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Alzheimers and obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674342/app-deficiency-results-in-resistance-to-obesity-but-impairs-glucose-tolerance-upon-high-fat-feeding
#1
Juliane Czeczor, Amanda Genders, Kathryn Aston-Mourney, Timothy Connor, Liam Hall, Kyoko Hasebe, Megan Ellis, Kirstie De Jong, Darren Henstridge, Peter Meikle, Mark Febbraio, Ken Walder, Sean L McGee
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) generates a number of peptides when processed through different cleavage mechanisms, including the Aβ peptide that is implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease. It is well established that APP via its cleaved peptides regulates aspects of neuronal metabolism. Emerging evidence suggests that amyloidogenic processing of APP can lead to altered systemic metabolism, similar to that observed in metabolic disease states. In the present study, we investigated the effect of APP deficiency on obesity-induced alterations in systemic metabolism...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664737/insulin-regulates-astrocyte-gliotransmission-and-modulates-behavior
#2
Weikang Cai, Chang Xue, Masaji Sakaguchi, Masahiro Konishi, Alireza Shirazian, Heather A Ferris, Mengyao Li, Ruichao Yu, Andre Kleinridders, Emmanuel N Pothos, C Ronald Kahn
Complications of diabetes affect tissues throughout body, including central nervous system. Epidemiological studies show that diabetic patients have increased risk of depression, anxiety, age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. Mice lacking insulin receptor in brain or on hypothalamic neurons display an array of metabolic abnormalities, however, the role of insulin action on astrocytes and neurobehaviors remains less well-studied. Here, we demonstrate that astrocytes are a direct insulin target in the brain and that knockout of IR on astrocytes causes increased anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in mice...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618789/altered-dna-repair-an-early-pathogenic-pathway-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-obesity
#3
Hao Yu, Fiona Edith Harrison, Fen Xia
Unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are lethal. The present study compared the extent of DSBs, neuronal apoptosis, and status of two major DSB repair pathways - homologous combinational repair (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) - in hippocampus of 5-6 month and 16-18 month-old wild-type and APP/PSEN1 mice fed control diet or high fat diet (60% fat from lard). We performed immunohistochemical staining and quantification for nuclear foci formation of γ-H2AX for DSBs, RAD51, and 53BP1, which represent the functional status of HR and NHEJ, respectively...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618598/routine-assessment-and-promotion-of-physical-activity-in-healthcare-settings-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#4
REVIEW
Felipe Lobelo, Deborah Rohm Young, Robert Sallis, Michael D Garber, Sandra A Billinger, John Duperly, Adrian Hutber, Russell R Pate, Randal J Thomas, Michael E Widlansky, Michael V McConnell, Elizabeth A Joy
Physical inactivity is one of the most prevalent major health risk factors, with 8 in 10 US adults not meeting aerobic and muscle-strengthening guidelines, and is associated with a high burden of cardiovascular disease. Improving and maintaining recommended levels of physical activity leads to reductions in metabolic, hemodynamic, functional, body composition, and epigenetic risk factors for noncommunicable chronic diseases. Physical activity also has a significant role, in many cases comparable or superior to drug interventions, in the prevention and management of >40 conditions such as diabetes mellitus, cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, depression, Alzheimer disease, and arthritis...
April 4, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614684/novel-lipidized-analog-of-prolactin-releasing-peptide-improves-memory-impairment-and-attenuates-hyperphosphorylation-of-tau-protein-in-a-mouse-model-of-tauopathy
#5
Andrea Popelová, Veronika Pražienková, Barbora Neprašová, Barbora Judita Kasperová, Lucie Hrubá, Martina Holubová, Jana Zemenová, David Blum, Blanka Železná, Marie-Christine Galas, Jaroslav Kuneš, Lenka Maletínská
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were characterized as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) development. Subsequently, T2DM drugs, such as liraglutide, were proven to be neuroprotective compounds attenuating levels of amyloid deposits, and tau hyperphosphorylation, both hallmarks of AD. The central anorexigenic effects of liraglutide inspired us to examine the potential neuroprotective effects of palm11-PrRP31, a strong anorexigenic analog with glucose-lowering properties, in THY-Tau22 mice overexpressing mutated human tau, a model of AD-like tau pathology...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606955/an-estimate-of-attributable-cases-of-alzheimer-disease-and-vascular-dementia-due-to-modifiable-risk-factors-the-impact-of-primary-prevention-in-europe-and-in-italy
#6
Flavia Mayer, Alessandra Di Pucchio, Eleonora Lacorte, Ilaria Bacigalupo, Fabrizio Marzolini, Gianluigi Ferrante, Valentina Minardi, Maria Masocco, Marco Canevelli, Teresa Di Fiandra, Nicola Vanacore
Background: Up to 53.7% of all cases of dementia are assumed to be due to Alzheimer disease (AD), while 15.8% are considered to be due to vascular dementia (VaD). In Europe, about 3 million cases of AD could be due to 7 potentially modifiable risk factors: diabetes, midlife hypertension and/or obesity, physical inactivity, depression, smoking, and low educational level. Aims: To estimate the number of VaD cases in Europe and the number of AD and VaD cases in Italy attributable to these 7 potentially modifiable risk factors...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602454/optimise-the-microbial-flora-with-milk-and-yoghurt-to-prevent-disease
#7
James A Morris
Pathogenic bacteria, which are temporary or permanent members of our microbial flora, cause or contribute to a wide range of human disease at all ages. Conditions include Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer, autoimmunity and psychosis, amongst others. The mechanism of damage is inflammation which can be chronic or acute. An optimal microbial flora includes a wide range of pathogenic bacteria in low dose. This allows specific immunity to be developed and maintained with minimal inflammatory damage...
May 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598932/glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-likes-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Ilgin Yildirim Simsir, Utku Erdem Soyaltin, Sevki Cetinkalp
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a 30 amino acid long peptide hormone derived from the proglucagon gene and secreted in the distal small intestine when food enters the duodenum. GLP-1 is also produced in the central nervous system (CNS), predominantly in the brainstem, and subsequently transported to a large number of regions in the CNS. Neuronal cells in nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) can synthesize GLP-1 and extends to hypothalamus, some thalamic and cortical areas. A G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) provides the majority of GLP-1 actions...
March 16, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587359/down-syndrome-obesity-alzheimer-s-disease-and-cancer-a-brief-review-and-hypothesis
#9
REVIEW
Daniel W Nixon
Down syndrome (trisomy 21), a complex mix of physical, mental, and biochemical issues, includes an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and childhood leukemia, a decreased risk of other tumors, and a high frequency of overweight/obesity. Certain features related to the third copy of chromosome 21 (which carries the APP gene and several anti-angiogenesis genes) create an environment favorable for Alzheimer's disease and unfavorable for cancer. This environment may be enhanced by two bioactive compounds from fat cells, leptin, and adiponectin...
March 24, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570448/a-comparative-study-of-the-effect-of-stress-on-the-cognitive-parameters-in-women-with-increased-body-mass-index-before-and-after-menopause
#10
M B Ramesh, S Ammu, A K Nayanatara, N A Vinodini, K C Pratik, N Anupama, K Bhagyalakshmi
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity is a critical public health problem for women. The negative effect of stress on memory and cognitive functions has been widely explored for decades in numerous research projects using a wide range of methodology. Deterioration of memory and other brain functions is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Estrogen fluctuations and withdrawal have myriad direct effects on the central nervous system that have the potential to influence cognitive functions...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564062/protein-protein-interaction-analysis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-nafld-based-on-systems-biology-methods-unhide-common-ancestor-pathways
#11
Reza Karbalaei, Marzieh Allahyari, Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani, Hamid Asadzadeh-Aghdaei, Mohammad Reza Zali
Aim: Analysis reconstruction networks from two diseases, NAFLD and Alzheimer`s diseases and their relationship based on systems biology methods. Background: NAFLD and Alzheimer`s diseases are two complex diseases, with progressive prevalence and high cost for countries. There are some reports on relation and same spreading pathways of these two diseases. In addition, they have some similar risk factors, exclusively lifestyle such as feeding, exercises and so on...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555333/nutritional-patterns-associated-with-the-maintenance-of-neurocognitive-functions-and-the-risk-of-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-focus-on-human-studies
#12
REVIEW
Francesca Pistollato, Ruben Calderón Iglesias, Roberto Ruiz, Silvia Aparicio, Jorge Crespo, Luis Dzul Lopez, Piera Pia Manna, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino
Ample epidemiological evidence suggests a strong correlation among diet, lifestyle factors and the onset and consolidation of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been demonstrated that AD, diabetes, obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease are strongly interconnected pathologies. Preventive strategies and nutritional interventions seem to be promising approaches to delay neurocognitive decline and reduce the risk of AD and other non-psychiatric co-morbidities. In this regard, healthy dietary patterns, characterized by high intake of plant-based foods, probiotics, antioxidants, soy beans, nuts, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a low intake of saturated fats, animal-derived proteins, and refined sugars, have been shown to decrease the risk of neurocognitive impairments and eventually the onset of AD...
March 16, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541536/reduced-vascular-risk-factors-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-compared-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Po-Chi Chan, Cheng-Yu Wei, Guang-Uei Hung, Pai-Yi Chiu
Objectives: The association of vascular risk factors (VRFs) with incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) has been well studied. However, the association between VRFs and non-AD dementia is seldom investigated. In this study, we aim to compare the concurrence of VRFs of Lewy body dementia (LBD) to AD. Materials & Methods: We consecutively enrolled patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and AD, and the prevalence of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and obesity was assessed and compared...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532057/association-of-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-with-longitudinal-%C3%AE-amyloid-accumulation-in-elderly-persons-without-dementia
#14
Diego Z Carvalho, Erik K St Louis, David S Knopman, Bradley F Boeve, Val J Lowe, Rosebud O Roberts, Michelle M Mielke, Scott A Przybelski, Mary M Machulda, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Prashanthi Vemuri
Importance: Aging is associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), which has been linked to cognitive decline in the elderly. However, whether EDS is associated with the pathologic processes of Alzheimer disease remains unclear. Objective: To investigate whether EDS at baseline is associated with a longitudinal increase in regional β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in a cohort of elderly individuals without dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective analysis included participants enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, a longitudinal population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526536/the-bace1-product-sapp%C3%AE-induces-er-stress-and-inflammation-and-impairs-insulin-signaling
#15
Gaia Botteri, Laia Salvadó, Anna Gumà, D Lee Hamilton, Paul J Meakin, Gemma Montagut, Michael L J Ashford, Victoria Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Sonia Fernández-Veledo, Joan Vendrell, María Calderón-Dominguez, Dolors Serra, Laura Herrero, Javier Pizarro, Emma Barroso, Xavier Palomer, Manuel Vázquez-Carrera
OBJECTIVE: β-secretase/β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is a key enzyme involved in Alzheimer's disease that has recently been implicated in insulin-independent glucose uptake in myotubes. However, it is presently unknown whether BACE1 and the product of its activity, soluble APPβ (sAPPβ), contribute to lipid-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells. MATERIALS/METHODS: Studies were conducted in mouse C2C12 myotubes, skeletal muscle from Bace1-/- mice and mice treated with sAPPβ and adipose tissue and plasma from obese and type 2 diabetic patients...
March 8, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521210/phosphodiesterase-10-inhibitors-novel-perspectives-for-psychiatric-and-neurodegenerative-drug-discovery
#16
Agnieszka Zagorska, Anna Partyka, Adam Bucki, Alicja Gawalska, Anna Czopek, Maciej Pawlowski
BACKGROUND: The phosphodiesterase 10 (PDE10) family, identified in 1999, is mainly expressed in the brain, particularly in the striatum, within the medium spiny neurons, nucleus accumbens, and olfactory tubercle. Inhibitors of PDE10 (PDE10-Is) are a conceptually rational subject for medicinal chemistry with potential use in the treatment of psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. OBJECTIVE: This review is based on peer-reviewed published articles, and summarizes the cellular and molecular biology of PDE10 as a rational target for psychiatric and neurodegenerative drug discovery...
March 8, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519962/-prevention-of-dementia-with-special-reference-to-lifestyle-and-vascular-risk-factors
#17
Haruo Hanyu
There is a wide range of potentially modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and dementia, including cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, sleep-apnea syndrome), psychosocial factors (e.g., depression), health behaviors (e.g., low level of physical or mental activity, smoking status), and head trauma. In the elderly, weight loss associated with frailty and sarcopenia is another risk factor for dementia. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that the prevalence of dementia has declined in the US and European countries during the last 20 years...
March 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501742/fto-is-involved-in-alzheimer-s-disease-by-targeting-tsc1-mtor-tau-signaling
#18
Huajie Li, Yi Ren, Keshi Mao, Fei Hua, Yilin Yang, Ning Wei, Chunxian Yue, Dawen Li, Hao Zhang
Diabetes and obesity are commonly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accumulating evidence show that insulin signaling defects are protentional upstream driver of AD. However, the mechanism by which diabetes and insulin signaling defects contribute to AD remains unknown. Here we show that Fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) is involved the insulin defects-associated AD. Defective insulin signaling in diabetes and obesity in human and mice activated Fto in the brain tissues. Lentivirus-mediated knockdown of Fto reduced the phosphorylation of Tau protein whereas overexpression of FTO promoted the level of phosphorylated Tau in neurons...
March 25, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484137/alzheimer-s-disease-is-associated-with-prostate-cancer-a-population-based-study
#19
Herng-Ching Lin, Li-Ting Kao, Shiu-Dong Chung, Chung-Chien Huang, Ben-Chang Shia, Chao-Yuan Huang
Alzheimer's disease and cancer are increasingly prevalent with advancing age. However, the association between Alzheimer's disease and prostate cancer remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between prior Alzheimer's disease and subsequent prostate cancer using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. Data for this study were sourced from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. This case-control study included 2101 prostate cancer patients as cases and 6303 matched controls...
January 26, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481666/identification-of-seven-novel-loci-associated-with-amino-acid-levels-using-single-variant-and-gene-based-tests-in-8-545-finnish-men-from-the-metsim-study
#20
Tanya M Teslovich, Daniel Seung Kim, Xianyong Yin, Alena Stancáková, Anne U Jackson, Matthias Wielscher, Adam Naj, John R B Perry, Jeroen R Huyghe, Heather M Stringham, James P Davis, Chelsea K Raulerson, Ryan P Welch, Christian Fuchsberger, Adam E Locke, Xueling Sim, Peter S Chines, Narisu Narisu, Antti J Kangas, Pasi Soininen, Mika Ala-Korpela, Vilmundur Gudnason, Solomon K Musani, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Gerard D Schellenberg, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Johanna Kuusisto, Francis S Collins, Michael Boehnke, Markku Laakso, Karen L Mohlke
Comprehensive metabolite profiling captures many highly heritable traits, including amino acid levels, which are potentially sensitive biomarkers for disease pathogenesis. To better understand the contribution of genetic variation to amino acid levels, we performed single variant and gene-based tests of association between nine serum amino acids (alanine, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and valine) and 16.6 million genotyped and imputed variants in 8,545 non-diabetic Finnish men from the METabolic Syndrome In Men (METSIM) study...
February 21, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
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