of isolated cortical mitochondria, monitored by SOD activity, the thiol content, the dityrosine and protein-lipid peroxidation adduct formation...
May 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523294/autophagy-in-aging-and-disease
#13
Mădălina Fîlfan, Raluca Elena Sandu, Alexandra Daniela Zăvăleanu, Andrei GreşiŢă, Daniela Gabriela Glăvan, Denissa Greta Olaru, Aurel Popa-Wagner
Autophagy is a catabolic degradation system used to destroy and recycle the unnecessary or damaged components of a cell. Autophagy is present at a basal level in all mammals and is regulated by some conditions, such as oxidative stress, starvation or hypoxia. In aged tissues, increased but also decreased expression of autophagy-specific proteins, Beclin 1, LC3, Atg5 and Atg7 has been reported. Likewise, it could be shown that the lifespan of yeast, nematodes and flies is prolonged by pharmacologically stimulated autophagy using exogenous administered spermidine...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511140/different-impacts-of-acylated-and-non-acylated-long-acting-insulin-analogs-on-neural-functions-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Hiroshi Tsuneki, Hitomi Yoshida, Kosuke Endo, Norihiko Mori, Shuji Hosoh, Masaaki Tsuda, Tsutomu Wada, Toshiyasu Sasaoka
AIMS: Centrally administered insulin improves cognitive functions in patients with Alzheimer's disease; however, it remains unknown whether long-acting insulin analogs exert more pronounced effects than insulin. In the present study, we directly compared the effects of insulin and its analogs on neural functions in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Cultured rat cerebral cortical neurons were treated with insulin, insulin glargine U100 (Gla), insulin detemir (Det), or insulin degludec (Deg)...
May 4, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510447/synthesis-of-a-highly-azide-reactive-and-thermosensitive-biofunctional-reagent-for-efficient-enrichment-and-large-scale-identification-of-o-glcnac-proteins-by-mass-spectrometry
#15
Wanjun Zhang, Tong Liu, Hangyan Dong, Haihong Bai, Fang Tian, Zhaomei Shi, Mingli Chen, Jianhua Wang, Weijie Qin, Xiaohong Qian
O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a ubiquitous post-translational modification of proteins in eukaryotic cells. Despite their low abundance, O-GlcNAc-modified proteins play many important roles in regulating gene expression, signal transduction, and cell cycle. Aberrant O-GlcNAc proteins are correlated with many major human diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and cancer. Because of the extremely low stoichiometry of O-GlcNAc proteins, enrichment is required before mass spectrometry analysis for large-scale identification and in-depth understanding of their cellular function...
May 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508317/trpc-channels-and-brain-inflammation
#16
Yoshito Mizoguchi, Akira Monji
Nonresolving low-grade inflammation is supposed to underly the basis of chronic disorders including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, obesity, and psychiatric disorders such as depression and Alzheimer's diseases. There is increasing evidence suggesting that pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders is related to the inflammatory responses mediated by microglial cells. Elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) is important for the activation of microglial cell functions, including proliferation, release of NO, cytokines, and BDNF...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505155/oxidative-stress-and-expression-of-insulin-signaling-proteins-in-the-brain-of-diabetic-rats-role-of-nigella-sativa-oil-and-antidiabetic-drugs
#17
Mahmoud Balbaa, Shaymaa A Abdulmalek, Sofia Khalil
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Insulin resistance of the brain is a specific form of type2-diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the active insulin-signaling pathway plays a neuroprotective role against damaging conditions and Alzheimer's progression. The present study identifies the mediated emerging effects of the Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on the memory enhancing process, its anti-oxidative, acetylcholinestrase (AChE) inhibition, anti-brain insulin resistance and anti-amyloidogenic activities. In addition, the possible role of some anti-diabetic drugs in the neuro-protection processes and their effect in combination with NSO and/or the insulin receptor inhibitor IOMe-AG538 were investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503814/diabetes-mellitus-and-risk-of-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-a-population-based-case-control-study
#18
K Kadohara, I Sato, K Kawakami
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies have reported that diabetes is a risk factor for both all-cause and vascular dementia; however, diabetes as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains controversial. Therefore, the aim was to elucidate the association between diabetes and early-onset AD. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted using a population-based database that included medical and pharmacy claims and insurance eligibility data, from beneficiaries of corporate employees and their dependent family members...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503657/an-amylin-analog-used-as-a-challenge-test-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Haihao Zhu, Robert A Stern, Qiushan Tao, Alexandra Bourlas, Maritza D Essis, Meenakshi Chivukula, James Rosenzweig, Devin Steenkamp, Weiming Xia, Gustavo A Mercier, Yorghos Tripodis, Martin Farlow, Neil Kowall, Wei Qiao Qiu
INTRODUCTION: Preclinical studies demonstrate the potential of amylin in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We aimed to lay the foundation for repurposing the amylin analog and a diabetes drug, pramlintide, for AD in humans. METHODS: We administered a single subcutaneous injection of 60 μg of pramlintide to nondiabetic subjects under fasting conditions. RESULTS: None of the participants developed hypoglycemia after the injection of pramlintide...
January 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501550/type-2-diabetes-alters-hippocampal-gamma-oscillations-a-potential-mechanism-behind-impaired-cognition
#20
Grazyna Lietzau, Vladimer Darsalia, Hiranya Pintana, Claes-Göran Östenson, Thomas Nyström, André Fisahn, Cesare Patrone
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been associated with cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Remarkably, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this are still mostly unknown. Cognition and memory formation are associated with gamma oscillations in hippocampal neuronal networks and fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV+ IN) play a key role in these processes.
April 27, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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