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Alzheimers and obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550257/increasing-body-mass-index-at-midlife-is-associated-with-increased-cortical-thinning-in-alzheimer-s-disease-vulnerable-regions
#1
Marnie E Shaw, Walter P Abhayaratna, Kaarin J Anstey, Nicolas Cherbuin
Higher body mass index (BMI) at midlife is associated with greater decreases in cognitive function at older age as well as increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk, compared to those with normal BMI. Here, we tested whether BMI at midlife was associated with cortical thinning in brain regions known to be affected in early AD. We examined a large sample (n = 404) of midlife individuals (44-49 years) from the PATH population-based study. Individuals were scanned with magnetic resonance imaging (1.5T) on up to three occasions over eight years...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550249/avn-492-a-novel-highly-selective-5-ht6r-antagonist-preclinical-evaluation
#2
Alexandre V Ivachtchenko, Ilya Okun, Vladimir Aladinskiy, Yan Ivanenkov, Angela Koryakova, Ruben Karapetyan, Oleg Mitkin, Ramiz Salimov, Andrey Ivashchenko
Discovery of 5-HT6 receptor subtype and its exclusive localization within the central nervous system led to extensive investigations of its role in Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and obesity. In the present study, we present preclinical evaluation of a novel highly-potent and highly-selective 5-HT6R antagonist, AVN-492. The affinity of AVN-492 to bind to 5-HT6R (Ki = 91 pM) was more than three orders of magnitude higher than that to bind to the only other target, 5-HT2BR, (Ki = 170 nM). Thus, the compound displayed great 5-HT6R selectivity against all other serotonin receptor subtypes, and is extremely specific against any other receptors such as adrenergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, histaminergic, etc...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544198/jaboticaba-berry-peel-intake-prevents-insulin-resistance-induced-tau-phosphorylation-in-mice
#3
Ângela G Batista, Edilene S Soares, Monique C P Mendonça, Juliana K da Silva, Ana Paula Dionísio, Cesar R Sartori, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling, Mário R Maróstica Júnior
The hyperphosphorylation of tau in the hippocampus can be caused by central and peripheral insulin resistance and these alterations are related to the development of tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we used a high-fat diet to induce obesity and insulin resistance in adult Swiss mice and checked whether supplementation with Myrciaria jaboticaba berry peel for 10 weeks could improve insulin sensitivity, learning/memory performance and prevent tau phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Furthermore, adipocytokines, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress were assessed...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531131/the-role-of-interleukin-18-oxidative-stress-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Johanna O Ojala, Elina M Sutinen
The role of interleukins (ILs) and oxidative stress (OS) in precipitating neurodegenerative diseases including sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), requires further clarification. In addition to neuropathological hallmarks-extracellular neuritic amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) containing hyperphosphorylated tau and neuronal loss-chronic inflammation, as well as oxidative and excitotoxic damage, are present in the AD brain. The pathological sequelae and the interaction of these events during the course of AD need further investigation...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527214/associations-of-spatial-disparities-of%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease-mortality-rates-and%C3%A2-soil-selenium-sulfur-concentrations-and-risk-factors-in-the-united-states
#5
Hongbing Sun
BACKGROUND: Associations between environmental factors and spatial disparity of mortality rates of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the US are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To find associations between 41 trace elements, four common risk factors, and AD mortality rates in the48 contiguous states. METHODS: Isopleth maps of AD mortality rates of the 48 states and associated factors were examined. Correlations between state average AD mortality rates and concentrations of 41 soil elements, wine consumption, percentage of current smokers, obesity, and diagnosed diabetes of the 48 states between 1999 and 2014 were analyzed...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508317/trpc-channels-and-brain-inflammation
#6
Yoshito Mizoguchi, Akira Monji
Nonresolving low-grade inflammation is supposed to underly the basis of chronic disorders including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, obesity, and psychiatric disorders such as depression and Alzheimer's diseases. There is increasing evidence suggesting that pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders is related to the inflammatory responses mediated by microglial cells. Elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) is important for the activation of microglial cell functions, including proliferation, release of NO, cytokines, and BDNF...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482212/the-frequency-and-influence-of-dementia-risk-factors-in-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Isabelle Bos, Stephanie J Vos, Lutz Frölich, Johannes Kornhuber, Jens Wiltfang, Wolfgang Maier, Oliver Peters, Eckhart Rüther, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Ellis Niemantsverdriet, Ellen Elisa De Roeck, Magda Tsolaki, Yvonne Freund-Levi, Peter Johannsen, Rik Vandenberghe, Alberto Lleó, Daniel Alcolea, Giovanni B Frisoni, Samantha Galluzzi, Flavio Nobili, Silvia Morbelli, Alexander Drzezga, Mira Didic, Bart N van Berckel, Eric Salmon, Christine Bastin, Solene Dauby, Isabel Santana, Inês Baldeiras, Alexandre de Mendonça, Dina Silva, Anders Wallin, Arto Nordlund, Preciosa M Coloma, Angelika Wientzek, Myriam Alexander, Gerald P Novak, Mark Forrest Gordon, Åsa K Wallin, Harald Hampel, Hilkka Soininen, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Philip Scheltens, Frans R Verhey, Pieter Jelle Visser
We investigated whether dementia risk factors were associated with prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) according to the International Working Group-2 and National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer's Association criteria, and with cognitive decline. A total of 1394 subjects with mild cognitive impairment from 14 different studies were classified according to these research criteria, based on cognitive performance and biomarkers. We compared the frequency of 10 risk factors between the subgroups, and used Cox-regression to examine the effect of risk factors on cognitive decline...
April 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476630/membrane-lipid-therapy-a-historical-perspective-of-membrane-targeted-therapies-from-lipid-bilayer-structure-to-the-pathophysiological-regulation-of-cells
#8
REVIEW
Pablo V Escribá
Our current understanding of membrane lipid composition, structure and functions has led to the investigation of their role in cell signaling, both in healthy and pathological cells. As a consequence, therapies based on the regulation of membrane lipid composition and structure have been recently developed. This novel field, known as Membrane Lipid Therapy, is growing and evolving rapidly, providing treatments that are now in use or that are being studied for their application to oncological disorders, Alzheimer's disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, diabetes, obesity, and neuropathic pain...
May 2, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462694/obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-affects-the-cholinergic-transmission-and-cognitive-functions
#9
Martinelli Ilenia, Tomassoni Daniele, Moruzzi Michele, Traini Enea, Seyed Khosrow Tayebati
Worldwide, at least 2.8 million people die each year as a result of being overweight or obese, that causes about 35.8 million (2.3%) of global Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALYs). Obesity leads to metabolic syndrome, a pathological condition characterized by adverse metabolic effects on blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance. Population-based investigations have suggested that obesity and metabolic syndrome may be associated with poorer cognitive performance and could be considered a possible risk factor for vascular Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease...
April 28, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435972/-glp-1-gip-gcg-receptor-triagonist-improves-the-cognitive-behaviors-in-triple-transgenic-mice-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Juan-Juan Jiao, Christian Hölscher, Tian Li, Xue-Fan Dong, Xue-Song Qu, Yue Cao, Mei-Na Wu, Zhao-Jun Wang, Jin-Shun Qi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressively neurodegenerative disorder, which seriously affects human health but is still irreversible up to now. Recent studies indicate that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important risk factor for AD, and the drugs used for treatment of T2DM have shown some neuroprotective effects in the treatment of AD. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/ glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)/glucagon (Gcg) receptor Triagonist is a new monomeric polypeptide equally activating the GLP-1/GIP/Gcg receptors, which is built on the basis of GLP-1/Gcg receptor coagonist core sequence, and incorporated with partial amino acids of GIP...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425868/pomegranate-as-a-possible-treatment-in-reducing-risk-of-developing-wound-healing-obesity-neurodegenerative-disorders-and-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Manaf AlMatar, Md Rashedul Islam, Othman Albari, Işıl Var, Fatih Köksal
Four distinguished although overlying stages make up the methodical procedure of wound healing, which are hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodelling. Multiple sclerosis (MS) comprises a persistent inflammatory infection of the central nervous system, and is related to demyelination, neurodegeneration, as well as susceptibility to oxidative pressure. Obesity signifies a swiftly developing danger to the wellbeing of populations in a rising number of nations. Usually called diabetes mellitus (DM) by medical practitioners, diabetes details a collection of metabolic diseases within which the individual has raised blood glucose, either due to an insufficiency of insulin generation, or the lack of suitable response by the body to insulin, or both...
April 19, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421328/association-of-adiponectin-leptin-and-resistin-with-inflammatory-markers-and-obesity-in-dementia
#12
Małgorzata Bednarska-Makaruk, Ałła Graban, Anna Wiśniewska, Wanda Łojkowska, Anna Bochyńska, Magdalena Gugała-Iwaniuk, Ksenia Sławińska, Agnieszka Ługowska, Danuta Ryglewicz, Hanna Wehr
The aim of the study was to determine the role of adiponectin, leptin and resistin in various types of dementia and to investigate their association with inflammatory markers, insulin resistance and abdominal obesity. In 205 patients with dementia [89 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 47 with vascular dementia (VaD), 69 with mixed dementia (MD)], 113 persons with mild cognitive impairment and in 107 controls serum adiponectin, leptin and resistin levels, pro-inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and chitotriosidase] and anti-inflammatory (25-OH vitamin D, HDL-cholesterol and paraoxonase 1) markers, as well as glucose metabolism parameters (glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR) were determined...
April 18, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419892/plasma-apolipoproteins-and-physical-and-cognitive-health-in-very-old-individuals
#13
Julia Muenchhoff, Fei Song, Anne Poljak, John D Crawford, Karen A Mather, Nicole A Kochan, Zixuan Yang, Julian N Trollor, Simone Reppermund, Kate Maston, Adam Theobald, Susanne Kirchner-Adelhardt, John B Kwok, Robyn L Richmond, Mark McEvoy, John Attia, Peter W Schofield, Henry Brodaty, Perminder S Sachdev
Apolipoproteins play a crucial role in lipid metabolism with implications in cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and longevity. We quantified 7 apolipoproteins in plasma in 1067 individuals aged 56-105 using immunoassays and explored relationships with APOE polymorphism ε2/3/4, vascular health, frailty, and cognition. ApoA1, ApoA2, ApoB, ApoC3, ApoE, ApoH, and ApoJ decreased from mid-life, although ApoE and ApoJ had U-shaped trends. Centenarians had the highest ApoE levels and the lowest frequency of APOE ε4 allele relative to younger groups...
March 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418521/evaluation-of-amyloid-protective-factors-and-alzheimer-disease-neurodegeneration-protective-factors-in-elderly-individuals
#14
Prashanthi Vemuri, David S Knopman, Timothy G Lesnick, Scott A Przybelski, Michelle M Mielke, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Melissa E Murray, Rosebud O Roberts, Maria Vassilaki, Val J Lowe, Mary M Machulda, David T Jones, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack
Importance: While amyloid and neurodegeneration are viewed together as Alzheimer disease pathophysiology (ADP), the factors that influence amyloid and AD-pattern neurodegeneration may be considerably different. Protection from these ADP factors may be important for aging without significant ADP. Objective: To identify the combined and independent protective factors for amyloid and AD-pattern neurodegeneration in a population-based sample and to test the hypothesis that "exceptional agers" with advanced ages do not have significant ADP because they have protective factors for amyloid and neurodegeneration...
April 17, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408965/phospholipase-c-related-catalytically-inactive-protein-can-regulate-obesity-a-state-of-peripheral-inflammation
#15
REVIEW
Yosuke Yamawaki, Kana Oue, Satomi Shirawachi, Satoshi Asano, Kae Harada, Takashi Kanematsu
Obesity is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation. Chronic inflammation in fat influences the development of obesity-related diseases. Many reports state that obesity increases the risk of morbidity in many diseases, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, sleep apnea, and breast, prostate and colon cancers, leading to increased mortality. Obesity is also associated with chronic neuropathologic conditions such as depression and Alzheimer's disease. However, there is strong evidence that weight loss reduces these risks, by limiting blood pressure and improving levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol...
February 2017: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397392/higher-body-mass-index-is-associated-with-reduced-posterior-default-mode-connectivity-in-older-adults
#16
Frauke Beyer, Sharzhad Kharabian Masouleh, Julia M Huntenburg, Leonie Lampe, Tobias Luck, Steffi G Riedel-Heller, Markus Loeffler, Matthias L Schroeter, Michael Stumvoll, Arno Villringer, A Veronica Witte
Obesity is a complex neurobehavioral disorder that has been linked to changes in brain structure and function. However, the impact of obesity on functional connectivity and cognition in aging humans is largely unknown. Therefore, the association of body mass index (BMI), resting-state network connectivity, and cognitive performance in 712 healthy, well-characterized older adults of the Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) cohort (60-80 years old, mean BMI 27.6 kg/m(2)  ± 4.2 SD, main sample: n = 521, replication sample: n = 191) was determined...
April 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397097/blood-brain-barriers-in-obesity
#17
Elizabeth M Rhea, Therese S Salameh, Aric F Logsdon, Angela J Hanson, Michelle A Erickson, William A Banks
After decades of rapid increase, the rate of obesity in adults in the USA is beginning to slow and the rate of childhood obesity is stabilizing. Despite these improvements, the obesity epidemic continues to be a major health and financial burden. Obesity is associated with serious negative health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and, more recently, cognitive decline and various neurodegenerative dementias such as Alzheimer's disease. In the past decade, major advancements have contributed to the understanding of the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in the development of obesity and how peripheral hormonal signals modulate CNS regulation of energy homeostasis...
April 10, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385550/currents-of-memory-recent-progress-translational-challenges-and-ethical-considerations-in-fornix-deep-brain-stimulation-trials-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
John Noel M Viaña, James C Vickers, Mark J Cook, Frederic Gilbert
The serendipitous discovery of triggered autobiographical memories and eventual memory improvement in an obese patient who received fornix deep brain stimulation in 2008 paved the way for several phase I and phase II clinical trials focused on the safety and efficacy of this potential intervention for people with Alzheimer's disease. In this article, we summarize clinical trials and case reports on fornix deep brain stimulation for Alzheimer's disease and review experiments on animal models evaluating the physiological or behavioral effects of this intervention...
March 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372330/the-gut-microbiota-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Chunmei Jiang, Guangning Li, Pengru Huang, Zhou Liu, Bin Zhao
The gut microbiota comprises a complex community of microorganism species that resides in our gastrointestinal ecosystem and whose alterations influence not only various gut disorders but also central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD, the most common form of dementia, is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with impaired cognition and cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ). Most notably, the microbiota-gut-brain axis is a bidirectional communication system that is not fully understood, but includes neural, immune, endocrine, and metabolic pathways...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349564/emerging-roles-for-the-amyloid-precursor-protein-and-derived-peptides-in-the-regulation-of-cellular-and-systemic-metabolism
#20
REVIEW
Juliane K Czeczor, Sean L McGee
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that can be cleaved by proteases through two different pathways to yield a number of small peptides, each with distinct physiological properties and functions. It has been extensively studied in the context of Alzheimer's disease, with the APP-derived amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide being a major constituent of the amyloid plaques observed in this disease. It has been known for some time that APP can regulate neuronal metabolism, however this review will examine evidence that APP and its peptides can also regulate key metabolic processes such as insulin action, lipid synthesis and storage and mitochondrial function in peripheral tissues...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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