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Alzheimers and obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024348/obesity-as-a-risk-factor-for-alzheimer-s-disease-weighing-the-evidence
#1
REVIEW
S Alford, D Patel, N Perakakis, C S Mantzoros
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the sixth leading cause of death in the USA today; therefore, it is imperative that public health initiatives and clinical strategies are developed to prevent and effectively treat AD. Despite the enormous impact that AD has on individuals, families, society, and the health care system, there are no biomarkers to clearly identify those at risk for AD, public health prevention strategies in place, or treatments to address the underlying pathology or stop the progression of AD. There is ample scientific as well as empirical evidence that obesity and its metabolic and vascular comorbidities are related to AD and likely in the causative pathway...
October 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016862/ube3a-deficiency-inhibits-amyloid-plaque-formation-in-appswe-ps1%C3%AE-e9-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Brijesh Kumar Singh, Naman Vatsa, Vipendra Kumar, Shashi Shekhar, Ankit Sharma, Nihar Ranjan Jana
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive decline in memory and cognitive function. Pathological hallmark of AD includes aberrant aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, which is produced upon sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ -secretases. On the contrary, α-secretase cleaves APP within the Aβ sequence and thereby prevents Aβ generation. Here, we investigated the role of ubiquitin ligase Ube3a (involved in synaptic function and plasticity) in the pathogenesis of AD using APPswe/PS1δE9 transgenic mouse model and first noticed that soluble pool of Ube3a was age-dependently decreased in AD mouse in comparison with wild type controls...
October 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994619/biological-evaluation-of-benzosuberones
#3
Haider Behbehani, Kamal M Dawood, Thoraya A Farghaly
Several natural products containing benzosuberone moiety are clinically reported as anti-tumor agents. Furthermore, several synthetic benzosuberones cited in this review exhibited wide range of theraputic activities such as bacteriostatic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressants and anti-tumor activities. Our recent review provides an overview of the different methods to synthesize the benzosuberones and their extensive biological activities. Areas covered: Thirty-two patents among 130 references are cited in this review that covered the recent inhibitory activities of the benzosuberone scaffolds and their broad area of biological applications up to the first quarter of 2017...
October 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987937/food-for-thought-leptin-regulation-of-hippocampal-function-and-its-role-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Gemma McGregor, Jenni Harvey
Accumulating evidence indicates that diet and body weight are important factors associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), with a significant increase in AD risk linked to mid-life obesity, and weight loss frequently occurring in the early stages of AD. This has fuelled interest in the hormone leptin, as it is an important hypothalamic regulator of food intake and body weight, but leptin also markedly influences the functioning of the hippocampus; a key brain region that degenerates in AD. Increasing evidence indicates that leptin has cognitive enhancing properties as it facilitates the cellular events that underlie hippocampal-dependent learning and memory...
October 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986164/circulating-apoj-is-closely-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-human-subjects
#5
Ji A Seo, Min-Cheol Kang, Theodore P Ciaraldi, Sang Soo Kim, Kyong Soo Park, Charles Choe, Won Bin Hwang, Dong Mee Lim, Olivia Farr, Christos Mantzoros, Robert R Henry, Young-Bum Kim
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. ApolipoproteinJ (ApoJ) has been implicated in altered pathophysiologic states including cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease. However, the function of ApoJ in regulation of glucose homeostasis remains unclear. This study sought to determine whether serum ApoJ levels are associated with insulin resistance in human subjects and if they change after interventions that improve insulin sensitivity. METHODS: Serum ApoJ levels and insulin resistance status were assessed in nondiabetic (ND) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects...
October 3, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974775/biochemical-and-cellular-properties-of-insulin-receptor-signalling
#6
REVIEW
Rebecca A Haeusler, Timothy E McGraw, Domenico Accili
The mechanism of insulin action is a central theme in biology and medicine. In addition to the rather rare condition of insulin deficiency caused by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells, genetic and acquired abnormalities of insulin action underlie the far more common conditions of type 2 diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance. The latter predisposes to diseases ranging from hypertension to Alzheimer disease and cancer. Hence, understanding the biochemical and cellular properties of insulin receptor signalling is arguably a priority in biomedical research...
October 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958056/genetic-risks-for-chronic-conditions-implications-for-long-term-wellbeing
#7
George L Wehby, Benjamin W Domingue, Fredric D Wolinsky
Background: Relationships between genetic risks for chronic diseases and long-run wellbeing are largely unexplored. We examined the associations between genetic predispositions to several chronic conditions and long-term functional health and socioeconomic status. Methods: We used data on a nationally representative sample of 9317 adults 65 years or older from the 1992-2012 Health and Retirement Survey in the US. Survey data were linked to genetic data on nearly 2 million SNPs...
August 9, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956331/phosphodiesterase-4b-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-cognitive-impairment-and-obesity-related-metabolic-diseases
#8
Steven J Clapcote
People in modern, affluent societies are living longer but also becoming increasingly overweight. With increased life expectancy comes increased risk of developing age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases, such that an increasing proportion of life may be lived with cognitive impairment as age increases. Obesity is associated with poorer cognitive function in elderly subjects, and often leads to ill-health arising from various complications such as metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes mellitus...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949318/psychogeriatric-diagnoses-in-old-people-s-homes-and-negative-health-behavior
#9
Spomenka Tomek-Roksandić, Ivana Popek, Nada Tomasović Mrčela, Zvonimir Šostar, Branko Kolarić, Nina Smolej Narančić, Ana Stavljenić Rukavina, Mate Ljubičić
BACKGROUND: The study was designed as a gerontologic-public health analysis of the relationship between the leading and accompanying psychogeriatric diagnoses and negative health behaviors recorded in the old people's home users, with the aim to evaluate and redefine gerontologic-public health priorities and geroprophylactic measures, with special reference to persons suffering from Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Gerontologic-public health indicators obtained by monitoring health care needs of the elderly in specific institutional primary health care at 10 old people's homes (N=1185) in Croatia in 2013 were analyzed using the professional methodology developed at Department of Health Gerontology, Andrija Štampar Teaching Institute of Public Health (Registry List 1 that refers to monitoring specific primary health care needs of elderly at old people's homes)...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948812/the-origin-of-7alpha-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone-and-its-physiological-role-a-history-of-discoveries
#10
L Stárka
Nearly 60 years has elapsed since the first isolation and identification of 7alpha-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone, and in that time much information has been gained on its occurrence, metabolism, ontogeny, immunomodulatory activity, cell proliferation, cortisol control in local tissues and neuroactivity. Additional knowledge about this steroid may elucidate its role in obesity, neurodegenerative disturbances such as Alzheimer's disease, or psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the available literature on 7alpha-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone...
September 26, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933064/the-influence-of-adipose-tissue-on-brain-development-cognition-and-risk-of-neurodegenerative-disorders
#11
Liliana Letra, Isabel Santana
The brain is a highly metabolic organ and thus especially vulnerable to changes in peripheral metabolism, including those induced by obesity-associated adipose tissue dysfunction. In this context, it is likely that the development and maturation of neurocognitive circuits may also be affected and modulated by metabolic environmental factors, beginning in utero. It is currently recognized that maternal obesity, either pre-gestational or gestational, negatively influences fetal brain development and elevates the risk of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933063/diabesity-and-brain-energy-metabolism-the-case-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Susana Cardoso, Raquel Seiça, Paula I Moreira
It is widely accepted that high calorie diets and a sedentary lifestyle sturdily influence the incidence and outcome of type 2 diabetes and obesity, which can occur simultaneously, a situation called diabesity. Tightly linked with metabolic and energy regulation, a close association between diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been proposed. Among the common pathogenic mechanisms that underpin both conditions, insulin resistance, brain glucose hypometabolism, and metabolic dyshomeostasis appear to have a pivotal role...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915562/detecting-the-genetic-link-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-obesity-using-bioinformatics-analysis-of-gwas-data
#13
Qi-Shuai Zhuang, Hao Zheng, Xiao-Dan Gu, Liang Shen, Hong-Fang Ji
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the major form of dementia in the elderly. In recent years, accumulating evidence indicate that obesity may act as a risk factor for AD, while the genetic link between the two conditions remains unclear. This bioinformatics analysis aimed to detect the genetic link between AD and obesity on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene, and pathway levels based on genome-wide association studies data. A total of 31 SNPs were found to be shared by AD and obesity, which were linked to 7 genes...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899662/baseline-association-of-motoric-cognitive-risk-syndrome-with-sustained-attention-memory-and-global-cognition
#14
Fiachra J Maguire, Isabelle Killane, Andrew P Creagh, Orna Donoghue, Rose Anne Kenny, Richard B Reilly
OBJECTIVES: Slow gait has been shown to be a good predictor of declining cognitive function in healthy older adults. Motoric cognitive risk (MCR) syndrome is a new construct incorporating slow gait and subjective cognitive complaints in individuals without dementia who have preserved activities of daily living. This analysis investigated the prevalence of MCR and factors associated with MCR in a nationally representative population. In addition, cross-sectional associations between MCR and cognitive domains, an relationship yet to be fully elucidated in literature, was investigated...
September 9, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894508/protein-posttranslational-modifications-roles-in-aging-and-age-related-disease
#15
REVIEW
Ana L Santos, Ariel B Lindner
Aging is characterized by the progressive decline of biochemical and physiological function in an individual. Consequently, aging is a major risk factor for diseases like cancer, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of aging are not well understood, nor is the relationship between aging and the onset of diseases. One of the hallmarks of aging is a decrease in cellular proteome homeostasis, allowing abnormal proteins to accumulate. This phenomenon is observed in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, suggesting that the underlying molecular processes are evolutionarily conserved...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865961/effect-of-high-fat-diet-on-cognitive-impairment-in-triple-transgenic-mice-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Saroj Kumar Sah, Chan Lee, Jung-Hee Jang, Gyu Hwan Park
High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is a risk factor for cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been reported that two typical neuropathological markers of AD, β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and hyperphosphorylated protein tau can cause neuronal apoptosis via oxidative stress, which ultimately leads to cognitive dysfunction. In this study, we tried to explore the molecular pathway underlying memory impairment in young AD transgenic mice model in response to HFD. We maintained non-transgenic control mice (non-Tg) and triple transgenic AD (3xTg-AD) mice aged 8 weeks on either normal diet (ND) containing 10% fat or HFD (60% fat) for 16 weeks...
November 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814391/filling-the-void-a-role-for-exercise-induced-bdnf-and-brain-amyloid-precursor-protein-processing
#17
Rebecca Ek MacPherson
Inactivity, obesity, and insulin resistance are significant risk factors for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several studies have demonstrated that diet induced obesity, inactivity, and insulin resistance exacerbates neuropathological hallmarks of AD. The aggregation of beta-amyloid peptides is one of these hallmarks. Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, leading to beta-amyloid peptide formation...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807816/mtor-in-down-syndrome-role-in-a%C3%A3-and-tau-neuropathology-and-transition-to-alzheimer-disease-like-dementia
#18
REVIEW
Fabio Di Domenico, Antonella Tramutola, Cesira Foppoli, Elizabeth Head, Marzia Perluigi, D Allan Butterfield
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in the regulation of protein synthesis and degradation, longevity and cytoskeletal formation. The mTOR pathway represents a key growth and survival pathway involved in several diseases such as cancer, obesity, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous studies linked the alterations of mTOR pathway to age-dependent cognitive decline, pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and AD-like dementia in Down syndrome (DS)...
August 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803923/stress-induced-neural-reorganization-a-conceptual-framework-linking-depression-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Jennifer A Ross, Gediminas Gliebus, Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele
Chronic stress is a risk factor for a number of physiological disorders including cardiovascular disease, obesity and gastrointestinal disorders, as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. There are a number of underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms altered in the course of chronic stress, which may increase the vulnerability of individuals to develop psychiatric disorders such as depression, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). This is evident in the influence of stress on large-scale brain networks, including the resting state Default Mode Network (DMN), the effects of stress on neuronal circuitry and architecture, and the cellular and molecular adaptations to stress, which may render individuals with stress related psychiatric disorders more vulnerable to neurodegenerative disease later in life...
August 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796009/different-exposures-to-risk-factors-do-not-explain-the-inverse-relationship-of-occurrence-between-cancer-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-an-italian-nested-case-control-study
#20
Federica Prinelli, Fulvio Adorni, Maria Lea Correa Leite, Carla Pettenati, Antonio Russo, Simona Di Santo, Massimo Musicco
Several studies reported that cancer is less frequent in persons with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases (AD/PD) and vice-versa. We evaluated whether a different distribution of known nongenetic risk factors for cancer and AD/PD, might explain their inverse relationship of occurrence. We nested 2 case-control studies in a subsample of a large cohort of 1,000,000 resident in Lombardy Region in Italy (n=1515), followed-up for cancer and AD/PD occurrence since 1991 until 2012. Conditional logistic regression was performed to determine the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of AD/PD in subjects with and without cancer and the risk of cancer in those with and without AD/PD...
August 8, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
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