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Alzheimers and cholesterol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077650/melanin-or-melanin-like-substance-interacts-with-the-n-terminal-portion-of-prion-protein-and-inhibits-abnormal-prion-protein-formation-in-prion-infected-cells
#1
Taichi Hamanaka, Keiko Nishizawa, Yuji Sakasegawa, Ayumi Oguma, Kenta Teruya, Hiroshi Kurahashi, Hideyuki Hara, Suehiro Sakaguchi, Katsumi Doh-Ura
Prion diseases are progressive fatal neurodegenerative illnesses caused by the accumulation of transmissible abnormal prion protein (PrP). To find treatments for prion diseases, we searched for substances from natural resources that inhibit abnormal PrP formation in prion-infected cells. We found that high-molecular-weight components from insect cuticle extracts reduced abnormal PrP levels. The chemical nature of these components was consistent with that of melanin. In fact, synthetic melanin produced from tyrosine or 3-hydroxy-l-tyrosine inhibited abnormal PrP formation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062666/cyclodextrin-has-conflicting-actions-on-autophagy-flux-in-vivo-in-brains-of-normal-and-alzheimer-model-mice
#2
Dun-Sheng Yang, Philip Stavrides, Asok Kumar, Ying Jiang, Panaiyur S Mohan, Masuo Ohno, Kostantin Dobrenis, Cristin D Davidson, Mitsuo Saito, Monika Pawlik, Chunfeng Huo, Steven U Walkley, Ralph A Nixon
2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (CYCLO), a modifier of cholesterol efflux from cellular membrane and endo-lysosomal compartments, reduces lysosomal lipid accumulations and has therapeutic effects in animal models of Niemann-Pick disease type C and several other neurodegenerative states. Here, we investigated CYCLO effects on autophagy in wild-type mice and TgCRND8 mice - an Alzheimer's Disease (AD) model exhibiting β-amyloidosis, neuronal autophagy deficits leading to protein and lipid accumulation within greatly enlarged autolysosomes...
January 5, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059793/resveratrol-intervenes-in-the-cholesterol-and-isoprenoid-mediated-amyloidogenic-processing-of-a%C3%AE-pp-in-familial-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Mohan Sathya, Ponnusamy Moorthi, Palanisamy Premkumar, Mahesh Kandasamy, Kesavan Swaminathan Jayachandran, Muthuswamy Anusuyadevi
Deterioration of cholesterol metabolism has recently been a frontier subject of investigation in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Though amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) primes the pathological cascade, changes in cholesterol levels and its intermediates, geranyl geranyl pyrophosphate and farnesyl pyrophosphate, is expected to have a different consequence on AβPP processing and amyloid-β (Aβ) generation. However, the use of statins (HMG-COA reductase inhibitor) has been widely implicated in slowing down the pathogenic progression of AD, while the epidemiological reports on its biological effect remains controversial...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052883/association-of-dietary-cholesterol-and-egg-intakes-with-the-risk-of-incident-dementia-or-alzheimer-disease-the-kuopio-ischaemic-heart-disease-risk-factor-study
#4
Maija Pt Ylilauri, Sari Voutilainen, Eija Lönnroos, Jaakko Mursu, Heli Ek Virtanen, Timo T Koskinen, Jukka T Salonen, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, Jyrki K Virtanen
BACKGROUND: There is little information about the associations of intakes of cholesterol and eggs, a major source of dietary cholesterol, with the risk of cognitive decline in general populations or in carriers of apolipoprotein E ɛ4 (APO-E4), a major risk factor for dementia. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations of cholesterol and egg intakes with incident dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), and cognitive performance in middle-aged and older men from Eastern Finland...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035926/pleiotropic-effect-of-human-apoe4-on-cerebral-ceramide-and-saturated-fatty-acid-levels
#5
Sandra den Hoedt, Carola I F Janssen, Guiseppe Astarita, Daniele Piomelli, Frank P J Leijten, Simone M Crivelli, Adrie J M Verhoeven, Helga E de Vries, Jochen Walter, Pilar Martinez-Martinez, Eric J G Sijbrands, Amanda J Kiliaan, Monique T Mulder
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is known for its role in lipid trafficking and the ɛ4 allele is a risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, aberrant ceramide and fatty acid (FA) levels have been implicated in AD. OBJECTIVE: To determine the specific effects of human ApoE4 (hE4) on cerebral ceramide and FA content during chow or a high fat/high cholesterol (HFHC) diet. METHODS: Cerebral ceramide and FA profiles were determined by LC-MSMS in 15-month-old female wild-type (WT), ApoE-knockout (E0), and hE4-knockin mice fed chow or a HFHC diet for 3 months...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035918/apolipoprotein-a1-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-plasma-and-progression-to-alzheimer-s-disease-in-non-demented-elderly
#6
Rosalinde E R Slot, Argonde C Van Harten, Maartje I Kester, Wesley Jongbloed, Femke H Bouwman, Charlotte E Teunissen, Philip Scheltens, Robert Veerhuis, Wiesje M van der Flier
BACKGROUND: HDL-cholesterol transporter Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) holds neuroprotective properties, such as inhibition of amyloid-β aggregation. Low plasma ApoA1 concentrations are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Little is known about ApoA1 levels in the pre-dementia stages of AD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma ApoA1 levels and clinical progression toward AD in non-demented elderly. METHODS: From the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort, we included 429 non-demented elderly with subjective cognitive decline (SCD; n = 206, 61±9 years, Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) 28±2) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 223, 67±8 years, MMSE 27±2), with a mean follow-up of 2...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012839/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-delirium-in-acute-stroke-patients-a-retrospective-5-years-clinical-series
#7
Francisco José Alvarez-Perez, Fatima Paiva
BACKGROUND: Delirium is characterized by disturbances of attention and cognition that cause functional decline and complications. The predisposing factors of delirium are age, male gender, systemic or metabolic disorders, dementia, and stroke. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of delirium and to identify risk factors. METHODS: This is a retrospective study that includes patients admitted over 5 years with acute stroke. Patients with transient ischemic attack or venous thrombosis were excluded...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000893/hyperlipidemia-induced-apoptosis-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-apoe-mice-may-be-associated-with-increased-pcsk9-expression
#8
Xue-Shan Zhao, Qi Wu, Juan Peng, Li-Hong Pan, Zhong Ren, Hui-Ting Liu, Zhi-Sheng Jiang, Gui-Xue Wang, Zhi-Han Tang, Lu-Shan Liu
Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a lipid regulatory gene involved in cell apoptosis. However, the function and mechanism of PCSK9 in neuronal apoptosis following hyperlipidemia remains to be elucidated. The present study established a hyperlipidemic mouse model by feeding a high‑fat diet (HFD) to 6‑week‑old apoE(‑/‑) mice. Plasma lipid levels, hippocampal lipid accumulation, hippocampal histology, and hippocampal neuronal apoptosis were all monitored for changes...
December 16, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999408/cyclodextrins-as-emerging-therapeutic-tools-in-the-treatment-of-cholesterol-associated-vascular-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Caroline Coisne, Sébastien Tilloy, Eric Monflier, Daniel Wils, Laurence Fenart, Fabien Gosselet
Cardiovascular diseases, like atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS) are closely linked to alterations of cholesterol metabolism. Therefore, innovative pharmacological approaches aiming at counteracting cholesterol imbalance display promising therapeutic potential. However, these approaches need to take into account the existence of biological barriers such as intestinal and blood-brain barriers which participate in the organ homeostasis and are major defense systems against xenobiotics...
December 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997355/role-of-abc-transporters-in-the-pathology-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Yan Zhao, Deren Hou, Xialu Feng, Fangbo Lin, Jing Luo
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily is a large family of proteins that transport specific molecules across membranes. These proteins are associated with both cholesterol metabolism and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cholesterol homeostasis has a key role in AD, and ABC transporters are important mediators of lipid transportation. Emerging evidence suggests that decreased expression and hypofunction of ABC transporters are crucial to the occurrence and development of AD. In the present article, we review the current knowledge regarding ABC transporters and speculate on their role in the pathogenesis of AD...
December 20, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983558/diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease-can-elevated-free-copper-predict-the-risk-of-the-disease
#11
Rosanna Squitti, Armando J Mendez, Ilaria Simonelli, Camillo Ricordi
BACKGROUND: Defective copper regulation, primarily referred to as chelatable redox active Cu(II), has been involved in the etiology of diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVES: However, no study has determined levels of labile copper non-bound to ceruloplasmin (non-Cp Cu, also known as 'free' copper) in the blood of subjects with diabetes compared with that of AD patients. METHODS: To this aim, values of non-Cp Cu were measured in 25 Type 1 (T1D) and 31 Type 2 (T2D) subjects and in28 healthy controls, along with measurements of C-reactive protein, glycated hemoglobin A1c, cholesterol, and triglycerides...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983556/the-level-of-24-hydroxycholesteryl-esters-is-an-early-marker-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Luisa Benussi, Roberta Ghidoni, Fabrizio Dal Piaz, Giuliano Binetti, Giuseppe Di Iorio, Paolo Abrescia
Cholesterol (C) brain accumulation seems to play a role in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (24OH-C) is the predominant metabolite of brain C and its synthesis is believed to represent a way to remove excess C from neurons. Previous studies showed that 24OH-C level is altered in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. Only one study demonstrated that 24OH-C esterification is altered in neurodegenerative diseases, i.e., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Herein we analyzed the level of 24OH-C esters (% 24OH-CE) in i) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and homologous serum of AD (n = 13) and controls (n = 8); ii) plasma from AD (n = 30), controls (n = 30), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) converting to AD (n = 34), and stable MCI (n = 40)...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965552/dietary-intake-of-nutrients-and-lifestyle-affect-the-risk-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-the-chinese-elderly-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Yanhui Lu, Yu An, Jin Guo, Xiaona Zhang, Hui Wang, Hongguo Rong, Rong Xiao
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a pre-clinical stage of Alzheimer's disease afflicting a large number of the elderly throughout the world. However, modifiable risk factors for the onset and progression of MCI remain unclear. A cross-sectional study was performed to explore whether and how daily dietary nutrients intake and lifestyle impacted the risk of MCI in the Chinese elderly. We examined 2,892 elderly subjects, including 768 MCI patients and 2,124 subjects with normal cognition in three different Provinces of China...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932366/sauna-bathing-is-inversely-associated-with-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease-in-middle-aged-finnish-men
#14
Tanjaniina Laukkanen, Setor Kunutsor, Jussi Kauhanen, Jari Antero Laukkanen
BACKGROUND: there are no previous studies linking repeated heat exposure of sauna and the risk of memory diseases. We aimed to investigate whether frequency of sauna bathing is associated with risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. SETTING: prospective population-based study. METHODS: the frequency of sauna bathing was assessed at baseline in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease population-based prospective cohort study of 2,315 apparently healthy men aged 42-60 years at baseline, with baseline examinations conducted between 1984 and 1989...
December 7, 2016: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921357/interrelationship-between-mini-mental-state-examination-scores-and-biochemical-parameters-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Ramasamy Vasantharekha, Hannah P Priyanka, Thangavel Swarnalingam, Avathvadi Venkatesan Srinivasan, Srinivasan ThyagaRajan
AIM: The aim of the present study was to provide first-hand information about the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Tamil Nadu, a southern state in India, and examine if there exists a relationship between cognitive functions and biochemical parameters in these patients. METHODS: Surveys were collected from adults, older men and women (n = 3126) from different regions of Tamil Nadu, which were followed up after 12 months for 1337 participants...
December 6, 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911324/proteomics-analysis-of-blood-serums-from-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-using-itraq-labeling-technology
#16
Liming Shen, Liping Liao, Cheng Chen, Yi Guo, Dalin Song, Yong Wang, Youjiao Chen, Kaoyuan Zhang, Ming Ying, Shuiming Li, Qiong Liu, Jiazuan Ni
Alzheimer' disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting up to 6% of the population over the age of 65. In order to discover differentially expressed proteins that might serve as potential biomarkers, the serums from AD patients and healthy controls were compared and analyzed using the proteomics approach of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). For the first time, AD biomarkers in serums are investigated in the Han Chinese population using iTRAQ labeled proteomics strategy...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911314/updating-the-evidence-on-the-association-between-serum-cholesterol-and-risk-of%C3%A2-late-life-dementia-review-and%C3%A2-meta-analysis
#17
Kaarin J Anstey, Kimberly Ashby-Mitchell, Ruth Peters
BACKGROUND: Cohort studies have reported that midlife high total serum cholesterol (TC) is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in late-life but findings have been based on few studies and previous reviews have been limited by a lack of compatible data. OBJECTIVE: We synthesized all high quality data from cohort studies reporting on the association between total serum cholesterol measured and late-life cognitive outcomes including Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), any dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and cognitive decline...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911307/a-high-cholesterol-diet-increases-27-hydroxycholesterol-and-modifies-estrogen-receptor-expression-and-neurodegeneration-in-rabbit-hippocampus
#18
Sylwia W Brooks, Ava C Dykes, Bernard G Schreurs
Hypercholesterolemia has been implicated in numerous health problems from cardiovascular disease to neurodegeneration. High serum cholesterol levels in midlife have been associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) later in life which suggests that the pathways leading to AD pathology might be activated decades before the symptoms of the disease are detected. Cholesterol-fed animals, particularly cholesterol-fed rabbits, exhibit brain pathology similar to the changes found in brains of AD patients...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902765/loss-of-cathepsin-b-and-l-leads-to-lysosomal-dysfunction-npc-like-cholesterol-sequestration-and-accumulation-of-the-key-alzheimer-s-proteins
#19
Stjepko Cermak, Marko Kosicek, Aleksandra Mladenovic-Djordjevic, Kosara Smiljanic, Selma Kanazir, Silva Hecimovic
Proper function of lysosomes is particularly important in neurons, as they cannot dilute accumulated toxic molecules and aggregates by cell division. Thus, impairment of lysosomal function plays an important role in neuronal degeneration and in the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In this work we analyzed how inhibition and/or loss of the major lysosomal proteases, the cysteine cathepsins B and L (CtsB/L), affects lysosomal function, cholesterol metabolism and degradation of the key Alzheimer's disease (AD) proteins...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889409/bioactive-compound-screen-for-pharmacological-enhancers-of-apolipoprotein-e-in-primary-human-astrocytes
#20
Gina M Finan, Ronald Realubit, Sungkwon Chung, Dieter Lütjohann, Nan Wang, John R Cirrito, Charles Karan, Tae-Wan Kim
Pharmacological screening in physiologically relevant brain cells is crucial for identifying neuroactive compounds that better translate into in vivo biology and efficacious therapeutics. Pharmacological enhancement of apolipoprotein E (apoE), a cholesterol-transporting apolipoprotein, has been proposed as a promising therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease. Several nuclear receptor agonists were initially shown to increase brain apoE levels together with ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1), but their underlying mechanisms remain unclear...
December 22, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
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